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Title:
FOOD PRODUCTS CONTAINING COFFEE CHERRY PARTICULATES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/143328
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Food products having portions of coffee cherries are described, as well as components thereof and methods of forming. The food product may include a particulate composition and at least one flavoring agent. The particulate composition may include one or more portions of a dried coffee cherry, which may include a deseeded coffee cherry.

Inventors:
BELLIVEAU, Daniel, Alderic (3273 163rd Place Se, Bellevue, WA, 98008, US)
MCMARTIN, Scott, Allen James (309 207th Avenue East, Seattle, WA, 98112, US)
Application Number:
US2013/077131
Publication Date:
September 18, 2014
Filing Date:
December 20, 2013
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
EMPIRE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LLC (2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400Wilmington, DE, 19808, US)
International Classes:
A23F5/00; A21D10/00; A23F5/46
Domestic Patent References:
WO2005013719A12005-02-17
WO2005070217A12005-08-04
Foreign References:
US7754263B22010-07-13
US20020187239A12002-12-12
US7959957B22011-06-14
US6558730B12003-05-06
US4867992A1989-09-19
Other References:
See also references of EP 2967098A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PISANO, Anthony, L. (PEPPER HAMILTON LLP, Suite 5000Pittsburgh, PA, 15219-2507, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What Is Claimed Is:

1. A food product comprising:

a particulate composition comprising one or more portions of a dried deseeded coffee cherry; and

at least one flavoring agent.

2. The food product of claim 1, wherein the one or more portions of the dried deseeded coffee cherry comprises one or more of a hull, a mucilage, a silverskin, a parchment coat, a pectin layer, a pulp, and an outer skin.

3. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition consists of the dried deseeded coffee cherry.

4. The food product of claim 1, wherein the one or more portions of the dried deseeded coffee cherry consists of one or more of a pulp, a mucilage, and a hull.

5. The food product of claim 1, further comprising at least one fluid.

6. The food product of claim 5, wherein the particulate composition is present in the food product in an amount of about 50% by weight to about 80% by weight of the food product.

7. The food product of claim 5, wherein the particulate composition is present in the food product in an amount of about 1%> by weight to about 50%> by weight of food product.

8. The food product of claim 5, wherein the particulate composition is present in the food product in an amount of about 2%> by weight to about 25% by weight of the food product.

9. The food product of claim 5, wherein the particulate composition is present in the food product in an amount of about 10% by weight to about 35% by weight of food product.

10. The food product of claim 5, wherein the fluid is present in the food product in an amount of about 5% by weight to about 50%> by weight of the food product.

11. The food product of claim 1 , wherein the particulate composition has an average particle size of about 1 micrometer to about 5000 micrometers.

12. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has an average particle size of about 1 micrometer to about 400 micrometers.

13. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has an average particle size of about 120 micrometers to about 325 micrometers.

14. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has a peak viscosity of about 30 rapid visco units to about 3000 rapid visco units.

15. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has a peak viscosity of about 200 rapid visco units to about 500 rapid visco units.

16. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has a dry matter content of about 80% by weight to about 100% by weight of the particulate composition.

17. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has a dry matter content of about 88% by weight to about 98% by weight of the particulate

composition.

18. The food product of claim 1 , wherein the particulate composition has a water absorption index of about 1 to about 20.

19. The food product of claim 1, wherein the food product has a weight ratio of the particulate composition to the flavoring agent of about 1 : 1 to about 1 :20.

20. The food product of claim 1 , wherein the food product has a weight ratio of the particulate composition to the flavoring agent of about 1 :20 to about 20: 1.

21. The food product of claim 1 , further comprising one or more of oil, butter, margarine, shortening, lard, and fat.

22. The food product of claim 1, further comprising a flour composition comprising one or more of cereal grains, seeds, beans, nuts, and roots.

23. The food product of claim 1, further comprising a flour composition comprising one or more of tapioca flour, rice flour, oat flour, wheat flour, buckwheat flour, barley flour, rye flour, corn flour, bean flour, peanut flour, almond flour, chestnut flour, acorn flour, amaranth flour, hemp flour, sorghum flour, sweet potato flour, chickpea flour, quinoa flour, taro flour, arrowroot flour, coconut flour, and potato flour.

24. The food product of claim 1, further comprising at least one dairy product.

25. The food product of claim 1, wherein the flavoring agent comprises a sweetener.

26. The food product of claim 25, wherein the sweetener comprises one or more of glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, isomaltose, maltodextrin, and corn syrup.

27. The food product of claim 1, further comprising at least one leavening agent.

28. The food product of claim 1, further comprising at least one enzyme.

29. The food product of claim 1, further comprising at least one starch comprising starch hydrolyzate, hydroxyalkylated starch, starch ester, cross-linked starch, starch acetate, or starch octenyl succinate.

30. The food product of claim 1, further comprising at least one gum comprising guar gum, xanthan gum, gellan gum, carrageenan gum, gum Arabic, gum tragacanth, or pectic acid.

31. The food product of claim 1 , further comprising at least one reducing sugar comprising maltose, lactose, or dextrose.

32. The food product of claim 1 , wherein the food product is one or more of a baked good, a pre-fabricated good, a fried good, a chilled good, a nutritional supplement, and a steamed good.

33. The food product of claim 1, wherein the food product is one or more of a cracker, a brownie, a cake, a cake-like product, a pastry, a snack, an energy bar, a pasta, a batter coating, a bread, a cookie, a noodle, a filled food product, a flatbread, a dumpling, a steamed bun, a breaded coating, and a cereal.

34. The food product of claim 1 , wherein the food product has a gluten content equal to or less than about 20 ppm.

35. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has mycotoxin levels of equal to or less than about 20 parts per billion for total aflatoxins, equal to or less than about 2 μg per kilogram of body weight of a consumer for total fumonisins, equal to or less than about 10 parts per billion for total ochratoxins, and equal to or less than about 1 part per million for total vomitoxins.

36. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has an aflatoxin mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 20 parts per billion for total aflatoxins.

37. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has a fumonisin mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 2 μg per kilogram of body weight of a consumer for total fumonisins.

38. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has an ochratoxin mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 10 parts per billion for total ochratoxins.

39. The food product of claim 1, wherein the particulate composition has a vomitoxin mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 1 part per million for vomitoxins.

40. A solid composition comprising:

a particulate composition comprising one or more portions of a dried deseeded coffee cherry; and

at least one flavoring agent,

wherein the particulate composition has an average particle size of about 1 micrometer to about 5000 micrometers.

41. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the one or more portions of the dried deseeded coffee cherry comprises one or more of a pulp, a mucilage, and a hull.

42. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition consists of the dried deseeded coffee cherry.

43. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the one or more portions of the dried deseeded coffee cherry consists of one or more of a pulp, a mucilage, and a hull.

44. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition has an average particle size of about 120 micrometers to about 325 micrometers.

45. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition has a dry matter content of about 80% by weight to about 100% by weight of the particulate composition.

46. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the solid composition has a peak viscosity of about 30 rapid visco units to about 3000 rapid visco units.

47. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the solid composition has a peak viscosity of about 200 rapid visco units to about 500 rapid visco units.

48. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the solid composition has a water absorption index of about 1 to about 20.

49. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition is present in the solid composition in an amount of about 1% to about 80% by weight of the solid composition.

50. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition is present in the solid composition in an amount of about 2% to about 25% by weight of the solid composition.

51. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition is present in the solid composition in an amount of about 10% to about 35% by weight of the solid composition.

52. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the solid composition has a weight ratio of the particulate composition to the flavoring agent of about 1 : 1 to about 1 :20.

53. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the solid composition has a weight ratio of the particulate composition to the flavoring agent of about 1 :20 to about 20: 1.

54. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising one or more of oil, butter, margarine, shortening, lard, and fat.

55. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising a flour composition comprising one or more of cereal grains, seeds, beans, nuts, and roots.

56. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising a flour composition comprising one or more of tapioca flour, rice flour, oat flour, wheat flour, buckwheat flour, barley flour, rye flour, corn flour, bean flour, peanut flour, almond flour, chestnut flour, acorn flour, amaranth flour, hemp flour, sorghum flour, sweet potato flour, chickpea flour, quinoa flour, taro flour, arrowroot flour, coconut flour, and potato flour.

57. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising at least one dairy product.

58. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the flavoring agent comprises a sweetener.

59. The solid composition of claim 58, wherein the sweetener comprises one or more of glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and isomaltose.

60. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising at least one leavening agent.

61. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising at least one enzyme.

62. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising at least one starch comprising starch hydrolyzate, hydroxyalkylated starch, starch ester, cross-linked starch, starch acetate, or starch octenyl succinate.

63. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising at least one gum comprising guar gum, xanthan gum, gellan gum, carrageenan gum, gum Arabic, gum tragacanth, or pectic acid.

64. The solid composition of claim 40, further comprising at least one reducing sugar comprising maltose, lactose, or dextrose.

65. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the solid composition has a gluten content of equal to or less than about 20 ppm.

66. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition has mycotoxin levels of equal to or less than about 20 parts per billion for total aflatoxins, equal to or less than about 2 μg per kilogram of body weight of a consumer for total fumonisins, equal to or less than about 10 parts per billion for total ochratoxins, and equal to or less than about 1 part per million for total vomitoxins.

67. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition has a mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 20 parts per billion for total aflatoxins.

68. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition has a mycotoxin level of about 2 μg per kilogram of body weight of a consumer for total fumonisins.

69. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition has a mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 10 parts per billion for total ochratoxins.

70. The solid composition of claim 40, wherein the particulate composition has a mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 1 part per million for vomitoxins.

71. A method of forming a food product, the method comprising:

providing a particulate composition comprising one or more portions of a dried deseeded coffee cherry;

admixing a flour composition with the particulate composition to provide a dry composition;

admixing at least one flavoring agent with the dry composition to form a dry mixture; and

adding at least one fluid to the dry mixture to form a food mixture.

72. The method of claim 71, wherein the one or more portions of the dried deseeded coffee cherry comprises one or more of a pulp, a mucilage, and a hull.

73. The method of claim 71 , wherein the one or more portions of the particulate composition consists of the dried deseeded coffee cherry.

74. The method of claim 71, wherein the one or more portions of the dried deseeded coffee cherry consists of one or more of a pulp, a mucilage, and a hull.

75. The method of claim 71, further comprising:

processing the food mixture to obtain the food product, wherein the processing comprises one or more of sheeting, extruding, cutting, filing, and folding.

76. The method of claim 71, further comprising processing: the food mixture to obtain a dough.

77. The method of claim 71, further comprising baking the dough.

78. The method of claim 71, further comprising frying the dough.

79. The method of claim 71, further comprising freezing the dough.

80. The method of claim 71, further comprising steaming the dough.

81. The method of claim 71 , further comprising:

coating a food item with the food mixture to form a coated food; and frying the coated food.

82. The method of claim 71, further comprising:

admixing one or more of an oil and a fat with the dry composition.

83. The method of claim 71, wherein the flour composition comprises one or more of tapioca flour, rice flour, oat flour, wheat flour, buckwheat flour, barley flour, rye flour, corn flour, bean flour, peanut flour, almond flour, chestnut flour, acorn flour, amaranth flour, hemp flour, sorghum flour, sweet potato flour, chickpea flour, quinoa flour, taro flour, arrowroot flour, coconut flour, and potato flour.

84. The method of claim 71, further comprising:

admixing at least one dairy product with the dry composition.

85. The method of claim 71, further comprising:

admixing at least one leavening agent with the dry composition.

86. The method of claim 71, further comprising:

admixing at least one enzyme with the dry composition.

87. The method of claim 71, further comprising:

admixing at least one starch with the dry composition.

88. The method of claim 87, wherein the starch comprises at least one of starch hydrolyzate, hydroxyalkylated starch, starch ester, cross-linked starch, starch acetate, or starch octenyl succinate.

89. The method of claim 71, further comprising:

admixing at least one gum with the dry composition, wherein the gum comprises guar gum, xanthan gum, gellan gum, carrageenan gum, gum Arabic, gum tragacanth, or pectic acid.

90. The method of claim 71, further comprising:

admixing at least one reducing sugar with the dry composition, wherein the reducing sugar comprises maltose, lactose, or dextrose.

91. The method of claim 71 , wherein the flavoring agent is a sweetener selected from glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and isomaltose.

92. The method of claim 71, wherein the admixing comprises using a mixer to admix the sweetener with the particulate composition.

93. The method of claim 71 , wherein the dry mixture is present in the food mixture at an amount of about 50% by weight to about 80% by weight of the food mixture.

94. The method of claim 71, wherein the fluid is present in the food mixture at an amount of about 20% by weight to about 50% by weight of the food mixture.

95. The method of claim 71, wherein the dry mixture has a weight ratio of the particulate composition to the flavoring agent of about 1 : 1 to about 1 :20.

96. The method of claim 71, wherein the dry mixture has a weight ratio of the particulate composition to the flavoring agent of about 2:3 to about 1 : 10.

Description:
FOOD PRODUCTS CONTAINING COFFEE CHERRY PARTICULATES

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the priority benefit of United States Provisional Patent Application No. 61/785,195, filed March 14, 2013 and entitled "Flour Compositions and Food and Beverages Comprising Thereof, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

[0001] The domestic consumption of coffee has increased about 57.6% in coffee exporting countries between 2000 and 2011. In addition, the consumption of coffee in coffee importing countries has increased about 10.8% between 2000 and 2010. In total, world coffee production in 2011 used about 7.9 million tons of coffee beans.

[0002] To obtain the coffee beverage that is widely consumed throughout the world, coffee beans must be removed from coffee cherries and processed. There are two types of isolation processes ("coffee processing") that are commonly used: dry processing and wet processing. Dry processing includes, after harvesting, drying the coffee cherries to about 10-11% moisture content. The coffee beans are separated from the material covering the beans (for example, the outer skin, pulp, parchment, and silverskin) using a de -hulling machine. Wet processing, on the other hand, does not require drying of the cherries. In a wet processing method, the outer skin and the pulp are mechanically removed and the beans are fermented to remove a layer of remaining pulp material thereon, which is about 0.5 mm to about 2 mm thick. After fermentation, the coffee beans are dried so they contain about 12% water by weight and dehulled to remove the parchment. The bean is the only material retained for sale or storage, with the remainder of the coffee cherries being discarded, used as organic compost, or burned as fuel. Thus, when the remainder is discarded, 50% of the total mass of the coffee cherry is discarded as byproduct material. Thus, to obtain every ton of coffee beans, a ton of byproduct material must be generated. With the ever-increasing consumption of coffee throughout the world, the amount of byproduct has rapidly increased.

[0003] In coffee producing countries, the coffee byproducts constitute a source of contamination and environmental concern. For example, the pulp and the mucilage are relatively acidic, corrosive to equipment, and difficult to safely dispose. Furthermore, the pulp and the mucilage can lower the pH of waterways, which could potentially be deleterious to fish and other aquatic life forms. Additionally, where the pulp is discarded in a landfill or other disposal site, rotting pulp will often generate significant odors over time. Accordingly, it may be desirable to reduce waste from coffee byproducts, particularly portions of the coffee cherry that are not used for typical coffee bean purposes, such as, for example, the pulp, the mucilage, the stem, and/or the hull.

[0004] Previous methods of reducing waste included processing the coffee byproducts for human consumption. However, these methods have been unsuccessful due to taste issues such as flavor, texture, and/or the like. These methods have also been unsuccessful due to an inability of the byproducts to mix with other ingredients to form food products, an inability to comply with human and/or other animal consumption safety requirements, and/or the like.

SUMMARY

[0005] In an embodiment, a food product may include a particulate composition that includes one or more portions of a dried coffee cherry and at least one flavoring agent. The dried coffee cherry may be a dried deseeded coffee cherry.

[0006] In an embodiment, a solid composition may include a particulate composition having one or more portions of a dried coffee cherry and at least one flavoring agent. The dried coffee cherry may be a dried deseeded coffee cherry, and the particulate composition may have an average particle size of about 1 micrometer (μιη) to about 5000 micrometers (μιη).

[0007] In an embodiment, a method of forming a food product may include providing a particulate composition having one or more portions of a dried coffee cherry, admixing a flour composition with the particulate composition to provide a dry composition, admixing at least one flavoring agent with the dry composition to form a dry mixture, and adding at least one fluid to the dry mixture to form a food mixture. The dried coffee cherry may be a dried deseeded coffee cherry.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0008] FIG. 1 depicts a cross sectional view of a coffee cherry structure according to an embodiment.

[0009] FIG. 2 depicts a second cross sectional view of a coffee cherry structure according to an embodiment.

[0010] FIG. 3 depicts a flow diagram of a method of forming a food product according to an embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0011] This disclosure is not limited to the particular systems, devices and methods described, as these may vary. The terminology used in the description is for the purpose of describing the particular versions or embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope.

[0012] As used in this document, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meanings as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. Nothing in this disclosure is to be construed as an admission that the embodiments described in this disclosure are not entitled to antedate such disclosure by virtue of prior invention. As used in this document, the term "comprising" means "including, but not limited to."

[0013] The following terms shall have, for the purposes of this application, the respective meanings set forth below.

[0014] A "coffee cherry" generally refers to one whole fruit of the coffee tree, belonging to the genus Coffea. A coffee cherry includes various portions, as described herein, including a coffee bean (or "seed"), pulp, mucilage, a hull, a stem, and the like. Species of coffee trees that produce coffee cherries include, without limitation, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Beans from coffee cherries produced by the Coffea arabica tree are generally referred to as "Arabica" beans, while beans from coffee cherries produced by the Coffea canephora are generally referred to as "Robusta" beans.

[0015] A "deseeded coffee cherry" is a coffee cherry that has had the bean portion (including the center cut and the endosperm) removed. Thus, a deseeded coffee cherry contains all of the portions of the coffee cherry except for the bean and its constituent parts. Portions of the deseeded coffee cherry will be discussed in greater detail herein, and generally include hull, mucilage, silverskin, a parchment coat, a pectin layer, pulp, outer skin, a stem, leaves, and the like. In some embodiments, the deseeded coffee cherry may only include certain portions of the coffee cherry and may exclude other portions in addition to the coffee bean. For example, in some embodiments, the deseeded coffee cherry may consist of the pulp, the mucilage, and/or the hull. In some embodiments, the deseeded coffee cherry can include the outer skin, pulp, and pectin layer.

[0016] A "particulate composition" includes one or more portions of a dried and deseeded coffee cherry, as described herein. A "solid composition" includes the particulate composition and a flavoring agent as described in greater detail herein. A "dry composition" includes the particulate composition and a flour composition, as described in greater detail herein. A "dry mixture" includes the particulate composition, the flour composition, and the flavoring agent, as described herein. A "food mixture" includes the dry mixture and a fluid, as described in greater detail herein.

[0017] A "food product" is generally any edible item that is fit for consumption by humans and/or animals. The type of food product is not limited by this disclosure, and includes, for example, a baked good, a pre-fabricated good, a fried good, a chilled good, a nutritional supplement, a steamed good, a cracker, a brownie, a cake, a cake-like product, a pastry, a snack, an energy bar, a pasta, a batter coating, a batter coated item, a bread, a cookie, a noodle, a filled food product, a flatbread, a dumpling, a steamed bun, a breaded coating, a breaded item, a cereal, and/or the like.

[0018] Components of deseeded coffee cherries possess many potentially beneficial substances if preserved in a non-degraded (non-fermented) state. For example, fresh pulp contains high levels of polyphenol antioxidants, and fresh mucilage contains complex polysaccharides and antioxidants. The hull also contains small amounts of polyphenols and thus could be used as an additional source for antioxidants. Therefore, better utilization of these byproducts of deseeded coffee cherries could make the cultivation and processing of coffee more economical.

[0019] The food products disclosed herein are generally directed to a food product that incorporates at least a portion of the coffee cherry that would otherwise be discarded as byproduct material. These portion(s) of the coffee cherry are combined with a flavoring agent such as a sweetener and are formed into a solid composition that can be combined with a variety of other ingredients to produce food products that possess beneficial properties, are generally pleasant tasting, comply with food safety requirements, and/or can be produced for mass consumption.

[0020] FIG. 1 depicts a cross sectional view of a coffee cherry, generally designated 100, according to an embodiment. The coffee cherry 100 generally includes the bean 105, which is the portion that is usually removed and processed for coffee beverages as described in greater detail herein. The bean 105 may generally include a center cut 110 and an endosperm 115. The center cut 110 is generally the innermost portion of the bean 105, and the endosperm 115 is generally a portion that acts as a food store because it contains a starch, protein, and other nutrients.

[0021] The remainder of the coffee cherry 100 may generally be referred to as a deseeded coffee cherry, and may contain, for example, a silverskin 120, a parchment coat 125, a pectin layer 130, a pulp 135, and an outer skin 140. In some embodiments, the deseeded coffee cherry can include the outer skin 140, pulp 135, and pectin layer 130. The silverskin 120 may also be referred to as the epidermis. The silverskin 120 is a thin tegument (covering) that is generally the innermost portion of the coffee cherry 105 that encapsulates the bean 105. The silverskin 120 is a major byproduct of the roasting process to produce roasted coffee beans, and may contain high levels of antioxidants. In general, the silverskin 120 may cling to the bean 105 even after the drying process, and may be removed via polishing or roasting the bean. When the silverskin 120 is removed from the bean 105 during the roasting process, it is typically referred to as chaff. The parchment coat 125, which may also be known as the endocarp or the hull, surrounds the silverskin 120 with a parchment-like covering. Surrounding the parchment coat 125 is the pectin layer 130, which is a mucus-like substance. The pectin layer 130 is surrounded by the pulp 135, which is also known as the mesocarp. The pulp 135 is a fibrous mucilagenous material that is fleshy in appearance and texture. The pulp 135 may include an amount of caffeine and tannins, thus making the pulp somewhat toxic, as described in greater detail herein. The pulp 135 may be processed to remove or reduce the level of toxins, as described in greater detail herein. The outer skin 140 is the outermost portion of the coffee cherry 100, which is generally a thick membrane that protects the various other contents of the coffee cherry. The outer skin 140 may sometimes be referred to as the exocarp. The coffee cherry 100 as used herein may also include other portions not specifically shown in FIG. 1, including a stem, leaves, and/or the like.

[0022] In various embodiments, one or more of the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry 100 may be processed to obtain a particulate composition for use as described herein. Processing may include, for example, separating the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry from the coffee bean via a wet processing or a dry processing method. In some embodiments, the various portions of the deseeded coffee cherry may be dried. In particular embodiments, the deseeded portions of the coffee cherry may be dried so that they contain a moisture content of about 0% by weight to about 20% by weight or about 2% by weight to about 12% by weight, including about 1% by weight, about 2% by weight, about 3% by weight, about 4% by weight, about 5% by weight, about 6% by weight, about 7% by weight, about 8%) by weight, about 9% by weight, about 10% by weight, about 11% by weight, about 12%) by weight, about 15% by weight, about 20% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0023] Processing may further include, for example, grading and classifying the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry to remove any portions that may not be usable for the purposes described herein. Examples of grading and classifying may include, for example, removing undesirable portions, inspecting for color, inspecting for clumping, inspecting for moisture level, and inspecting for foreign materials.

[0024] Processing may also include grinding, milling and/or pre -milling the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry to obtain the particulate composition. Grinding may be performed by various grinding devices known to those having ordinary skill in the art, such as a hammer mill, a roller mill, a disk mill, or the like. The particulate compositions and/or portions thereof may be ground to various sizes, defined by a particle size (for instance, measured in micrometers), a mesh size, a surface area, or the like. In some embodiments, the particulate composition may have an average particle size of about 0.1 micrometers (μηι) to about 5000 μιη, about 0.1 μιη to about 3000 μιη, about 0.1 μιη to about 200 μιη, or about 120 μιη to about 325 μιη. In particular embodiments, the particulate composition may have an average particle size of about 0.1 μιη, about 0.5 μιη, about 1 μιη, about 10 μιη, about 25 μιη, about 40 μιη, about 50 μιη, about 100 μιη, about 200 μιη, about 400 μιη, about 500 μιη, about 1000 μιη, about 2000 μιη, about 3000 μιη, about 4000 μιη, about 5000 μιη, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the particulate composition may have a coarse average particle size for shipping and transport. The coarse average particle size may be about 2000 μιη to about 5000 μιη, including about 2000 μιη, about 2500 μιη, about 3000 μιη, about 4000 μιη, about 5000 μιη, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the particulate composition may be milled at a final processing destination to produce a fine average particle size. The fine average particle size may be about 1 μιη to about 400 μιη, including about 1 μιη, about 10 μιη, about 20 μιη, about 25 μιη, about 40 μιη, about 50 μιη, about 75 μιη, about 100 μιη, about 200 μιη, about 300 μιη, about 400 μιη, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the particulate composition may be ground so that about 10% to about 20% of the ground particulate composition is retained by a mesh having openings with a size of about 20 mesh and so that about 80% to about 90% of the ground particulate composition is retained by a mesh having openings with a size of about 230 mesh. The mesh sizes may be standardized according to Table 1 below: TABLE 1: MESH TO MICROMETER CONVERSION CHART

400 0.0015 37

[0025] Thus, the particulate composition may be ground to a particulate size that ranges from about 20 mesh to about 230 mesh, including about 20 mesh, about 25 mesh, about 30 mesh, about 35 mesh, about 40 mesh, about 45 mesh, about 50 mesh, about 60 mesh, about 70 mesh, about 80 mesh, about 100 mesh, about 120 mesh, about 140 mesh, about 170 mesh, about 200 mesh, about 230 mesh, or any value or range between two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the particulate compositions and/or various portions thereof may have a varying distribution of particle sizes based upon the ingredients. Thus, the varying mesh sizes of each ingredient may be independent of mesh sizes for other ingredients.

[0026] The coffee cherry and/or various portions thereof may naturally contain one or more toxins, including mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, vomitoxins, and/or the like. Accordingly, processing may include reducing or removing toxins from the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry. Alternatively, processing may include removing or reducing toxins from the particulate composition. The reducing or removing of toxins may improve consumers' safety and/or to comply with various safety regulations such as, for example, the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) or the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) of the European Union (EU). Thus, in some embodiments, the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry and/or the particulate composition may have an aflatoxin mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 20 parts per billion (ppb) for total aflatoxins, a fumonisin mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 2 micrograms ^g) per kilogram of body weight of a consumer for total fumonisins, an ochratoxin mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 10 ppb, and/or a vomitoxin mycotoxin level of equal to or less than about 1 part per million (ppm) for vomitoxins. In particular embodiments, the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry and/or the particulate composition may have an aflatoxin mycotoxin level of about 20 ppb, about 15 ppb, about 10 ppb, about 5 ppb, about 1 ppb, about 0.5 ppb, about 0.1 ppb, about 0.05 ppb, about 0 ppb, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In particular embodiments, the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry and/or the particulate composition may have a fumonisin mycotoxin level of, per kilogram of body weight of a consumer, about 2 μg, about 1 μg, about 0.5 μg, about 0.1 μg, about 0.05 μg, about 0 μg, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In particular embodiments, the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry and/or the particulate composition may have an ochratoxin mycotoxin level of about 10 ppb, about 5 ppb, about 1 ppb, about 0.5 ppb, about 0.1 ppb, about 0.5 ppb, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In particular embodiments, the portions of the deseeded coffee cherry and/or the particulate composition may have a vomitoxin mycotoxin level of about 1 ppm, about 0.5 ppm, about 0.1 ppm, about 0.05 ppm, about 0.01 ppm, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0027] In various embodiments, the particulate composition may have a peak viscosity as measured by heating a paste at 90°C in a Rapid Visco Analyzer. The paste may be formed from the particulate composition prepared in a slurry containing 5.5% particulate composition by dry weight. Alternatively, peak viscosity can be measured with the product at ambient room temperature in dry form without forming a slurry. The peak viscosity may be about 30 rapid visco units to about 3000 rapid visco units, including about 30 rapid visco units, about 50 rapid visco units, about 100 rapid visco units, about 200 rapid visco units, about 500 rapid visco units, about 1000 rapid visco units, about 2000 rapid visco units, about 3000 rapid visco units, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). Viscosity may affect the "mouth feel" of an ingested product, and its consumer appeal and acceptance. Additionally, viscosity can affect the ability of a product to blend with other materials to create a finished product.

[0028] In various embodiments, the particulate composition may have a dry matter content in order to have a minimal amount of fluid in the particulate composition. The amount of fluid may generally include the total amount of water, inclusive of any amount of water that may be present in the various portions of the particulate composition. In some embodiments, the dry matter content of the particulate composition may be about 80% by weight to about 100% by weight of the particulate composition, including about 80%> by weight of the particulate composition, about 85% by weight of the particulate composition, about 88%) by weight of the particulate composition, about 90%> by weight of the particulate composition, about 95% by weight of the particulate composition, about 98%> by weight of the particulate composition, about 100% by weight of the particulate composition, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). The percentage of dry matter content may affect the aroma, taste, color, and mouth feel of a product. Additionally, the percentage of dry matter content may affect nutritional qualities such as fiber content, gluten level, protein, vitamins, minerals, and anti-oxidants.

[0029] In various embodiments, the particulate composition may absorb water. The amount of water absorbed by the particulate composition may be measured, for example, by placing a measured amount by weight of dry particulate composition in a container with a measured amount of water, and then incubating and stirring the mixture. Excess water is drained from the mixture and the moist precipitate is weighed. A water absorption index (WAI) can be calculated with the following equation: mass of moist precipitate

WAI = mass o Ff dry parti—culΓate composit ~ ion [0030] In some embodiments, the particulate composition may have a water absorption index of about 1 to about 20, including about 1, about 2, about 5, about 10, about 15, about 20, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0031] In various embodiments, a food product may include the particulate composition and at least one flavoring agent, as described in greater detail herein. In some embodiments, the food product may include at least one fluid. The fluid may be present in the food product in an amount of about 5% by weight to about 50% by weight of the food product, including about 5% by weight, about 10%> by weight, about 15% by weight, about 20%) by weight, about 25% by weight, about 30%> by weight, about 35% by weight, about 40%) by weight, about 45% by weight, about 50% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0032] In various embodiments, a solid composition may include the particulate composition and at least one flavoring agent. In some embodiments, the solid composition may be used in forming a food product, as described in greater detail herein. In some embodiments, the solid composition may have an average particle size of about 1 micrometer to about 5000 micrometers, including about 1 micrometer, about 10 micrometers, about 40 micrometers, about 50 micrometers, about 100 micrometers, about 120 micrometers, about 325 micrometers, about 500 micrometers, about 1000 micrometers, about 2500 micrometers, about 5000 micrometers, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the solid composition may be ground to an average particulate size that ranges from about 1 mesh to about 120 mesh, including about 1 mesh, about 3 mesh, about 6 mesh, about 10 mesh, about 30 mesh, about 50 mesh, about 100 mesh, about 120 mesh, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the solid composition and/or various portions thereof may have a varying distribution of particle sizes based upon the ingredients. Thus, the varying mesh sizes of each ingredient may be independent of mesh sizes for other ingredients. In some embodiments, the solid composition may have a water absorption index of about 1 to about 20, including about 1, about 2, about 5, about 10, about 15, about 20, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the particulate composition may be present in the solid composition in an amount of about 1% to about 80% by weight of the solid composition, including about 1% by weight, about 2% by weight, about 5% by weight, about 10%> by weight, about 25% by weight, about 35% by weight, about 50% by weight, about 80% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, a ratio of the particulate composition to the flavoring agent in the solid composition may be about 20: 1 to about 1 :20, including about 20: 1, about 15: 1, about 10: 1 about 5: 1, about 1 : 1, about 1 :5, about 1 : 10, about 1 : 15, about 1 :20, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). The solid composition may further include any number of additional ingredients as described in greater detail herein, including a fat, a flour composition, a dairy product, a leavening agent, an enzyme, a starch, a gum, a reducing sugar, and the like. In some embodiments, the solid composition may have a gluten content of equal to or less than about 20 ppm, as described in greater detail herein.

[0033] FIG. 2 depicts a second cross sectional view of a coffee cherry. As shown in FIG. 2, the coffee cherry 200 may include seeds 205 surrounded by a hull 210, a mucilage 215 and a pulp 220. The hull 210 may generally include the endocarp of the coffee cherry 200. The mucilage 215 may generally include the inner mesocarp of the coffee cherry 200. The pulp 220 may generally include at least a portion of the exocarp and the outer mesocarp of the coffee cherry 200.

[0034] FIG. 3 depicts a flow diagram of a method of forming a food product according to an embodiment. The method described in references to FIG. 3 may generally be used in whole or in part to form an edible food product. In some embodiments, a particulate composition may be provided 305. The particulate composition may generally include one or more portions of a dried and deseeded coffee cherry, as discussed in greater detail herein. The amount of particulate composition to be provided 305 may be based upon an amount necessary to obtain a desired food product, a desired taste, a desired texture, a desired consistency, and/or the like. In some embodiments, the particulate composition may be present in the food product in an amount of about 1% to about 80% by weight of the food product. In particular embodiments, the particulate composition may be present in the food product in an amount of about 1% by weight, about 2% by weight, about 5% by weight, about 10%) by weight, about 15% by weight, about 20% by weight, about 25% by weight, about 35%) by weight, about 40% by weight, about 50% by weight, about 75% by weight, about 80%) by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0035] In various embodiments, a flour composition may be admixed 310 with the particulate composition to provide a dry composition. Admixing 310 the particulate composition and the flour composition can be completed by any method of combining, including, but not limited to, hand mixing, mixing with an electric handheld mixer, mixing with a stand mixer, mixing with a commercial mixing device, and/or the like. In some embodiments, the admixing 310 may be completed for a particular period of time, according to a particular method, and/or at a particular speed such that the dry composition is sufficiently blended. The dry composition may be sufficiently blended if a random sample of the dry composition contains a ratio of an amount by weight of the particulate composition to an amount by weight of the flour composition that corresponds to a desired ratio according to a particular recipe. For example, the ratio of the amount by weight of the particulate composition to the amount by weight of the flour composition may be about 1 : 1, about 2: 1, about 3: 1, about 5: 1, about 10: 1, about 20: 1, about 1 :2, about 1 :3, about 1 :5, about 1 : 10, about 1 :20, or any value or range between any of these values.

[0036] In some embodiments, the flour composition may be any type of flour composition now known or later developed, particularly flour compositions suitable for consumption purposes. The flour composition may be made from cereal grains, seeds, beans nuts, roots, and/or the like. Specific examples of flour compositions may include tapioca flour, rice flour, oat flour, wheat flour, buckwheat flour, barley flour, rye flour, corn flour, bean flour, peanut flour, almond flour, chestnut flour, acorn flour, amaranth flour, hemp flour, sorghum flour, sweet potato flour, chickpea flour, quinoa flour, taro flour, arrowroot flour, coconut flour, potato flour, and the like, as well as mixtures thereof. In some embodiments, the flour composition, and by extension, the dry composition, may be substantially gluten free, thereby containing a gluten content of equal to or less than about 20 parts per million (ppm), including about 20 ppm, about 15 ppm, about 10 ppm, about 5 ppm, about 1 ppm, about 0.5 ppm, about 0.1 ppm, about 0.05 ppm, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0037] In various embodiments, the dry composition may be admixed 315 with a flavoring agent to form a dry mixture. As previously described herein, the admixing 315 can be completed by any method of combining, including, but not limited to, hand mixing, mixing with an electric handheld mixer, mixing with a stand mixer, mixing with a commercial mixing device, and/or the like. Similarly, the admixing 315 may be completed for a particular period of time, according to a particular method, and/or at a particular speed such that that the dry mixture is sufficiently blended. In some embodiments, the dry mixture may be sufficiently blended if a random sample of the dry mixture contains a ratio of an amount by weight of the dry composition to an amount by weight of the flavoring agent that corresponds to a desired ratio according to a particular recipe. For example, the ratio of the amount by weight of the dry composition to the amount by weight of the flavoring agent may be about 1 : 1, about 2: 1, about 3: 1, about 5: 1, about 10: 1, about 20: 1, about 1 :2, about 1 :3, about 1 :5, about 1 : 10, about 1 :20, or any value or range between any of these values. In some embodiments, the ratio of particulate composition to flavoring agent may be about 1 : 1, about 2:3, about 1 :2, about 1 :3, about 1 :4, about 1 :5, about 1 : 10, about 1 :20, about 3:2, about 2: 1, about 3: 1, about 4: 1, about 5: 1, about 10: 1, about 20: 1, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0038] The flavoring agent is not limited by this disclosure, and may generally be any ingredient used to provide a flavor to the dry mixture. In some embodiments, the flavoring agent may be a sweetener. The sweetener may be in a solid, a semi-solid, or a liquid form, and may further be a caloric or a noncaloric sweetener. Specific examples of caloric sweeteners may include glucose, dextrose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, isomaltose, maltodextrin, corn syrup, and the like, as well as mixtures thereof. Specific examples of noncaloric sweeteners may include acesulfame potassium, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, and the like, as well as mixtures thereof. In some embodiments, the flavoring agent may provide a savory flavor. Such a flavoring agent may include, for example, barbecue, bacon, spices, herbs, dry vegetables such as onion, garlic, or tomato, dairy, peanut butter, nuts, seeds, vanilla, chocolate, and/or the like. In some embodiments, the flavoring agent may be blended with or sprinkled on any of the ingredients or compositions described herein. In some embodiments, the flavoring agent may be used as a topping or a sandwich filling in addition to any of the ingredients or compositions described herein.

[0039] In various embodiments, a determination 320 may be made as to whether additional ingredients should be added to the dry mixture. The determination 320 may generally be based upon, for example, a desired type of food product, a desired flavor, a desired texture, a desired consistency, whether additional nutrients are needed, and/or the like.

[0040] If the determination 320 is that additional ingredients should be added, the additional ingredients may be admixed 325 with the dry mixture. The additional ingredients may be provided in addition to the flavoring agent, or in some embodiments, may be a portion of the flavoring agent. Examples of additional ingredients are not limited by this disclosure, and may include, for example, one or more eggs, egg whites, egg yolks, fats, dairy products, leavening agents, enzymes, starches, gums, reducing sugars, and/or the like.

[0041] In some embodiments, fats may be added to provide a desired texture and/or consistency, to add flavor, to provide a moist food product, and/or to act as a binder for the remaining ingredients in the food product. Specific examples of fats may include butter, margarine, shortening, lard, and/or the like. Other specific examples of fats may include various oils, such as vegetable oil, castor oil, egg oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, corn oil, coconut oil, palm oil, safflower oil, sunflower seed oil, cottonseed oil, sesame oil, olive oil, camellia oil, rice oil, and/or the like.

[0042] In some embodiments, dairy products may be added to provide a desired texture and/or consistency, to add flavor, to provide a moist food product, and/or to act as a binder for the remaining ingredients in the food product. Specific examples of dairy products may include butter, cheese, milk, buttermilk, condensed milk, powdered milk, whey, yogurt, cream, whipping cream, sour cream, and/or the like.

[0043] In some embodiments, leavening agents may be added to provide a desired texture and/or consistency, to lighten the food product, and/or to soften the food product. Specific examples of leavening agents may include a carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) carrier agent such as baking soda, tartaric acid, citric acid, acid sodium, potassium salts of tartaric acid, calcium salts of tartaric acid, potassium salts of citric acid, calcium salts of citric acid, orthophosphoric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, and/or the like.

[0044] In various embodiments, enzymes may aid in processing various starches used in the food product. In some embodiments, the enzyme may improve the quality of the food product so that it conforms to a desired taste and/or consistency. Specific examples of enzymes may include papain, bromelain, ficin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and/or the like.

[0045] In various embodiments, starches may be used as thickening and/or stabilizing agents. Specific examples of starches may include starch hydrolysate, hydroxyalkylated starch, starch ester, cross-linked starch, starch acetate, starch octenyl succinate, and/or the like.

[0046] In various embodiments, reducing sugars may be used to provide desired texture, consistency, and color properties to the food product. The reducing sugar may generally be any sugar that has an aldehyde group or any sugar that is capable of forming an aldehyde group via isomerism. Specific examples of reducing sugars may include maltose, lactose, dextrose and/or the like.

[0047] In some embodiments, gums may be added to provide a desired texture and/or consistency, to thicken the food product, and/or to stabilize the food product. Specific examples of gums may include guar gum, xanthan gum, gellan gum, carrageenan gum, gum Arabic, gum tragacanth, pectic acid, and/or the like. Gum Arabic is a natural food additive obtained from certain varieties of acacia. It is generally tasteless and odorless, and may be used in commercial food processing to thicken, emulsify, and/or stabilize foods. Guar gum is a gummy substance obtained from plants of the legume genera. Guar gum may also be used as a thickener and/or a stabilizer in commercial food processing. Xanthan gum is produced by fermentation of corn sugar, and may be used as a thickener, an emulsifier, and/or a stabilizer of foods. [0048] In some embodiments, the additional ingredients may include an emulsifier. The emulsifier may aid in the processability of the food product. In some embodiments, the emulsifier may be dissolved in a fat or in a polyol fatty acid polyester. An illustrative polyol fatty acid polyester is Olean™ (Proctor & Gamble, Cincinnati OH). Illustrative emulsifiers may include, for example, lecithin, monoglycerides, diglycerides, diacetyl tartaric acid esters, propylene glycol monoesters, propylene glycol diesters, polyglycerol esters and/or the like. Polyglycerol emulsifiers, such as monoesters of hexapolyglycerols, may also be used.

[0049] In various embodiments, the various ingredients described herein may be added to the dry mixture and/or the particulate composition in the form of a pre -blended material. The pre -blended material is not limited by this disclosure and may include any type of pre -blended material, such as pre-packaged items and the like. For example, the various ingredients may be combined to the particulate composition in the form of a boxed cake mix, a boxed brownie mix, a boxed bread mix, and/or the like.

[0050] In various embodiments, at least one fluid may be added 330 to the dry mixture and, optionally, the other ingredients to form a food mixture. In some embodiments, the food mixture may be a dough. In some embodiments, the amount of fluid present in the food mixture may be about 20% by weight to about 50%> by weight of the food mixture, for example, about 20%> by weight, about 25% by weight, about 30%> by weight, about 35% by weight, about 40% by weight, about 45% by weight, about 50% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). Correspondingly, the amount of dry mixture present in the food mixture may be about 50% by weight to about 80% by weight of the food mixture, for example, about 50% by weight, about 55% by weight, about 60%) by weight, about 65% by weight, about 70% by weight, about 75% by weight, about 80%) by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). The type of fluid is not limited by this disclosure, and may include any fluid, including fluid versions of other ingredients described herein, water, juice, broth, and/or the like. Other fluids include dairy milk, non-dairy milk, nut milks, rice milks, tea, coffee, kava, and other dried food extract fluids, and so on.

[0051] In various embodiments, a determination 335 may be made as to whether additional processing of the ingredients is necessary. If additional processing is necessary, the ingredients may be processed 340. Examples of additional processing may include, for example, sheeting, extruding, cutting, filing, folding, baking, boiling, frying, freezing, steaming, packaging and/or the like. The additional processing may generally be completed to cook the ingredients to obtain the food product, to convert the ingredients into the food product, to prepare the ingredients for shipping and delivery, and/or the like.

[0052] In some embodiments, the processing 340 may include forming a dough into a relatively flat, thin sheet. This may be completed by any method now known or later developed, including rolling the dough between two counter rotating cylindrical rollers to obtain a uniform, relatively thin sheet of dough material. In addition, any conventional sheeting, milling, and gauging equipment may be used. In some embodiments, each of two mill rolls may be used at a temperature of about 90 °F (32.2 °C) to about 135 °F (57.2 °C), including about 90 °F (32.2 °C), about 95 °F (32.2 °C), about 100 °F (37.8 °C), about 105 °F (40.6 °C), about 110 °F (43.3 °C), about 115 °F (46.1 °C), about 120 °F (48.9 °C), about 125 °F (51.7 °C), about 130 °F (54.4 °C), about 135 °F (57.2 °C), or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, each mill roll may have a temperature that is independent of the temperature of the other mill roll. Thus, for example, a first mill roll may be hotter than a second mill roll. In some embodiments, the sheet of dough may have an average thickness of about 0.013 cm to about 0.25 cm, about 0.038 cm to about 0.25 cm, or about 0.165 cm to about 0.203 cm, including about 0.013 cm, about 0.015 cm, about 0.025 cm, about 0.05 cm, about 0.1 cm, about 0.15 cm, about 0.165 cm, about 0.2 cm, about 0.203 cm, about 0.25 cm, or any range or value between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the dough may be formed by using any stamping and/or cutting equipment to form a sheet of dough into a plurality of predetermined shapes and sizes. Illustrative examples of shapes may include ovals, squares, bowtie-shaped, star-shaped, wheel-shaped, and pinwheel-shaped. In some embodiments, the dough may be scored to form ripples.

[0053] In various embodiments, the ingredients may be processed 340 via frying. In some embodiments, the ingredients may be fried in a fat composition comprising a digestible fat, a non-digestible fat, or mixtures thereof. In some embodiments, the fat composition may have a free fatty acid content of about 1% or less by weight to reduce the oil oxidation rate. In particular embodiments, the fat composition may have a free fatty acid content of about 1% by weight, about 0.5% by weight, about 0.3% by weight, about 0.25%> by weight, about 1% by weight, about 0.05%> by weight, 0%> by weight, or any range or value between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0054] In some embodiments, the fat composition may have a saturated fat content of about 25% or less by weight to improve the lubricity of the ingredients fried in the fat composition and to enhance the flavor profile of the ingredients because of a lower melting point of the oil. In particular embodiments, the fat composition may have a saturated fat content of about 25% by weight, about 20% by weight, about 15% by weight, about 10% by weight, about 5% by weight, about 1% by weight, 0% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). An illustrative example of a saturated fat may include a sunflower oil, particularly a sunflower oil containing a medium to a high level of oleic acid. A medium to a high level of oleic acid may be defined as sunflower oil having at least about 60% by weight of oleic acid, including about 60%, about 65% by weight, about 70%, about 75% by weight, about 80%>, about 85% by weight, about 90%>, about 95%o by weight, about 100% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0055] In some embodiments, the non-digestible fat may be present in an amount of about 10%o by weight to about 90%> by weight, about 50%> by weight to about 90%> by weight, about 70%> by weight to about 85% by weight, including about 10%> by weight, about 15%o by weight, about 20%> by weight, about 25% by weight, about 30% by weight, about 35%o by weight, about 40% by weight, about 45% by weight, about 50% by weight, about 55%o by weight, about 60% by weight, about 65% by weight, about 70% by weight, about 75%o by weight, about 80% by weight, about 85% by weight, about 90% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the digestible fat may be present in an amount of about 10% by weight to about 80% by weight, about 10% by weight to 50% by weight, about 15% by weight to about 30% by weight, including about 10% by weight, about 15% by weight, about 20% by weight, about 25%o by weight, about 30% by weight, about 35% by weight, about 40% by weight, about 45%o by weight, about 50% by weight, about 55% by weight, about 60% by weight, about 65%o by weight, about 70% by weight, about 75% by weight, about 80% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, the fat composition may include at least one other ingredient such as, for example, an antioxidant such as tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), tocopherols, and ascorbic acid; a chelating agent such as citric acid; or an anti-foaming agent such as dimethylpolysiloxane.

[0056] In various embodiments, the ingredients may be fried in the fat composition when it is heated to a temperature of about 275 °F (135 °C) to about 420 °F (215.6 °C), about 300 °F (148.9 °C) to about 410 °F (210 °C), about 350 °F (176.7 °C) to about 400 °F (204.4 °C), including about 275 °F (135 °C), about 300 °F (148.9 °C), about 325 °F (162.8 °C), about 350 °F (176.7 °C), about 375 °F (190.6 °C), about 400 °F (204.4 °C), about 410 °F (210 °C), about 420 °F (215.6 °C), or any range or value between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0057] The ingredients may be fried in the fat composition for a period of time that is sufficient to result in a food product having about 6% or less by weight moisture, including about 6% by weight, about 5% by weight, about 4% by weight, about 2.5% by weight, about 2%> by weight, about 1%> by weight, about 0.5%> by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). Those with ordinary skill in the art will recognize varying frying times and moisture contents that may be suitable based on the types of ingredients included in the composition.

[0058] In some embodiments, the ingredients may be fried using a continuous frying method where the ingredients are passed into the fat composition until they are cooked, whereupon they are removed. In some embodiments, the ingredients may be fried using a continuous frying or batch frying method where the ingredients are immersed in a frying fat composition on a moving belt or basket.

[0059] The resultant food product from processing 340 by frying may have a total fat content (including digestible and non-digestible fats) of about 25% by weight to about 40%) by weight, including about 25 %> by weight, about 30%> by weight, about 35%> by weight, about 40%) by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). In some embodiments, a higher fat content may be desired. Accordingly, an oil (such as a triglyceride oil) may be applied to the ingredients as they are removed from the fat composition. In some embodiments, the triglyceride oil may have an iodine adsorption value greater than about 75 or greater than about 90, including about 75, about 80, about 85, about 90, about 95, about 100, about 150, about 200, about 204, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints). The additional applied oil may raise the fat content of the ingredients to about 45% by weight, including about 25% by weight, about 30%) by weight, about 35% by weight, about 40%> by weight, about 45% by weight, or any value or range between any two of these values (including endpoints).

[0060] In some embodiments, various oils having characteristic flavors may be applied to the ingredients. The various oils may be applied via spraying, tumbling, or any other method of application. Illustrative examples of the various oils may include butter flavored oils, natural flavored oils, artificially flavored oils, herb oils, potato flavored oils, garlic flavored oils, and onion flavored oils. In some embodiments, the application of the various oils after frying may avoid browning, burning, and/or oxidation of the various oils during the frying process, which may detract from taste, color, consistency, and/or the like.

[0061] In various embodiments, the ingredients described herein may be coated on a food product. For example, the ingredients may provide a batter coating. In some embodiments, the food product with the coated ingredients may be fried.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 : Baking Madeleines

[0062] A madeleine is a butter- leavened, cake-style cookie. The madeleine is sold all over the world and is readily available in pre-packaged formats. A typical recipe for madeleines was modified to include 50 weight % all-purpose flour and 50 weight % dry composition made up of deseeded coffee cherries ground to a particle size of about 50 micrometers to about 70 micrometers, and sugar. The madeleines were formed and baked as usual. The result was a pleasant tasting madeleine that had a dark brown appearance similar to that of a milk chocolate or cappuccino color.

[0063] In an attempt to heighten flavor of the madeleine, particularly to increase citrus and cherry notes, the recipe was further altered to include an additional 25 weight % dry composition. One additional egg yolk was also added to increase richness. Fine ground cocoa nibs were added to give the madeleine a chocolaty flavor. The madeleines were formed and baked as usual. The result was a madeleine with a dark brown chocolate appearance, a sponge-like texture, and a citrus-cherry-caramel flavor. Due to the high antioxidant content of the deseeded coffee cherries, the madeleines are also expected to contain a high level of antioxidants. Accordingly, the deseeded coffee cherries, that were traditionally considered waste by coffee producers, were formed into food products. Example 2: Baking a Chocolate Sheet Cake

[0064] A chocolate sheet cake was made with a dry composition having deseeded coffee cherries ground to a particle size of about 50 micrometers to about 70 micrometers, and sugar. Particularly, the dry composition had a ratio of 3 parts deseeded coffee cherries to 8 parts sugar. The dry composition included 17-18% of the total weight of the ingredients. The recipe followed was as follows:

In a mixing bowl:

• 2 cups sugar

• 1 ¼ cups all-purpose flour

• ¾ cup dry composition

• ½ teaspoon salt

• 1 Tablespoon cinnamon

• 1 teaspoon baking soda

• ½ cup buttermilk (or add 1 ½ teaspoons vinegar to sweet milk)

• 1 egg

• 1 teaspoon vanilla

In a saucepan:

• 1 cup water

• 5 Tablespoons cocoa (dry)

• 1 Tablespoon dry composition

• ½ cup margarine

• ½ cup shortening

[0065] Instructions: Sift together dry ingredients in a large mixing bowl. In a 2- quart saucepan, combine water, cocoa, dry composition, margarine, and shortening. Bring the combination to a boil, stirring occasionally. Pour chocolate mixture from saucepan (while still hot) over the dry ingredients in a mixing bowl and blend at a low speed. Add buttermilk, egg, and vanilla and continue to mix until all ingredients are sufficiently blended. Pour mixture into a greased and floured 10 ½ inch x 15 ½ inch x 1 inch pan or a 11 ½ inch x 18 inch pan. Bake at 400 degrees Fahrenheit (204 degrees Celsius) for 20-25 minute or until done. The result was a chocolate sheet cake with a dark brown chocolate appearance, a sponge-like texture, and a citrus-cherry-caramel flavor. Due to the high antioxidant content of the deseeded coffee cherries, the cake is also expected to contain a high level of antioxidants. Accordingly, the deseeded coffee cherries, that were traditionally considered waste by coffee producers, were formed into food products. Example 3 : Baking Peanut Butter Cookies

[0066] Peanut butter cookies were made with a dry composition having deseeded coffee cherries ground to a particle size of about 70 micrometers to about 100 micrometers, and sugar. Particularly, the dry composition had a ratio of 3 parts deseeded coffee cherries to 4 parts sugar. The dry composition included 21% of the total weight of the ingredients. The recipe was as follows:

• ½ cup butter

• ½ cup peanut butter

• ½ cup granulated sugar

• ½ cup packed brown sugar

• 1 egg

• 1 teaspoon vanilla

• ¾ cup all-purpose flour

• ¾ cup dry composition

• ¼ cup crushed graham crackers

• ¾ teaspoon baking soda

• ¼ teaspoon salt

• 2 Tablespoons cinnamon

[0067] Instructions: Thoroughly cream butter, peanut butter, sugars, egg, and vanilla. Sift together dry ingredients (two times for thorough blending). Blend into creamed mixture. Shape into 1-inch balls and roll in granulated sugar. Place each ball 2 inches apart on a lightly greased cookie sheet. Press with fork tines in a crisscross pattern atop the cookies to flatten. Bake at 375 degrees Fahrenheit for 10-12 minutes. Cool slightly and remove from the pan. The result was a peanut butter cookie with a medium brown appearance, a chewy texture, and a citrus-cherry-caramel flavor. Due to the high antioxidant content of the deseeded coffee cherries, the cookies are also expected to contain a high level of antioxidants. Accordingly, the deseeded coffee cherries, that were traditionally considered waste by coffee producers, were formed into food products. Example 4: Preparing a Granola Mix

[0068] Granola mix was made with a dry composition having deseeded coffee cherries ground to a particle size of about 80 micrometers to about 120 micrometers, and sugar. Particularly, the dry composition had a ratio of 1 part deseeded coffee cherries to 3 parts sugar. The dry composition included 2.4% of the total weight of the ingredients. The recipe was as follows:

• 4 cups old fashioned rolled oats

• 4 cups prepared granola mix (any flavor)

• 1 cup wheat germ

• 2 cups raw sunflower seeds

• 5 cups chopped almonds, pecans, walnuts, whole peanuts, or a combination

• 1 cup sesame seeds

• ½ cup dry composition

• 1 ½ cups water

• 1 cup packed brown sugar

• ¾ cup vegetable oil

• ½ cup honey

• ¼ cup molasses

• ½ cup fig butter

• 1 ½ tsp salt

• 3 Tablespoons cinnamon

• 2 Tablespoons vanilla

• Any dry fruit (e.g., blueberries, cherries, raisins, or a combination thereof) [0069] Instructions: In a large bowl, combine oats, wheat germ, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, and nuts (do not add fruit). In a large saucepan, combine brown sugar, water, oil, honey, molasses, fig butter, cinnamon, salt, and vanilla. Heat, but do not boil, to dissolve the sugar. Pour mixture over the combined dry ingredients and mix to coat. Bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for 25 minutes. Continually mix dry ingredients while baking so that the mixture becomes crunchy and thoroughly baked. The resulting granola mix had a golden brown appearance and a citrus-cherry-caramel flavor. Due to the high antioxidant content of the deseeded coffee cherries, the granola mix is also expected to contain a high level of antioxidants. Accordingly, the deseeded coffee cherries, that were traditionally considered waste by coffee producers, were formed into food products. Example 5 : Preparation of Granola Bars

[0070] Granola bars were made with a dry composition having deseeded coffee cherries ground to a particle size of about 80 micrometers to about 120 micrometers, and sugar. The recipe was as follows:

• ½ cup butter

• ¾ cup crushed graham crackers

• ¾ cup dry composition

• 1 ½ cups flaked coconut (optional)

• ¾ cups chocolate chips (optional)

• ¾ cups butterscotch or toffee chips (optional)

• 1 cup granola mix

• 1 (15 ounce) can condensed sweetened milk

[0071] Instructions: Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit (177 degrees Celsius). Melt butter in a 9 inch x 13 inch pan in the preheating oven. Sprinkle crushed graham crackers over melted butter. Sprinkle coconut evenly over the crushed graham crackers. In a small bowl, combine the chocolate chips and butterscotch chips and sprinkle them over the coconut. Sprinkle with granola mix and drizzle with sweetened condensed milk. Bake 25 minutes or until edges are golden brown and cool. The resulting granola bars were golden brown in appearance, had a chewy texture and a citrus-cherry-caramel flavor. Due to the high antioxidant content of the deseeded coffee cherries, the granola bars are also expected to contain a high level of antioxidants. Accordingly, the deseeded coffee cherries, that were traditionally considered waste by coffee producers, were formed into food products.

[0072] In the above detailed description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof. In the drawings, similar symbols typically identify similar components, unless context dictates otherwise. The illustrative embodiments described in the detailed description, drawings, and claims are not meant to be limiting. Other embodiments may be used, and other changes may be made, without departing from the spirit or scope of the subject matter presented herein. It will be readily understood that the aspects of the present disclosure, as generally described herein, and illustrated in the Figures, can be arranged, substituted, combined, separated, and designed in a wide variety of different configurations, all of which are explicitly contemplated herein.

[0073] The present disclosure is not to be limited in terms of the particular embodiments described in this application, which are intended as illustrations of various aspects. Many modifications and variations can be made without departing from its spirit and scope, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Functionally equivalent methods and apparatuses within the scope of the disclosure, in addition to those enumerated herein, will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing descriptions. Such modifications and variations are intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims. The present disclosure is to be limited only by the terms of the appended claims, along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. It is to be understood that this disclosure is not limited to particular methods, reagents, compounds, compositions or biological systems, which can, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting.

[0074] With respect to the use of substantially any plural and/or singular terms herein, those having skill in the art can translate from the plural to the singular and/or from the singular to the plural as is appropriate to the context and/or application. The various singular/plural permutations may be expressly set forth herein for sake of clarity.

[0075] It will be understood by those within the art that, in general, terms used herein, and especially in the appended claims (for example, bodies of the appended claims) are generally intended as "open" terms (for example, the term "including" should be interpreted as "including but not limited to," the term "having" should be interpreted as "having at least," the term "includes" should be interpreted as "includes but is not limited to," et cetera). While various compositions, methods, and devices are described in terms of "comprising" various components or steps (interpreted as meaning "including, but not limited to"), the compositions, methods, and devices can also "consist essentially of or "consist of the various components and steps, and such terminology should be interpreted as defining essentially closed-member groups. It will be further understood by those within the art that if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is intended, such an intent will be explicitly recited in the claim, and in the absence of such recitation no such intent is present. For example, as an aid to understanding, the following appended claims may contain usage of the introductory phrases "at least one" and "one or more" to introduce claim recitations. However, the use of such phrases should not be construed to imply that the introduction of a claim recitation by the indefinite articles "a" or "an" limits any particular claim containing such introduced claim recitation to embodiments containing only one such recitation, even when the same claim includes the introductory phrases "one or more" or "at least one" and indefinite articles such as "a" or "an" (for example, "a" and/or "an" should be interpreted to mean "at least one" or "one or more"); the same holds true for the use of definite articles used to introduce claim recitations. In addition, even if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is explicitly recited, those skilled in the art will recognize that such recitation should be interpreted to mean at least the recited number (for example, the bare recitation of "two recitations," without other modifiers, means at least two recitations, or two or more recitations). Furthermore, in those instances where a convention analogous to "at least one of A, B, and C, et cetera" is used, in general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand the convention (for example, " a system having at least one of A, B, and C" would include but not be limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, et cetera). In those instances where a convention analogous to "at least one of A, B, or C, et cetera" is used, in general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand the convention (for example, " a system having at least one of A, B, or C" would include but not be limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, et cetera). It will be further understood by those within the art that virtually any disjunctive word and/or phrase presenting two or more alternative terms, whether in the description, claims, or drawings, should be understood to contemplate the possibilities of including one of the terms, either of the terms, or both terms. For example, the phrase "A or B" will be understood to include the possibilities of "A" or "B" or "A and B."

[0076] In addition, where features or aspects of the disclosure are described in terms of Markush groups, those skilled in the art will recognize that the disclosure is also thereby described in terms of any individual member or subgroup of members of the Markush group. [0077] As will be understood by one skilled in the art, for any and all purposes, such as in terms of providing a written description, all ranges disclosed herein also encompass any and all possible subranges and combinations of subranges thereof. Any listed range can be easily recognized as sufficiently describing and enabling the same range being broken down into at least equal halves, thirds, quarters, fifths, tenths, et cetera As a non- limiting example, each range discussed herein can be readily broken down into a lower third, middle third and upper third, et cetera As will also be understood by one skilled in the art all language such as "up to," "at least," and the like include the number recited and refer to ranges which can be subsequently broken down into subranges as discussed above. Finally, as will be understood by one skilled in the art, a range includes each individual member. Thus, for example, a group having 1-3 cells refers to groups having 1, 2, or 3 cells. Similarly, a group having 1-5 cells refers to groups having 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 cells, and so forth.

[0078] Various of the above-disclosed and other features and functions, or alternatives thereof, may be combined into many other different systems or applications. Various presently unforeseen or unanticipated alternatives, modifications, variations or improvements therein may be subsequently made by those skilled in the art, each of which is also intended to be encompassed by the disclosed embodiments.