|WO/1998/003839||FLUID FLOW MEASUREMENT CORRECTING SYSTEM, AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTING AND UTILIZING SAME|
|JP62112015||MASS FLOW METER|
Claim 1. A force meter for measuring external force comprising:
A) A case;
B) A force sensor, said force sensor moves away from an original position when an external force is applied to said force sensor;
C) A proximity sensor, said proximity sensor measures a position deviation of said force sensor from said original position, said proximity sensor generates a position signal when a position deviation is detected, the larger said position deviation is the stronger said position signal is;
D) An electromagnetic means of anti-force, said electromagnetic means of anti-force generates an anti-force to move said force sensor backwards to said original position while receiving an electric current, the stronger said electric current is the stronger said anti- force is;
E) An electronic unit, said electronic unit generates said electric current while receiving said position signal, the stronger said position signal is the stronger said electric current is;
F) A display unit, said display unit measures value of said electric current, said display unit converts value of said electric current to value of force, or other value related to force before displaying.
Claim 2. A force meter in claim 1, wherein said position deviation, said position signal, said
electrical current, and said anti-force form a closed loop system of negative feedback that is preventing increment of said position deviation, while an external force is increasing said position deviation.
Claim 3. A force meter in claim 1, wherein said proximity sensor comprises a optical proximity sensor. Claim 4. A force meter in claim 3, wherein said optical proximity sensor comprises at least a light controller, at least a light source, and at least a light sensor, said light source and said light sensor are secured to said case, said light controller is secured to said force sensor, said light controller moves between said light source and said light sensor to change light energy rate from said light source to said light sensor when the position of said force sensor changes.
Claim 5. A force meter in claim 1, wherein said electronic unit comprises a proportional-integral- derivative controller.
Claim 6. A force meter in claim 5, wherein said electromagnetic anti-force means comprises, at least a fixed magnet, an coil axle, a coil balance weight for making the central weight of a coil assembly at or near the central line of said coil axle, a movable coil, a means of electrical connection for said movable coil, said fixed magnets interact with said electric current in said movable coil to generate said anti-force, said fixed magnets are secured to said case, said movable coil is secured to said coil axle, said coil assembly comprises said movable coil, said force sensor, said coil axle, said coil balance weight, and said light controller.
Claim 7. A force meter in claim 6, wherein said means of electrical connection comprises at least two reset springs or two reset gossamer, said reset springs mechanically connect said coil- assembly to said case to rotate said force sensor to said original position when there is no external force, said movable coil is electrically connected to said electronic unit through said two reset springs to receive said electric current.
Background of the invention
A flow meter using turbine is not as accurate to low velocity flow due to large inertia of the turbine and significant friction at the axle of the turbine. It is not as accurate to high velocity either because turbine adds too much resistance to flow.
A target flow meter and a differential pressure flow meter is not as accurate, especially flow is slow, because signal deviations either generated by the strain sensors or generated in the amplifiers are amplified.
The present invention measures external force such as force generated by fluid flow with a force sensor. It can be used to measure breathing of patients. It can be used to measure velocity and rate of gas and liquid. The present invention costs less to manufacture due to simplicity. It is very accurate. It adds less resistance to fluid flow. It can be bi-directional. It has much wider measurement range and much lower minimum response.
Description of drawings:
Fig. 1 shows the first embodiment. Item 1 is a force sensor. Item 2, secured to iron 7, is a support for force sensor 1. Item 3, secured to case 12, is a light source, such as emitting diodes. Item 4 is a light controller secured support 2. Item 5, secured to case 12, is a light sensor, such as photo diodes sending position signal to electronic unit 13. Items 3, 4, and 5 form a optical proximity sensor. Item 6 is a piece of iron. Item 9 and item 10 ( see Fig.2) are supports for iron 6. Item 9 and item 10 are hooks to hang iron 7 to item 8. Each of them has a point contact at the bottom of a dented spot on iron 8. Item 7, secured item 8, is a core. Coil 11 is winded around core 8. Item 8, secured to the case 12 is a piece of iron. Iron 6, core 7, coil 11, iron 8 form an electromagnetic means for anti-force. Item 13 is an electronic unit. Item 14 is a display unit.
Fig.2 shows the right view and left view of the first embodiment. The case 12, electronic unit 13, and display unit 14 are removed from Fig. 2.
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show the second embodiment.
In Fig. 3, item 32, 26, 80, and 81 are cut-half. Item 80 and 81 are bearings. Item 21 is a force sensor. Item 21 is secured to axle 3 la through support 22. Item 23, secured to the case 32, is a light source. Item 24, secured to axle 3 la, is a light controller. Item 25, secured to the case 32, is a light sensor. Light source 23, light controller 24, and light sensor 25 form an optical proximity sensor. Light sensor 25 is electrically connected to input lines (not shown) of electronic unit 78. Light sensor 25 sends position signal to electronic unit 78. Item 26, secured to the case 32, is a fixed magnet of ring shape. Fixed magnet 28 is secured to fixed magnet 26 through supports 76 and 77. Fixed magnet 28 and fixed magnet 26 generate magnetic field between them. Item 27 is a movable coil winded on frame 67. Frame 67 is rotatable in the gap between fixed magnet 28 and fixed magnet 26. Frame 67 is supported by axle 3 la and axle 31b. Axle 31a and axle 3 lb have the same central line 90 so that they are considered as one axle. Item 78 is electronic unit such as micro-controller that amplifies the position signal from light sensor 25 to electric current going to movable coil 27 through reset gossamer 29 and reset gossamer 30. Item 36 is the first end of reset gossamer 29. Item 34 is the second end of reset gossamer 29. Item 37 is the first end of reset gossamer 30. Item 35 is the second end of reset gossamer 30. Item 41 is the first end of movable coil 27. Item 42 is the second end of movable coil 27. Item 36 is electrically connected to item 41. Item 34 is electrically connected to first output line 101 of electronic unit 78. Item 37 is electrically connected to item 42. Item 35 is electrically connected to second output line 102 of electronic unit 78. Item 36 is mechanically secured to axle 31b. Item 34 is mechanically secured to case 32. Item 37 is mechanically secured to axle 31a. Item 35 is mechanically secured to case 32. Item 33 is a balance weight that makes central weight of an assembly at or near central line 90 of axle 31a and axle 31b. The assembly consists of force sensor 21, support 22, axle 31a, balance 33, light controller 24, frame 67, movable coil 27, and axle 31b. Item 100 is a display unit that converts value of the electric current to value of force before displaying.
Fig. 4 is a side view of the second embodiment. Force sensor 21 is at the original position. A portion of case 32 is removed. Bearing 81 and electronic unit 78 are removed.
External force of fluid flow acting on the force sensor can be expressed as
■ = cdv2 At/2
F - external force (N)
c = overall force sensor coefficient obtained from empirical data
d = density of fluid (kg/m3)
v = fluid velocity (m/s)
At= area of force sensor (square m)
When there is an external force to the force sensor, the force sensor is moved away from the original position. A proximity sensor measures the position deviation and generates a position signal. The proximity sensor can be optical, capacitive, inductive, and more. The position signal is amplified to electric current by an electronic unit. The electric current drives an electromagnet means of anti-force to generate an anti-force. The anti-force acts on the force sensor to prevent the force sensor from moving away from the original position. When the torque made by the electromagnet means of anti-force is equal to the torque made by the external force, the force sensor stops moving. A display unit measures the electric current and converts the value of electric current to value of force. The position deviation, the position signal, the electric current, and the anti-force form a closed loop of negative feedback. The first embodiment is suitable for measuring liquid flow because it can generate strong anti-force When there is no external force, the force sensor is at the original position (see Fig. 1) and the light controller 4 blocks the light path from light source 3 to the light sensor 5. The output of position signal from the light source 5 is zero. When an external force rotates force sensor 1 anticlockwise around the contacts of item 9 and item 10, the force sensor 1 deviates from the original position. The optical proximity sensor is consists of light source 3, light controller 4, and light sensor 5. When the force sensor is rotates, it pulls the light controller 4 away from between light source 3 and light sensor 5. When the light controller moves, it changes light energy rate from light source 3 to light sensor 5 (see Fig.l). Change of light energy rate causes change of position signal from the light sensor 5. The more position deviation is the stronger the position signal is. The position signal is amplified to electric current by the electronic unit 13. The stronger the position signal is the stronger the electric current is. The electromagnet means of anti-force consists of iron 6, core 7, coil 11, and iron 8. Electric current goes through coil 11. The electric current in the coil 11 makes an anti-force to attract iron 6 towards core 7. The stronger the electric current is the stronger the anti-force is. The anti-force pull the force sensor 1 backwards to the original position. If the gain of the amplifier in the electronic unit is high enough, the anti-torque made by the anti-force increases faster than the torque made by the external force. When the anti-torque is equal to the torque made by the external force, force sensor stops moving. The display unit 14 measures value of the electric current. With value of electric current, anti -force can be calculated. The the external force can be determined. The velocity of fluid can be calculated by the above formula. Rate of fluid can be calculated by integrating velocity over a unit of time. A proportional-integral-derivative controller may be used in the electronic unit to improve the system dynamics.
The second embodiment is suitable for gas due to high sensitivity. And it can be used at different angle. The original position of force sensor 21 can be seen in Fig.4. When there is no external force, the light controller 24 blocks light from light source 23 to light sensor 25. When external force rotates force sensor 21 clockwise, light from light source 23 goes to light sensor 25. Position signal from light sensor 25 is amplified to electric current by electronic unit 78. Electric current is sent to movable coil ' 27 through gossamer 29 and gossamer 30. An anti-force is generated by interaction of electric current in movable coil 27 with magnetic field from fixed magnet 26 and fixed magnet 28. Anti-torque made by the anti-force rotates the force sensor 21 backwards to original position. When anti-torque made by anti-force is equal the torque made by external force, rotation of force sensor 21 stops. The electric current is measured by display unit 100. Value of electric current is converted to value of velocity or rate of fluid before displayed.