Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
FOOD COMPOSITION AND METHOD OF USE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/108946
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The current invention relates to relates to methods of improving commensals in an animal by feeding the animal with a diet including quinoa grain. The quinoa grain is in an amount effective to increase parameters for commensals such as the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of clostridium in total microbiota, and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio. The current invention also relates to pet food compositions that include effective amount of quinoa grain to increase the commensals parameters. In addition, the methods of making such a food compositions are also disclosed.

Inventors:
JEWELL, Dennis (1752 E. 980 Road, Lawrence, Kansas, 66049, US)
FOLLIS, Amber (7940 NW Topeka Blvd, Topeka, Kansas, 66617, US)
BADRI, Dayakar (5000 Clinton Parkway, Apt. 1120Lawrence, Kansas, 66047, US)
Application Number:
US2015/028118
Publication Date:
July 07, 2016
Filing Date:
April 29, 2015
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
HILL'S PET NUTRITION, INC. (400 Southwest 8th Avenue, Topeka, Kansas, 66603, US)
International Classes:
A23K1/00; A23K1/14; A23K1/18
Foreign References:
US4911943A1990-03-27
US20080085343A12008-04-10
EP2263474A12010-12-22
US20080193485A12008-08-14
US20110236532A12011-09-29
Other References:
ANONYMOUS: "GNPD - Dog Biscuits", 1 December 2009 (2009-12-01), XP055205785, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20150731]
ANONYMOUS: "GNPD - Adult Dog Food with Organic Chicken, Brown Rice and Flaxseed", 1 December 2011 (2011-12-01), XP055205787, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20150731]
ANONYMOUS: "GNPD - Kleelis Quinoa Cat Tablets", 1 September 2000 (2000-09-01), XP055205789, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20150731]
BIANCHI FERNANDA ET AL: "Beneficial effects of fermented vegetal beverages on human gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in a simulator", FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, ELSEVIER APPLIED SCIENCE, BARKING, GB, vol. 64, 7 June 2014 (2014-06-07), pages 43 - 52, XP029049536, ISSN: 0963-9969, DOI: 10.1016/J.FOODRES.2014.05.072
ANDREA MICAELA DALLAGNOL ET AL: "Fermentation of quinoa and wheat slurries by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778: proteolytic activity", APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 97, no. 7, 6 November 2012 (2012-11-06), pages 3129 - 3140, XP055205609, ISSN: 0175-7598, DOI: 10.1007/s00253-012-4520-3
SABRINA N. CASAROTTI ET AL: "Evaluation of the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour on probiotic activity", JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, vol. 97, no. 10, 1 October 2014 (2014-10-01), pages 6027 - 6035, XP055205539, ISSN: 0022-0302, DOI: 10.3168/jds.2014-8197
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HUNTER, Thomas M. et al. (Colgate-Palmolive Company, 909 River RoadPiscataway, New Jersey, 08855, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

.! . A .method of altering one or more parameters of commensals in an animal, comprising feeding the animal a diet comprising quinoa grain in an amount effective to increase at least one Of the percentage of lactobacillus in total mierobiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total, microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total mierobiota, or the ftrmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio in the animal,

2. The method of claim 1, wherein, the amount of the quinoa grain is effective to increase the percentage of iactobacillus in total mierobiota.

X The method of any of claims 1 or 2, wherein the amount of the quinoa grain is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciHus in total mierobiota and the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota.

4. The method of any of claims I -3, wherein the amount of the quinoa grain is effective- to increase the percentage of lactobaciHus in total microbioia, the. percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, and the fir.micu.ies to bacteroidetes ratio.

5 , The method of any of claim 1-4, wherein the animal is a dog,

6. The method of any of claims 1 or 2, wherein the amount of th quinoa grain, is eiiective to increase the percentage of lactobaciHus in total microbiota and the percentage of Clostridium in total microhtota,

7. The method of claim 6, wherei n the animal is a ca t.

8. The method of claim 2, wherein the amount of quinoa grain, is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciHus in total microbiota in the animal compared, to the percentage f lactobac llus in total microbiota in the animal before the animal is fed. the diet in at least art amount selected from the group consisting of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 100%, 150%, and.200%,

9. The method of c laim 1 , wherein the amount of quinoa grai effective to i ncrease the percentage of bifidobacteria m total microbiota in the animal.

10. The - method of claim 9, wherein the amount of quinoa grain is effective to increase the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbioia in the animal compared to the percentage o bifidobacteria in total microbiota in the animal before the animal is fed the diet in at least an amount selected from the group consisting of 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%.

11. The method of claim 1 , wherein the amount of quinoa grain effective to increase the percentage of Clostridium in total niicrobiota in the animal,

12. The method of claim 1 1 , wherein the amount of quinoa grain is effective to increase the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota. in the animal compared to the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota in the animal before the animal is red the diet is at least an amo nt selected from the group consisting of 50%, 75%, 100%, ! 25%, 150% and 175%.

13. The method of claim 1 , wherein the amount of quinoa grain effective to increase the firrnieutes to bacteroidetes ratio in tire animal.

14. The method of claim 13, wherei the amount of quinoa grain is effective to increase the fs.rrniciites to bacteroidetes ratio compared to the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio in the animal before the animal is fed the diet in at least an amount selected from the group consisting of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% 100%, and 1 10%,

15. The method of any of claims 1-14, further comprising establishing a baseline in the animal, for the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, or the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio.

16. The method of claim 15, fisrther comprising measuring the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota. or the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio in the animal at one or more time points after the animal has been fed the diet comprising quinoa grain and comparing the measured amount to the baseline,

17, The .method of .any of claims l.6, wherein the amount, of quinoa grain is effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total, microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, or the firmicutes to

bacteroidetes ratio when the animal is fed with the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain for at least, a period of time selected from the group consisting of: 10 da s., 12 days, 14 days and 20 days. 8. A food composition comprising quinoa grain in an. amount effective t increase one or more parameters of commensals in an. animal when the animal consumes the food composition, wherein the one or more parameters are selected from the group consisting of the percentage of lactobacil!us In total microbiota,. the percentage of bifidobacteria in total .microbiota, the percentage of c stridium in total microbiota, and firniicutcs to bacteroidetes ratio,

19. Th food composition of claim 18, wherein the amount of the quinoa grain is effective to increase the percentage of !actobad!tus in total mictohiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in iota! microbiota, and the fifmicu es to bacteroidetss ratio,

20. The food composition of claim 19, wherein the animal is a dog.

21. The food composition of claim 18, wherein the amount of the quinoa grain is effective to increase the percentage of laetobaciHus in total microbiota and the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota.

22. The food composition of claim 21, wherein the animal is a. cat.

23. A method for .making a pet food composition, comprising th following steps:

(a) preconditioning by mixing wet and dry ingredients at elevated temperature to form a dough;

(b) extruding the dough at a high temperature, and pressure to form an extruded kibble;

(c) drying the extruded kibble; and

(d) enrobing the dried kibble with topical liquid and/or dry ingredients;

wherein quinoa grain is applied to the kibble at step (a) andVor (d), in an amount effective to increase one or more parameters of commensals in an animal when the animal consumes the food composition, wherein the one or more parameters are selected from the group consistin of the percentage of !actobaciilus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, and. firmicuf es to bacteroidetes ratio.

24. The method of claim 23 , wherein the quinoa grain is applied at step (a) as a dry ingredient.

Description:
FOOD COMPOSITION AND METHOD OF USE

BACKGROUND

With developing research of food science and animal health, more and more evidence shows that certain microorganisms may provide beneficial effects to animals. In general, commensals are mkroo.rga isms that provide health benefits to the host animal. Animals, suc as but not limited to dogs and cats, carry trillions of gut microorganisms in their digesting systems, such as but not limited to the intestine and colon. The gut microorganisms, of collectively microbiota, include commensals that provide beneficial effects to animal health, |2j It is always desirable to improve the commensals in the animal:, in some cases by providing different diets to the animals, it is, however, sometimes more difficult to directly add live microorganisms in the diet because food processing may reduce the effectiveness of the microorganisms. Therefore, there is a need to produce animal food that can improve commensals in the microbiota in the animal.

BRIEF SUM ARY

|3| The current invention relates to a method of altering one or more parameters of commensals in an animal comprising feeding the animal a diet comprising quinoa grain in an amount effective to increase at least one of the percentage of Lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria, i total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, or the fimueutes to bacteroidet.es ratio in the animal.

|4j The current invention also relates to a food composition comprising quinoa grain in a amount effective to increase one or more parameters of commensals in an animal when the animal consumes the food composition, wherein the one or more parameters are selected from the group consisting of the percentage of Lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, and rlrmieutes t bactemidetes ratio.

|5J The current inventio also relates to a method for making a pet food composition comprising the steps of (a) preconditioning by mixing wet and dry ingredients at elevated temperature to form a dough; (b) extruding the dough at a high temperature and pressure to form an extruded kibble; (c) drying the extruded kibble; and (d) enrobing the dried kibble with topical liquid, and/or dry ingredients, wherein quinoa grain, is applied to the kibble at step (a) and or (d), in an amount effective to increase one or more parameters of commensals in an animal when the animal consumes the food composition, wherein the one or more parameters are selected from the group consisting of the percentage of Lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total siiicrobiota, and fif ieutes to baeteroideies ratio.

|6J Further areas of applicability of the present invention will became apparent from the detailed description provided hereinafter. It should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, while indicating the preferred embodiment of the invention, are intended for purposes of illustration onl and. are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

BMEF DESCRIPTION OF TOE DRAWI GS

|7j The present invention will become more fully understood from the detailed description and the accompanying drawings, wherein;

\%\ Figure I : Statistical heat map of amino acids.

\9\ Figure 2A-2G; Schematic of tryptophan and poiyphenoiic compound metabolism, along with statistical heat map and box plots of associated biocheraicals.

j lOJ Figure 3A~3I1; Box plots of secondary bile acids.

|1 ij Figures 4A-4M: Bo plots of glucose related metabolites.

112J Figure 5 A-5C: Statistical heat map of lipid related bioc hemic als.

[1.3] Figure 6A-61; Box plots of vitamin related bioehemieak,

[14] Figure 7A-7F: Box plots of 20'hydroxyeecdysone, genistate, and 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetate (DOPAC).

115 J Figure 8A-8C: Statistical, heat map of amino acids and fatty acids.

[16] Figure 9 and 10: Box plots of riboflavin and FAD.

[17] Figure 1 1 A-l 1C; Statistical heat map of icrobio e related metabolites.

[18] Figure 12: Box plots of 20-hydroxyeecd.ysone and genistate. DETAILED DESCRIPTION jl9j The following description of certain embodiments) is merely exemplary in nature and is in no way intended to limit the invention, its application, or uses. As used throughout, ranges are used as shorthand for describing each and every value that is within the range. Any value within the range Can be selected as the terminus of the range. In addition, all references cited herein are hereby incorporated b referenced in their entireties. In the event of a conflict in a definition in the present disclosure and that of a cited, reference, the present disclosure controls,

|20| As. used herein, unless otherwise stated, percentages and amounts in the specification should be understood to refer to percentages by weight. The amounts given are based on the active weight of the material When referring to percentage of change (e.g. increase) related to a certain parameter, the percentage is calculated based on changed amount divided b the amount indicated as the denominator. For example, if the baseline percentage of lactobaclilus In total, microbiota is 12.91% and the measured percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota is 17.44% after consumption of a diet comprising effective amount of qoinoa grain, the increase would be ( 1 7.44- 12. 1 y 12.9 -35¾ .

|2I J As used herein, the term ^animal" means any non-human organism belonging to the kingdom anitnalia. The term " et" means a domestic animal including but not limited to domestic dogs, cats, horses, cows, ferrets, rabbits, pigs, rate, mice, gerhils, hamsters, horses, minks, and the like, Domestic dogs and cats are particular examples of pets. It will be appreciated by one of skill, in the art that some pets have different nutritio al needs and some pets have similar nutritional needs.

[22] As used herein, the term "commensals" refers to live micmorganisms that provide health benefits to their host animal. Iti some embodiments, "commensals" are the live beneficial microorganisms that are in the host body, e.g. in digestive tracts such as but not limited to intestine and or colon. Examples of live microorganisms that provid health benefit to their host animals include but are not limited to bacteria.

|23 j As used herein, the term "microbiota" refers to the collection of microorganisms that are harbored in the digestive tracts of an animal The microbiota of an. animal includes different microorganisms, such as but not limited to the commensals in the animals digestive tracts.

\Z4) As used herein, the term ' actobacillus" refers to microorganisms belonging to the Lactobacillus genus, which are gram-positive facultative anaerobic or mieroaerop ie rod-shaped bacteria, including species such as but not limited to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salwarius, and Lactobacillus r uteri. in some embodiments, "lactobacillus" refers to commensals in the microbiota that belone to the Lactobacillus s enns.

[2S] As used herein, the term "bifidobacteria" refers to microorganisms belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus, which are gram-positive,, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria, including species such as but not limited to Bifidobacterium bifidum. Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum. In some embodiments, "bifidobacteria" refers to commensals in the micfobiota that belong to the Bifidobacterium genus.

[26\ As used herein, the term "Clostridium" refers to microorganisms belonging to the Clostridium genus, which are gram-positive obligate anaerobes capable of producing endospores, including species such as but not limited to Clostridium botulkwm, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringen , Clostridkm tetani, and Clostridium rdellii. In some embodiments, "Clostridium" refers to commensals in the microbiota thai belong to the Clostridium genus.

|27| As used herein, the term "firmicutes" refers to microorganisms belongin to the Fitmicutes phylum, most of which are gram-positive bacteria, including: genera such as but not limited to Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas and Zymophilus. in some embodiments, "ftrraicutes" refers to microorganisms in the microbiota that belong to the Firmicutes phylum,

[28j As used herein, the term, "bacteroidetes" refers to microorganisms belonging to the Bacteroidetes ph lum, most of which are Gram-negative, nomporeforming, anaerobic, and rod- shaped bacteria, including genus such as but not limited to Bacteroidetes, In some embodiments, "bacteroidetes" refers to microorganisms in the microbiota that belong to the Bacteroidetes phylum.

[29\ As used herein, the term "'quinoa'' refers to a ancient grain crop belonging to the C. quinoa species. In some embodiments, specific quinoa cultivars are used. In specific embodiments, the quinoa cultivar is white. In one specific embodiment, the quinoa grain i not from the cherry vanilla cultivar. In some embodiments, "quinoa grain" refers to the seeds, grinding products or flour derived from the seeds of quinoa.

OJ As used herein, unless otherwise stated for a particular parameter, the term "about" refers to a range that encompasses- a industry-acceptable range for inherent variability in analyses or process controls, including sampling error. Consistent with the Model. Guidance of AAFCO, inherent variability is not meant to encompass variation associated with sloppy work or deficient procedures, but, rather, to address the inherent variation associated even with good practices and techniques.

31 As used here, the term "diet" refers to a regulated selection of food and drink for an animal A diet may comprise a fixed or varied combination or food and/or drink compositions. The diet o the present invention may comprise the food composition, of the present invention. The food composition of the present invention may comprise the ingredients and component of the diet herein, disclosed.

[32J ood compositions can be provided to an animal, such as but not limited to a pet, i the form of per food,. A variety of commonly known, types of pet foods are available to pet owners. The selection of pet food includes but is not limited to wet pet food, semi-moist pet food, dry pet food and pet treats. Wet pet food generally has a moisture content greater than about 65%. Semi-moist pet food, typically has a moisture content between about 20% and about 65% and may include humecfants, potassium sorbate, and other ingredients to prevent microbial growth (bacteria and mold). Dr pet food such as but not limited t food kibbles generally has a moisture content below about 15%. Pet treats typically may be semi-moist, chewab ' ie treats; dry treats in any number of forms; chewable bones or baked, extruded, or stamped treats; confection treats; or other kinds of treats as is known to one skilled in the art.

[33] As used herein, the term "kibble" or "food kibble" refers to a particulate pellet like component of animal feeds, such as dog and cat feeds, in some embodiments, a food kibble has a moisture, or water, content of less than. 15% by weight. Food kibbles may range in texture from, hard to soft. Food kibbles may rang in internal structure from expanded to dense. Food kibbles may be formed by an extrusion process or a baking process. In non-limiting examples, a food kibble may have a uniform internal structure or a varied internal structure. For example, a food kibble may include a core and a coating to form a coated kibble. It should be understood that whe the term "kibble" or "food kibble" is used, it can refer to an uncoated kibble or a coated kibble.

[34] As used herein, the term "extrude" or "extrusion" refers to the process of sending preconditioned and/or prepared ingredient .mixtures through an extruder, in some embodiments o extrusion, food kibbles are formed by a extrusion, processes wherein a kibble dough, including a mixture of wet and dry ingredients, can be extruded under beat and pressure to form the food kibble. Any type of extruder can be used, examples of which include but are not limited to single screw extruders and twin-screw extruders. The list of sources, ingredients, and components as described hereinafter are listed such, that combinations and mixtures thereof are also contemplated and within the scope herein.

[35] The current invention relates to a food composition comprising quinoa grain in an amount effective to increase one or mote parameters of commensals m an animal, when the animal consumes the food composition, wherein the one or more parameters are selected from the group consisting of the percentage of Jactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total rrrierobiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, and firmicufes to bacteroidet.es ratio.

[36 j in addition, the current invention also relates to a method of altering, one or more parameters of commensals in an animal, c omprising feeding the animal a diet comprising quinoa grain in an amount effective to increase at least one of the percentage of !actobacillus in total, microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, or the firmict tes to baeteroidetes ratio in the animal.

[37{ In some embodiments, the animal is a pet. in specific embodiments, the animai is a cat, such as but not limited to a domesticated cat. in other specific embodiments, the animai is dog, such as but not limited to a domesticated dog.

[38j In some embodiments, the phrase "increasing one or more parameters of commensals" is used to refer, for example, to an increase of the levels of the one or more parameters in an animal over time during which the animal consumes the food composition containing effective amount of quinoa grain, of the present invention compared to the levels of the one or more parameters in the same animal before the consumption of the food composition containing the effective amount of quinoa grain. Alternatively, in some embodiments, the phrase "Increasin one or more parameters of commensals" is used to refer, fo example, to an increase of the levels of the one or more parameters in an animal after a period of time during which the animal consumes the food composition containing effecti ve amount of quinoa grain of the present invention compared to the levels of the one or more parameters in a control animal that consumes a control food composition in the same period. In one embodiment, the control food composition does not contain quinoa grain.

|39] The method may further comprise measuring the levels of the one or more parameters i the animal prior to feeding the animal the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain. In some embodiments, baseline levels of the one or more parameters hi the animal are established. In one embodiment, the baseline levels are a collectio of single measurements of each of the one or more parameters prior to feeding the animal the diet comprising effective amount o quinoa grai n. In one embodiment, the baseline levels are averages of a number of measurements for the levels of each of the one or more parameters prior to .feeding the animal the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain.

J40J The method may farther comprise measuring the levels of the one or more parameters in the same animal after the animal consumes the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain at different time points. Moreover, the method may further comprise comparing the baseline levels of the one or more parameters in the animal prior to feeding the animal the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain to the levels of the one o more parameters in the same animal after the animal consumes the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain for a period of time. According to the present invention, the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the levels of the one or more parameters, such as but not limited to the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteri in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio.

[4 I f in some embodiments of the present invention, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effecti ve to increase the percentage of laciobacilius in total, microbiota. in some embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effecti ve to increase the percentage of bifidobacteri in total microbiota. In some embodiments, the amount o the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentag of Clostridium in. total microbiota. In. some embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio.

J42J In some embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grai In the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota and the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota. In some embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiot and the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, hi some embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus In total microbiota and the -firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio. In some embodiments, the amount of the quino grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota and the percentage of Clostridium in total, microbiota. In some embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio. In some embodiments, the amount of the qainoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota aad the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio. In some specific embodiments, the amount of (fee quinoa grai in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of laciobaci!Kjs in total microbiota and the percentage of Clostridium in. total microbiota in a cat In some specific embodiments, the amount of the qumoa grai in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobacilius in total microbiota. and the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota in a cat, but not the percentage of bifidobacteria in total, microbiota.

|43{ In some embodiments of the present invention, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciHus in total microbiota. the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, and the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota. in some embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciHus in total microbiota and the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio, in some embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, and the iirmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio. In some specific embodiments, the amount of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciHus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria m total microbiota, and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio i a dog. In some specific embodiments, the amount of th quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobac.il J us in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio, but not the percentage of Clo stridium in total .microbiota m a dog,

44| In some embodiments of the present invention., the amoun of the quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciHus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in totai microbiota. and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio.

|45] In some embodiments., a specific parameter for commensals may be measured with a method employing a. series of nucleotide extractions, amplifications and sequencings, such as but not limited to the methods described for Examples 1 and 2, or any modifications thereof. For example, the percentage of a particular microbe may be calculated with the number of sequence reads associated with the microbe divided by the number of sequence reads associated with, the total microbiota for a given sample/animal. The term "sequence reads" is understood in the art and refers to the frequency of occurrence of one or mote gene sequences that belong to a particular species in. a given sample. &<? Hand D. et a ' L, PJLoS ONE, 8(1): e$3i lS, 20! 3 and Middeibos S, et al.., PLoS ONE, 5(3): «9768., 2010, both of which are incorporated by reference. In particular, the percentage of laetobacillus in total microbiota may be measured with the number of sequence reads associated with lactobaciUus divided by the number of sequence reads associated with the total microbiota for a given sanipie/animaL The percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota may be measured with the number of sequence reads associated with bifidobacteria divided by the number of sequence reads associated with the total microbiota for a given sample/animal. The percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota may be measured with th number of sequence reads associated with Clostridium, divided by the number of sequence reads associated with the total microbiota for a given sample/animal. The fimiicntes to bacteroidetes ratio may be measured with the number of sequence reads associated with the firnrieutes divided by the -number of sequence reads associated with the bacteroidetes for a given sample/animal,

[46] In some embodiments, the methods of the present invention may be used to treat conditions or diseases in an animal that are treatable with commensals, the methods comprising feeding the animal a diet comprising quinoa grain in an effective amount to increase one or more parameters of commensals, wherein the one or more parameters are selected from the group consisting of the percentage of laetobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, and firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio, Such conditions or diseases may include but ot b limited to diarrhea, dental infections, nasal colonization, Clostridium difficile colitis, .Helicobacter pylori infection, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer such as but not limited to gastric related cancer, and graft-versus-host disease.

[47] In some embodiments, the methods of the present invention may be used to reduce the likelihood of developing conditions or diseases in an animal, that are treatable with commensals, the method comprising feeding the animal a diet comprising quinoa grain in an effective amount to increase one or more parameters of commensals, wherein the one or more parameters are selected, from the group consistin of the percentage of lactobaciUus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, and fimueutes to bacteroidetes ratio. Such conditions or diseases may include but not be limited to diarrhea, dental Infections, nasal colonization s Clostridium difficile colitis, Helicobacter pylori, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer and grat ersus-host disease,

{48} The quinoa grain in the diet may be in an amount effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of ciostridium in total microbiota, or the firmicutes t ' bacteroidetes ratio in an animal after the animal consumes the diet for period of time compared to baseline levels in the same animal. For example, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet may be effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus hi total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, or the finnicutes to bacteroidetes ratio in a animal after the animal consumes the diet comprising effectiv amount of quinoa grain for about or at least about 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, .16, 17, 18., 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,. 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 101, 105, 1 10, 1 13, 1 15, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145 or 150 days compared to baseline levels in the same animal. In some embodiments, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet may be effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in. total microbiota, or the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio in an animal after the animal consumes the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain for within about 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1.0, 1 ! , 12, .13, 14, 15, 16, 1.7, 18, 19,. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 5, 100, 10 , 1.05, .11.0, 113, 1 15, 120, .125, 130, 135, 140, 1.45 or 150 days compared to baseline levels in the same animal.

|49J The quinoa grain in the diet, may be in an amount effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, or the fi micutes to bacteroid etes ratio in an animal after the animal consumes the diet for a period of time compared to levels of the same parameters i a control animal consuming control food compositions in the same period. For example, the amount of quinoa grain, in. the diet may be effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of ' Clostridium in total microbiota., or the firmicutes to hacteroidetes ratio in an animal at er the animal consumes the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain for about or at least about 1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, I I, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60. 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 101, 105, 1 10, 1 13, 1 15, 120, 125, 130, 135, .1.40, 5 or 50 days compared to levels of the same parameters in a control animal consuming control food compositions in the same period. In some embodiments, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet may be effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total, microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total .microbiota, or the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio hi an animal after the animal consumes the diet, comprising effective amount of quinoa grain or within about. 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 L 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50;, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, SO, 85, 90, 95, 100, 101 , 105, 1 10, 1 3, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, 1 0, 145 or 150 days compared to levels of the same parameters in. a control animal consuming control food compositions in the same period.

JSQj In some embodiments, the quinoa grain in the diet is in an amount effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota in the animal consuming the diet compared to baseline percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota in the same animal or compared to the percentage of lactobaci.il us in total microbiota in a control animal consuming a control diet. For example, after consummg the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain for a period of time, the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota in the animal may be increased by about or at least about 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 100%, 105%, 1 10%, 1 15%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, 145%, 150%, 155%, 160%, 165%, 170%, 175%, 180%, 185%, 1.90%, 1.95%, 200%, 205%, 21.0%, 215%, 220%, 225%, 230%», 235%, 240%, 245%, or 250% compared to baseline percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota in die animal prior to consumption of the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain or compared to the percentage of lactobacillus in total, microbiota in a control animal consuming a control diet, in one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota by about or at least about 35%, In one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain m the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota by about or at least about 35% in a dog. In another embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of kcto aeillus in total microbiota by about or at least about 200%.. in another embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of htctobacillus in total microbiota by about or at least about 200% in a cat. For example, if the baseline percentage of lactobaciUus io total microbiota is 12.91% and the measured percentage of Lactobacillus in total microbiota is 17.44% after consumption of a diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain, the increase would be (17.44*12. 1)/ 12. 1-35%. jSJ.j in some embodiments, the quinoa grain in the diet is in an amount effective to increase the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota in the animal consuming the diet compared to baseline percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiot in the same animal or compared to the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota in control animal consuming a control diet. For example, after consuming the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain for a period of time, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiot i the animal may be increased by about or at least about 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, J 00%, 105%, 1 10%, 1 15%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, 145%, 150%, 155%, 160%, 1.65%, 170%, 175%, 180%, 185%, 1.90%, 195%, 200%, 205%, 210%, 215%, 220%, 225%, 230%, 235%, 240%, 245%, or 250% compared to baseline percentage of bifidobacteria io total microbiota in the animal prior to consumption of the diet comprising effecti ve amount of quinoa grain or compared to the percentage of bifidobacteri in total microbiota in a control animal consuming a control diet. In one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota by about or at least about 80%. in one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective io increase the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota by about or at least about 80% in a dog. For example, if the baseline percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota is 1.1.5% and the measured percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota is 2,09% after consumption of a diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain, the increase would be (2.09- ! J5)/1.15-81.7%,

|52j In some embodiments, the quinoa grain in the diet is in an amount effective to increase the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota in the animal consuming the diet compared to baseline percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota in the same animal or compared to the percentage of Clostridium in. total .microbiota in a control animal consuming a control diet. For example, after consuming the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain for a period of time, the percentage of clostridiuni in total microbiota in the animal may be increased by about or at least about 5%, 10%, 1.5%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 1 15%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, 145%, 150%, 155%, 160%, 165%, 170%, 175%, 180%, 185%, 190%, 195%, 200%, 205%, 210%, 215%, 220%, 225%, 230%, 235%, 240%, 245%, or 250% compared to baseline percenta e of Clostridium in total microbiota in the animal prior to consumption of the diet comprising effective amount of qainoa grain or com ared to the percentage of clostridiuni i total microbiota in a control animal consuming a control diet. In one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is ' effective to increase the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota by about or at least about 175%. In one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota by about or at least about 175% in a cat. For example, if the baseline percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota is I .89% a id the measured percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota is 5.22 after consumption of diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain, the increase would be 5.22-1 ,89 }/i .S9 :::: 176%. 1531 In some embodiments, the quinoa grain in the diet is in an amount effective to increase the firmicttte-s to bacteroidetes ratio in the animal consuming the diet compared to baseline ilrmieutes to bacteroidetes ratio in the same animal or compared to the firraieutes to bacteroidetes ratio in a control animal consuming a control diet.. For example, after consuming the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain for a period of time, the firnueutes to bacteroidetes ratio in the animal may be increased by about or at least about 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 100%, 105%, 1 10%, 1 15%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, 145%, 150%, 155%, 160%, 165%, 170%, 175%, 180%, 185%, 190%, 195%, 200%, 205%, 210%, 215%, 220%, 225%, 230%, 235%, 240%, 245%, or 250% compared to baseline firmieutes to bacteroidetes ratio in the animal prio to consumption of the diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain or compared to the firmicuies to bacteroidetes ratio in a control animal consuming a control diet. In one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the firmicuies to bacteroidetes ratio by about or at least about 1 10%. In one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio by about or at least about 1 1 % in a dog. For example, if the baseline finnicutes to bacteroidetes ratio is 39,2 and the measured fimiicutes to bacteroidetes ratio is 82.6 after consmttption of a diet comprising effective amount of quinoa grain, the increase would be (82.6-39.2)/39.2 : ~ : l 10.7%.,

[54] In one embodiment the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciilus in total microbiota by about at least about 35%, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota b about or at least about 80%, and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio by about or at least about 1 10%. in one specific embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciilus in total microbiota by about at least about 35%, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota by about or at least about 80% s and the firmicates to bacteroidetes ratio by about or at least about 110% in a dog consuming the diet compared to the baseline levels in the same dog. In another specific embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciilus in total microbiota by about at least about 35%, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota by about or at least about 80%, and the fimiicutes to bacteroidetes ratio by about or at least about 1 .10% in a dog consuming the diet compared to the percentage of lactobaciilus in total microbiota, the percentage of ifidobacteria in total microbiota, and the firmicutes t bacteroidetes ratio in a control dog consuming a control diet.

155] In one embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciilus in total microbiota by about at least about .200% and the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota by about or at least about 175%. In one specific embodiment, the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciilus in total microbiota by about at least about 200% and the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota. by about or at least about 175% in a cat. compared to the baseline levels in the same cat. In another specific embodiment the amount of quinoa grain in the diet is effective to increase the percentage of lactobaciilus in total microbiota by about at least about 200% and the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota b about or at least about .175% in a cat compared to the percentage of lactobaciilus in total microbiota and the percentag of Clostridium, in a control cat consuming a control diet,

|56] The food composition of the present invention may comprise quinoa grain, in some embodiments, the quinoa grain may be about or less than about 0.001 %, 0,01 %, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0, %, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1 % s 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, .10%, 11%, 32%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75% or 80% of the total food composition by weight In some tide quinoa grain may be more than about 0.001 % ¾ 0.01 ψ 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75% or 80% of the total food composition by weight. In some embodiments, the quinoa grain may be about 1-30%, 2-30%, 3-30%, 4-30%, 5-30%, .1 - 25%, 2-25%, 3-25%, 4-25%, 5-25%, 3 -20%, 2-30%, 3-20%, 4-20%, 5-20%, 5-19%, 5-18%, 5- 17%, 5-16%, 5-15%, 5-14%, 5-1.3%, 5-12%, 5-1 !%, 5-10%, 10-20%, 10-19%, 10-18%, 10-17%, 10-16%, 10-15%, 10-14%, 10-13%, 10-12%, or 1.0-1 1% of the total food composition by weight. 57 j The food composition containing effective amount of quinoa grain may be combined or mixed with food compositio that does not contain quinoa grain. For example, the food composition containing effective amount of quinoa grain may be more than about 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% or 99% of the total food composition by weight, in some embodiments, the food composition containing effective amount of quino grain may be Jess than about !.%, 5%, 1.0%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99% or 100% of the total food composition by weight In some embodiments, the diet of the present invention may comprise ihe food composition comprising effective amount of quinoa grain and other food compositions that do not comprise quinoa grain.

{58} The food composition containing effective amount of quinoa grain may comprise different kinds of food products. Fo example, the food, composition containing effective amount of quinoa grain may comprise one or more types of dry ood (e.g. pellets or kibbles), semi-moist food or wei food. The different kinds of food products may comprise different amount of quinoa grain and some of the food products may not comprise quinoa grain. Fo example, a food composition ma comprise dr food comprising quinoa grain and semi -moist food that does not comprise quinoa grain and/or we food that does not comprise quinoa grain, in one embodiment, the dry food containin quinoa grain may be more than about 1 %, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% or 99% of the total food composition by weight,. In. another embodiment, the dry food containing quinoa grain may be less than about 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99% or 100% of the total food composition by weight. In some embodiments, the dr food containing quinoa grain may be combined or mixed with serai- moist food or wet food that also contain quinoa grain, in the same or a different amount, In some embodiments* the dry food containing qiwnoa grain, may be more than about 1 %, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% or 99% of the total food composition by weight. In some embodiments, the dry food containing quinoa grain, .may be less than about 5%, 10%, 5%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99% or 100% of the total food composition b weight,

|59j The current invention also relates to methods of making a pet food composition, wherein the food composition comprises quinoa grain in an -amount effective to increase one or more parameters in an animal after the animal consumes the tood composition, wherein the one or more parameters are selected from, the group consisting of the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in. total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total raicrobiota, and the firmiciries to bacteroidetes ratio.

|60| in some embodiments, the current invention also relates io relates to methods fo making a pet food composition comprising the steps of (a) preconditioning by mixing wet and dry ingredients at elevated temperature to form a dough; (b) extruding the dough at a high temperature and pressure to form an extruded kibble; (c) drying the extruded kibble; and (d) enrobing the dried kibble with topical liquid and/or dry ingredients, wherein quinoa grain is applied to the kibble at step (a) and/or (d), in an amount effective to increase one or more parameters of commensals in an animal when, the animal consumes the food composition, wherein the one or more parameters are selected f om the group consisting of the percentage of lactobacillus in total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota, and lirmicittes to bacteroidetes ratio.

{61 j In some embodiments, the quinoa grain is applied to the dough in step (a) by mixing wit othe ingredient to form the dough. In one embodiment, the quinoa grain is applied as a dry ingredient in step (a). In one embodiment, the quinoa grain is applied in the form of flour derived from quinoa seeds,

162] The dough, can be prepared in any suitable means from any suitable ingredients, such, as, for example, a protein: source, a carbohydrate source, a fat source, and any other ingredients suitable for animal, or pet nutrition. (63j ' Similarly, the topical liquid and/or dry ingredients thai are used for enrobing the dough can be prepared in my suitable means from any suitable ingredients, such as, for xam le, a protein source, a carbohydrate source, a fat source, and any other ingredients suitable for animal or pet nutrition.

|64] In some embodiments, the food composition of the present invention comprise one or more ingredients such as but not limited to flax, corn, rim brewers, pea, chicken, soybean, tomato, cellulose, wheat, beet, lysine, potassium chloride, methionine, sodium chloride, carrot, dicalciu phosphate, vitamin pretni , carnitine,, lipase acid alpha, mineral premix, calcium carbonate, taurine, glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, grain blend* lactic acid, choline chloride, grain blend, pafatant, fish oil, coconut oil, vitamin E oil, starch, poultry . ,, fish, dairy, pork, beef, lamb, venison, and rabbit,

[65] In some embodiments, the food composition of the present invention comprise one o more amino acid such as but not limited to arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenyl ala nine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, taurine, carnitine,, alanine, aspartate, cystine, ghitamate, glntaraine, glycine, proline, serine, tyrosine, and hydroxyproline.

j66] In some embodiments, the food composition of the present invention comprise one o more fatty acids such as but not limited to laurfc acid, yristic acid, palmitic acid, pahmto!eic acid, raargaric acid, margaroieic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, HnoJeic acid, g-linolenic acid, a- linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, arachidic acid, gadoleie acid, DHGLA, arachidonic acid, eicossatetra acid, EPA, behemc acid, crucic acid, docosatetra acid, and DPA.

{<5?J In some embodiments, the food composition of the present inventiori comprise one or more macro nutrients such as hut not limited to moisture, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, dietary fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, raffinose, and stachyose,

68{ In some embodiments, the food composition of the present invention comprise one or more micro nutrients such as but not limited to beta-carotene, alpha-lipoic acid, glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, lycopene, lutein, and quereetin.

[69J In some embodiments, the food composition of the present invention comprise one or more minerals such as but not limited to calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, copper, copper, manganese, zinc, iodine, selenium,, selenium, cobalt, sulfur, fluorine, chromium, boron, and oxalate,. J70| la. some embodiments, the food composition of the present invention comprise one or more vitamins such as but not limited to vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin. E, quinoa grain, vitamin C, thiamine, ribofl.av.rn, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, folic acid, vitamin B.J 2, biotin, and choline

EXAMPLES

\7l] Studies were conducted in dogs and cats to demonstrate the effects of grains* including quinoa grain, o certain parameters for commensals and certain metabolites. The dogs in the study were adult dogs with age ranging from 3 years and 3 months to 8 years and 4 months and had no known health issues. The dogs were fed with diets comprising quinoa grain or other types of grain for 45 .minutes overnight for 14 days. The cats in the study were adult cats with, age ranging from 3 years and 8 months to 12 years and 10 .months avid had no known health issues. The cats were fed with diets comprising quinoa. grain or other types of grain for 20 hours each day for 14 days. The dogs and cats maintained the target weight, especially during the collection period. Complete fecal output for dogs and cats was collected on days 1 i through 15 and measurements were conducted with the fecal sample as shown in Examples 1 -4, The groups of animals fed with different diets are s own in Table .1.

72 | Table I

j 73] !ii Table 1 , control for dogs refers to the group of dogs fed with a control diet containing 9.5% red whole wheat, 9,5% cracked ' barley. 93% whole com. 9.5% whole sorahimi and 13% brewers rice; control for cats refers to the group of cats fed with a diet containing 22% red whole wheat and 11% brewers rice. The other groups of dogs and cats were fed with diets containing different types of grain, such as the quinoa grain, in addition to the carbohydrate sources in the controls. The grains identified in Table 1 for the non-control groups for both, dogs and cat were added by evenly replacing the carbohydrate sources in the respective control diets. The quinoa grain in the study was white quinoa. Each non-control group contains three sab-groups with 5%, 0% or 20% of the grain identified in Table 1 , Table I also shows the number of dogs or cats ra each group and sub-group.

[74] Table 1A demonstrates the food intake of the groups of dogs and cats in Table I .

[75 ] Table 1A

quinoa j 95.7 .177.4 61J, 92 5 j

[76| in Table 1A, the results are provided as average food intake (grams) divided by initial animal body weight (BW, kilograms). "Food/BW-met" refers to grams intake per kilogram body weight raised to the ¾ power, which is metabolic body weight and may more appropriately scales intake to weight, There was no statistically significant effect of gram on any of these parameters.

Example 1

| 77] The results in Example 1 show that that quinoa grain can increase certain parameters for commensals. Dogs were fed a control diet or one of the six diets containing different types of grains as described in Table t . Fecal samples were collected and analyzed for the percentage of lactobac lus in. total mierobiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total mierobiota, the percentage of Clostridium in total raicrobiota, and the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio.

[78] Total fecal DNA was extracted from frozen feces samples by using a OBIO POWERFECAL DNA Kit. Following total DNA extraction, 16s rRHA ampllcon was developed from the samples by employing PGR using the primer sets spanning V3 and VS (Canines) hypervariable regions and the arapl icons were then qualitatively analyzed by an AGILENT 2100 Bioanalyzef. After the ampKcon quality was verified, index PCR was performed, followed by library quantification, norniaiization and pooling the samples. Final pooled sample library was loaded in a !SEQ v2 (for canines) sample loading cartridge kit and the cartridge was placed in a M1SEQ ILLUMI ' A Sequencer for sequencing the samples. The library sequence files were further processed in M1SEQ ILLUMFNA Reporter to classify the sequence reads by using the Greengenes database. After developing the classification file, the abundance (expressed in percentage or ratio) of particular microbe at genera or phyla level was calculated, with the number of sequence reads associated with a given genera or phyla divided by the number of sequence reads associated with the total mierobiota for a given sample/animal.

{79} In Tables 2-5„ the results presented reflect an average of the measurements derived from subjects fed with the different diets with different grains, in Tables 2-5, LSMEA ' N refers to least squares means; Pr refers to probability.

(8-0 j T he results for the percentage of !actobacillus in total mierobiota are shown in fable 2. 181 } Table 2

Grain Lactobacillus Standard Error 1 Pr > : t Pr (compared to J

LSMEAN (% in control) total mierobiota)

control 12.9.134516 .2.4489897 1 < 0001 /

amaranth 15.6739775 2,7074600 ! .0001 0.4510

barley 13.4523488 2.7074600 1 < oooi 0.8829 j buckwheat 14.8276195 2.7074600 1 < 0001 0.6010

coarse bulghur 13.8214086 2.7074600 [ < oooi 0.8040

fine bulghur 1 1.8060322 2.7074600 1 < 0001 0.7621 1 qui no a 17.4353905 2.7074600 [ <.0001 0.2178 j

|82J The presence of quinoa in the diet resulted in a 35% increase of die percentage of lactobacilitis in total mierobiota.

|83 ' | The results for the percentage of bifidobacteria in total mierobiota are shown in Table 3, |84| Table 3

Grain Bifidobacteriuiu Standard Error Pr : t Pr (compared to J

LSMEAN {% control) total microbiota) 1

control 1.15075797 0.24747850 j < 000 1 amaranth. 1,04355372 0 7 97 1 0.0002 0.7719

barley 0.9988 163 0.27359777 10.000 0.681 1 I buckwheat 1.42966926 0.27359777 1 <.000l 0.451 ! I coarse huSghut 1.14.2.17285 0.27359777 "" j < 000.1. 0.9815

ine bulgb.tr 1,243733:22 0-27359777 1 •■ •.000 s ΊΓ8014

quinoa 2.09439977 7T5 777 1 < 000:1 Ι όϊπ j 85J The presence of quiftoa in the diet resulted in aft 80% increase of the percentage of bifidobacteria in microbiota. as compared to the control. Quinoa was also different from the other tested variables: amaranth (0.0076), barley (0.0054), buckwheat (0.0883), coarse buighur (0.0152), and fine buighur (0.0.29S) while no other grain dillered torn eac other.

The results for the percentage of Clostridium, in. total microbiot are shown in Table 4. Table 4

[88] The results for the firmicutes to bacteroidetes ratio are shown in Table 5.

|89j Table 5

Grai flnincutes to Standar Error

bacteroidetes ratio,

LSMEAN

control 39.1938 15.4

barley 22. 734 19.5

buckwheat- ~ M M56 19,5

coarse buighur 54.3820 1 .5

fine buighur 61 ,2558 19.5

quiiioa 82.5855 19,5 j90| The presence of quinoa in the diet resulted, in a 1 10% increase of the .firmicutes- t baetero etes ratio.

Exaffl je . 2

\9 J J Studies were -conducted in. cats to show thai quinoa grain can increase certain parameters for commensals. Cats were fed a control diet or one of the six diets containing different types of grains as described in Table 1. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed for the percentage of lactobacillus in. total microbiota, the percentage of bifidobacteria in total microbiota, and the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota.

\92\ Total fecal DNA was extracted from frozen feces samples by using a MO BIG POWE FECAL DNA. Kit;. Following total DN extraction, 16s rRMA amplieon was developed from the samples by -employing PGR using the primer sets spanning V3 and V4 (Felines) hypervari hle regions and the ampHcons were then qualitatively analyzed by an AGILENT 2100 Bioanalyzer, After the amplieon quality was verified, inde PGR was performed followed by library quantification, normalization and pooling the samples. Final pooled sample library was loaded m a MiSEQ v3 (for felines) sample loading cartridge kit and the cartridge was placed i a MISEQ ILLUMiNA Sequencer for sequencing the samples. The sample sequence files were processed by using MOTHtJR followed by standard methods and classify the sequence reads by using Greengenes database. After developing the classification file, the abundance (expressed in percentage) of particular microbe at genera or phyla level was calculated with the number of sequence reads associated with a given genera or phyla divided by the number of sequence reads associated with, the total, microbiota for a given aample/arii.mal.

{93} In Tables 6-8, the results presented reflect an average of the measurements derived from subjects fed. with the different diets with different grains, in Tables 6-8, LSMEAN refers to least squares means; Pr refers to probability.

The results for the percentage of lactobaci-llus in total microbiota are shown in Table 6. Table 6

Grain. Lactobacillus Standard Error | P > j t j Pr (compared to

LSMEAN {% 1 Control) total microbiota)

control 3.9149077 1.6295018 1 0.0178 ' 1 amaranth 3,6735114 1.958417 j 0.0630 0.9246 I bar lev 6,8341 144 1 ,9584 S 4

buckwheat 3,76562 Ϊ 9 1,9584174 I 0.0568 0.9533 I coarse huSghur 7.1343887 1.9584.174 I 0.0004 0.2087 j

1.8801980 1 ,9584174 j 0.3389 0 4260 I qninoa 1 \ .9740063 2.0772.153 t < O00! 0,0028 I

(96] The presence of quinoa i the diet resulted, m a 206% increase of the percentage of lactobacilks in total, microbiota.

[97 \ The results for the percentage ofbifMobacteria in total microbiota are shown in Table 7, i Table 7

|99j The results for the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota are shown in Table 8. fI00| Table s

[101] The presence of qtiinoa in the diet resulted in a 176% increase: of the percentage of Clostridium in total microbiota. 1102] Dogs were fed a control diet or one of the six diets containing different types of grains at the concentrations of 5%, 10% or 20% as described in Table I. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed for metabolites.

-103] As shown in Figure 1, fecal samples derived from dogs fed with either the quinoa or the buckwheat diet contained significantly higher levels of amin acids and their associated metabolites compared to the control and other dietary groups, suggesting that quinoa and buckwheat may contain higher amounts of protein and/or induce protein metabolism differently in canines,

J 104) As shown in .Figure 2, dogs fed with the quinoa diet had significantly Increased levels of radoleacetate and catechol sulfate, while decreased levels of 3-hidoxy! sulfate and raethyl-4- hydroxybenzoate compared to the controls. Buckwheat and amaranth appeared to increase the levels of catechol sulfate when given at high concentrations.

1105) As shown in Figure 3, dogs fed with the quinoa diet had significant changes in several secondary bile acids.

[106] As shown in Figure 4A and Figure 4B, dogs fed with the quinoa die had decreased levels of glucose, glycogen and sucrose, while increased levels of intermediates in the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways, suggesting an increased utilization of glucose for energy and nucleotide production. On the other hand, dogs fed with the amaranth diet had decreased levels of pentose intermediates and raannose, but increased levels of glycogen-related metabolites, suc as mahotetraose. nialiotriose and maltose, suggesting that amaranth favored glucose storage, perhaps reflecting the higher di« and oligosaccharide contents in the amaranth diet.

-107] As shown, in. Figure 5, dogs fed with the quinoa diet had increased levels of long chain fatty acids (LCFA), while decreased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PliFA) and monoaeylgSyceroIs (MAG). On the other hand, dogs fed with the 20% Barley diet had increased levels of all these classes of lipid metabolites, indicating somewhat opposite effects.

[108] As shown in Figures 6A and 6B„ dogs fed with the quinoa and buckwheat diets had relativel higher levels of tocopherols and tocopherol catahoMtes. Dogs fed with, the coarse bulghur diet had increased nicotinamide and .nscotinaniide ribonucleotide compared to the controls and other dietary groups, Dogs fed with the Quinoa diet had increased levels of •riboflavin (vitamin B2) but decreased levels of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), indicating a reduced .synthesis of FAD from rib flavin upon Qumoa ingestion. O the oilier hand, dogs fed buckwheat and barle had increased levels of FAD. Changes in FAD may greatly impact processes such as electron transport chain, fatty acid oxidation arid folate synthesis, since all these processes require FAD as the cofactor.

[1 9] Figures 6A and 6B also show that dogs fed with the quinoa diet had decreased pantethine but increased pantothenate. Pantethioe is the precursor for pantothenate (vitamin B5), and both pantethttie and pantothenate are involved i the biosynthesis pathway of Coenzyme A, suggesting that qumoa may impact the synthesis of Coenzyme A.

[110] As show in Figure 7, dogs fed with the quinoa diet had increased amounts of 20- hydroxyecdysone (200-1800 fold increases relative to the control group), which may be in vo vied in protein synthesis and muscle enhancement Figure 7 also show that quinoa, buckwheat and amaran th increased the levels of gentisate, a byproduct of tyrosine and benzoate metabolism and may have anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic and antioxidant properties. In addition, the qumoa increased the levels of 3,4-dihydr-oxyphetvylacetate, metabolite of dopamine that ma be involved in antiproliferative effect in certain cancer lines.

Example 4

[1111 Cats were fed a control diet or one of the s x ' diets containing different types of grains at the concentrations of 5%, 1:0% or 20% as described in ' fable 1 . Fecal samples were collected and analyzed for metabolites *

[1.12] As shown, in Figure 8., several types of grain diets induced the levels of amino acids in cat fecal .samples, in particular, cat fed with the 20% qumoa diet had some amino acids that show 5- fold difference compared to the control group.

11 J 31 As- shown in Figure 9, the quinoa diet ( 1.0%) led to decreased levels of fatty acids i eat. in addition, the barley diet (20%) led to increased, levels of tatty acids in eats. Figure 9 also shows that cats fed with the coarse bulghur diet demonstrated significant changes in lipid metabolism. Cats fed with the 20% coarse bulghur diet had increased levels of LCFA and. PUFA relative to the controls, suggesting that coarse bulghur ay impact lipid absorption, catabollsm or secretion in cats,

11.1.41 As shown In Figure 10, cats fed with the quinoa diet had increased levels of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and decreased levels of FAD. FAD levels were decreased by 50% in quinoa. 5% group and by 88% i» quinoa 20% groups relative to the control group., suggesting that Quinoa may impact FAD metabolism, which may further affect FAD dependent pathways.

£115] Figure 1 1 lists a number of biochemieals whose metabolism may be associated with microbiorae in. cats. As shown in Figure ! 1 , different diets at different concentrations bad varied effects on these biochemicals.

{116] As shown in Figure 12, cats fed with the quinoa diet had increased amounts of 20» hydrox ecdysone (200-1800 fold, increases relative to the control group), which may be involved in protein synthesis and muscle enhancement. Figure 12 aiso show that q tnoa, buckwheat and amaranth increased the levels of gentisaie, a byproduct, of tyrosine and benzoate metabolism and m have antiinflammatory, antirherraiatic and antioxidant properties.