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Title:
FRAME FOR EYEWEAR AND METHOD OF FORMING THE FRAME
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/138225
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is directed to a frame (1) for eyewear comprising at least one front rim (30) for hosting one or more lenses wherein at least the front rim (30) comprises or is made of wood material that can be durably bent in ambient atmosphere. The wood material is wood with a rather constant density and/or deciduous wood, the wooden material being densified and/or compressed in direction of the majority of fibers of the hardwood and or pliable wood. The invention is also directed to the method of forming the frame (1).

Inventors:
FRANK, Linus (Thalhauser Fußweg 1, Freising Bavaria, 85354, DE)
Application Number:
EP2018/051892
Publication Date:
August 02, 2018
Filing Date:
January 25, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
FREISICHT GMBH (Thalhauser Fußweg 1, Freising Bavaria, 85354, DE)
International Classes:
G02C5/00; B27H1/00; B27K5/06; B27M1/00; B29D12/02; G02C5/16
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008078823A12008-07-03
Foreign References:
ES1093305U2013-11-19
US4255024A1981-03-10
US5786881A1998-07-28
DE10141391C12002-07-11
GB275058A1927-08-04
US5190088A1993-03-02
US2030819A1936-02-11
JP2005029740A2005-02-03
US3220865A1965-11-30
GB275058A1927-08-04
DE946479C1956-08-02
US2030819A1936-02-11
DD284189A51990-11-07
AR213508A11979-02-15
EP1037732A12000-09-27
Other References:
ANONYMOUS: "Eastman(TM) Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB-171-15) | TDS | Eastman Chemical Company", 13 November 2016 (2016-11-13), XP055471156, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20180427]
ANONYMOUS: "Wood Strength Chart", 12 November 2016 (2016-11-12), XP055471126, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20180426]
ANONYMOUS: "Wood Density Chart", 6 November 2016 (2016-11-06), XP055471127, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20180426]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
STELLBRINK & PARTNER PATENTANWÄLTE MBB (Widenmayerstr. 10, Munich, 80538, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

A frame (1) for eyewear comprising :

a. at least one front rim (30) for hosting one or more lenses;

b. wherein at least the front rim (30) comprises or is made of wood material configured to be durably bent.

The frame (1) according to claim 1 wherein the wood material is wood with a constant density and/or deciduous wood, the wood material having been densified and/or compressed and/or pre-densified and/or pre-compressed in direction of the majority of fibers of the wood and/or the wood material being pliable wood that is configured to be bent,

wherein

the wood material in the undensified status has a ratio flexural strength to density of at least 35 Nm/g and at most 650 Nm/g, preferably at least 100 Nm/g and preferably at most 300 Nm/g, most preferably in a range of about 140 Nm/g to about 270 Nm/g.

The frame ( 1) according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the grade of densification and/or compression and/or pre-densification and/or pre- compression is at least 5%, preferably at least 10%, more preferably at least 30%, most preferably at least 50% and at most 70%, preferably at most 50%, more preferably at most 30%, even more preferably at most 20%.

The frame (1) according to claim 3 wherein the densified wood is then stretched to at least 31% of the length before densification, more preferably to at least 70% of the original length, even more preferably to at least 120% of the original length and at most to at most 200% of the original length, preferably at most 160% of the original length, more preferably at most 130% of the length before densification, most preferably about 100% of the length before densification.

The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims further comprising a bridge (21) and/or nose pads (35) and/or temples (5) with or without earpieces wherein the bridge (21) and/or nose pads (35) and/or temples (5) comprise(s) or is/are made of densified and/or pliable wood.

6. The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein the wood material comprises fibers that are/were compressed in their length and comprising tattered and/or inflected fibers.

7. The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein at least to the surface section of the frame (1) an impregnating liquid is applied and stored and/or impregnated in at least the surface section, the impregnating liquid being at least one of a liquefied

a. polymer and/or

b. thermoplastic resin, preferably liquefied acetate, more preferably cellulose-based liquid and/or

c. glue and/or

d. natural resin.

8. The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein at least to the surface section of the frame ( 1) liquefied acetate is applied and stored and/or impregnated in at least the surface section .

9. The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein at least to the surface section of the frame ( 1) cellulose-based liquid is applied and stored and/or impregnated in at least the surface section.

10. The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein the cellulose- based liquid is at least one of cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, celluloid and/or cellulose propionate or any combination thereof.

11. The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein the liquefied thermoplastic resin and/or the liquefied acetate and/or the cellulose-based liquid and/or a wax and/or an oil are applied to and stored and/or impregnated in at least the surface section.

12. The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein at least in a surface section of the frame (1) oil and/or wax is applied to and stored in and/or impregnated in at least the surface section . The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein the frame can be durably bent without visual fractures by at least 5°, preferably at least 10°, more preferably at least 20°, more preferably at least 45°, more preferably at least 90°.

The frame ( 1) according to any of the preceding claims wherein the frame further comprises at least one lens being safely secured into the front rim (30).

A frame (1) for eyewear, particularly according to any of the preceding claims, the frame being obtainable by the following steps:

a. providing a wood material that is configured to be durably bent and b. forming at least one front rim (30) from the wood material for hosting one or more lenses.

Method for forming a frame for eyewear, particularly according to any of the preceding claims, the method comprising the following steps:

a. providing a wood material that is configured to be durably bent and b. forming at least one front rim (30) from the wood material for hosting one or more lenses.

Method according to the preceding claim wherein the wood material has been densified and/or compressed and/or pre-densified and/or pre-compressed in direction of the majority of fibers of the wood and optionally thereafter being brought essentially back into the density of before and/or to a lower density, wherein

the wood material in the undensified status has a ratio flexural strength to density of at least 35 Nm/g and at most 650 Nm/g, preferably at least 100 Nm/g and preferably at most 300 Nm/g, most preferably in a range of about 140 Nm/g to about 270 Nm/g.

Method according to any of the two preceding claims wherein the method further comprises the step of applying and storing and/or impregnating at least in a surface section of the frame ( 1) an impregnating liquid, the impregnating liquid being at least one of a liquefied

a. polymer, b. thermoplastic resin, preferably liquefied acetate, more preferably cellulose based liquid,

c. glue,

d. natural resin.

Method according to the preceding claims 16 to 18, wherein the method further comprises the step of applying and storing and/or impregnating at least in a surface section of the frame (1) at least one of a. oil and/or wax, preferably the oil being at least one of linseed oil and/or detoxified tung oil and/or the wax is natural wax, preferably beeswax and/or

b. a solution and/or an emulsion of the liquefied thermoplastic resin and/or the liquefied acetate and/or the cellulose-based liquid, each with wax and/or oil.

Method according to the preceding claims 16 to 19, wherein the method further comprises a bridge (21) and/or nose pads (35), temples (5) with or without earpieces from durably bendable and/or pliable wood material.

Method according to the preceding claims 16 to 20, wherein the method further comprises the step of inserting at least one eyewear lens into the front rim.

Description:
Frame for eyewear and method of forming the frame

Field

The present invention is directed to a bendable frame for spectacles or eyewear as well as a method for forming the frame.

Background

Wooden frames for spectacles constitute a high fashion accessory. Wooden frames are usually made of a layered composition of very thin wooden sheets glued or attached together. This production method grants certain flexibility to the frame.

A disadvantage however is the durability and breakability of wood. During production, CNC machines or other tools and machines tend to break parts of the wooden layers and make the workpiece unusable for customer applications. The rate of defective goods is high.

Moreover, in case layered wooden frames are formed, the layered structure is usually visible and is able to disturb the aesthetic character of the frame.

Even in everyday use of glasses this flexibility is desirable to prevent breakage in case of incautious act. Spectacles fall on the floor, a person sits down on a frame, the result is loss of the spectacles, at least the glass, most likely also the frame. In history, bendable, flexible frames have been in use as frames produced from horn (keratin) . The keratin is harder and heavier than wood, but lighter and more elastic than bone. It is up to 3% elastic under pressure, i.e. reversibly compressible.

Flexible spectacle frames in general are known as metal frames, a certain titanium alloy (Titanflex®) allows an extended bendability, which is particularly useful for children or persons, who conduct physical labor. Another aspect are stylistic wishes.

Wooden frames, as known since the earliest appearance of correctional spectacles, have since the beginning of the 19 th century been replaced by spectacle frames of metal and later even by various plastic materials. Recently, wood increasingly has been reintroduced in house construction, overstretching areas in large public halls, but also modern furniture. Wood is a naturally grown base material that meets demands in environmental preservation. In the 1920s, the production of soft, pliable wood was described, as published in GB 275,058. Disclosed is the production of soft pliable wood by boiling or steaming pieces of wood and piling, i.e. applying pressure to the same in the direction of the fibers until the completion of evaporation, as also the provision of devices for carrying the improved method into effect.

The wood is exposed to heat, preferable supplied by steam or boiling water, some 100°C at normal pressure conditions. The wooden workpiece is then compressed and shrinked by up to 20% in the longitudinal direction. This disrupts the fiber structures and makes the wood bendable without reasonable force. And it remains flexible after cooling and drying.

The German patent DE 946 479 C discloses the procedure to grant a more even bendability over the whole length of the wooden workpiece. US 2,030,819 A discloses that placing a thin piece of wood into an alkali solution in a certain procedure to retain the structural look of natural wood but retains the optical structure and the characteristic grain thereof. This procedure is named chemical softening. It is possible to transform thin wood sheets or woods into a soft, flexible condition by all processes for cellulose production, as long as the treatment is not extended too far. Especially good results may be obtained by the alkali softening, which results in a thorough swelling and loosening of the wood structure. The soft flexible structure, however, only lasts as long as the wood contains enough water. It gradually loses these properties by air-drying, and the dry product finally again becomes hard and brittle. In order to cause wood, which has been softened, to be more resistant to environmental impact, it must be impregnated with materials of low vapor pressure, which are suited to stabilize the condition of loosening and swelling. Experiments have shown that two groups of substances come into consideration for such an impregnation. The first group contains substances at low vapor pressure which a re water soluble and perhaps water attracting, such as glycerol, monoacetin and lactates. These substances act themselves as swelling and softening preservatives. The second group contains water insoluble but emulsifiable substances, such as liquid, dissolved or emulsified hydrocarbons, fats, oils and soaps, known emulsifying agents, such as sulfo- and oxy fatty acids and their derivatives (Turkey red oil, or similar products such as alkali salts of sulfonated castor oil). Other methods are known, as described in DD 284 189 A5, where layers of wooden particles and thermoplastic and/or duroplastic material are combined in a way to have a bendable piece of wood available. Disclosed is the limitation of the thermoplastic used in those areas of the work piece where the bending actually is applying deformation forces. According to the invention in the manufacture of a three-layer wood particle material, the particles of the middle layer in a conventional manner by addition of a thermosetting adhesive, the particles of the two layers on the other hand bound with a thermoplastic. The thermoplastic is the outer layer particles added either in solid form or in a dispersed form.

Another method is described in AR 213.508 from 1979 : A method for introducing in wood frame glasses or neutral or optical glass for all types of spectacles, characterized by the steps of heating kerosene to between 30 and 80 degrees approximately, add wax in a proportion of 10 to 30% of the volume of kerosene, introducing into the mixture obtained by a wooden frame space of between about 5 and 30 minutes for softening, remove it and leave for 5 to about 30 minutes before introducing the glass or glass and then proceed to drying.

EP 1 037 732 Al, showing a priority of 1997, discloses a method of isostatic pressure on a wooden workpiece and making it bendable and pliable to a high extent. The invention relates to a process for greatly increasing the elasticity and bendability of diffuse-porous wood and comprises the following steps: a) supplying a specimen of diffuse-porous wood; and b) isostatically pressing the specimen in a) with a pressure of at least 500 bars. The rigidity is increased once again by immersing the wood specimen in a liquid for up to 2 hours, after which the specimen is dried. This can be utilized when producing shaped products made of diffuse-porous wood.

Summary The problem underlying the present invention is to provide an improved or ameliorated frame for eyewear and a method of forming such frame.

The problem can be solved by the subject matter of the present invention exemplified by the description and the claims. The present invention relates to a frame for eyewear. Eyewear is intended to cover any structure for supporting a lens or more than one lens in front of the eye of wearer. Typically, eyewear, such as eyeglasses or spectacles, is a device consisting of lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes. Glasses are typically used for vision correction. Safety glasses provide eye protection against flying debris or against visible and near-visible light or radiation. Sunglasses allow better vision in bright daylight, and may protect a wearer's eyes against damage from high levels of ultraviolet light. Specialized glasses may be used for viewing specific visual information (such as stereoscopy). Sometimes glasses are worn simply for aesthetic or fashion purposes. Thus, the eyewear is intended to also embrace the terms spectacles and/or glasses and/or frame is intended to comprise the embodiments of any wearable vision aid with or without a correctional and/or protecting and/or decorating function. According to the present invention, at least one front rim is provided for hosting one lens (e.g. a monocle) or more lenses (most common spectacles) . At least the front rim can comprise wood or wooden material that can be durably bent. The bending should then not result in any considerably deficiencies of the frame. Other material can be integrated and/or laminated to this material, as other wooden, metallic and/or plastic materials. Alternatively, or additionally, the frame can be made of wood material that can be durably bent in ambient atmosphere, i.e., the frame can contain only material of this kind.

The wood can thereafter optionally be brought back again to the original density, e.g. by exerting pulling forces in the direction of at least the majority of fibers of the wood. Then the densification and/or compression is rather a pre-densification and/or pre-compression. This is an optional feature, as mentioned before. The density can be more reduced by stretching the prior compressed wood to up to 200% of the original length. The wood is then durably bendable with minor risk of breakage. This wood being treated as described can be called "pliable wood". The word "pliable" is intended to comprise the terms bendable, bended, bent, malleable etc.

The grade of densification and/or compression can extend up to an amount of 70% of the original density. The optional later stretching of the wood reduces the density considerably. The wood material in the undensified status can comprise a ratio flexural strength to density of at least 35 Nm/g and at most 650 Nm/g, preferably at least 100 Nm/g and preferably at most 300 Nm/g, most preferably in a range of about 140 Nm/g to about 270 Nm/g.

The bridge and/or the nose pads and/or the temples can comprise densified and/or pliable wood. The wood material comprises fibers that are/were compressed and/or pre-compressed in their length and comprising tattered and/or inflected fibers.

Frames made of pliable wood in the prior defined meaning might slowly bend back to their original shape. At locations where this is not wanted or not applicable at least the surface section of the wood can be applied liquefied thermoplastic resin to and/or impregnated with.

To increase stability of the frame, other than thermoplastic resin only also any impregnating liquid can be applied and stored and/or impregnated in at least the surface section. The impregnating liquid can be any liquefied polymer. Further a glue and/or a natural resin can be used to penetrate the wood in at least a surface section. A combination of impregnating liquids can be imbued into the wood by various methods, such as applying a vacuum method, saturate the wood at least to the surface section by resting the wood in a bath of the applied liquid.

Pliable wood impregnated with an impregnating liquid can reduce the effect of back bending. The optician can apply slight heat to bend the frame and/or the temple in a shape suitable for the person to wear the frame. Once the impregnated wood has cooled down the back bending can be considerably less than without the disclosed impregnation.

Initially, when the optician adjusts the frame to the measures and desires of a user, or later on, once a user has worn the frame for a while, or the user's preference has amended, the properties of the frame may be changed by the optician. If a thermoplastic resin has been applied, heat can be applied to the frame and thus the frame can show a dough-like state. This makes is possible to apply slight force on the frame to perform adjustments to the frame.

Treating the wood in the disclosed method prevents water or humidity from environmental influence penetrate the wood and this can reduce moisture expansion and/or shrinking due to dry environmental conditions.

If a thermoplastic resin is used, liquefied acetate may be preferred . Liquefied acetate can be produced by dissolving acetate in acetone. The liquefied acetate can penetrate the wood to the extent the application or the producer requires. This can be just a near surface penetration but can comprise the whole piece of wood or anything between.

Acetate can be considered to be a well-known material in production of frames. Skin compatibility has been generally confirmed for humans.

Cellulose based acetate can be acquired by sustainable resources. Various examples can be applied, as can be cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, celluloid and/or cellulose propionate. Prior to the application of an acetate staining of the pliable wood and/or application of paint can be performed.

An emulsion and/or a solution of any of the acetate appearances with wax and/or oil can be applied to obtain special effects on the pliable wood. High-gloss polishing and/or mirror finishing can be achieved.

Alternatively, or additionally a wax and/or oil can be applied to the surface to the impregnated pliable wood to achieve a variety of surface effects. The frame can be durably bent by angles greater than 90° without visual fractures.

The frame can be adapted to safely secure one lens (in case of a monocle) or a plurality of lenses in the front rim. The lens can have a correctional function, however, for fashion purposes a non-correctional glass can be secured as well. Other functions of the lens or the lenses can be of protectoral function against near visible rays and/or environmental influence. The securing can be obtained by any manner known in the art, such as respective grooves, glues and/or screws and/or by any other procedure.

The method for forming a frame for eyewear, particularly according to any of the preceding or below disclosures can comprise the steps of providing a wood material that is provided to be durably bent and can form at least one front rim from wood material for hosting one or more lenses.

The method is disclosed wherein the wood has been densified and/or compressed and/or pre-densified and/or pre-compressed in direction of the majority of fibers of the wood and optionally thereafter being brought essentially back into the density of before and/or to a lower density.

The method of applying and storing and/or impregnating the wood at least in a surface section of the frame with impregnating liquid, such as liquefied thermoplastic resin, preferably liquefied acetate, more preferably cellulose based liquid is disclosed. However, a glue liquid or a natural resin may be preferred.

The method of applying and storing and/or impregnating the wood at least in a surface section of the frame with oil and/or wax, preferably the oil being at least one of linseed oil and/or detoxified tung oil and/or the wax is natural wax, preferably beeswax, further a solution and/or an emulsion of the liquefied thermoplastic resin and/or the liquefied acetate and/or the cellulose-based liquid, each with wax and/or oil is disclosed.

The method can be considered with wood material that in the undensified status can comprise a ratio flexural strength to density of at least 35 Nm/g and at most 650 Nm/g, preferably at least 100 Nm/g and preferably at most 300 Nm/g, most preferably in a range of about 140 Nm/g to about 270 Nm/g.

The method of applying pliable and/or durably bendable wood to a bridge and/or nose pads, temples with or without earpieces is disclosed.

Additionally, or alternatively, at least in a surface section of the frame oil and/or wax can be applied to and stored. This also includes the option of an oil and/or wax application and storage and/or impregnation through the whole cross-section of the frame. The grade of storage or impregnation may or may not vary over the depth of the material of the frame.

The oil can be at least one of linseed oil and/or detoxified tung oil and/or the wax can be natural wax, preferably beeswax. Some seed oil sorts cause a polymerization process with the wood under certain conditions. Such an oil can be linseed oil but also tung oil and others. Impregnation with oil or wax can be helpful, as spectacle frames are exposed to the environment with humidity, heat, cold etc. In addition, the frame is entitled to be worn by humans and therefore can have contact to the skin of the wearer. The wooden frame can resist such environmental exposures. On the other hand, these substances should not harm the wearer.

Linseed oil, but also other oil sorts and waxes intercept a polymerization process, and can invade the wood structure into the most inner structures.

According to the present invention a frame for eyewear, particularly according to any of the preceding and following description and claims, the frame being obtainable by the following steps: providing a wood material that can be durably bent and forming at least one front rim from the wood material for hosting one or more lenses. The further features mentioned before and in the following, can be also integrated. The present invention relates also to a method for forming a frame for eyewear, particularly according to any one of the preceding and following description and claims. The further features mentioned before and in the following, can be also integrated.

The subject matter according to the present invention can involve the advantages to provide reliable and stable eyewear that also provides appealing aesthetic effects and a clear structure.

A mechanical customization of frames to individual customer requirements can be a considerable criterion of customers' attraction from an opticians and end users point of view. Moreover, the frames can have a certain robustness. In addition, an easy insertion of the lenses into the spectacle frame by the optician is possible. Ideally, different geometries of glass (having varying base curves) can be incorporated into the eyeglass frames. Allergens should also be largely avoided.

The problem with previous eyeglasses breaking tendency is also significantly reduced by the present application. The radii of bendability can be widely increased without the destruction (fracture, breakage) of the wood. By modifying the wood with the described method breaking liability of the wood can be reduced by about a third.

By the present application it is now possible to easily insert the lenses in the spectacle frame by the given flexibility of the spectacle frame, under the necessary pretension. The high flexibility of the disclosed spectacle frame allows the use of various glass thicknesses, easily incorporate with different curvatures (base curves) due to different customer ' s amblyopia. Plywood eyeglasses of the prior art allow design variations only to a very limited extent. In the manufacturing process plywood layers are first glued together and then milled. The desired designs will heavily affect the manufacturing process as outer veneer layers must not be cut during the subsequent further handling. An edit of veneer layers in different planes would have the effect that different veneer layers are exposed. This application allows machining from solid block of wood so that the wood frames basically allow any three-dimensional shaping.

By the present application also adhesive- and chemical-free frames are made available.

This application also enables production methods, in which the wooden eyeglass frames are initially only pre-milled two-dimensionally. The final design of the eyewear can then be formed by hand or by a bending tool and/or the method as disclosed in the claims. This can even be achieved at the retail site.

By the present application the rejection rate (outbreaks of wood at the corners and edges or outer surfaces) during the milling process due to the previous modification of the wood can significantly be reduced.

The innovation described can be applied equally to frames for the purpose as a visual aid, as well as sunglasses or any other eyewear.

All of the features and/or steps disclosed in the specification can be combined in any combination, except for combinations where at least some of the features and/or steps are mutually exclusive. In particular, preferred features of the invention are applicable to all aspects of the invention and may be used in any combination.

The same reference numerals used for different embodiments are intended to identify parts or features of different embodiments with the same or similar function. In case the same reference numerals are not identified in other embodiments, this is by no means intended to mean that the corresponding features designated by these reference numerals are not present.

Drawings

The skilled artesian will understand the drawings, described below, are for illustration purposes only. The drawings are not intended to limit the scope of the present teaching in any way. Fig. 1 shows a spectacles frame 1 with mounted or integrated temples 5. One or more hinge(s) 22 can be fitted . A rim 30 forms the front part and the part into which the lenses are to be inserted.

Fig. 2 represents the frame 1 including rim 30 with the at least one recess 20. A bridge 21 is also shown as nose part. The indicating lines shall outline the bendability of the preferably wooden frame up and down to adjust to the wearers ' personal conditions. The indicating lines 2 define the upwards bendability of the frame, while the lines 3 define the downwards bendability of the frame. It is clearly understood that this feature is valid for the left and the right part of the frame equally. A monocle is included as a certain embodiment of the invention. Fig. 3 depicts the frame 1 as seen from the side. The temple 5 is fitted to be bendable in the upwards 4 and/or downwards 8 direction. Further indicating lines 6 allow for an adjustment outward and/or the lines 7 allow for an adjustment inward as seen from the wearer.

Fig. 4 shows the frame 1 as seen from a bottom view. The indicator lines 11 refer to the bendability inwards while the lines 12 indicate an outwards bendability of the frame. At the both sides if the frame temples 5 are to be seen. The temples are bendable to a high degree as indicated by the numbers 9 for inwards bending and 10 for outwards bending. This is applicable to the other temple identically. The nose pads 35 are represented and understood to be optional. The shown embodiment for a frame 1 can be constructed of pliable wood without fitting a hinge 22 (see Fig. 1). Further, a recess 20 is depicted, where usually a lens can be inserted; the same applies to the other side. The bridge 21 is further indicated.

Embodiments

While the disclosure has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, such illustration and description are to be considered illustrative or exemplary and non-restrictive; the disclosure is thus not limited to the disclosed embodiments. Variations to the disclosed embodiments can be understood and effected by those skilled in the art and practicing the claimed disclosure, from a study of the drawings, the disclosure, and the appended claims. As used herein, including in the claims, singular forms of terms are to be construed as also including the plural form and vice versa, unless the context indicates otherwise. Thus, it should be noted that as used herein, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

The mere fact that certain measures are recited in mutually different dependent claims does not indicate that a combination of these measures cannot be used to fulfill aspects of the present invention. The present technology is also understood to encompass the exact terms, features, numerical values or ranges etc., if in here a relative term, such as "about", "substantially", "ca.", "generally", "at least", "at the most" or "approximately" is used in this specification, such a term should also be construed to also include the exact term. That is, e.g., "substantially straight" should be construed to also include "(exactly) straight". In other words, "about 3" shall also comprise "3" or "substantially perpendicular" shall also comprise "perpendicular". Any reference numerals in the claims should not be considered as limiting the scope.

In the claims, the terms "comprises/comprising", "including", "having", and "contain" and their variations should be understood as meaning "including but not limited to", and are not intended to exclude other components. Furthermore, although individually listed, a plurality of means, elements or method steps may be implemented. Additionally, although individual features may be included in different claims, these may possibly advantageously be combined, and the inclusion in different claims does not imply that a combination of features is not feasible and/or advantageous. In addition, singular references do not exclude a plurality.

Whenever steps were recited in the above or also in the appended claims, it should be noted that the order in which the steps are recited in this text may be the preferred order, but it may not be mandatory to carry out the steps in the recited order. That is, unless otherwise specified or unless clear to the skilled person, the order in which steps are recited may not be mandatory. That is, when the present document states, e.g., that a method comprises steps (A) and (B), this does not necessarily mean that step (A) precedes step (B), but it is also possible that step (A) is performed (at least partly) simultaneously with step (B) or that step (B) precedes step (A). Furthermore, when a step (X) is said to precede another step (Z), this does not imply that there is no step between steps (X) and (Z). That is, step (X) preceding step (Z) encompasses the situation that step (X) is performed directly before step (Z), but also the situation that (X) is performed before one or more steps (Yl), followed by step (Z). Corresponding considerations apply when terms like "after" or "before" are used. It will be appreciated that variations to the foregoing embodiments of the invention can be made while still falling within the scope of the invention can be made while still falling within scope of the invention. Features disclosed in the specification, unless stated otherwise, can be replaced by alternative features serving the same, equivalent or similar purpose. Thus, unless stated otherwise, each feature disclosed represents one example of a generic series of equivalent or similar features.

Use of exemplary language, such as "for instance", "such as", "for example" and the like, is merely intended to better illustrate the invention and does not indicate a limitation on the scope of the invention unless so claimed. Any steps described in the specification may be performed in any order or simultaneously, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. All of the features and/or steps disclosed in the specification can be combined in any combination, except for combinations where at least some of the features and/or steps are mutually exclusive. In particular, preferred features of the invention are applicable to all aspects of the invention and may be used in any combination.

The ratio of flexural strength to density can be considered to normalize values that apply to many wood materials and thus make them comparable.

Numerical values regarding the properties of the wood material are based on DIN 68364 as issued in 05.2003.

Where the density of wood is mentioned, the gross density or bulk density is addressed.




 
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