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Title:
FOOD PRODUCTS WITH REDUCED SUGAR CONTENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/171559
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a method for preparing a baked food product, a fried food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises a heating step wherein starch is gelatinised, comprising - providing a dough or batter comprising at least 10 wt. % starch based on total dry matter, water and at least two or more bulk-carbohydrates, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the mixture has a number average molecular weight in the range of 150-400 g/mol, in particular in the range of 200-360 g/mol, more in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol and wherein the sugar content is 0-90 wt. % based on total bulk-carbohydrates, preferably 5-80 wt. %, based on total bulk carbohydrates, in particular 10-70 wt. % based on total bulk carbohydrates; and - subjecting the starch in the dough or batter to gelatinization in the presence of the bulk-carbohydrates, by heating the dough or batter to a temperature at or above the gelatinization temperature of the starch and allowing the starch to gelatinise.

Inventors:
JURGENS, Albertus (Anna van Buerenplein 1, 2595 DA 's-Gravenhage, 2595 DA, NL)
NOORT, Martijn Willem-Jan (Anna van Buerenplein 1, 2595 DA 's-Gravenhage, 2595 DA, NL)
RENZETTI, Stefano (Anna van Buerenplein 1, 2595 DA 's-Gravenhage, 2595 DA, NL)
DE HARDER, Jacobus Rikkert (Anna van Buerenplein 1, 2595 DA 's-Gravenhage, 2595 DA, NL)
Application Number:
NL2016/050286
Publication Date:
October 27, 2016
Filing Date:
April 22, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NEDERLANDSE ORGANISATIE VOOR TOEGEPAST-NATUURWETENSCHAPPELIJK ONDERZOEK TNO (Anna van Buerenplein 1, 2595 DA 's-Gravenhage, 2595 DA, NL)
International Classes:
A21D2/18; A21D13/06; A23L33/20
Domestic Patent References:
2008-07-10
2007-01-04
Foreign References:
EP1817964A12007-08-15
US20050220961A12005-10-06
US20060051480A12006-03-09
EP0511761A11992-11-04
US20090202697A12009-08-13
Other References:
MARTNEZ-CERVERA S ET AL: "Rheological, textural and sensorial properties of low-sucrose muffins reformulated with sucralose/polydextrose", LWT- FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ACADEMIC PRESS, UNITED KINGDOM, vol. 45, no. 2, 15 August 2011 (2011-08-15), pages 213 - 220, XP028319231, ISSN: 0023-6438, [retrieved on 20110905], DOI: 10.1016/J.LWT.2011.08.001
FESSAS; SCHIRALDI: "Starch gelatinization kinetics in bread dough", J. THERMAL ANAL. AND CALORIMETRY, vol. 61, 2000, pages 411 - 423, XP019253413
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JANSEN, C.M. (V.O, P.O. Box, 2508 DH Den Haag, 2508 DH, NL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. Method for preparing a baked food product, a fried food product or other food product comprising starch of which the preparation comprises a heating step wherein at least part of the starch is gelatinised, comprising

providing a dough or batter comprising at least 10 wt. % starch based on total dry matter, water and at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose and a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose (bulk-carbohydrates being carbohydrates that are at least substantially soluble in water and typically being molecules having a degree of polymerisation in the range of 1-15), the first bulk-carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than sucrose (the molecular weight of sucrose being 342.30 g/mol), the second bulk-carbohydrate having a higher molecular weight than sucrose, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 150- 400 g/mol, and wherein the sugar content is 0-90 wt. % based on total bulk- carbohydrates, preferably 5-80 wt. %, based on total bulk carbohydrates, in particular 10-70 wt. % based on total bulk carbohydrates; and

subjecting the starch in the dough or batter to a gelatinization treatment in the presence of the bulk-carbohydrates, by heating the dough or batter to a temperature at or above the gelatinization temperature of the starch and allowing at least part of the starch to gelatinise.

2. Method for (re)formulating a baked food product containing starch, a fried food product containing starch, or another food product containing starch of which the preparation comprises providing a dough or batter wherein at least part of the starch is gelatinised during a heating step, the food product having a reduced sugar content compared to a corresponding reference food product containing sugar (sugar being defined as the total of pentoses, hexoses and disaccharides of any two of these) , the method comprising:

- determining the number average molecular weight of the sugar of which the content is to be reduced in the reference food product;

- selecting one or more bulk-carbohydrates other than the sugar for replacing at least a substantial part of the sugar of the reference food product; - and formulating the food product on the basis of the ingredients of the reference food product with the proviso that at least a substantial part of the sugar is replaced by the selected one or more bulk-carbohydrates and wherein the one or more bulk-carbohydrates are formulated in an effective amount whereby the number average molecular weight of the total of bulk-carbohydrate, including sugar (if present) is essentially the same as of the sugar in the reference product or deviates at most +/- 20 %, preferably at most +/- 10 % from the number average molecular weight of the sugar in the reference product.

3. Method according to claim 2, wherein the method is used to replace at least a substantial part of at least one sugar selected from the group of sucrose, lactose, fructose and glucose.

4. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein at least a first bulk-carbohydrate (other than sucrose) is a polyol having a molecular weight of less than 200 g/mol (polyols being defined as compounds wherein all oxygen atoms are part of a hydroxyl group and having at least three hydroxyl groups) and at least a second bulk-carbohydrate (other than sucrose) is selected from the group of oligosaccharides having number average molecular weight in the range of about 450 to about 1800 g/mol and sugar alcohols.

5. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein a dough is provided comprising a first bulk-carbohydrate selected from the group of glycerol

(E422), erythritol (E 968), xylitol (E 967), sorbitol (E 420) and mannitol (E 421).

6. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein at least one bulk-carbohydrate is present in the dough selected from group of sugar alcohols selected from the group of maltilol, lactilol and isomalt.

7. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein a dough is provided comprising a second bulk-carbohydrate selected from the group of oligosaccharides, which may be a digestible oligosaccharide or a water-soluble dietary fibre.

8. Method according to claim 7, wherein the dough comprises at least one oligosaccharide selected from the group of water-soluble glucofibres, polydextroses, fructooligosacharide (FOS); oligoxyloses (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), oligoarabinoxylans (AXOS), lactosucroses, raffinoses, dextrins, maltodextrins, resistant maltodextrins and cyclodextrins.

9. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the bulk- carbohydrate content is as follows:

0-75 wt. %, preferably 5-40 wt. % sugars, based on total bulk- carbohydrate

- 3-50 wt. %, in particular 5-40 wt. %, preferably 10-25 wt. % polyols having a molecular weight of less than 200 g/mol, based on total bulk-carbohydrate

3-97 wt. %, in particular 10-95 wt. %, preferably 20-50 wt. % oligosaccharides (which may include water soluble fibre).

10. Method according to claim 9, wherein the bulk-carbohydrate content is as follows:

5-75 wt. %, preferably 5-40 wt. % sugars, based on total bulk- carbohydrate

5-40 wt. %, preferably 10-25 wt. % polyols having a molecular weight of less than 200 g/mol, based on total bulk-carbohydrate

- 10-95 wt. %, preferably 20-50 wt. % oligosaccharides (which may include water soluble fibre).

11. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein at least a substantial part of the starch is cereal starch provided by cereal flour, in particular wheat flour or rye flour or wherein at least a substantial part of the starch is tuber or root starch, in particular potato or tapioca starch.

12. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 200-400 g/mol.

13. Method according to claim 12, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 250-

400 g/mol.

14. Method according to claim 13, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 250- 390 g/mol, preferably in the range of 250-360 g/mol, in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol.

15. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein 50- 100 % of the starch is gelatinised.

16. Method according to claim 15, wherein 90- 100 % of the starch is gelatinised.

17. Dough, batter or instant food mixture suitable for preparing a starch- containing food product, which food product is a baked food product, a fried food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises a heating step wherein at least part of starch is gelatinised, the dough, batter or instant food mixture comprising at least 10 wt. % starch, based on total dry weight, at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose and a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose, the first bulk-carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than sucrose, the second bulk-carbohydrate having a higher molecular weight than sucrose, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough, batter or instant food mixture has a number average molecular weight in the range of 150-400 g/mol, , said dough, batter or instant food mixture having a sugar content of 0-90 wt. %, preferably of 5-80 wt. %, in particular of 10-70 wt. %, based on total weight of bulk-carbohydrates.

18. Dough, batter or instant food mixture according to claim 17, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 200-400 g/mol.

19. Method according to claim 18, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 250- 400 g/mol.

20. Method according to claim 19, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 250- 390 g/mol, preferably in the range of 250-360 g/mol, in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol.

21. Dough, batter or instant food mixture according to claim 17, wherein 90-100 % of the starch is native starch.

22. Baked food product, a fried food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises a heating step wherein starch is gelatinised - in particular a food product that is obtainable by a method according to claim 1 or any of the claims 4-16 dependent on claim 1, that has been formulated on the basis of a method according to claim 2 or 3-16 dependent on claim 2, or that has been made from a dough, batter or other mixture according to any of the claims 17-20 - the food product comprising at least 10 wt. % starch, based on the total dry weight of the product, the product further comprising at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose and a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose (bulk- carbohydrates being carbohydrates that are at least substantially soluble in water and typically being molecules having a degree of polymerisation in the range of 1- 15), the first bulk-carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than sucrose, the second bulk-carbohydrate having a higher molecular weight than sucrose, the number average molecular weight of the total of bulk-carbohydrates being in the range of 150-400 g/mol , the product having a sugar content of 0-90 wt. %, preferably of 5-80 wt. %, in particular of 10-70 wt. %, based on total weight of bulk- carbohydrates.

23. Food product according to claim 22, comprising at least a first bulk- carbohydrate other than sugars, selected from the group of polyols (polyols being defined as compounds wherein all oxygen atoms are part of a hydroxy I group and having at least three hydroxyl groups) and at least a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sugars selected from the group of oligosaccharides having a number average molecular weight in the range of 350-2000 g/mol, in particular in the range of 450- 1800 g/mol.

24. Food product according to claim 22 or 23, wherein the food product is a product selected from the group of breads (e.g. brioches, sweet breads); cakes (e.g. sponges, cupcakes); doughnuts; waffles; cookies; biscuits; crackers; churros; batter- coated food products; pan cakes; flour tortillas.

25. Food product according to claim 24, wherein the food product is a cake, in particular a cake selected from the group of sponge cakes, cup cakes and layered cakes.

26. Food product according to any of the claims 22-25, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 200-400 g/mol.

27. Food product according to claim 26, wherein the total of bulk- carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 250-400 g/mol.

28. Food product according to claim 27, wherein the total of bulk - carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 250-390 g/mol, preferably in the range of 250-360 g/mol, in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol.

29. Food product according to any of the claims 22-28, wherein 90- 100 % of the starch is native starch.

30. Use of a combination of at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose, selected from the group of polyols and monosaccharides (having a lower molecular weight than sucrose) and at least a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose selected from the group of oligosaccharides having a number average molecular weight in the range of 350-2000 g/mol, in particular in the range of 450- 1800 g/mol, the combination of bulk-carbohydrates other than sugars having a number average molecular weight in the range of 150-400 g/mol, preferably in the range of 200-360 g/mol, in particular in the range of 250-360 g/mol, more in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol as a sugar replacer, a sweetener or a bulking agent in a baked food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises a heating step, in particular a cooking step.

Description:
Title: Food products with reduced sugar content

The invention relates to a method for preparing a baked food product, a fried food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises a heating step wherein at least part of the starch is gelatinised. The invention further relates to a method for (re)formulating a food product with a reduced sugar content compared to a corresponding reference food product. The invention further relates to a baked food product, a fried food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises a heating. The invention further relates to the use of a specific combination of carbohydrates other than sugars as a sugar replacer, a sweetener or a bulking agent in a baked food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises cooking.

Sugars are important ingredients of various food products. They are an important food source and contribute to a sweet flavour of the food product.

However, a large demand exists for commercial products with a reduced sugar content, in view of current insights on a negative impact of excessive amounts of sugars, notably sucrose, fructose and glucose, on health. Excessive amounts of sugar intake are for instance considered to contribute to an increased risk of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Sweeteners have been proposed to replace sugar. Intense sweeteners, like aspartame, can be used in minute amounts to replace the sweetening effect of sugar, e.g. in beverages or candy. However, unsatisfactory results are obtained when replacing sugar in baked or fried products made from a dough or batter containing starch, wherein sugar is replaced solely with an intense sweetener. In particular, structural/textural properties are inferior.

Sugar alcohols and polyols, for instance sorbitol, have been proposed as alternatives for sugars in the prior art. However, large quantities of sorbitol can cause an undesired laxative effect. In order to address this, EP-A 511 761 proposes a sweetener composition, comprising the sugar alcohols erythriol and sorbitol and a glucose oligomer (a starch hydrolysate) having a DE of 10 to 30. The sugar alcohols form the major component. The sweetener composition is used for sweetening a pie filling or a bakery cream. These products contain pre-gelatinised starch. No examples are given of the use of the sweetener composition in the preparation of a baked or fried product wherein starch is gelatinized in the presence of the sweetener composition.

US 2009/202697 relates to a sweetener composition for use in a beverage or food, e.g. a cake. It comprises a mixture of sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol, and at least one of isomalt and maltitol) and at least one ingredient selected from polydextrose and resistant maltodextrin. The sugar alcohols form the major part of the composition. An (average) molecular weight of the polydextrose and resistant maltodextrin is not mentioned in US 2009/202697.

Various in-house attempts by the inventors of making resilient low- sugar baked products with a further reduced sugar content resulted in products with unsatisfactory mouthfeel or structure. It thus remains a challenge to formulate starch-containing food products with reduced sugar content, of which food product the preparation comprises in situ gelatinisation of starch, without substantially affecting other organoleptic characteristics of such food products, in particular bakery products. Without being bound by theory, the inventors consider that sugar plays a crucial role in the gelatinization of starch in the process of preparing a food product, in particular in baked food products, more in particular in resilient food products, such as bread or cake. They further consider that sugar also plays such a role in other starch-containing food products wherein starch is gelatinized during the preparation of the food product, in particular in the preparation of such food product wherein gelatinization of starch contributes to the formation of a desired (characteristic) structure of the food product, such as in baked food products or other food products comprising a cooking step (as a step to make the product ready for consumption), such as in the preparation of sweet- batter coated food products. The gelatinized starch often contribution to a fixation of the food structure.

There remains a need for providing alternatives to conventionally used sugars in food products of which the preparation comprises a gelatinisation of starch, such as dough based products or batter products. In particular alternatives are desired that have a reduced caloric value or wherein the carbohydrate fraction is more slowly digested, when consumed, or wherein the product has a lower glycemic index. More in particular, there is a need to provide alternatives, which have desirable organoleptic properties, such as texture, structure, mouthfeel, taste, scent, preferably similar to comparable full-sugar products or offer an improvement in an organoleptic property compared to comparable reduced-sugar products, e.g. sugar-free products. A skilled test panel is able to make a comparison between different food products (full-sugar and/or reduced sugar products) taking these aspects into account and is able to judge whether a product has an acceptable quality.

The inventors now found that a specific aspect of sugar plays a role in obtaining a starch-containing food product, wherein starch is gelatinised, in particular during a baking or frying step, more in particular a resilient dough based product, with desirable organoleptic properties. They further found that it is possible to at least maintain satisfactory organoleptic properties by replacing at least part of the sugar in a reference food product (such as a full-sugar

conventional product) by other carbohydrates taking into account this aspect.

Accordingly, the invention relates to a method for preparing a baked food product, a fried food product or other food product comprising starch, of which the preparation comprises a heating step wherein at least part of the starch is gelatinised, comprising

providing a dough or batter comprising at least 10 wt. % starch based on total dry matter, water and at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose and a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose (bulk-carbohydrates being carbohydrates that are at least substantially soluble in water and typically being molecules having a degree of polymerisation in the range of 1-15), the first bulk-carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than sucrose (the molecular weight of sucrose being 342.30 g/mol), the second bulk-carbohydrate having a higher molecular weight than sucrose, wherein the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the dough or batter has a number average molecular weight in the range of 150- 400 g/mol, in particular in the range of 200-360 g/mol, more in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol, and wherein the sugar content is 0-90 wt. % based on total bulk-carbohydrates, preferably 5-80 wt. %, based on total bulk carbohydrates, in particular 10-70 wt. % based on total bulk carbohydrates; and

- subjecting the starch in the dough or batter to gelatinization in the presence of the bulk-carbohydrates, by heating the dough or batter to a

temperature at or above the gelatinization temperature of the starch and allowing at least part of the starch to gelatinise. Further, the invention relates to a method for (re)formulating a baked food product containing starch, a fried food product containing starch, or another food product containing starch of which the preparation comprises providing a dough, batter or other mixture wherein at least part of the starch is gelatinised during a heating step, the food product having a reduced sugar content compared to a corresponding reference food product containing sugar (sugar being defined as the total of pentoses, hexoses and disaccharides of any two of these) , the method comprising:

- determining the number average molecular weight of the sugar of which the content is to be reduced in the reference food product;

- selecting one or more bulk-carbohydrates (bulk-carbohydrates being

carbohydrates that are at least substantially soluble in water and typically being molecules having a degree of polymerisation in the range of 1-15) different from the sugar to be replaced, for replacing at least a substantial part of the sugar present in the reference food product;

- and formulating the food product on the basis of the ingredients of the reference food product with the proviso that at least a substantial part of the sugar is replaced by the selected one or more bulk-carbohydrates and wherein the one or more bulk-carbohydrates are formulated in an effective amount whereby the number average molecular weight of the total of bulk-carbohydrate, including sugar (if present), is essentially the same as the number average molecular weight of the sugar in the reference product or deviates at most +/- 20 %, preferably at most +/- 10 %, in particular at most +/- 5 % from the number average molecular weight of the sugar in the reference product.

Further, the invention relates to a dough, batter or instant food mixture suitable for preparing a baked food product, a fried food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises a heating step wherein starch is gelatinised, the dough, batter or instant food mixture comprising at least 10 wt. % starch, based on total dry weight and at least two or more bulk-carbohydrates, at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose and a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose the first bulk-carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than sucrose (342.30 g/mol), the second bulk-carbohydrate having a higher molecular weight than sucrose, the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the mixture having a number average molecular weight in the range of 150-400 g/mol, in particular in the range of 200-360 g/mol, more in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol, the product having a sugar content of 0-50 wt. %, based on total weight of bulk-carbohydrates,

the dough, batter or other mixture having a sugar content of 0-90 wt. %, preferably of 5-80 wt. %, in particular of 10-70 wt. %based on total weight of bulk- carbohydrates.

The invention further relates to a baked food product, a fried food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises a heating step wherein starch is gelatinised, the food product comprising at least 10 wt. % starch, based on the total dry weight of the product, the product further comprising at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose and a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose, the first bulk-carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than sucrose (342.30 g/mol), the second bulk-carbohydrate having a higher molecular weight than sucrose, the number average molecular weight of the total of bulk-carbohydrates being in the range of 150-400 g/mol, in particular in the range of 200-360 g/mol, more in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol, the product having a sugar content of 0-90 wt. %, preferably 5-80 wt. %, in particular 10-90 wt. %, based on total weight of bulk-carbohydrates. Generally, said food product is obtainable by a method according to the invention or can be made from a dough, batter or other mixture according to the invention.

The invention further relates to the use of a combination of at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sucrose, selected from the group of polyols and monosaccharides and at least a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sugars selected from the group of oligosaccharides having a number average molecular weight in the range of 350-2000 g/mol, in particular in the range of 450- 1800 g/mol, the combination of bulk-carbohydrates other than sugars having a number average molecular weight in the range of 150-400 g/mol, preferably in the range of 200-360 g/mol, in particular in the range of 250-350 g/mol, more in particular in the range of 300-350 g/mol as a sugar replacer, a sweetener or a bulking agent in a baked food product or other food product of which the preparation comprises cooking.

As illustrated in the examples, replacement of part of a sugar (sucrose) in a resilient baked product (cake) with only a bulk carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than sucrose or only a bulk carbohydrate having a higher average molecular weight (Mn) resulted in an adverse effect on one or more properties. By a combination of a polyol (sorbitol or glycerol) and a carbohydrate with a higher Mn than sucrose (a fructooligosaccharide or a polydextrose, in effective amounts whereby Mn of total bulk carbohydrates remained essentially the same (about 342 g/mol) it was found possible to formulate a food product with satisfactory performance on relevant parameters, such as indicated in the Examples.

The substances present in a product of the invention or used in accordance with the invention are typically traditional food ingredients (such as milk, milk-products, eggs, edible plant materials, e.g. fruits, flours or isolated substances of various plants, milk or eggs ) GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe, by the FDA in the USA) and/or approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Herein below reference may be made to the E-number, a code for substances that can be used as food additives for use within the European Union.

As used herein 'Mn' means number average molecular weight. This is one of several well known means to define the average molecular weight of a mixture of compounds of different molecular weight.

Mn is the ordinary arithmetic mean of the molecular masses of the individual molecules. Mn is defined by the following formula:

in which

Mi is the molecular weight (g/mol) of compound i

mis the number or number fraction of molecules of compound i in a mixture, where m can be taken equal to ^

in which w; is the weight fraction of compound i in the mixture.

Another average is mass (or weight) average molecular weight given by:

in which Mi is the molecular weight (g/mol) of compound i and Wi its weight fraction in the mixture.

Yet another way of calculating average molecular weight is the z- average molecular weight (M z = [∑i mMi 3 ]/∑ mMi 2 It is the inventors finding that Mn of the total of bulk carbohydrates is a relevant feature in obtaining a food product, containing gelatinised starch, with desirable properties as described herein.

The Mn of (bulk) carbohydrates in a product comprising different carbohydrates can be calculated on the basis of an analysis by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC- PAD). The skilled person will know how to perform the sample preparation and the method of chromatography, based upon common general knowledge and the information disclosed herein. In particular, use can be made of the methodology as provided by Dionex (Thermo Scientific), and described in Technical Note 20 ( ©2004) or the literature cited therein of which the contents with respect to the analytical methodology is incorporated herein by reference. The technical note is available via internet: http: //www. dionex.com/en-us/webdocs/5023- TN20_LPN032857-04.pdf. Mono- and disaccharides are preferably determined using a with a ΙΟ-μιη-diameter polystyrene/divinylbenzene substrate agglomerated with 350-nm quaternary amine functionalized latex column material (CarboPac PA1); oligosaccharides and larger (linear) polysaccharides can be analysed using the same column material as the mono- and disaccharides(CarboPac PA1), or alternatively with a 10-μηι- diameter ethylvinylbenzene/divinylbenzene substrate agglomerated with 350-nmquaternary amine functionalized latex column material (CarboPac PA100); and polyols and sugar alcohols with a 8.5^m-diameter vinylbenzyl-chloride/divinylbenzene macroporous substrate fully functionalized with an alkyl quaternary ammonium group column material (CarboPAc MAI). In case of a single carbohydrate compound, Mn equals the molecular weight, i.e. the Mn of pure sucrose is 342.30 g/mol. Unless specified otherwise, the values of the molecular weight and Mn are given in g/mol. The term "carbohydrates" is used herein for molecules consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms selected from the group of polyols, sugar alcohols and saccharides.

Saccharides are carbohydrates that have the chemical formula Cm(H20) rl . . which are at least conceptually composed of one or more pentoses, hexoses or combinations thereof.

The group of sugars consists of monosaccharides and disaccharides. Monosaccharides consist of the group of pentoses (aldopentose, ketopentose) and hexoses (aldohexose, ketohexose). The disaccharides are a dimer of any two of these. The saccharides are preferably at least conceptually composed of one or more hexoses. More preferably the monosaccharides are selected from the group of glucose, fructose, tagatose, xylose and galactose. Evidently, monosaccharides have a lower molecular weight than sucrose. A preferred disaccharide to be replaced in accordance with the invention or for which a combination of carbohydrates according to the invention is a particularly suitable alternative as a (partial) substitute) is sucrose. Another disaccharide of particular interest to be (at least partially) replaced is lactose.

Oligosaccharides are saccharide polymers of relatively short length, i.e. at least conceptually composed of 3-15 monosaccharide units. Preferably, oligosaccharides for use in the present invention are at least conceptually composed of 3-12 monosaccharides, more preferably 3- 10 monosaccharide units, in particular of 3-6 monosaccharide units. Thus, characteristically, oligosaccharides have a molecular weight higher than sucrose. Most commercially available

oligosaccharides or industrially prepared oligosaccharides are mixtures of oligosaccharides of different size. Generally (commercially available)

oligosaccharide mixtures are mixtures that also can contain (small) fractions of mono- and disaccharides, which (slightly) lower the Mn of the mixture).. Thus, in addition to providing a bulk-carbohydrate having a molecular weight higher than sucrose, a (commercial) oligosaccharide mixture used to prepare a product according to the invention may contain a bulk carbohydrate other than sugar having lower molecular weight than sucrose. The Mn of oligosaccharide mixtures, for use in accordance with the present invention, usually is more than 350 g/mol, preferably about 450 g/mol or more, more preferably about 504 g/mol or more. The Mn of such oligosaccharide mixtures will usually be less than 2000 g/mol, in particular 1800 g/mol or less, more in particular about 1000 g/mol or less, preferably about 800 g/mol or less, more preferably about 667 g/mol or less. The oligosaccharide mixtures generally essentially consist of molecules having a molecular weight of less than 10 000 g/mol, in particular of less than 5 000 g/mol, preferably of less than 3000 g/mol, more specifically of less than about 2000 g/mol. An oligosaccharide with a relatively low molecular weight tends to have a higher sweetening effect than a longer oligosaccharide or polysaccharide composed of the same monosaccharide units. Also, the higher the molecular weight, the lower the amount that can be included without increasing Mn to an unacceptably high level. Good results have been achieved with linear oligosaccharides, although in principle the bulk carbohydrate fraction may comprise a branched oligosaccharide.

Preferred oligosaccharides are fructooligosacharide (FOS); oligoxyloses (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), oligoarabinoxylans (AXOS), lactosucroses, raffinoses, stachyoses, dextrins, maltodextrins, polydextroses, glucofibres and cyclodextrins (having a degree of polymerisation of 3-15, preferably of 3-10, more preferably of 3-12, in particular of 3-6). Good results have been achieved with a method respectively product of the invention wherein the total oligosaccharide content essentially consists of one or more of said oligosaccharides.

Fructooligosaccharides are either composed of a terminal glucose and two or more fructose units (Glu-Fru n ) or consist of fructose units (Fru n ).

The oligosaccharides may either be fully digestible, partially digestible (e.g. resistant maltodextrin) on non- digestible. The term " soluble dietary fibre" is used herein as a general term for water-soluble saccharides which are not fully hydrolyzed into sugars by the endogenous enzymes in the small intestine of humans (i.e. that are not fully digestible). Soluble dietary fibre molecules with a degree of polymerisation of 15 or less, in particular oligosaccharidic soluble fibre with a degree of polymerisation of 3-12, more in particular 3-10, are in particular useful in accordance with the invention. Examples of soluble dietary fibres are polydextroses, soluble glucofibres, FOS (e.g. inulin), GOS, XOS and AXOS. E.g. of FOS and of GOS is has been found that they can be used satisfactorily as one of the replacers for a sugar whilst maintaining satisfactory organoleptic properties, including texture, and they have a low caloric value. Oligosaccharides that are not fully digestible by humans in general, e.g. raffinoses are also examples of soluble fibres that can be used as bulk carbohydrates. Most commercially available dietary fibre products or industrially prepared dietary fibre products are mixtures of saccharides of different size and may include (residual) mono- and/or disaccharides. Dietary fibre for use in accordance with the invention typically has an Mn of more than 350 g/mol, in particular of about 504 g/mol or more, more in particular of about 600 g/mol or more. The Mn of the soluble fibre preferably is less than 1800 g/mol, more preferably about 1000 g/mol or less, even more preferably about 800 g/mol or less, in particular about 667 g/mol or less .. Good results have been achieved with linear soluble fibre, although in principle the bulk carbohydrate fraction may comprise a branched soluble fibre. Polyols are defined herein as carbohydrates wherein all oxygen atoms are part of a hydroxyl group and having at least three hydroxyl groups (-OH). Hereby a strict definition of polyols is used, excluding compounds comprising a plurality of hydroxyl groups and furthermore one or more functional groups selected from the group of carbonyls, carboxyl groups and ether groups. In general, polyols for use in accordance with the invention have a molecular weight of less than 200 g/mol, in particular in the range of 92-182 g/mol. Preferably, polyols are selected from the group consisting of glycerol (E422, molecular weight 92.09), erythrithol (E968, mmolecular weight 122.12), xylitol (E967, molecular weight 152.15), sorbitol (E420, molecular weight 182.17) and mannitol (E421, molecular weight 182.17). These also have a sweetener function, in addition to their use as a contributor to a satisfactory bulk effect (e.g. structure, texture), for instance in combination with a bulk carbohydrate having a higher Mn than sucrose, as an alternative to sucrose.

The term "sugar alcohol" is used herein for derivatives of a sugar, having a plurality of hydroxyl functions and one or more ether functions.

Generally, a sugar alcohol has the formula C12H24O11. Preferred sugar alcohols are maltilol (E965, molecular weight 344.31), lactilol (E966, molecular weight 344.31) and isomalt (E953, molecular weight 344,31). These also contribute to sweetness of the composition.

The term "bulk-carbohydrates" is used herein for sugars, polyols, sugar alcohols and other carbohydrates that are at least substantially soluble in water and that are relatively small (generally molecular weight<2250 g/mol), typically being molecules having a degree of polymerisation (DP) in the range of 1- 15. Bulk- carbohydrates typically contribute to the bulk of a dough or batter (containing starch) or (a starch containing part) of a food product at least partially made from a dough or batter. The total of bulk-carbohydrates may also be referred to herein as the 'bulk-carbohydrate fraction'. A compound is in particular considered at least substantially soluble in water is it is at least substantially soluble when dispersed in water in a weight to weight ratio of the compound to water of 1: 10 at a temperature suitable to gelatinise native starch, i.e. typically at a temperature of about 60-65 °C or more. As the skilled person knows, gelatinisation temperature may be affected by the presence of soluble-carbohydrates, like sugars and other bulk-carbohydrates, of which a higher content typically results in an increase in the minimal temperature needed for gelatinisation to occur, which increase can be substantial, e.g. to about 100 °C. The skilled person will be able to determine this temperature though, based on the information disclosed herein and optionally a limited amount of routine testing, using -Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), e.g. using a TA Instruments Q200 type analyser. Herein about 10 mg of dough is weighed and placed in a pressure pan. The pan is placed in the DSC together with an empty reference pan and equilibrated at 2°C for 5 minutes. After equilibration the temperature is increased linearly with a rate of 7.50 °C/min from 2°C till 160°C during which the heat flow to the sample is recorded. Figure 2 presents a typical heat flow curve of a DSC analysis on model dough. The curves generally show a more or less linear base line with a negative peak related to the heat of

gelatinization of the starch. The (main) gelatinization peak is analysed using the software of the instrument revealing the onset- and peak temperatures (°C) and heat of gelatinization (J/g).

DSC can also be used to determine the extent of starch gelatinization in a product according to the invention. In the examples a suitable method for determining the extent of starch gelatinization is described.

When referred herein to a replacement, substitute or alternative for a sugar, this should be interpreted as a replacement/substitute of a part of said sugar or all of said sugar respectively an alternative for a part of said sugar or all of said sugar, unless specified otherwise.

The term "or" as used herein is defined as "and/or" unless it is specified otherwise or it follows from the context that it means "either ... .or...".

The term "a" or "an" as used herein is defined as "at least one" unless it is specified otherwise or it follows from the context that it should refer to the singular only.

When referring to a noun (e.g. a compound, an additive, etc.) in the singular, the plural is meant to be included, unless it follows from the context that it should refer to the singular only.

In the context of this application, the term "about" means in particular a deviation of 10 % or less from the given value, more in particular 5 % or less, even more in particular 3 % or less.

The term "substantial(ly)" or "essential(ly)" is generally used herein to indicate that it has the general character or function of that which is specified. When referring to a quantifiable feature, these terms are generally used to indicate that it is for more than 50 %, in particular for at least 75 %, more in particular at least 90 %, even more in particular at least 95 % of the maximum that feature. When referring to 'at least a substantial part', this generally means at least 10 %, in particular at least 25 %, more in particular at least about 50 % to 100 %.

The term 'essentially free' is generally used herein to indicate that a substance is not present (below the detection limit achievable with analytical technology as available on the effective filing date) or present in such a low amount that it does not significantly affect the property of the product that is essentially free of said substance or that it is present in such a low amount (trace) that it does not need to be labelled on the packaged product that is essentially free of the substance.

Where the terms "comprise", "comprises", "comprised" or "comprising" are used in this specification (including the claims) they are to be interpreted as specifying the presence of the stated features, integers, steps or components, but not precluding the presence of one or more other features, integers, steps or components, or group thereof. In line with this (commonly accepted) meaning of these terms, these terms also include the meaning "contain", "contains",

"contained" respectively "containing" and "consist of, "consists of, "consisted of respectively "consisting of .

For the purpose of clarity and a concise description features are described herein as part of the same or separate embodiments, however, it will be appreciated that the scope of the invention may include embodiments having combinations of all or some of the features described.

The discussion of documents, acts, materials, devices, articles and the like is included in this specification solely for the purpose of providing a context for the present invention. It is not suggested or represented that any or all of these matters formed part of the prior art base or were common general knowledge in the field relevant to the present invention as it existed before the priority date of each claim of this application.

The food product according to the invention, respectively the mixture used to make a food product in accordance with the invention comprises starch. The starch is usually for more than 50 %, in particular 90-100 % provided by a flour, e.g. wheat starch can be provided as the major component of wheat flour, but may also be provided as a refined ingredient called wheat starch, or mixture thereof.

The starch is usually selected from the group consisting of cereal starches (e.g. wheat, rye, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, oats) tuber starches (e.g. potato), roots (e.g. tapioca/ cassava), starch from pulses (e.g. soy), and starch from pseudocereals (e.g. buckwheat, quinoa). Preferably, the food product comprises a starch selected from the group of root starches, in particular tapioca; tuber starches, in particular potato; and cereal starches, in particular at least one of wheat starches, rye starches, rice starches and maize starches. Preferably the starch component of the food product or mixture for preparing the food product essentially consists of one or more of these starches. Good results have been achieved with a food product wherein the starch component essentially consists of one or more cereal starches (rye, wheat). In a further preferred embodiment, the starch component essentially consists of cereal starch and potato starch. As described elsewhere herein, the starch is gelatinised in a heating step during preparation of a food product by a method according to the invention. Thus, as will be understood by the skilled person, in a dough, batter or instant food mixture for providing the dough or batter, the starch is typically at least substantially non- gelatinised prior to the heating step during which gelatinisation takes place. Thus, at least a substantial part, preferably essentially all of the starch in the dough, batter or instant food mixture for providing the dough or batter, is typically native starch, prior to the heating.

The starch content in a (ready-to-consume) food product or a mixture for preparing a food product in accordance with the invention (such as a dough, batter or an instant food product) is at least 10 wt. %, based on total dry weight of the product, in particular in the range of 15-90 wt. %, more in particular in the range of 20-50 wt. %. Starch contents can be based on known formulations for existing food products. E.g. extruded snacks (e.g. churros) can have a starch content of up to about 90 wt. %. Cake generally has a relatively low starch content, preferably of about 15 wt. %. to about 25 wt. %., in particular of about 20 wt. %.

The food product, dough, batter, instant food mixture or other mixture usually has a bulk-carbohydrate content in the mixture of 5- 75 wt. %. Typical and preferred contents depend on the type of product (or recipe to be reformulated. In general, a bulk-carbohydrate content in the mixture of 15 - 70 wt. %, in particular of 20 - 60 wt.%, more in particular of 30-55 wt. %, based on dry matter, is preferred. E.g. for a cake, a bulk-carbohydrate content of about 30 to about 35 wt. wt. %, based on dry matter is much preferred in a specific embodiment.

Replacement of a small part of the sugar in a known formula for a food product, typically at least 10 %, has already been found to offer an advantage, at least in some embodiments. Usually 20- 100 wt. %, preferably 25-95 wt. %, in particular 50-90 wt. %, more in particular 60-85 %, based on total bulk- carbohydrate, is formed by bulk-carbohydrate other than sugars, i.e. one or more bulk-carbohydrates selected from the group consisting of polyols, sugar alcohols, oligosaccharides and soluble dietary fibre. Suitable ratio's between the different bulk carbohydrates can be determined based on the desired Mn of the bulk carbohydrates in the product (which can e.g. determined on the basis of the Mn of the sugar that is to replaced from a conventional recipe) and the Mn of the respective bulk carbohydrates that are to be used. It is also possible to replace part of a first sugar, e.g. sucrose, by another sugar. E.g. sucrose or another disaccharide may partially be replaced by a monosaccharide and for another part by a bulk- carbohydrate having a higher Mn than the molecular weight of the disaccharide, thereby maintaining the Mn of the total bulk-carbohydrate fraction at a desired value. Although, such replacement does not have a significant effect on caloric value of the food product, this can be useful in combination with for instance a bulk carbohydrate selected from the group of soluble dietary fibre, having an Mn higher than the molecular weight of sucrose, to maintain a Mn of total bulk-carbohydrate that is about the same as the molecular weight of sucrose or other disaccharide that is to be replaced. Likewise, sucrose or another disaccharide can be used to replace monosaccharide, in combination with a bulk-carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than the monosaccharide, in particular erythritol or glycerol. In view of a limited solubility, erythriol, which has a low caloric value, is in particular useful to be used in combination with another bulk carbohydrate having a lower molecular weight than the sugar it replaces, if the amount of sugar that is to be replaced is relatively large. Glycerol has about the same caloric value as sucrose, but has a different effect on health aspects, like glycemic index, and is highly soluble in water. In particular in combination with a soluble dietary fibre as a second bulk carbohydrate it also is very useful to formulate a product with a reduced caloric value, compared to a full-sugar product. In a preferred embodiment, the bulk-carbohydrate component of the food product, dough, batter, instant food mixture or other mixture comprises at least a first bulk-carbohydrate other than sugars, selected from the group of polyols and at least a second bulk-carbohydrate other than sugars selected from the group of sugar alcohols, oligosaccharides, which may be a digestible

oligosaccharide or a water-soluble dietary fibre, preferably a water-soluble dietary fibre, in particular FOS, GOS or a mixture thereof. Herein, the first of said bulk carbohydrate generally has a lower Mn than the second of said bulk carbohydrates. By combining the bulk carbohydrates in suitable ratios the Mn can be fine-tuned to a desired Mn, in particular to about the molecular weight of sucrose or lactose, (molecular weight 342.30) , to about the molecular weight of fructose or glucose (Molecular weight 180.16) or to the Mn of any mixture of two or more of these sugars. The oligosaccharide, in particular the dietary fibre, in this embodiment preferably is a saccharide-mixture having a number average molecular weight in the range of 400-1800 g/mol, more preferably in the range of 450-1000 g/mol, in particular in the range of 470-800 g/mol.

In particular, good results have been achieved with a combination of a first bulk carbohydrate selected from the group of sorbitol, glycerol and xylitol, and a second bulk carbohydrate selected from the group of FOS and polydextrose, as a replacement of at least part of a disaccharide (sucrose). Such combination is in particular useful as an alternative to sucrose, especially in a resilient food product such as a cake or a bread.

In a preferred embodiment, in particular in a cake, bread or other resilient dough based product, a polyol and at least one bulk carbohydrate selected from the group of oligosaccharides and water soluble fibres is present, wherein the bulk-carbohydrate content is as follows:

0-90 %, preferably 10-75 wt. %, more preferably 20-50 wt. % sugars, based on total bulk-carbohydrate

3-50 wt. %, preferably 4-30 wt. %, more preferably 5-25 wt. % of one or more bulk carbohydrates having a lower molecular weight than sucrose , in particular one or more polyols having a molecular weight of less than 200 g/mol, based on total bulk-carbohydrate

3-97 wt. %, preferably 10-60 wt. %, more preferably 15-50 wt. %, in particular 20-40 wt. % of one or more bulk carbohydrates having a higher molecular weight than sucrose, in particular one or more oligosaccharides (water-soluble fibre and/or digestible oligosaccharides), based on total bulk carbohydrate.

Good results have been achieved with a food product, in particular a baked product, such as a cake or a sweet bread, wherein the (total) content (in wt. %) of the bulk carbohydrate(s) having a higher molecular weight than sucrose

(oligosaccharides) is higher than the (total) content of bulk carbohydrate(s) having a lower molecular weight than sucrose (polyols with molecular weight of 200 g/mol or less). Such embodiment is in particular useful for a product wherein the Mn of the bulk-carbohydrate fraction is relatively high, in particular more than 250 g/mol, preferably at least about 280 g/mol, more preferably at least about 300 g/mol.

In a specific embodiment, the contents of the bulk carbohydrate(s) having a higher molecular weight than sucrose (oligosaccharides) and the (total) content of bulk carbohydrate(s) having a lower molecular weight than sucrose (polyols with molecular weight of 200 g/mol or less) are about the same.

In a further specific embodiment, the content of bulk carbohydrate(s) having a higher molecular weight than sucrose (oligosaccharides) is lower than the (total) content of bulk carbohydrate(s) having a lower molecular weight than sucrose (such as polyols with molecular weight of 200 g/mol or less). Such embodiment is particularly useful to reformulate a product into a product with a reduced monosaccharide content, such as a reduced-fructose or reduced-glucose content. The Mn of the bulk-carbohydrate fraction in such embodiment preferably is less than 250 g/mol, in particular about 225 g/mol or less, more in particular about 200 g/mol or less. In an embodiment providing a product with a reduced

monosaccharide content, preferably a polyol and at least one bulk carbohydrate selected from the group of oligosaccharides and water soluble fibres is present, wherein the bulk-carbohydrate content is as follows:

0-90 %, preferably 10-75 wt. %, more preferably 20-50 wt. %, in particular 20-45 wt. % sugars, based on total bulk-carbohydrate

25-50 wt. , in particular 30-50 %of one or more bulk carbohydrates having a lower molecular weight than sucrose , in particular one or more polyols having a molecular weight of less than 200 g/mol, based on total bulk-carbohydrate 2-25 wt. %, preferably 3.5- 15 wt.. % of one or more bulk carbohydrates having a higher molecular weight than sucrose, in particular one or more oligosaccharides (water-soluble fibre and/or digestible

oligosaccharides), based on total bulk carbohydrate.

Further, the food product, dough, batter, instant food mixture or other mixture may comprise any further food ingredient suitable for the (intended) product. Such ingredients are generally known in the art, and can be formulated based on known recipes for a particular food product. Typical further ingredients can amongst others be selected from the group of fats (solid or liquid, animal or vegetable), proteins (e.g. from vegetable, eggs, milk), flavouring, aroma's, salt, leavening agents (e.g. yeast, baking soda), colourant, thickening agents (e.g.

pectins or gums having a DP larger than 15), dietary fibre other than dietary fibre qualifying as bulk-carbohydrate (e.g. non-soluble dietary fibre, such as cellulose).

If desired, a high-intensity sweetener can be included. High-intensity sweetener have a much higher sweetening effect per gram than sugar, to the extent that they are typically used in such a low amount that they do not substantially contribute to the bulk (structure, textures) of the food product or mixture from which the food product is made. As a rule of thumb, they have a sweetening intensity that is at least about 30 times as high as sucrose, and typically in the range of 100- 1000 times as high. The sweetness is measured by a taste panel by comparing solutions of different compounds with a solution of sucrose of typically 5-10% (w/w). The concentration of compound in solution to obtain an iso-sweet perception as judged by the panel compared to the sucrose solution can be used to calculate the sweetness index in which sucrose = 1. Apart from intensity, quality of the sweetness perception may be evaluated. To mimic the taste quality of a specific sugar, e.g. sucrose, often a combination of sweeteners is used.

If present, the high-intensity sweeteners is usually selected from stevia, aspartame, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame potassium (Ace-K), saccharin, and advantame. Another example of a high-intensity sweetener is a cyclamate. The use of a high-intensity sweetener is in particular desired if the bulk-carbohydrates other than sugar together have a lower sweetening effect than desired, e.g. because the sugar they replace generates more sweetness, and it is desired that such sweetness is maintained. A method for preparing a food product according to the invention comprises a heating step. The heating step is carried out at a temperature and for a duration at which at least a substantial part of the starch, preferably essentially all of the starch is gelatinised. A heating step wherein starch is gelatinised is popularly also referred to as cooking, regardless the heating technique. In a food product of the invention, the gelatinised starch typically contributes to the structure of the food product. Suitable heating techniques and conditions can be selected based on common general knowledge regarding suitable preparation (cooking) techniques for a specific product of interest and the information disclosed herein. In particular, when a food product is prepared from a dough or batter, suitable heating conditions can be determined with Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) using a Rheometer equipped with a temperature control chamber. In practice, this may be used as a screening tool to select suitable heating conditions for a dough or batter with a specific bulk-carbohydrate mixture

(leavening agents, which may be present in the final formulation for a product of interest, may be omitted during this screening). Further modification of the heating conditions can be made, using full heating testing in a conventionally used heating system (e.g. oven) and sensory evaluation by a skilled artisan (using dough/batter with all ingredients intended to be in the final formulation).

At least at the start of the heating step in a method for preparing a food product of the invention, the dough, batter or other mixture that is subjected to gelatinisation should contain sufficient water to allow full or partial gelatinization, e.g. at least about 0.8 g water per gram starch, preferably more than 1 gram water per gram starch. The upper limit of the water content is usually dependent on the type of product that is made. The skilled person will be able to determine a suitable upper limit for a specific mixture to be subjected to gelatinisation based on common general knowledge, the information disclosed herein and optionally a limited amount of routine testing.

Preferred heating techniques are baking, frying, steam treatment (e.g. with superheated steam) and microwaving. In particular, good results have been achieved with a baking process. Preferably, the heating step includes heating to a temperature of at least 110 °C, in particular to a temperature in the range of 110- 250 °C. Such a high temperature is not necessarily required to gelatinise the starch, but can contribute to other changes in organoleptic properties. A relatively high temperature may be desirable to impart specific colouring, flavour (due to Maillard reactions) or texture effects (crustiness, crispiness). Suitable

temperatures are generally known in the art to achieve this.

Conventional formulations for dough-based product, typically prepared by baking, generally prescribe sucrose as a sweetener (plus acting as a bulk- carbohydrate), optionally in combination with another sugar. In most formulations sucrose is the major or only sugar (> 50 wt. %, in particular 90- 100 wt.%). However, some specialty products, contain monosaccharides as the major sugar, e.g. provided by honey, glucose syrup, fructose syrup, molasses. E.g. ginger bread,

conventionally contain fructose and/or glucose as the major sugar. Cake recipes exist with glucose as the major sugar. The invention provides an alternative for high- sucrose formulations, by providing a formulations wherein at least a substantial part, typically at least 25 % of the total bulk-carbohydrate content is provided by one or more bulk-carbohydrates other than sugar, preferably by two or more bulk-carbohydrates other than sugar.

The total of bulk-carbohydrates has an Mn of up to 400 g/mol, in particular of 390 g/mol or less. Preferably, the total of bulk-carbohydrates in the mixture has a number average molecular 200-360 g/mol, more in. A relatively high Mn, such as an Mn of 250-400 g/mol, in particular of 300-350 g/mol is in particular advantageous in case the bulk-carbohydrate other than sugar is used as an alternative solely or primarily to sucrose, lactose or another disaccharide. A relatively low Mn, such as an Mn of 150-250 g/mol, in particular of 180-240 g/mol is in particular advantageous in case the bulk-carbohydrate other than sugar is used as an alternative solely or primarily to fructose, glucose or another

monosaccharide. In case the bulk-carbohydrate is used as an alternative to a mixture of one or more monosaccharides and one or more disaccharides, the Mn of the bulk-carbohydrate is advantageously matched to about the Mn of the sugar mixture that is replaced.

The invention in particular provides a food product, such as a cake or a bread, comprising more than 5.0 wt. % fat (or fat-substitute), although good results have also been achieved with a low-fat food product comprising up to 5.0 wt. % fat.. The food product according to the invention usually is made from a dough, batter or other mixture that is essentially free of rye flour, or if it contains rye flour, it generally comprises less than 70 wt.% rye flour, based on total flour. However , it is also possible to prepare or formulate products comprising 70 wt. % or more of rye flour, base on total flour.

In a preferred embodiment, the product of the invention is a dough- based food product, conventionally prepared by baking, selected from the group of breads (e.g. brioches, sweet breads); cakes (e.g. sponges, cupcakes), a dough for preparing any one of said products or an instant food mixture for preparing any of said products. These products all are relatively soft and resilient.

The cake or bread formulation can be based on a recipe of a full-sugar cake, with sucrose, glucose or a mixture thereof as the major sugar component. The bulk-carbohydrate composition to replace the sugar can be determined by first determining the Mn of the sugar that is replaced, thereafter selecting the one or more bulk-carbohydrates other than sugar, and then formulating the one or more bulk-carbohydrates other than sugar in effective amounts to match the Mn of the sugar that is replaced sufficiently close. Good results have been achieved with a combination of a polyol (sorbitol, glycerol) and an oligosaccharidic water soluble fibre (polydextrose, FOS), wherein Mn of the bulk carbohydrates was in the range of about 490-700 g/mol The ratio polyol to the oligosaccharidic water soluble fibre is preferably in the range of 1: 1 to 1: 10, in particular in the range of 1: 1.5 to 1:6.

Very good results have been achieved with a sponge cake (also known as pound cake), a cake traditionally made from a dough containing flour (usually wheat flour), butter (which may be replaced at least partially by margarine), eggs and sugar (which in accordance with the invention is at least partially replaced), each in about the same amount by weight (traditionally a pound of each). A sponge cake is according to the invention is usually made from a dough containing about 20 to about 27 wt. % flour, about 20 to about 27 wt. % bulk-carbohydrate, about 18 to about 25 wt. % whole eggs and about 18 to about 25 wt. % butter, margarine or a combination thereof. Further water may be added (up to about 5 wt. %) and a leavening agent (typically less than about 1 wt. %). Optionally a minor amount of one or more known additives is added, such as starch (up to about 3 wt. %) or sodium acid pyrophosphate (typically less than 1 wt. %).

In a further embodiment, the product is a sweet bread, conventionally sweetened with monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, e.g. provided by honey or molasses) as the major or only sugar component (>50 wt. % monosaccharides). In a specific embodiment, the food product is a ginger bread. The term 'ginger bread' is used herein for products which are also known as 'ontbijtkoek' or 'peperkoek' in the Netherlands and Belgium. Ginger bread is a baked product made from at least 30 wt. %, based on dry weight, of cereal flour, of which cereal flour at least 70 wt. % is rye flour. Ginger bread contains up to 5.0 wt. %, based on dry weight, fat (triglycerides) and at least 15 wt. %, based on total weight, of water. Ginger bread contains at least 35 wt. %, based on dry weight, bulk-carbohydrate (conventionally fructose as the only or major bulk-carbohydrate). Thus, the Mn of bulk-carbohydrates in ginger bread is less than 250 g/mol and usually about the same as the molecular weight of fructose (180 g/mol). Further, ginger bread contains a ground spice mix, comprising ground cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, ginger and white pepper.

However, good results also have been achieved with a food product different from ginger bread, see e.g. Example 1.

In a further embodiment the baked food product is selected from cookies biscuits, waffles and crackers, in which sufficient water is present such that the starch is gelatinised during the baking process. These products preferably are made from a dough comprising cereal flour, in particular at least one flour selected from the group of rye flour and wheat flour. It should be noted that not all recipes for cookies biscuits, waffles and crackers require starch gelatinisation. The food products according to the invention comprise gelatinised starch though.

Usually 50-100 % of the starch is gelatinised, preferably 60- 100 wt. %, more preferably 75- 100 %, in particular about 90-100 %.

In a further preferred embodiment, the food product is a dough-based food product conventionally made by frying, such as churros or doughnuts, although these can also be prepared by alternative techniques, such as cooking using superheated steam. Doughnuts are usually made from a dough made with wheat flour. Churros can be made from cereal flour or potato flour.

In a further embodiment, the food product is a batter-coated food product.

In a further embodiment, the food product is a pancake.

In a further embodiment, the food product is a flour tortilla.

The invention will now be illustrated by the following examples. Example 1: cake

1.1 Cake preparation

The cake product was prepared according to the following recipe:

Ingredients Wt. %

Flour 25.000

Sucrose 25.000

Pasteurized whole eggs 21.500

Salt 0.150

Wheat starch 2.000

So di u m b ic ar ona te 0.214

SAPP 28 0.286

Margarine 21.850

Water 4.000

A creaming method was used to prepare the batter. First, margarine, sucrose, salt, baking powders (i.e. sodium bicarbonate and sodium acid

pyrophosphate (SAPP 28)) and the wheat starch were mixed together in an Hobart mixer using a whisk. Then eggs, water and glycerol were added and mixed. Finally, flour was added and mixed to achieve the final batter. Baking is performed at 180°C for 50 min for baking tins filled with 250 grams of batter.

After baking, cakes were left to cool down for 1 hour at room temperature and then individually sealed in plastic bags.

1.2 Sucrose replacement

For all cakes, a 30% sucrose reduction was tested by replacing 7.5% of the sucrose in the formulation with the same amount of poly dextrose (Litesse II, Danisco), sorbitol and combinations thereof, FOS (Frutalose OFP, Sensus), glycerol and combinations thereof.

1.3 Storage and sampling

Packed cakes were stored at room temperature conditions for 1 week after baking. At day 7 after baking, cakes were removed from the packaging and analyzed. 1.4 Cake quality evaluation

1.2.1 Volume measurements

Volume measurement of cake was performed by rapeseed displacement method (AACCI Method 10-05.01). Two cakes from each type of variation were analyzed

1.2.2 Texture profile analysis of cake crumb

Cakes were sliced with a knife perpendicularly to their length. Slice thickness was 2 cm. From each slice, a cylinder of crumb of 3 cm diameter was taken out with a cylinder cutter with sharp edges. The crumb cylinder was then used for texture analysis. Crumb texture was determined by the texture analyser (SMS Texture Analyser Type HDi or XT2i, Ostfildern, Germany) with a load cell of 25 Kg, using the SMS P/75 aluminum platen probe. The crumb samples were subjected to a two-cycle compression test (texture profile analysis) with test speed of 2 mm s-1, penetration strain of 40% and post-test speed of 5 mm s-1. Crumb hardness and springiness were calculated from the force-time diagram, as indicated in Figure 1. Springiness provides information about the sample's recovery. From each cake variation, 3 crumb slices were taken out of 2 cakes, resulting in a total of 6 crumb samples per variation. Crumb hardness is Fl in Figure 1; springiness is t2/tl in Figure 1.

1.2.3 Crumb density

The weight of the crumb cylinder sample was recorded. Crumb density was then calculated as the ratio between the recorded weight and the volume. Volume was calculated based on the sample height (2 cm) and diameter (3 cm).

1.2.4 Crumb water activity

Water activity was determined in duplicate using an Aqual Lab 4TE analyser which was calibrated using demi water and a calibration liquid with a water activity of 0.500. All measurements were performed at an ambient temperature of about 21°C.

1.5 Onset of starch gelatinization in batters In order to assess the onset of starch gelatinization, cake batters were prepared as earlier described but without sodium bicarbonate and SAPP 28. Starch gelatinization in the cake batter samples was measured using a DSC Q2000 (TA Instruments, New Castle, USA). Samples were scanned from 2 to 150°C at a rate of 7.5°C/min. The onset of starch gelatinization was determined by analysis of the endothermic peak from the heat flow signal by using the automatic analysis tool available in the Universal Analysis software (TA instruments, New Castle, USA). Starch gelatinization onset temperatures were measured in duplicate for each variation.

1.6 Results of cake evaluation

1.6.1 Sucrose replacement with polydextrose, sorbitol or mixtures of polydextrose- sorbitol at various ratio's.

Replacing 30% sucrose with either sorbitol or polydextrose results in considerable deviations in terms of product quality (Table 1). By using sorbitol as replacer, the Mn of the bulk-carbohydrate mixtures (sucrose + bulk-carbohydrates replacing part of the sugar cf. to the original recipe) drops down to 271 g/mol. That results in a earlier gelatinization of starch during baking as compared to the sucrose reference. Therefore, the transition profile of the cake batter from a viscous liquid to a solid foam is considerably changed. The result of such early gelatinization is that the cake crumb is much denser and the crumb hardness higher than the sucrose reference.

By using polydextrose as sucrose replacer, the Mn of the bulk- carbohydrate mixture increases to 400 g/mol. As a result, the gelatinization of starch occurs at higher temperature compared to the sucrose reference. Therefore, the transition of the cake batter from a viscous liquid to a solid foam occurs later in the baking process. The resulting cake has a much softer crumb and springiness than the sucrose reference.

Overall, the use of either sorbitol or polydextrose results in considerable deviations in the textural properties of the cake crumb as well as its structure, i.e. density, as compared to the sucrose reference. Therefore, the replacement is not considered optimal. able 1 30% sucrose replacement with either polydextrose or sorbitol

The baking quality of a 30 / i> sucrose replaced cake can be optimized when a mixture of polydextrose and sorbitol are used in combination (Table 2) rather than alone. In fact, by combining the two sugar replacers, the Mn of the total of sucrose plus replacement bulk-carbohydrates can be optimized in order to simulate the starch gelatinization behavior as in the sucrose reference.

When the bulk-carbohydrate mixture is formulated with a Mn of 300 (g/mol), starch gelatinization occurs earlier than in the sucrose reference. The result is a lower volume than for the reference. Increasing the Mn of the bulk-carbohydrate mixture up to 380 (g/mol), an increase in volume is observed due to the increase in the temperature of transition of the cake batter from a viscous liquid to a solid foam.

The textural properties of the cake also change as function of the Mn of the mixture. Contrary to what observed for volume, textural properties are inversely proportional to Mn. In fact, crumb hardness and springiness decrease with increasing Mn.

Overall, choosing a polydextrose-sorbitol mixture with a Mn around 342 (g/mol) provided the best balance in achieving a cake volume with good volume while limiting textural deviations from the sucrose reference. The use of a polydextrose-sorbitol mixture at an Mn of 342 g/mol clearly provides much better cake quality than either polydextrose or sorbitol alone.

Table 2. 30% sucrose replacement with mixtures of polydextrose and sorbitol with varying Mn

Sugars Sucrose- Mixture Mixture Mixture

Reference 1 2 3

Polydextrose (%) 2,27 4,84 6,67

Sorbitol (%) 5,23 2,66 0,83

Sucrose (%) 25 17,5 17,5 17,5

Mn bulk-carbohydrate 342 300 342 380 mixture (g/mol)

Cake quality

evaluation

Volume (mL) 562,5 525 537,5 575

Crumb hardness (N) 7,7 7,8 7,2 6,8

Crumn springiness 0,629 0,579 0,534 0,496 crumb aw 0,816 0,811 0,817 0,816

1.6.2 Sucrose replacement with FOS, glycerol or a mixture of FOS and glycerol

Replacing 30% sucrose with either FOS or glycerol results in considerable deviations in terms of product quality (Table 3). By using FOS as replacer, the Mn of the sugar mixtures rises to 396 g/mol. The resulting cake has lower crumb hardness and springiness as compared to the reference.

By using glycerol as replacer, the Mn of the sugar mixtures drops down to 188 g/mol. The resulting cake shows a considerably higher crumb hardness and springiness than the reference. Also the crumb density is much higher.

Cake quality is considerably improved when the sugar replacers are combined to achieve an Mn close to that of the reference. In fact, by combining FOS and glycerol to achieve a Mn of the total sugar mixture of 337 (g/mol), cake crumb hardness, springiness and density became similar to those of the reference cake (Table 3). Table 3. 30% sucrose replacement with FOS, glycerol and a mixture thereof resulting in variation in Mn

Sugars Sucrose- FOS- FOS- Glycerol-

Reference glycerol replaced replaced

Sucrose 25,0% 17,5% 17,5% 17,5%

FOS 6,3% 7,5%

Glycerol 1,2% 7,5%

Mn bulk-carbohydrate

mixture (g/mol) 342 337 396 188

Cake quality

evaluation

crumb aw 0,821 0,813 0,828 0,786

Crumb hardness (N) 8,6 8,3 8,0 11,7

Crumn springiness 0,645 0,622 0,559 0,662

Crumb density (g/mL) 0,332 0,334 0,332 0,390

In another test, a cake was made and tested wherein the effect of 30 % sucrose replacement with FOS, sorbitol or a mixture of sucrose, FOS and sorbitol (the mixture of sucrose, FOS and sorbitol having an Mn of about 342 g/mol) was evaluated. Similar results were obtained as with the cake comprising sucrose, FOS and glycerol.

In another test, a conventional recipe for a resilient bread product containing fructose syrup (55 wt. % based on dry weight) was reformulated, wherein fructose syrup was at least substantially replaced by a combination of FOS and one or two polyols (xylitol and/or glycerol) having an Mn of 200 g/mol. The sensory results were similar as for a conventional reference product made with fructose syrup.

Example 2 determination of extent of gelatinization

The extent of starch gelatinization is determined by analysing the amount of gelatinizable starch before the heating step in the dough or batter and in the final product. An amount of water is added resulting in a final moisture content of 60% on wet base to the dough/batter respectively final product in order to obtain full gelatinization of the ungelatinized/partially gelatinized starches present during heating in the DSC. The DSC experiment is performed in the range of about 20°C to 160°C. The DSC analysis of the dough/batter delivers the heat of gelatinization of all native starch in the dough, and remaining gelatinization in the final product, respectively. It is noted that, according to Fessas and Schiraldi ( Starch

gelatinization kinetics in bread dough, J. Thermal Anal, and Calorimetry, 61

(2000) 411-423), the effects of other components in the dough, like e.g. gluten, give neglible contributions to the DSC signal. The heat flow profiles generally show broad transitions and, at the moisture level indicated, are composed of two main peaks in the range about 40°C up till about 130°C. The first peak at the lower temperature relates to the gelatinization of starch, while the last peak, generally above 100°C, is related to the amylose-lipid complex. The areas of the first peak relates to the amount of starch gelatinized during heating in the DSC and are recalculated in terms of Joules (or Calories) per gram dry starch in the

dough/batter resp. product plus added water as present in the DSC cup.

Subtracting the rest heat of gelatinization found in the final product from the heat of gelatinization obtained from the dough/batter quantifies the amount of gelatinization, in Joules (Calories) per gram starch, that took place during the heating step in the production process, e.g. during baking in an oven.

In relation to the present work the part the starch gelatinized should, by the method discussed, preferably delivers values of about 6.5 J/g dry base of starch (corresponding to a gelatinization degree of about 60 %) or higher.