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Title:
ON THE FRAME STRUCTURE DESIGN FOR SINGLE CARRIER WAVEFORM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/160554
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An approach is described for a method for a fifth generation (5G) wireless communication or a new radio (NR) system that includes the following steps. The method includes generating data samples associated with a sampling rate. The method further includes generating a waveform by populating a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of the waveform using the data samples, wherein slot durations of the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform equal respective durations of a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of a reference waveform to thereby align the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform with the respective first slot and second slot in the subframe of the reference waveform. The method further includes transmitting the waveform using front end circuitry, wherein the waveform is a single carrier waveform, and wherein the reference waveform is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform.

Inventors:
ZHU JIE (US)
XIONG GANG (US)
LEE DAEWON (US)
Application Number:
US2020/016444
Publication Date:
August 06, 2020
Filing Date:
February 03, 2020
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
APPLE INC (US)
International Classes:
H04L5/00; H04L27/26; H04W72/04
Foreign References:
US20180123749A12018-05-03
Other References:
"DRAFT Supplement to STANDARD [for] Information Technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systems- Local and metropolitan area networks-Specific requirements- Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Further Higher-Speed Physical", IEEE DRAFT; 802.11G-D2.1, IEEE-SA, PISCATAWAY, NJ USA, vol. 802.11g, 25 January 2002 (2002-01-25), pages 1 - 40, XP017608215
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HELVEY, Jeffrey T. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method for a fifth generation (5G) wireless communication or a new radio (NR)

system, the method comprising:

generating data samples associated with a sampling rate;

generating a waveform by populating a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of the waveform using the data samples, wherein slot durations of the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform equal respective durations of a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of a reference waveform to thereby align the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform with the respective first slot and second slot in the subframe of the reference waveform; and

transmitting the waveform using front end circuitry,

wherein the waveform is a single carrier waveform, and

wherein the reference waveform is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the single carrier waveform comprises a single carrier- cyclic prefix-frequency domain equalizer (SC-CP-FDE) waveform or a single carrier- unique word-frequency domain equalizer (SC-UW-FDE) waveform.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform comprises a cyclic prefix - orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP- OFDM) waveform or a Discrete Fourier Transform-spread-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM) waveform.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein a symbol duration of the waveform multiplied by a first integer is a reference unit time duration that equals one of the slot duration of the reference waveform, the slot duration of the reference waveform multiplied by a second positive integer, 0.5 ms or 1 ms. 5. The method of claim 1, wherein the data samples are generated using a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) with DFT size defined as 2‘ · 37 · 5fe, wherein i, j, k are non-negative integers.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the sampling rate is a fraction of a sampling rate of the reference waveform.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the slot durations of the first slot and the second slot equal a subframe duration of the waveform divided by a third integer that is based on the sampling rate.

8. A user equipment (UE) for a fifth generation (5G) wireless communication or a new radio (NR) system, comprising:

radio front end circuitry; and

processor circuitry coupled to the radio front end circuitry and configured to: generate data samples associated with a sampling rate;

generate a waveform by populating a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of the waveform using the data samples, wherein slot durations of the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform equal respective durations of a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of a reference waveform to thereby align the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform with the respective first slot and second slot in the subframe of the reference waveform; and

transmit the waveform using the radio front end circuitry,

wherein the waveform is a single carrier waveform, and

wherein the reference waveform is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform.

9. The UE of claim 8, wherein the single carrier waveform comprises a single carrier-cyclic prefix-frequency domain equalizer (SC-CP-FDE) waveform or a single carrier-unique word-frequency domain equalizer (SC-UW-FDE) waveform. 10. The UE of claim 8, wherein the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform comprises a cyclic prefix - orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP- OFDM) waveform or a Discrete Fourier Transform-spread-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM) waveform.

11. The UE of claim 8, wherein a symbol duration of the waveform multiplied by a first integer is a reference unit time duration that equals one of the slot duration of the reference waveform, the slot duration of the reference waveform multiplied by a second positive integer, 0.5 ms or 1 ms.

12. The UE of claim 8, wherein the data samples are generated using a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) with DFT size defined as 2Ai-3Aj-5Ak, wherein i, j, k are non-negative integers.

13. The UE of claim 8, wherein the sampling rate is a fraction of a sampling rate of the reference waveform.

14. The UE of claim 8, wherein the slot durations of the first slot and the second slot equal a subframe duration of the waveform divided by a third integer that is based on the sampling rate.

15. A non-transitory computer-readable media comprising instructions to cause an electronic device, upon execution of the instructions by one or more processors of the electronic device, to perform one of more elements of a method, the method comprising:

generating data samples associated with a sampling rate;

generating a waveform by populating a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of the waveform using the data samples, wherein slot durations of the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform equal respective to durations of a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of a reference waveform to thereby align the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform with the respective first slot and second slot in the subframe of the reference waveform; and

transmitting the waveform using front end circuitry, wherein the waveform is a single carrier waveform, and

wherein the reference waveform is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform.

16. The non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 15, wherein the single carrier waveform comprises a single carrier-cyclic prefix-frequency domain equalizer (SC-CP- FDE) waveform or a single carrier-unique word-frequency domain equalizer (SC-UW- FDE) waveform.

17. The non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 15, wherein the orthogonal

frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform comprises a cyclic prefix - orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) waveform or a Discrete Fourier Transform-spread-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM) waveform.

18. The non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 15, wherein a symbol duration of the waveform multiplied by a first integer is a reference unit time duration that equals one of the slot duration of the reference waveform, the slot duration of the reference waveform multiplied by a second positive integer, 0.5 ms or 1 ms.

19. The non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 15, wherein data samples are

generated using a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) with DFT size defined as 2l · 37 ·

5fe, wherein i, j, k are non-negative integers.

20. The non-transitory computer-readable media of claim 15, wherein the sampling is a fraction of a sampling rate of the reference waveform.

Description:
ON THE FRAME STRUCTURE DESIGN FOR SINGLE CARRIER

WAVEFORM

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Number

62/800,350, filed on February 1, 2019, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD

[0002] Various embodiments generally may relate to the field of wireless

communications.

SUMMARY

[0003] An embodiment is a method for a fifth generation (5G) wireless communication or a new radio (NR) system that includes the following steps. The method includes generating data samples associated with a sampling rate. The method further includes generating a waveform by populating a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of the waveform using the data samples, wherein slot durations of the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform equal respective durations of a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of a reference waveform to thereby align the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform with the respective first slot and second slot in the subframe of the reference waveform. The method further includes transmitting the waveform using front end circuitry, wherein the waveform is a single carrier waveform, and wherein the reference waveform is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform.

[0004] Another embodiment is described that is a user equipment (UE) for a fifth

generation (5G) wireless communication or a new radio (NR) system, where the UE includes radio front end circuitry and processor circuitry. The processor circuitry is configured to generate data samples associated with a sampling rate. The processor circuitry is further configured to generating a waveform by populating a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of the waveform using the data samples, wherein slot durations of the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform equal respective durations of a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of a reference waveform to thereby align the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform with the respective first slot and second slot in the subframe of the reference waveform. The processor circuitry is further configured to transmitting the waveform using the radio front end circuitry, wherein the waveform is a single carrier waveform, and wherein the reference waveform is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform.

[0005] Another embodiment is described that is computer-readable media (CRM)

comprising computer instructions, where upon execution of the instructions by one or more processors of an electronic device, causes the electronic device to perform various steps. These steps include generating data samples associated with a sampling rate. The steps further include generating a waveform by populating a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of the waveform using the data samples, wherein slot durations of the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform equal respective to durations of a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of a reference waveform to thereby align the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform with the respective first slot and second slot in the subframe of the reference waveform. The steps further include transmitting the waveform using front end circuitry, wherein the waveform is a single carrier waveform, and wherein the reference waveform is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0006] Figure 1 illustrates transmission schemes for single carrier waveforms in

accordance with some embodiments.

[0007] Figure 2 illustrates a frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform of option 1

within 0.5 ms, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0008] Figure 3 illustrates a frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform of option 2

within 0.5 ms, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0009] Figure 4 illustrates a frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform of option 3

within 0.5 ms, in accordance with some embodiments. [0010] Figure 5 illustrates a frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform of option 4 within 0.5 ms, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0011] Figure 6 illustrates a frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform of option 5 within 0.5 ms, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0012] Figure 7 illustrates a frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform of option 6 within 0.5 ms, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0013] Figure 8 illustrates a frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform of option 7 within 0.5 ms, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0014] Figure 9 depicts an architecture of a system of a network in accordance with some embodiments.

10015] Figure 10 depicts an architecture of a system including a first core network in accordance with some embodiments.

[0016] Figure 11 depicts an architecture of a system including a second core network in accordance with some embodiments.

[0017] Figure 12 depicts an example of infrastructure equipment in accordance with various embodiments.

[0018] Figure 13 depicts example components of a computer platform in accordance with various embodiments

[0019] Figure 14 depicts example components of baseband circuitry and radio frequency circuitry in accordance with various embodiments.

[0020] Figure 15 is an illustration of v arious protocol functions that may be used for various protocol stacks in accordance with various embodiments.

[0021] Figure 16 illustrates components of a core network in accordance with various embodiments.

[0022] Figure 17 is a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments, of a system to support network functions virtualization (NFV).

[0023] Figure 18 depicts a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments, able to read instructions from a machine-readable or computer- readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium) and perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein.

[0024] Figure 19 depicts an example procedure for practicing the various embodiments discussed herein, for example, for generating and transmitting a waveform. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0025] The following detailed description refers to the accompanying drawings. The same reference numbers may be used in different drawings to identify the same or similar elements. In the following description, for purposes of explanation and not limitation, specific details are set forth such as particular structures, architectures, interfaces, techniques, etc. in order to provide a thorough understanding of the vari ous aspects of various embodiments. However, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art having the benefit of the present disclosure that the various aspects of the various embodiments may ¬ be practiced in other examples that depart from these specific details. In certain instances, descriptions of well-known devices, circuits, and methods are omitted so as not to obscure the description of the various embodiments with unnecessary detail. For the purposes of the present document, the phrase“A or B” means (A), (B), or (A and B).

[0026] Mobile communication has evolved significantly from early voice systems to today's highly sophisticated integrated communication platform. The next generation wireless communication system, 5G, or new radio (NR) will provide access to information and sharing of data anywhere, anytime by various users and applications. NR is expected to be a unified network/system that target to meet vastly different and sometime conflicting performance dimensions and services. Such diverse multi dimensional requirements are driven by different services and applications. In general,

NR will evolve based on 3 GPP LTE-Advanced with additional potential new Radio Access Technologies (RATs) to enrich people lives with better, simple and seamless wireless connectivity solutions. NR will enable eveiy thing connected by wireless and deliver fast, rich contents and services.

[0027] In NR Release 15, system design is targeted for carrier frequencies up to 52.6GHz with a waveform choice of cyclic prefix - orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) for DL and UL, and additionally. Discrete Fourier Transform-spread-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM) for UL. However, for carrier frequency above 52 6GHz, it is envisioned that single carrier based waveform is needed in order to handle issues including low power amplifier (PA) efficiency and large phase noise.

[0028] For single carrier based waveform, DFT-s-OFDM and single carrier with

frequency domain equalizer (SC-FDE) can be considered for both DL and UL. For OFDM based transmission scheme including DFT-s-OFDM, a cyclic prefix (CP) is inserted at the beginning of each block, where the last data symbols in a block is repeated as the CP. Typically, the length of CP exceeds the maximum expected delay spread in order to overcome the inter-symbol interference (1SI).

10029] For SC-FDE transmission scheme, a known sequence (guard interval (GI), unique word (UW), etc.) or data (considered as CP) can be inserted at both the beginning and/or end of one block. Further, a linear equalizer in the frequency domain can be employed to reduce the receiver complexity. Compared to OFDM, SC-FDE transmission scheme can reduce Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) and thus allow the use of less costly power amplifier.

[0030] Figure 1 illustrates the transmission sch eme of two potential candidates of single carrier based waveform, respectively. In particular, single carrier-cyclic prefix-frequency domain equalizer (SC-CP-FDE) comprises of CP and data, where CP is copied from the last part of data portion. For single carrier-unique w ord-frequency domain equalizer (SC- UW-FDE), UW is inserted at the beginning and end of data portion within one data block. Note that it may be possible that UW for two blocks are not shared, i.e., independent UWs are generated for each data block.

[0031] As defined in NR Rel-15, scalable numerology is supported for the transmission of data and control channel. More specially, subcarrier spacings with 2 n 15 kHz are defined in the specification, where n— 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. In addition, subframe duration is lms, w hich is used as a timing reference to align the slots with different numerologies. One slot has 14 OFDM symbols for numerology with normal cyclic prefix. Further, OFDM symbol boundary alignment is defined for different subcarrier spacings with normal cyclic prefix. Note that a longer CP is used for the first symbol within 0.5ms boundary .

[0032] For system operating above 52.6GHz, when single carrier waveform especially

SC-FDE based waveform is supported, given that the sampling rate may be different from that for CP-OFDM or DFT-s-OFDM w aveform, frame structure may need to be defined.

[0033] This disclosure describes frame structure design for single carrier w aveform for system operating above 52 6GHz carrier frequency.

Frame structure design for single carrier waveform

[0034] As mentioned above, in NR Rel-15, scalable numerology is supported for the transmission of data and control channel. More specially, subcarrier spacings with 2 n · 15 kHz are defined in the specification, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. In addition, subframe duration is lms, which is used as a timing reference to align the slots with different numerologies. One slot has 14 OFDM symbols for numerology with normal cyclic prefix. Further, OFDM symbol boundary' alignment is defined for different subcarrier spacings with normal cyclic prefix. Note that a longer CP is used for the first symbol within 0.5ms boundary'.

[0035] For system operating above 52.6GHz, when CP-OFDM and DFT-s-OFDM

waveform are used, subcarrier spacing can be specified as Af = 2 n · 15 kHz, where n can be 5,6,7 or other integer values, i.e., subcarrier spacing can be 480KHz, 960KHz, 1920KHz, etc. To reduce implementation cost, e.g., using a shared crystal oscillator for both CP-OFDM and single carrier waveforms, sampling time for single carrier waveform, including single carrier-cyclic prefix-frequency domain equalizer (SC-CP-FDE) and single carrier-unique word-frequency domain equalizer (SC-UW-FDE) waveforms, can be defined as

Where T c l is the sampling time for CP-OFDM based waveform, T c 2 is the sampling time for single carrier waveform; N x and N 2 are positive integers.

[0036] In one example, assuming the sampling time of CP-OFDM waveform as meet similar spectrum utilization as CP- OFDM waveform, the sampling time of single carrier waveform can be

|0037] In other words, the sampling rate of single carrier waveform with similar spectrum utilization to sampling rate 983.04MHz of CP-OFDM will be 737.28MHz.

[0038] Typically, frequency domain equalizer is employed for single carrier waveform to reduce the receiver complexity. In this case, efficient DFT size for DFT operation to convert the time domain signal to frequency' domain signal can be defined as

2 l 3 7 S k

Where i, j, k are non-negative integers.

[0039] Additionally, a block of samples for single carrier waveform is defined where (positi ve) integer number of blocks composes a reference unit time duration. The reference unit time duration can be equal to a slot duration of OFDM system with subcarrier spacing of j - = 2 n · 15 kHz and with cyclic prefix (CP) length that corresponds to 7 03125% of the DFT duration of the OFDM symbol, or integer multiple of slot duration of OFDM system, or 0.5ms, or lms.

|0040] Alignment of integer number of blocks within a reference unit time duration

allows interchangeability between OFDM waveform and single carrier waveform in units of reference unit time duration and provides efficient method of multiplexing OFDM waveform and single carrier waveform efficiently.

[0041] Embodiments of frame structure design for single carrier waveform that factors into account, integer fraction sampling rate between OFDM and single carrier waveform, efficient DFT size, and alignment of integer number of block of single carrier waveform samples within a reference unit time duration, for system operating above 52.6GHz are provided as follows:

[0042] In one embodiment, subframe boundary with duration of lms is aligned for single carrier waveform with different sampling time (or chip rate). Further, within one subframe, slot duration is equally divided by an integer, K, which also depends on the sampling time. For instance, K = 2 M , where M is an integer.

[0043] In one example, M=6 or K =64. This indicates that 64 slots with slot duration of 15.625ns can be defined within one subframe.

[0044] Further, in another example, for SC-UW-FDE waveform, the number of data blocks within one slot can be 12. DFT size can be 960. Assuming 737.28MFIz chip rate, the number of samples for UW is 54. Note that in this option, UWs are shared between two data blocks.

[0045] Figure 2 illustrates one example of frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform within 0.5ms. In the example, 32 slots are equally spread within 0.5ms wherein one slot spans 15.625us. Assuming 737.28MHz sampling rate, the number of samples for UW and data portion within one block is 54 and 906, respectively. Note that the number of samples for UW may be predefined in the specification, or configured by higher layers or dynamically indicated by MAC-CE or DCI or a combination thereof. In this case, the DFT size is 960.

[0046] In another option, for SC-UW-FDE waveform when the last block transmission of a slot is required to finish at the slot boundary, an extra GI/UW may be appended to the end of the last block. For example, when the sampling rate of SC-UW-FDE waveform is 720.896 MFIz which is 1 1/15 of CP -OFDM sampling rate 983.04MFIz, the block size can be 800 and the extra GLOW size is 64. The number of blocks in a slot is 14. Figure 3 shows the example within 0.5ms.

[0047] In another option, for SC-UW-FDE waveform, in case when UW is not shared between two blocks, the number of blocks can be 12, and the number of samples for UW and data in one block can be 60 and 840, respectively. In this case, the DFT size can be 900. Figure 4 illustrates another example of frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform within 0.5ms.

[0048] In another embodiment, slot boundary for single carrier waveform can be

aligned with that for CP-OFDM and DFT-s-OFDM waveform.

[0049] In one example, assuming sampling time of CP-OFDM w aveform as

l c 1 938.04 ^

10050] The number of samples within first slot of 0.5ms and remaining slots can be

15856 and 15344, which correspond to 16.13us and 15.61us, respectively. This is due to the extra ~0.5us in the first slot of 0.5ms. In this case, the slot boundary of SC-UW-FDE and SC-CP-FDE is said to align with the boundary of CP-OFDM and DFT-s-OFDM if the slot duration of first slot and remaining slots for single carrier waveform are 16. Bus and 15 61 us, respectively. For example, if the sampling rate of single carrier waveforms is 675.84 MHz which is 11/16 of 983.04MHz for CP-OFDM waveform, and there are 7 blocks in a slot, then the first slot has 10901 samples and the remaining slots have 10549 samples. For SC-UW-FDE waveform shown in Figure 5, the block size can be 1500 and an extra-GI/UW at the slot end has 49 samples; For SC-CP-OFDM waveform show'll in Figure 6, the CP length may be 49 samples and the FFT size is 1458 which is 2*3 L 6.

[0051] In another embodiment of the invention, symbol boundary for single carrier w aveform can be aligned with that for CP-OFDM and DFT-s-OFDM waveform, which can provide coexistence between CP-OFDM waveform and single carrier waveform.

Note that due to symbol boundary alignment, slot boundary alignment can be automatically achieved between single carrier and CP-OFDM waveform.

[0052] In one example, for SC-CP-FDE waveform, assuming 737.28MHz chip rate, the number of data blocks is 14, the DFT size can be 768. CP length and data length can be 54 and 768 within one block, respectively. Figure 7 illustrates one example of frame structure for SC-CP-FDE waveform within 0.5ms. In this example, the slot duration of first slot and remaining slots for single carrier waveform can be 16 13 us and 15 61 us, respectively.

|0053] In another example, for SC-UW-FDE waveform, in case when UW is not shared between two blocks, the number of blocks can be 14, and the number of samples for UW and data in one block can be 54 and 714, respectively. In this case, the DFT size can be 768. Figure 8 illustrates another example of frame structure for SC-UW-FDE waveform within 0.5ms.

[0054] Figure 19 illustrates a flowchart diagram of a method embodiment 1900 for a fifth generation (5G) wireless communication or a new radio (NR) system. In step 1910, the method includes generating data samples associated with a sampling rate. In step 1920, the method includes generating a waveform by populating a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of the waveform using the data samples, wherein slot durations of the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform equal respective durations of a first slot and a second slot in a subframe of a reference waveform to thereby align the first slot and the second slot in the subframe of the waveform with the respective first slot and second slot in the subframe of the reference waveform. In step 1930, the method includes transmitting the waveform using front end circuitry, wherein the waveform is a single carrier waveform, and wherein the reference waveform is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform.

Systems and Implementations

[0055] Figure 9 illustrates an example architecture of a system 900 of a network, in

accordance with various embodiments. The following description is provided for an example system 900 that operates in conjunction with the LTE system standards and 5G or NR system standards as provided by 3GPP technical specifications. However, the example embodiments are not limited in this regard and the described embodiments may apply to other networks that benefit from the principles described herein, such as future 3GPP systems (e.g., Sixth Generation (6G)) systems, IEEE 802, 16 protocols (e.g., WMAN, WiMAX, etc.), or the like.

|0056] As shown by Figure 9, the system 900 includes UE 901a and UE 901b

(collectively referred to as“UEs 901” or“UE 901”). In this example, IJEs 901 are illustrated as smartphones (e.g., handheld touchscreen mobile computing devices connectable to one or more cellular networks), but may also comprise any mobile or non- mobile computing device, such as consumer electronics devices, cellular phones, smartphones, feature phones, tablet computers, wearable computer devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), pagers, wireless handsets, desktop computers, laptop computers, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), in-car entertainment (ICE) devices, an

Instrument Cluster (IC), head-up display (HUD) devices, onboard diagnostic (OBD) devices, dashtop mobile equipment (DME), mobile data terminals (MDTs), Electronic Engine Management System (EEMS), electronic/engine control units (ECUs), electronic/engine control modules (ECMs), embedded systems, microcontrollers, control modules, engine management systems (EMS), networked or“smart” appliances, MTC devices, M2M, IoT devices, and/or the like.

[0057] In some embodiments, any of the UEs 901 may be IoT UEs, which may comprise a network access layer designed for low-power IoT applications utilizing short-lived UE connections. An IoT UE can utilize technologies such as M2M or MTC for exchanging data with an MTC server or device via a PLMN, ProSe or D2D communication, sensor networks, or IoT networks. The M2M or MTC exchange of data may be a machine- initiated exchange of data An IoT network describes interconnecting IoT UEs, which may include uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices (within the Internet infrastructure), with short-lived connections. The IoT UEs may execute background applications (e.g., keep-alive messages, status updates, etc.) to facilitate the connections of the IoT network.

[0058] The UEs 901 may be configured to connect, for example, communicatively

couple, with an or RAN 910. In embodiments, the RAN 910 may be an NG RAN or a 5G RAN, an E-UTRAN, or a legacy RAN, such as a UTRAN or GERAN. As used herein, the term“NG RAN” or the like may refer to a RAN 910 that operates in an NR or 5G system 900, and the term“E-UTRAN” or the like may refer to a RAN 910 that operates in an LTE or 4G system 900. The UEs 901 utilize connections (or channels) 903 and 904, respectively, each of which comprises a physical communications interface or layer (discussed in further detail below).

[0059] In this example, the connections 903 and 904 are illustrated as an air interface to enable communicative coupling, and can be consistent with cellular communications protocols, such as a GSM protocol, a CDMA network protocol, a PTT protocol, a POC protocol, a UMTS protocol, a 3GPP LTE protocol, a 5G protocol, a NR protocol, and/or any of the other communications protocols discussed herein. In embodiments, the UEs 901 may directly exchange communication data via a ProSe interface 905. The ProSe interface 905 may alternatively be referred to as a SL interface 905 and may comprise one or more logical channels, including but not limited to a PSCCH, a PSSCH, a PSDCH, and a PSBCH.

[0060] The UE 901b is shown to be configured to access an AP 906 (also referred to as

“WLAN node 906,”“WLAN 906,”“WLAN Termination 906,”“WT 906” or the like) via connection 907. The connection 907 can comprise a local wireless connection, such as a connection consistent with any IEEE 802.11 protocol, wherein the AP 906 would comprise a wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi®) router. In this example, the AP 906 is shown to be connected to the Internet without connecting to the core network of the wireless system (described in further detail below). In various embodiments, the UE 901b, RAN 910, and AP 906 may be configured to utilize LWA operation and/or LWIP operation. The LWA operation may involve the UE 901b in RRC CONNECTED being configured by a RAN node 911a-b to utilize radio resources of LTE and WLAN. LWIP operation may involve the UE 901b using WLAN radio resources (e.g., connection 907) via IPsec protocol tunneling to authenticate and encry pt packets (e.g., IP packets) sent over the connection 907. IPsec tunneling may include encapsulating the entirety of original IP packets and adding a new packet header, thereby protecting the original header of the IP packets.

[0061] The RAN 910 can include one or more AN nodes or RAN nodes 911a and 911b

(collectively referred to as“RAN nodes 911” or“RAN node 911”) that enable the connections 903 and 904. As used herein, the terms“access node,”“access point,” or the like may describe equipment that provides the radio baseband functions for data and/or voice connectivity between a network and one or more users. These access nodes can be referred to as BS, gNBs, RAN nodes, eNBs, NodeBs, RSUs, TRxPs or TRPs, and so forth, and can comprise ground stations (e.g., terrestrial access points) or satellite stations providing coverage within a geographic area (e.g., a cell). As used herein, the term“NG RAN node” or the like may refer to a RAN node 911 that operates in an NR or 5G system 900 (for example, a gNB), and the term“E-UTRAN node” or the like may refer to a RAN node 911 that operates in an LTE or 4G system 900 (e.g., an eNB). According to various embodiments, the RAN nodes 911 may be implemented as one or more of a dedicated physical device such as a macrocell base station, and/or a low power (LP) base station for providing femtocells, picocells or other like cells having smaller coverage areas, smaller user capacity, or higher bandwidth compared to macrocells.

[0062] In some embodiments, all or parts of the RAN nodes 911 may be implemented as one or more software entities running on server computers as part of a virtual network, which may be referred to as a CRAN and/or a virtual baseband unit pool (vBBUP). In these embodiments, the CRAN or vBBUP may implement a RAN function split, such as a PDCP split wherein RRC and PDCP layers are operated by the CRAN/vBBUP and other L2 protocol entities are operated by individual RAN nodes 911; a MAC/PHY split wherein RRC, PDCP, RLC, and MAC layers are operated by the CRAN/vBBUP and the PHY layer is operated by individual RAN nodes 911; or a“lower PHY” split wherein RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC layers and upper portions of the PHY layer are operated by the CRAN/vBBUP and lower portions of the PHY layer are operated by individual RAN nodes 911. This virtualized framework allows the freed-up processor cores of the RAN nodes 911 to perform other virtualized applications. In some implementations, an individual RAN node 911 may represent individual gNB-DUs that are connected to a gNB-CU via individual FI interfaces (not shown by Figure 9). In these implementations, the gNB-DUs may include one or more remote radio heads or RFEMs (see, e.g., Figure 12), and the gNB-CU may be operated by a server that is located in the RAN 910 (not shown) or by a server pool in a similar manner as the CRAN/vBBUP. Additionally or alternatively, one or more of the RAN nodes 911 may be next generation eNBs (ng- eNBs), which are RAN nodes that provide E-UTRA user plane and control plane protocol terminations toward the UEs 901, and are connected to a 5GC (e.g., CN 1 120 of Figure 11) via an NG interface (discussed infra).

[0063] In V2X scenarios one or more of the RAN nodes 911 may be or act as RS Us. The term“Road Side Unit” or“RSU” may refer to any transportation infrastructure entity- used for V2X communications. An RSU may be implemented in or by a suitable RAN node or a stationary (or relatively stationar ) UE, w ere an RSU implemented in or by a UE may be referred to as a“UE-type RSU,” an RSU implemented in or by an eNB may be referred to as an“eNB-type RSU,” an RSU implemented in or by a gNB may be referred to as a“gNB-type RSU,” and the like. In one example, an RSU is a computing device coupled with radio frequency circuitry located on a roadside that provides connectivity support to passing vehicle UEs 901 (vUEs 901). The RSU may also include internal data storage circuitry to store intersection map geometry, traffic statistics, media, as well as applications/software to sense and control ongoing vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The RSU may operate on the 5.9 GHz Direct Short Range Communications (DSRC) band to provide very low latency communications required for high speed events, such as crash avoidance, traffic warnings, and the like. Additionally or alternatively, the RSU may operate on the cellular V2X band to provide the

aforementioned low latency communications, as well as other cellular communications services. Additionally or alternatively, the RSU may operate as a Wi-Fi hotspot (2.4 GHz band) and/or provide connectivity' to one or more cellular networks to provide uplink and downlink communications. The computing device(s) and some or all of the

radiofrequency circuitry of the RSU may be packaged in a weatherproof enclosure suitable for outdoor installation, and may include a network interface controller to provide a wired connection (e.g., Ethernet) to a traffic signal controller and/or a backhaul network.

[0064] Any of the RAN nodes 91 1 can terminate the air interface protocol and can be the first point of contact for the UEs 901. In some embodiments, any of the RAN nodes 911 can fulfill various logical functions for the RAN 910 including, but not limited to, radio network controller (RNC) functions such as radio bearer management, uplink and downlink dynamic radio resource management and data packet scheduling, and mobility' management.

[0065] In embodiments, the UEs 901 can be configured to communicate using OFDM communication signals with each other or with any of the RAN nodes 911 over a multi carrier communication channel in accordance with various communication techniques, such as, but not limited to, an OFDMA communication technique (e.g., for downlink communications) or a SC-FDMA communication technique (e.g., for uplink and ProSe or sidelink communications), although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. The OFDM signals can comprise a plurality of orthogonal subcarriers.

[0066] In some embodiments, a downlink resource grid can be used for downlink

transmissions from any of the RAN nodes 91 1 to the UEs 901, while uplink transmissions can utilize similar techniques. The grid can be a time-frequency grid, called a resource grid or time-frequency resource grid, which is the physical resource in the downlink in each slot. Such a time-frequency plane representation is a common practice for OFDM systems, which makes it intuitive for radio resource allocation. Each column and each row of the resource grid corresponds to one OFDM symbol and one OFDM subcarrier, respectively. The duration of the resource grid in the time domain corresponds to one slot in a radio frame. The smallest time-frequency unit in a resource grid is denoted as a resource element. Each resource grid comprises a number of resource blocks, which describe the mapping of certain physical channels to resource elements. Each resource block comprises a collection of resource elements; in the frequency domain, this may represent the smallest quantity of resources that currently can be al located. There are several different physical downlink channels that are conveyed using such resource blocks.

[0067] According to various embodiments, the UEs 901, 902 and the RAN nodes 911,

912 communicate data (for example, transmit and receive) data over a licensed medium (also referred to as the“licensed spectrum” and/or the“licensed band”) and an unlicensed shared medium (also referred to as the“unlicensed spectrum” and'or the“unlicensed band”). The licensed spectrum may include channels that operate in the frequency range of approximately 400 MHz to approximately 3.8 GHz, whereas the unlicensed spectrum may include the 5 GHz band.

[0068] To operate in the unlicensed spectrum, the UEs 901, 902 and the RAN nodes 911,

912 may operate using LAA, eLAA, and'or feLAA mechanisms. In these

implementations, the UEs 901, 902 and the RAN nodes 911, 912 may perform one or more known medium-sensing operations and'or carrier-sensing operations in order to determine wtiether one or more channels in the unlicensed spectrum is unavailable or otherwise occupied prior to transmitting in the unlicensed spectrum. The medium/carrier sensing operations may be performed according to a listen-before-talk (LET) protocol.

[0069] LET is a mechanism w hereby equipment (for example, UEs 901, 902, RAN nodes

911, 912, etc.) senses a medium (for example, a channel or carrier frequency) and transmits w hen the medium is sensed to be idle (or when a specific channel in the medium is sensed to be unoccupied). The medium sensing operation may include CCA, which utilizes at least ED to determine the presence or absence of other signals on a channel in order to determine if a channel is occupied or clear. This LET mechanism allows cellular/LAA networks to coexist with incumbent systems in the unlicensed spectrum and with other LAA networks. ED may include sensing RF energy across an intended transmission band for a period of time and comparing the sensed RF energy to a predefined or configured threshold.

[0070] Typically, the incumbent systems in the 5 GHz band are WLANs based on IEEE 802.11 technologies. WLAN employs a contention-based channel access mechanism, called CSMA/CA. Here, when a WLAN node (e.g., a mobile station (MS) such as UE 901 or 902, AP 906, or the like) intends to transmit, the WLAN node may first perform CCA before transmission. Additionally, a backoff mechanism is used to avoid collisions in situations where more than one WLAN node senses the channel as idle and transmits at the same time. The backoff mechanism may be a counter that is drawn randomly within the CWS, which is increased exponentially upon the occurrence of collision and reset to a minimum value when the transmission succeeds. Tire LBT mechanism designed for LAA is somewhat similar to the CSMA/CA of WLAN. In some implementations, the LBT procedure for DL or UL transmission bursts including PDSCH or PUSCH transmissions, respectively, may have an LAA contention window' that is variable in length between X and Y ECCA slots, where X and Y are minimum and maximum values for the CWSs for LAA. In one example, the minimum CWS for an LAA transmission may be 9

microseconds (ps); however, the size of the CWS and a MCOT (for example, a transmission burst) may be based on governmental regulator}' requirements.

[0071] The LAA mechanisms are built upon CA technologies of LTE-Adv anced systems.

In CA, each aggregated carrier is referred to as a CC. A CC may have a bandwidth of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 MHz and a maximum of five CCs can be aggregated, and therefore, a maximum aggregated bandwidth is 100 MHz. In FDD systems, the number of aggregated carriers can be different for DL and UL, wfiere the number of UL CCs is equal to or low er than the number of DL component carriers. In some cases, individual CCs can have a different bandwidth than other CCs. In TDD systems, the number of CCs as well as the bandwidths of each CC is usually the same for DL and UL.

[0072] CA also comprises individual serving cells to provide individual CCs. The

coverage of the serving cells may differ, for example, because CCs on different frequency bands will experience different pathloss. A primary service cell or PCell may provide a PCC for both UL and DL, and may handle RRC and NAS related activities. The other serving cells are referred to as SCells, and each SC ell may provide an individual SCC for both UL and DL. The SCCs may be added and removed as required, while changing the PCC may require the UE 901, 902 to undergo a handover. In LAA, eLAA, and feLAA, some or all of the SCells may operate in the unlicensed spectrum (referred to as“LAA SCells”), and the LAA SCells are assisted by a PCell operating in the licensed spectrum. When a UE is configured with more than one LAA SCell, the UE may receive UL grants on the configured LAA SCells indicating different PUSCH starting positions within a same subframe.

[0073] The PD SCI I carries user data and higher-layer signaling to the UEs 901. The

PDCCH carries information about the transport format and resource allocations related to the PDSCH channel, among other things. It may also inform the UEs 901 about the transport format, resource allocation, and IIARQ information related to the uplink shared channel. Typically, downlink scheduling (assigning control and shared channel resource blocks to the UE 901b within a cell) may be performed at any of the RAN nodes 911 based on channel quality information fed back from any of the UEs 901. The downlink resource assignment information may be sent on the PDCCH used for (e.g., assigned to) each of the UEs 901.

10074] The PDCCH uses CCEs to convey the control information. Before being mapped to resource elements, the PDCCH complex-valued symbols may first be organized into quadruplets, which may then be permuted using a sub-block interleaver for rate matching. Each PDCCH may be transmitted using one or more of these CCEs, where each CCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as REGs. Four Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) symbols may be mapped to each REG. The PDCCH can be transmuted using one or more CCEs, depending on the size of the DCI and the channel condition. There can be four or more different PDCCH formats defined in LTE with different numbers of CCEs (e.g., aggregation level, L=T, 2, 4, or 8).

[0075] Some embodiments may use concepts for resource allocation for control channel information that are an extension of the above-described concepts. For example, some embodiments may utilize an EPDCCH that uses PDSCH resources for control information transmission. The EPDCCH may be transmitted using one or more ECCEs. Similar to above, each ECCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as an EREGs. An ECCE may have other numbers of EREGs in some situations.

[0076] The RAN nodes 911 may be configured to communicate with one another via interface 912. In embodiments where the system 900 is an LTE system (e.g., when CN 920 is an EPC 1020 as in Figure 10), the interface 912 may be an X2 interface 912. The X2 interface may be defined between two or more RAN nodes 911 (e.g., two or more eNBs and the like) that connect to EPC 920, and/or between two eNBs connecting to EPC 920. In some implementations, the X2 interface may include an X2 user plane interface (X2-U) and an X2 control plane interface (X2-C). The X2-U may provide flow control mechanisms for user data packets transferred over the X2 interface, and may be used to communicate information about the delivery of user data between eNBs. For example, the X2-U may provide specific sequence number information for user data transferred from a MeNB to an SeNB; information about successful in sequence delivery of PDCP PDUs to a UE 901 from an SeNB for user data; information of PDCP PDUs that were not delivered to a UE 901; information about a current minimum desired buffer size at the SeNB for transmitting to the UE user data; and the like. The X2-C may provide intra-LTE access mobility functionality, including context transfers from source to target eNBs, user plane transport control, etc.; load management functionality ; as well as inter-cell interference coordination functionality.

[0077] In embodiments where the system 900 is a 5G or NR system (e.g., when CN 920 is an 5GC 1120 as in Figure 11), the interface 912 may be an Xn interface 912. The Xn interface is defined between two or more RAN nodes 911 (e.g., two or more gNBs and the like) that connect to 5GC 920, between a RAN node 91 1 (e.g., a gNB) connecting to 5GC 920 and an eNB, and/or between two eNBs connecting to 5GC 920. In some implementations, the Xn interface may include an Xn user plane (Xn-U) interface and an Xn control plane (Xn-C) interface. The Xn-U may provide non-guaranteed delivery of user plane PDUs and support/provide data forwarding and flow control functionality. The Xn-C may provide management and error handling functionality', functionality' to manage the Xn-C interface; mobility' support for UE 901 in a connected mode (e.g., CM- CONNECTED) including functionality to manage the UE mobility for connected mode between one or more RAN nodes 911. The mobility support may include context transfer from an old (source) serving RAN node 911 to new (target) serving RAN node 911; and control of user plane tunnels between old (source) serving RAN node 911 to new (target) serving RAN node 91 1. A protocol stack of the Xn-U may include a transport network layer built on Internet Protocol (IP) transport layer, and a GTP-U layer on top of a UDP and/or IP layer(s) to carry user plane PDUs. The Xn-C protocol stack may include an application layer signaling protocol (referred to as Xn Application Protocol (Xn-AP)) and a transport network layer that is built on SCTP. The SCTP may be on top of an IP layer, and may provide the guaranteed delivery of application layer messages. In the transport IP layer, point-to-point transmission is used to deliver the signaling PDUs. In other implementations, the Xn-U protocol stack and/or the Xn-C protocol stack may be same or similar to the user plane and/or control plane protocol stack(s) shown and described herein.

[0078] The RAN 910 is shown to be communicatively coupled to a core network— in this embodiment, core network (CN) 920. The CN 920 may comprise a plurality of network elements 922, which are configured to offer v arious data and telecommunications services to customers/subscribers (e.g., users of UEs 901) who are connected to the CN 920 via the RAN 910. The components of the CN 920 may be implemented in one physical node or separate physical nodes including components to read and execute instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium). In some embodiments, NFV may be utilized to virtualize any or all of the above-described network node functions via executable instructions stored in one or more computer-readable storage mediums (described in further detail below). A logical instantiation of the CN 920 may be referred to as a network slice, and a logical instantiation of a portion of the CN 920 may be referred to as a network sub-slice. NFV architectures and infrastructures may be used to virtualize one or more network functions, alternatively performed by proprietary hardware, onto physical resources comprising a combination of industry-standard server hardware, storage hardware, or switches. In other words, NFV systems can be used to execute virtual or reconfigurable implementations of one or more EPC components/functions .

[0079] Generally, the application server 930 may be an element offering applications that use IP bearer resources with the core network (e.g., UMTS PS domain, LTE PS data services, etc.). The application server 930 can also be configured to support one or more communication services (e.g., VoIP sessions, PTT sessions, group communication sessions, social networking services, etc.) for the UEs 901 via the EPC 920.

[0080] In embodiments, the CN 920 may be a 5GC (referred to as“5GC 920” or the like), and the RAN 910 may be connected with the CN 920 via an NG interface 913. In embodiments, the NG interface 913 may be split into two parts, an NG user plane (NG-U) interface 914, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 911 and a UPF, and the SI control plane (NG-C) interface 915, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 911 and AMFs. Embodiments where the CN 920 is a 5GC 920 are discussed in more detail with regard to Figure 1 1.

[0081] In embodiments, the CN 920 may be a 5G CN (referred to as“5GC 920” or the like), while in other embodiments, the CN 920 may be an EPC). Where CN 920 is an EPC (referred to as“EPC 920” or the like), the RAN 910 may be connected with the CN 920 via an SI interface 913. In embodiments, the SI interface 913 may be split into two parts, an SI user plane (Sl-U) interface 914, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 911 and the S-GW, and the Sl-MME interface 915, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 911 and MMEs. An example architecture wherein the CN 920 is an EPC 920 is shown by Figure 10.

|0082] Figure 10 illustrates an example architecture of a system 1000 including a first CN 1020, in accordance with various embodiments. In this example, system 1000 may implement the LTE standard wherein the CN 1020 is an EPC 1020 that corresponds with CN 920 of Figure 9. Additionally, the UE 1001 may be the same or similar as the UEs 901 of Figure 9, and the E-UTRAN 1010 may be a RAN that is the same or similar to the RAN 910 of Figure 9, and which may include RAN nodes 91 1 discussed previously. The CN 1020 may comprise MMEs 1021, an S-GW 1022, a P-GW 1023, a HSS 1024, and a SGSN 1025.

[0083] The MMEs 1021 may be similar in function to the control plane of legacy SGSN, and may implement MM functions to keep track of the current location of a UE 1001.

The MMEs 1021 may perform various MM procedures to manage mobility aspects in access such as gateway selection and tracking area list management. MM (also referred to as“EPS MM” or“EMM” in E-UTRAN systems) may refer to all applicable procedures, methods, data storage, etc. that are used to maintain knowledge about a present location of the UE 1001, provide user identity confidentiality', and/or perform other like serv ices to users/subscribers. Each UE 1001 and the MME 1021 may include an MM or EMM sublayer, and an MM context may be established in the UE 1001 and the MME 1021 when an attach procedure is successfully completed. The MM context may be a data structure or database object that stores MM-related information of the UE 1001. The MMEs 1021 may be coupled with the HSS 1024 via an S6a reference point, coupled with the SGSN 1025 via an S3 reference point, and coupled with the S-GW 1022 via an SI 1 reference point.

[0084] The SGSN 1025 may be a node that serves the UE 1001 by tracking the location of an individual UE 1001 and performing security functions. In addition, the SGSN 1025 may perform Inter-EPC node signaling for mobility between 2G/3G and E-UTRAN 3 GPP access networks; PDN and S-GW selection as specified by the MMEs 1021;

handling of UE 1001 time zone functions as specified by the MMEs 1021; and MME selection for handovers to E-UTRAN 3GPP access network. The S3 reference point between the MMEs 1021 and the SGSN 1025 may enable user and bearer information exchange for inter-3 GPP access network mobility in idle and/or active states.

[0085] The HSS 1024 may comprise a database for network users, including

subscription-related information to support the network entities’ handling of

communication sessions. The EPC 1020 may comprise one or several HSSs 1024, depending on the number of mobile subscribers, on the capacity of the equipment, on the organization of the network, etc. For example, the HSS 1024 can provide support for routing/roaming, authentication, authorization, naming'addres sing resolution, location dependencies, etc. An S6a reference point betw een the HSS 1024 and the MMEs 1021 may enable transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenti cating/authorizing user access to the EPC 1020 between HSS 1024 and the MMEs 1021.

[0086] The S-GW 1022 may terminate the SI interface 913 (“Sl-U” in Figure 10) toward the RAN 1010, and routes data packets between the RAN 1010 and the EPC 1020. In addition, the S-GW 1022 may be a local mobility anchor point for inter-RAN node handovers and also may provide an anchor for inter-3 GPP mobility . Other responsibilities may include lawful intercept, charging, and some policy enforcement. The Sl l reference point between the S-GW 1022 and the MMEs 1021 may provide a control plane between the MMEs 1021 and the S-GW 1022. The S-GW 1022 may be coupled with the P-GW 1023 via an S5 reference point. [0087] The P-GW 1023 may terminate an SGi interface toward a PDN 1030. The P-GW

1023 may route data packets between the EPC 1020 and external networks such as a network including the application server 930 (alternatively referred to as an“AT”) via an IP interface 925 (see e.g., Figure 9). In embodiments, the P-GW 1023 may be communicatively coupled to an application server (application server 930 of Figure 9 or PDN 1030 in Figure 10) via an IP communications interface 925 (see, e.g.. Figure 9). The S5 reference point between the P-GW 1023 and the S-GW 1022 may provide user plane tunneling and tunnel management between the P-GW 1023 and the S-GW 1022. The S5 reference point may also be used for S-GW 1022 relocation due to UE 1001 mobility and if the S-GW 1022 needs to connect to a non-coil ocated P-GW 1023 for the required PDN connectivity. The P-GW 1023 may further include a node for policy enforcement and charging data collection (e.g., PCEF (not shown)). Additionally, the SGi reference point between the P-GW 1023 and the packet data network (PDN) 1030 may be an operator external public, a private PDN, or an intra operator packet data network, for example, for provision of IMS services. The P-GW 1023 may be coupled with a PCRF 1026 via a Gx reference point.

[0088] PCRF 1026 is the policy and charging control element of the EPC 1020. In a non- roaming scenario, there may be a single PCRF 1026 in the Home Public Land Mobile Network (HPLMN) associated with a UE 1001’s Internet Protocol Connectivity Access Network (IP-CAN) session. In a roaming scenario with local breakout of traffic, there may be two PCRFs associated with a UE 1001’s IP-CAN session, a Home PCRF (H- PCRF) within an HPLMN and a Visited PCRF (V-PCRF) within a Visited Public Land Mobile Network (VPLMN). The PCRF 1026 may be communicatively coupled to the application server 1030 via the P-GW 1023. The application server 1030 may signal the PCRF 1026 to indicate a new service flow and select the appropriate QoS and charging parameters. The PCRF 1026 may provision this rule into a PCEF (not shown) with the appropriate TFT and QCI, which commences the QoS and charging as specified by the application server 1030. The Gx reference point between the PCRF 1026 and the P-GW 1023 may allow for the transfer of QoS policy and charging rules from the PCRF 1026 to PCEF in the P-GW 1023. An Rx reference point may reside between the PDN 1030 (or “AF 1030”) and the PCRF 1026. [0089] Figure 11 illustrates an architecture of a system 1100 including a second CN 1120 in accordance with various embodiments. The system 1100 is shown to include a UE 1101, which may be the same or similar to the UEs 901 and UE 1001 discussed previously; a (R)AN 1110, which may be the same or similar to the RAN 910 and RAN 1010 discussed previously, and which may include RAN nodes 911 discussed previously; and a DN 1103, which may be, for example, operator services, Internet access or 3rd part}' services; and a 5GC 1120. The 5GC 1120 may include an AUSF 1122; an AMF 1121; a SMF 1124; aNEF 1123; a PCF 1126; a NRF 1125; a UDM 1127; an AF 1128; a UPF 1 102; and aNSSF 1129.

[0090] The UPF 1 102 may act as an anchor point for intra-RAT and inter-RAT mobility, an external PDU session point of interconnect to DN 1103, and a branching point to support multi -homed PDU session. The UPF 1 102 may also perform packet routing and forwarding, perform packet inspection, enforce the user plane part of policy rules, lawfully intercept packets (UP collection), perform traffic usage reporting, perform QoS handling for a user plane (e.g., packet filtering, gating, UL/DL rate enforcement), perform Uplink Traffic verification (e.g., SDF to QoS flow' mapping), transport level packet marking in the uplink and downlink, and perform downlink packet buffering and downlink data notification triggering. UPF 1102 may include an uplink classifier to support routing traffic flows to a data netw ork. The DN 1103 may represent various network operator services, Internet access, or third party' services. DN 1103 may include, or be similar to, application server 930 discussed previously. The UPF 1102 may interact w ith the SMF 1124 via an N4 reference point between the SMF 1124 and the UPF 1102.

[0091 ] The AUSF 1122 may store data for authentication of UE 1 101 and handle

authentication-related functionality'. The AUSF 1122 may facilitate a common authentication framework for various access types. The AUSF 1122 may communicate with the AMF 1 121 via an N12 reference point betw een the AMF 1121 and the AUSF 1122; and may communicate with the UDM 1127 via an N13 reference point betw een the UDM 1127 and the AUSF 1122. Additionally, the AUSF 1122 may exhibit an Nausf service-based interface.

[0092] The AMF 1121 may be responsible for registration management (e.g., for

registering UE 1101, etc.), connection management, reachability management, mobility management, and lawful interception of AMF -related events, and access authentication and authorization. The AMF 1121 may be a termination point for the an Ni l reference point between the AMF 1121 and the SMF 1124. The AMF 1121 may provide transport for SM messages between the UE 1101 and the SMF 1124, and act as a transparent proxy for routing SM messages. AMF 1121 may also provide transport for SMS messages between UE 1101 and an SMSF (not shown by Figure 11). AMF 1121 may act as SEAF, which may include interacti on with the AUSF 1122 and the UE 1101, receipt of an intermediate key that was established as a result of the UE 1101 authentication process. Where USIM based authentication is used, the AMF 1121 may retrieve the security material from the AUSF 1122. AMF 1121 may also include a SCM function, which receives a key from the SEA that it uses to derive access-network specific keys.

Furthermore, AMF 1121 may be a termination point of a RAN CP interface, which may include or be an N2 reference point between the (R)AN 1110 and the AMF 1121; and the AMF 1121 may be a termination point of NAS (Nl) signalling, and perform NAS ciphering and integrity protection.

[0093] AMF 1121 may also support NAS signalling with a UE 1101 over an N3 IWF interface. The N3IWF may be used to provide access to untrusted entities. N3IWF may be a termination point for the N2 interface between the (R)AN 11 10 and the AMF 1121 for the control plane, and may be a termination point for the N3 reference point between the (R) AN 1 1 10 and the UPF 1102 for the user plane. As such, the AMF 1 121 may handle N2 signalling from the SMF 1124 and the AMF 1121 for PDU sessions and QoS, encapsulate/de-encapsulate packets for IP Sec and N3 tunnelling, mark N3 user-plane packets in the uplink, and enforce QoS corresponding to N3 packet marking taking into account QoS requirements associated with such marking received over N2. N3IWF may also relay uplink and downlink control-plane NAS signalling betw een the UE 1101 and AMF 1121 via an Nl reference point between the UE 1101 and the AMF 1121, and relay uplink and downlink user-plane packets between the UE 1101 and UPF 1 102. The N3IWF also provides mechanisms for IPsec tunnel establishment with the UE 1101. The AMF 1121 may exhibit an Namf service-based interface, and may be a termination point for an N14 reference point between two AMFs 1121 and an N17 reference point between the AMF 1121 and a 5G-EIR (not shown by Figure 1 1 ).

[0094] The UE 1101 may need to register with the AMF 1121 in order to receive network services. RM is used to register or deregister the UE 1101 with the network (e.g., AMF 1121), and establish a UE context in the network (e.g., AMF 1121). The UE 1101 may operate in an RM-REGISTERED state or an RM-DEREGISTERED state. In the

RM-DEREGISTERED state, the UE 1101 is not registered with the network, and the UE context in AMF 1121 holds no valid location or routing information for the UE 1101 so the UE 1101 is not reachable by the AMF 1 121. In the RM-REGI STERED state, the UE 1101 is registered with the network, and the UE context in AMF 1121 may hold a valid location or routing information for the UE 1101 so the UE 1101 is reachable by the AMF 1121. In the RM-REGISTERED state, the UE 1101 may perform mobility Registration Update procedures, perform periodic Registration Update procedures triggered by expiration of the periodic update timer (e.g., to notify the network that the UE 1101 is still active), and perform a Registration Update procedure to update UE capability information or to re-negotiate protocol parameters with the network, among others.

[0095] The AMF 1121 may store one or more RM contexts for the UE 1101, where each

RM context is associated with a specific access to the network. The RM context may be a data structure, database object, etc. that indicates or stores, inter alia, a registration state per access type and the periodic update timer. The AMF 1121 may also store a 5GC MM context that may be the same or similar to the (E)MM context discussed previously. In various embodiments, the AMF 1121 may store a CE mode B Restriction parameter of the UE 1101 in an associated MM context or RM context. The AMF 1 121 may also derive the value, when needed, from the UE’s usage setting parameter already stored in the UE context (and/or MM/RM context).

[0096] CM may be used to establish and release a signaling connection between the UE

1101 and the AMF 1121 over the N1 interface. The signaling connection is used to enable NAS signaling exchange between the UE 1101 and the CN 1120, and comprises both the signaling connection between the UE and the AN (e.g., RRC connection or UE-N3IWF connection for non-3GPP access) and the N2 connection for the UE 1 101 between the AN (e.g., RAN 1110) and the AMF 1121. The UE 1 101 may operate in one of two CM states, CM-IDLE mode or CM-CONNECTED mode. When the UE 1101 is operating in the CM-IDLE state/mode, the UE 1101 may have no NAS signaling connection established with the AMF 1121 over the N1 interface, and there may be (R)AN 11 10 signaling connect! on (e. g. , N2 and/or N3 connections) for the UE 1 101. When the UE 1101 is operating in the CM-CONNECTED state/mode, the UE 1101 may have an established NAS signaling connection with the AMF 1121 over the N1 interface, and there may be a (R)AN 1110 signaling connection (e.g., N2 and/or N3 connections) for the UE 1 101. Establishment of an N2 connection between the (R)AN 1110 and the AMF 1121 may cause the UE 1101 to transition from CM-IDLE mode to CM-CONNECTED mode, and the UE 1101 may transition from the CM-CONNECTED mode to the CM-IDLE mode when N2 signaling between the (R)AN 1110 and the AMF 1121 is released.

[0097] The SMF 1124 may be responsible for SM (e.g., session establishment, modify and release, including tunnel maintain between UPF and AN node); UE IP address allocation and management (including optional authorization); selection and control of UP function; configuring traffic steering at UPF to route traffic to proper destination; termination of interfaces toward policy control functions; controlling part of policy enforcement and QoS; lawful intercept (for SM events and interface to LI system);

termination of SM parts of NAS messages; downlink data notification; initiating AN specific SM information, sent via AMF over N2 to AN; and determining SSC mode of a session. SM may refer to management of a PDU session, and a PDU session or“session” may refer to a PDU connectivity service that provides or enables the exchange of PDU s between a UE 1 101 and a data network (DN) 1103 identified by a Data Network Name (DNN). PDU sessions may be established upon UE 1101 request, modified upon UE 1 101 and 5GC 1 120 request, and released upon UE 1101 and 5GC 1 120 request using NAS SM signaling exchanged over the N1 reference point between the UE 1101 and the SMF 1124. Upon request from an application server, the 5GC 1120 may trigger a specific application in the UE 1101. In response to receipt of the trigger message, the UE 1101 may pass the trigger message (or relevant parts/information of the trigger message) to one or more identified applications in the UE 1101. The identified application(s) in the UE 1101 may establish a PDU session to a specific DNN. The SMF 1124 may check whether the UE 1101 requests are compliant with user subscription information associated with the UE 1101. In this regard, the SMF 1 124 may retrieve and/or request to receive update notifications on SMF 1124 level subscription data from the UDM 1127.

[0098] The SMF 1124 may include the following roaming functionality: handling local enforcement to apply QoS SLAs (VPLMN); charging data collection and charging interface (VPLMN); lawful intercept (in VPLMN for SM events and interface to LI system); and support for interaction with external DN for transport of signalling for PDU session authorization/authentication by external DN. An N16 reference point between two SMFs 1124 may be included in the system 1100, which may be between another SMF 1124 in a visited network and the SMF 1124 in the home network in roaming scenarios. Additionally, the SMF 1124 may exhibit the Nsrnf service-based interface.

[0099] The NEF 1 123 may provide means for securely exposing the services and

capabilities provided by 3GPP network functions for third part}', internal exposure/re exposure, Application Functions (e.g., AF 1128), edge computing or fog computing systems, etc. In such embodiments, the NEF 1123 may authenticate, authorize, and/or throttle the AFs. NEF 1 123 may also translate information exchanged with the AF 1128 and information exchanged with internal network functions. For example, the NEF 1123 may translate between an AF-Service-Identifier and an internal 5GC information. NEF 1 123 may also receive information from other network functions (NFs) based on exposed capabilities of other network functions. This information may be stored at the NEF 1123 as structured data, or at a data storage NF using standardized interfaces. The stored information can then be re-exposed by the NEF 1123 to other NFs and AFs, and/or used for other purposes such as analytics. Additionally, the NEF 1123 may exhibit an Nnef service-based interface.

10100] The NRF 1125 may support sendee discovery functions, receive NF discovery requests from NF instances, and provide the information of the discovered NF instances to the NF instances. NRF 1 125 also maintains information of available NF instances and their supported services. As used herein, the terms“instantiate,”“instantiation,” and the like may refer to the creation of an instance, and an“instance” may refer to a concrete occurrence of an object, which may occur, for example, during execution of program code. Additionally, the NRF 1 125 may exhibit the Nnrf service-based interface.

[0101] The PCF 1126 may provide policy rules to control plane function(s) to enforce them, and may also support unified policy framework to govern network behaviour. The PCF 1126 may also implement an FE to access subscription information relevant for policy decisions in a UDR of the UDM 1127. The PCF 1126 may communicate with the AMF 1121 via an N15 reference point between the PCF 1126 and the AMF 1121, which may include a PCF 1 126 in a visited network and the AMF 1 121 in case of roaming scenarios. The PCF 1 126 may communicate with the AF 1128 via an N5 reference point between the PCF 1126 and the AF 1128; and with the SMF 1124 via an N7 reference point between the PCF 1126 and the SMF 1124. The system 1100 and/or CN 1120 may also include an N24 reference point between the PCF 1126 (in the home network) and a PCF 1126 in a visited network. Additionally, the PCF 1126 may exhibit an Npcf service- based interface.

[0102] The UDM 1127 may handle subscription-related information to support the

network entities’ handling of communication sessions, and may store subscription data of UE 1101. For example, subscription data may be communicated between the UDM 1127 and the AMF 1121 via an N8 reference point between the UDM 1127 and the AMF. The UDM 1 127 may include two parts, an application FE and a UDR (the FE and UDR are not shown by Figure 11). The UDR may store subscription data and policy data for the UDM 1127 and the PCF 1126, and/or structured data for exposure and application data (including PFDs for application detection, application request information for multiple UEs 1101) for the NEF 1123. The Nudr service-based interface may be exhibited by the UDR 221 to allo the UDM 1127, PCF 1126, and NEF 1123 to access a particular set of the stored data, as well as to read, update (e.g., add, modify), delete, and subscribe to notification of relevant data changes in the UDR. The UDM may include a UDM-FE, which is in charge of processing credentials, location management, subscription management and so on. Several different front ends may serve the same user in different transactions. The UDM-FE accesses subscription information stored in the UDR and performs authentication credential processing, user identification handling, access authorization, registration/mobility management, and subscription management. The UDR may interact with the SMF 1124 via an NlO reference point betw een the UDM 1127 and the SMF 1 124. UDM 1127 may also support SMS management, wherein an SMS-FE implements the similar application logic as discussed previously. Additionally, the UDM 1127 may exhibit the Nudm sendee-based interface.

[0103] The AF 1128 may provide application influence on traffic routing, provide access to the NCE, and interact with the policy framework for policy control. The NCE may be a mechanism that allows the 5GC 1120 and AF 1128 to provide information to each other via NEF 1123, w hich may be used for edge computing implementations. In such implementations, the network operator and third party services may be hosted close to the UE 1 101 access point of attachment to achieve an efficient service delivery through the reduced end-to-end latency and load on the transport network. For edge computing implementations, the 5GC may select a UPF 1102 close to the UE 1101 and execute traffic steering from the UPF 1102 to DN 1103 via the N6 interface. This may be based on the UE subscription data, UE location, and information provided by the AF 1128. In this way, the AF 1128 may influence UPF (re)selection and traffic routing. Based on operator deployment, when AF 1 128 is considered to be a trusted entity, the network operator may permit AF 1128 to interact directly with relevant NFs. Additionally, the AF

1128 may exhibit an Naf service-based interface.

[0104] The NSSF 1129 may select a set of network slice instances serving the UE 1101.

The NSSF 1 129 may also determine allowed NSSAI and the mapping to the subscribed S-NSSAIs, if needed. The NSSF 1129 may also determine the AMF set to be used to serve the UE 1101, or a list of candidate AMF(s) 1121 based on a suitable configuration and possibly by querying the NRF 1125. The selection of a set of network slice instances for the UE 1101 may be triggered by the AMF 1121 with which the UE 1101 is registered by interacting with the NSSF 1129, which may lead to a change of AMF 1121. The NSSF

1129 may interact with the AMF 1121 via an N22 reference point between AMF 1121 and NSSF 1 129; and may communicate with another NSSF 1129 in a visited network via an N31 reference point (not shown by Figure 11). Additionally, the NSSF 1129 may exhibit an Nnssf sendee-based interface.

[0105] As discussed previously, the CN 1 120 may include an SMSF, which may be

responsible for SMS subscription checking and verification, and relaying SM messages to/from the UE 1101 to/from other entities, such as an SMS-GMSC/IWMSC/SMS-router. The SMS may also interact with AMF 1121 and UDM 1127 for a notification procedure that the UE 1 101 is available for SMS transfer (e.g., set a UE not reachable flag, and notify ing UDM 1127 when UE 1101 is available for SMS).

[0106] The CN 120 may also include other elements that are not shown by Figure 11, such as a Data Storage sy stem/' architecture, a 5G-EIR, a SEPP, and the like. The Data Storage system may include a SDSF, an UDSF, and/or the like. Any NF may store and retrieve unstructured data into/from the UDSF (e.g., UE contexts), via N18 reference point between any NF and the UDSF (not shown by Figure 11). Individual NFs may share a UDSF for storing their respective unstructured data or individual NFs may each have their own UDSF located at or near the individual NFs. Additionally, the UDSF may exhibit an Nudsf service-based interface (not shown by Figure 11). The 5G-EIR may be an NF that checks the status of PEI for determining whether particular equipment/entities are blacklisted from the network; and the SEPP may be a non-transparent proxy that performs topology hiding, message filtering, and policing on inter-PLMN control plane interfaces.

[0107] Additionally, there may be many more reference points and/or service-based interfaces between the NF services in the NFs; however, these interfaces and reference points have been omitted from Figure 11 for clarity. In one example, the CN 1120 may include an Nx interface, which is an inter-CN interface between the MME (e.g., MME 1021) and the AMF 1121 in order to enable interworking between CN 1120 and CN 1020. Other example interfaces/reference points may include an N5g-EIR service-based interface exhibited by a 5G-EIR, an N27 reference point between the NRF in the visited network and the NRF in the home network; and an N31 reference point between the NSSF in the visited network and the NSSF in the home network.

[0108] Figure 12 illustrates an example of infrastructure equipment 1200 in accordance with various embodiments. The infrastructure equipment 1200 (or“system 1200”) may be implemented as a base station, radio head, RAN node such as the RAN nodes 911 and/or AP 906 shown and described previously, application server(s) 930, and/or any other element/device discussed herein. In other examples, the system 1200 could be implemented in or by a UE.

[0109] The system 1200 includes application circuitry 1205, baseband circuitry 1210, one or more radio front end modules (RFEMs) 1215, memory circuitry 1220, power management integrated circuitry (PMIC) 1225, power tee circuitry 1230, network controller circuitry 1235, network interface connector 1240, satellite positioning circuitry 1245, and user interface 1250. In some embodiments, the device 1200 may include additional elements such as, for example, memory/storage, display, camera, sensor, or input/output (I/O) interface. In other embodiments, the components described below may he included in more than one device. For example, said circuitries may be separately included in more than one device for CRAN, vBBU, or other like implementations.

[0110] Application circuitry 1205 includes circuitry such as, but not limited to one or more processors (or processor cores), cache memory, and one or more of low drop-out voltage regulators (LDOs), interrupt controllers, serial interfaces such as SPI, i C or universal programmable serial interface module, real time clock (RTC), timer-counters including interval and watchdog timers, general purpose input'output (I/O or 10), memory card controllers such as Secure Digital (SD) MultiMediaCard (MMC) or similar, Universal Serial Bus (USB) interfaces, Mobile Indus tty Processor Interface (MIPI) interfaces and Joint Test Access Group (JTAG) test access ports. The processors (or cores) of the application circuitry 1205 may be coupled with or may include

memory /storage elements and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory/storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the system 1200. In some implementations, the memory/storage elements may be on-chip memory circuitr ', which may include any suitable volatile and/or non-volatile memory', such as DRAM, SRAM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash memory', solid-state memory·, and/or any other type of memory 7 device technology, such as those discussed herein.

[0111] The processor(s) of application circuitry 7 1205 may include, for example, one or more processor cores (CPUs), one or more application processors, one or more graphics processing units (GPUs), one or more reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processors, one or more Acom RISC Machine (ARM) processors, one or more complex instruction set computing (CISC) processors, one or more digital signal processors (DSP), one or more FPGAs, one or more PLDs, one or more ASICs, one or more

microprocessors or controllers, or any suitable combination thereof. In some

embodiments, the application circuitry 1205 may comprise, or may be, a special-purpose processor/controller to operate according to the various embodiments herein. As examples, the processor(s) of application circuitry 1205 may include one or more Intel Pentium®, Core®, or Xeon® processor(s); Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Ryzen® processor(s), Accelerated Processing Units (APUs), or Epyc® processors; ARM-based processor(s) licensed from ARM Holdings, Ltd. such as the ARM Cortex- A family of processors and the ThunderX2® provided by Cavium(TM), Inc.; a MIPS-based design from MIPS Technologies, Inc. such as MIPS Warrior P-class processors; and/or the like. In some embodiments, the system 1200 may not utilize application circuitry 7 1205, and instead may include a special-purpose processor/controller to process IP data received from an EPC or 5GC, for example.

[0112] In some implementations, the application circuitry 1205 may include one or more hardware accelerators, which may be microprocessors, programmable processing devices, or the like. The one or more hardware accelerators may include, for example, computer vision (CV) and/or deep learning (DL) accelerators. As examples, the programmable processing devices may be one or more a field-programmable devices (FPDs) such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and the like; programmable logic devices (PLDs) such as complex PLDs (CPLDs), high-capacity PLDs (HCPLDs), and the like; ASICs such as structured ASICs and the like; programmable SoCs (PSoCs); and the like. In such implementations, the circuitry of application circuitry 1205 may comprise logic blocks or logic fabric, and other interconnected resources that may be programmed to perform various functions, such as the procedures, methods, functions, etc. of the various embodiments discussed herein. In such embodiments, the circuitry' of application circuitry' 1205 may include memory · cells (e.g., erasable programmable read-only memory' (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory, static memory' (e.g., static random access memory' (SRAM), anti-fuses, etc.)) used to store logic blocks, logic fabric, data, etc. in look-up-tables (LUTs) and the like.

[0113] The baseband circuitry 1210 may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits, a single packaged integrated circuit soldered to a main circuit board or a multi-chip module containing two or more integrated circuits. The various hardware electronic elements of baseband circuitry' 1210 are discussed infra with regard to Figure 14.

[0114] User interface circuitry' 1250 may include one or more user interfaces designed to enable user interaction with the system 1200 or peripheral component interfaces designed to enable peripheral component interaction with the system 1200.

User interfaces may include, but are not limited to, one or more physical or virtual buttons (e.g., a reset button), one or more indicators (e.g., light emitting diodes (LEDs)), a physical keyboard or keypad, a mouse, a touchpad, a touchscreen, speakers or other audio emitting devices, microphones, a printer, a scanner, a headset, a display screen or display device, etc. Peripheral component interfaces may include, but are not limited to, a nonvolatile memory port, a universal serial bus (USB) port, an audio jack, a power supply interface, etc.

[0115] The radio front end modules (RFEMs) 1215 may comprise a millimeter wave

(mmWave) RFEM and one or more sub-mmWave radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). In some implementations, the one or more sub-mmWave RFICs may be physically separated from the mmWave RFEM. The RFICs may include connections to one or more antennas or antenna arrays (see e.g., antenna array 1411 of Figure 14 infra), and the RFEM may be connected to multiple antennas. In alternative implementations, both mmWave and sub-mmWave radio functions may be implemented in the same physical RFEM 1215, which incorporates both mmWave antennas and sub-mmWave.

[0116] The memory circuitry 1220 may include one or more of volatile memory

including dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and/or synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM), and nonvolatile memory (NVM) including high-speed electrically erasable memory (commonly referred to as Flash memory ), phase change random access memory' (PRAM), magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), etc., and may incorporate the three-dimensional (3D) cross-point (XPOINT) memories from Intel® and Micron®. Memory' circuitry 1220 may be implemented as one or more of solder down packaged integrated circuits, socketed memory' modules and plug-in memory cards.

[0117] The PMIC 1225 may include voltage regulators, surge protectors, power alarm detection circuitry', and one or more backup power sources such as a battery or capacitor. The power alarm detection circuitry' may detect one or more of brown out (under-voltage) and surge (over-voltage) conditions. The power tee circuitry' 1230 may provide for electrical pow er drawn from a netw ork cable to provide both power supply and data connectivity' to the infrastructure equipment 1200 using a single cable.

[0118] The netw ork controller circuitry' 1235 may provide connectivity' to a network using a standard network interface protocol such as Ethernet, Ethernet over GRE Tunnels, Ethernet over Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), or some other suitable protocol. Network connectivity may be provided to/from the infrastructure equipment 1200 via network interface connector 1240 using a physical connection, which may be electrical (commonly referred to as a“copper interconnect”), optical, or wireless. The network controller circuitry' 1235 may include one or more dedicated processors and/or FPGAs to communicate using one or more of the aforementioned protocols. In some

implementations, the network controller circuitry 1235 may include multiple controllers to provide connectivity' to other networks using the same or different protocols.

[0119] The positioning circuitry 1245 includes circuitry' to receive and decode signals transmitted/broadcasted by a positioning network of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Examples of navigation satellite constellations (or GNSS) include United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS), Russia’s Global Navigation System (GLONASS), the European Union’s Galileo system, China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, a regional navigation system or GNSS augmentation system (e.g., Navigation with Indian Constellation (NAVIC), Japan’s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), France’s Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), etc.), or the like. The positioning circuitry 1245 comprises various hardware elements (e.g., including hardware devices such as switches, filters, amplifiers, antenna elements, and the like to facilitate OTA communications) to communicate with components of a positioning network, such as navigation satellite constellation nodes. In some embodiments, the positioning circuitry 1245 may include a Micro-Technology for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (Micro-PNT) IC that uses a master timing clock to perform position tracking/estimation without GNSS assistance. The positioning circuitry 1245 may also be part of, or interact with, the baseband circuitry 1210 and/or RFEMs 1215 to communicate with the nodes and components of the positioning network. The positioning circuitry 1245 may also provide position data and/or time data to the application circuitry 1205, which may use the data to synchronize operations with various infrastructure (e.g., RAN nodes 911, etc.), or the like.

[0120] The components shown by Figure 12 may communicate with one another using interface circuitry, which may include any number of bus and/or interconnect (IX) technologies such as industry standard architecture (IS A), extended ISA (EISA), peripheral component interconnect (PCI), peripheral component interconnect extended (PCIx), PCI express (PCIe), or any number of other technologies. The bus/IX may be a proprietary bus, for example, used in a SoC based system. Other bus/IX systems may be included, such as an ! C interface, an SPI interface, point to point interfaces, and a power bus, among others.

[0121] Figure 13 illustrates an example of a platform 1300 (or“device 1300”) in

accordance with various embodiments. In embodiments, the computer platform 1300 may be suitable for use as UEs 901, 902, 1001, application servers 930, and/or any other element/device discussed herein. The platform 1300 may include any combinations of the components shown in the example. The components of platform 1300 may be implemented as integrated circuits (ICs), portions thereof, discrete electronic devices, or other modules, logic, hardware, software, firmware, or a combination thereof adapted in the computer platform 1300, or as components otherwise incorporated within a chassis of a larger system. The block diagram of Figure 13 is intended to show a high level view of components of the computer platform 1300. Howev er, some of the components shown may be omitted, additional components may be present, and different arrangement of the components shown may occur in other implementations.

[0122] Application circuitry 1305 includes circuitry such as, but not limited to one or more processors (or processor cores), cache memory', and one or more of LDOs, interrupt controllers, serial interfaces such as SP1, 1 2 C or universal programmable serial interface module, RTC, timer-counters including interval and watchdog timers, general purpose I/O, memory' card controllers such as SD MMC or similar, USB interfaces, MIP1 interfaces, and JTAG test access ports. The processors (or cores) of the application circuitry 1305 may be coupled with or may include memoiy/storage elements and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory/storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the system 1300. In some implementations, the memory /storage elements may be on-chip memory circuitry', which may include any suitable volatile and/or non-volatile memory', such as DRAM, SRAM, EPROM,

EEPROM, Flash memory', solid-state memory', and/or any other type of memory' device technology', such as those discussed herein.

[0123] The processor(s) of application circuitry' 1205 may include, for example, one or more processor cores, one or more application processors, one or more GPUs, one or more RISC processors, one or more ARM processors, one or more CISC processors, one or more DSP, one or more FPGAs, one or more PLDs, one or more ASICs, one or more microprocessors or controllers, a multithreaded processor, an ultra-low voltage processor, an embedded processor, some other known processing element, or any suitable combination thereof. In some embodiments, the application circuitry' 1205 may comprise, or may be, a special-purpose processor/controll er to operate according to the various embodiments herein.

[0124] As examples, the processor(s) of application circuitry 1305 may include an Intel®

Architecture Core™ based processor, such as a Quark™, an Atom™, an i3, an i5, an i7, or an MCU-class processor, or another such processor available from Intel® Corporation, Santa Clara, CA. The processors of the application circuitry' 1305 may also be one or more of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Ryzen® processor(s) or Accelerated Processing Units (APUs); A5-A9 processor(s) from Apple® Inc., Snapdragon™ processor(s) from Qualcomm® Technologies, Inc., Texas Instruments, Inc.® Open Multimedia Applications Platform (OMAP)™ processor(s); a MIPS-based design from MIPS Technologies, Inc. such as MIPS Warrior M-class, Warrior I-class, and Warrior P- class processors; an ARM-based design licensed from ARM Holdings, Ltd., such as the ARM Cortex- A, Cortex-R, and Cortex-M family of processors; or the like. In some implementations, the application circuitry 1305 may be a part of a system on a chip (SoC) in which the application circuitry' 1305 and other components are formed into a single integrated circuit, or a single package, such as the Edison™ or Galileo™ SoC boards from Intel® Corporation.

[0125] Additionally or alternatively, application circuitry 1305 may include circuitry' such as, but not limited to, one or more a ft el d-programmable devices (FPDs) such as FPGAs and the like; programmable logic devices (PLDs) such as complex PLDs (CPLDs), high- capacity PLDs (HCPLDs), and the like; ASICs such as structured ASICs and the like; programmable SoCs (PSoCs); and the like. In such embodiments, the circuitry of application circuitry 1305 may comprise logic blocks or logic fabric, and other interconnected resources that may be programmed to perform various functions, such as the procedures, methods, functions, etc. of the various embodiments discussed herein. In such embodiments, the circuitry of application circuitry 1305 may include memory' cells (e.g., erasable programmable read-only memory' (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory ' , static memory (e.g., static random access memory (SRAM), anti-fuses, etc.)) used to store logic blocks, logic fabric, data, etc. in look-up tables (LUTs) and the like.

[0126] The baseband circuitry' 1310 may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits, a single packaged integrated circuit soldered to a main circuit board or a multi-chip module containing two or more integrated circuits. The various hardware electronic elements of baseband circuitry' 1310 are discussed infra with regard to Figue 14.

[0127] The RFEMs 1315 may comprise a millimeter wave (mmWave) RFEM and one or more sub-mmWave radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). In some

implementations, the one or more sub-mmWave RFICs may be physically separated from the mmWave RFEM. The RFICs may include connections to one or more antennas or antenna arrays (see e.g., antenna array 1411 of Figue 14 infra), and the RFEM may be connected to multiple antennas. In alternative implementations, both mmWave and sub- mmWave radio functions may be implemented in the same physical RFEM 1315, which incorporates both mmWave antennas and sub-mmWave.

[0128] The memory circuitry 1320 may include any number and type of memory devices used to provide for a given amount of system memory. As examples, the memory circuitry 1320 may include one or more of volatile memory ' including random access memory (RAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM) and/or synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM), and nonvolatile memory (NVM) including high-speed electrically erasable memory' (commonly referred to as Flash memory'), phase change random access memory (PRAM), magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), etc. The memory circuitry' 1320 may be developed in accordance with a Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC) low power double data rate (LPDDR)-based design, such as LPDDR2, LPDDR3, LPDDR4, or the like. Memor circuitry 1320 may be implemented as one or more of solder down packaged integrated circuits, single die package (SDP), dual die package (DDP) or quad die package (Q17P), socketed memory' modules, dual inline memory- modules (DIMMs) including microDIMMs or MiniDIMMs, and/or soldered onto a motherboard via a ball grid array (BGA). In low pow er implementations, the memory' circuitry 1320 may be on-die memory- or registers associated with the application circuitry' 1305. To provide for persistent storage of information such as data, applications, operating systems and so forth, memory circuitry 1320 may include one or more mass storage devices, which may include, inter alia, a solid state disk drive (SSDD), hard disk drive (HDD), a micro HDD, resistance change memories, phase change memories, holographic memories, or chemical memories, among others. For example, the computer platform 1300 may incorporate the three-dimensional (3D) cross-point (XPOINT) memories from Intel® and Micron®.

[0129] Removable memory circuitry' 1323 may include devices, circuitry',

enclosures/housings, ports or receptacles, etc. used to couple portable data storage devices with the platform 1300. These portable data storage devices may be used for mass storage purposes, and may include, for example, flash memory cards (e.g., Secure Digital (SD) cards, microSD cards, xD picture cards, and the like), and USB flash drives, optical discs, external HDDs, and the like. [0130] The platform 1300 may also include interface circuitry (not shown) that is used to connect external devices with the platform 1300. The external devices connected to the platform 1300 via the interface circuitry include sensor circuitry 1321 and electro mechanical components (EMCs) 1322, as well as removable memory devices coupled to removable memory circuitry 1323.

[0131] The sensor circuitry 1321 include devices, modules, or subsystems whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information (sensor data) about the detected events to some other a device, module, subsystem, etc. Examples of such sensors include, inter alia, inertia measurement units (IMUs) comprising accelerometers, gyroscopes, and/or magnetometers; microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) comprising 3-axis accelerometers,

3 -axis gyroscopes, and/or magnetometers; level sensors; flow sensors; temperature sensors (e.g., thermistors); pressure sensors; barometric pressure sensors; gravimeters; altimeters; image capture devices (e.g., cameras or lensless apertures); light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors; proximity sensors (e.g., infrared radiation detector and the like), depth sensors, ambient light sensors, ultrasonic transceivers; microphones or other like audio capture devices; etc.

[0132] EMCs 1322 include devices, modules, or subsystems whose purpose is to enable platform 1300 to change its state, position, and/or orientation, or move or control a mechanism or (sub)system. Additionally, EMCs 1322 may be configured to generate and send mes sages/ signalling to other components of the platform 1300 to indicate a current state of the EMCs 1322. Examples of the EMCs 1322 include one or more power switches, relays including el ectromechani cal relays (EMRs) and/or solid state relays (SSRs), actuators (e.g., valve actuators, etc.), an audible sound generator, a visual warning device, motors (e.g., DC motors, stepper motors, etc.), wheels, thrusters, propellers, claws, clamps, hooks, and/or other like electro-mechanical components. In embodiments, platform 1300 is configured to operate one or more EMCs 1322 based on one or more captured events and/or instructions or control signals received from a service provider and/or various clients.

[0133] In some impl ementati ons , the interface circuitry may connect the platform 1300 with positioning circuitry 1345. The positioning circuitry 1345 includes circuitry to receive and decode signals transmitted/broadcasted by a positioning network of a GNSS. Examp!es of navigation satellite constellations (or GNSS) include United States’ GPS, Russia’s GLONASS, the European Union’s Galileo system, China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, a regional navigation system or GNSS augmentation system (e.g., NAVIC), Japan’s QZSS, France’s DORIS, etc.), or the like. The positioning circuitry 1345 comprises various hardware elements (e.g., including hardware devices such as switches, filters, amplifiers, antenna elements, and the like to facilitate OTA

communications) to communicate with components of a positioning network, such as navigation satellite constellation nodes. In some embodiments, the positioning circuitry 1345 may include a Micro-PNT IC that uses a master timing clock to perform position tracking/estimation without GNSS assistance. The positioning circuitry' 1345 may also be part of, or interact with, the baseband circuitry' 1210 and/or RFEMs 1315 to communicate with the nodes and components of the positioning network. The positioning circuitry 1345 may also provide position data and/or time data to the application circuitry' 1305, which may use the data to synchronize operations with various infrastructure (e.g., radio base stations), for turn- by -turn navigation applications, or the like

[0134] In some impl ementati ons , the interface circuitry' may connect the platform 1300 with Near-Field Communication (NFC) circuitry' 1340. NFC circuitry' 1340 is configured to provide contactless, short-range communications based on radio frequency

identification (RFID) standards, wherein magnetic field induction is used to enable communication between NFC circuitry' 1340 and NFC-enabled devices external to the platform 1300 (e.g., an“NFC touchpoint”). NFC circuitry 1340 comprises an NFC controller coupled with an antenna element and a processor coupled with the NFC controller. The NFC controller may be a chip/IC providing NFC functionalities to the NFC circuitry' 1340 by executing NFC controller firmware and an NFC stack. The NFC stack may be executed by the processor to control the NFC controller, and the NFC controller firmware may be executed by the NFC controller to control the antenna element to emit short-range RF signals. The RF signals may power a passive NFC tag (e.g., a microchip embedded in a sticker or wristband) to transmit stored data to the NFC circuitry' 1340, or initiate data transfer between the NFC circuitry 1340 and another active NFC device (e.g., a smartphone or an NFC-enabled POS terminal) that is proximate to the platform 1300. [0135] The driver circuitry 1346 may include software and hardware elements that operate to control particular devices that are embedded in the platform 1300, attached to the platform 1300, or otherwise communicatively coupled with the platform 1300. The driver circuitry 1346 may include individual drivers allowing other components of the platform 1300 to interact with or control various input'output (I/O) devices that may be present within, or connected to, the platform 1300. For example, driver circuitry 1346 may include a display driver to control and allow access to a display device, a touchscreen driver to control and allow access to a touchscreen interface of the platform 1300, sensor drivers to obtain sensor readings of sensor circuitry' 1321 and control and allow access to sensor circuitry' 1321, EMC drivers to obtain actuator positions of the EMCs 1322 and/or control and allow access to the EMCs 1322, a camera driver to control and allow access to an embedded image capture device, audio drivers to control and allow access to one or more audio devices.

[0136] The power management integrated circuitry (PMIC) 1325 (also referred to as

“power management circuitry 1325”) may manage power provided to various components of the platform 1300. In particular, with respect to the baseband circuitry 1310, the PMIC 1325 may control power-source selection, voltage scaling, battery · charging, or DC-to-DC conversion. The PMIC 1325 may often be included when the platform 1300 is capable of being powered by a battery' 1330, for example, when the device is included in a UE 901, 902, 1001.

[0137] In some embodiments, the PMIC 1325 may control, or otherwise be part of,

various power saving mechanisms of the platform 1300. For example, if the platform 1300 is in an RRC Connected state, where it is still connected to the RAN node as it expects to receive traffic shortly, then it may enter a state known as Discontinuous Reception Mode (DRX) after a period of inactivity. During this state, the platform 1300 may power down for brief intervals of time and thus save power. If there is no data traffic acti vity for an extended period of time, then the platform 1300 may transiti on off to an RRC Idle state, where it disconnects from the network and does not perform operations such as channel quality' feedback, handover, etc. The platform 1300 goes into a very' low power state and it performs paging where again it periodically wakes up to listen to the network and then powers down again. The platform 1300 may not receive data in this state; in order to receive data, it must transition back to RRC Connected state. An additional power saving mode may allow a device to be unavailable to the network for periods longer than a paging interval (ranging from seconds to a few hours). During this time, the device is totally unreachable to the network and may power down completely. Any data sent during this time incurs a large delay and it is assumed the delay is acceptable.

[0138] A batter} 1330 may power the platform 1300, although in some examples the platform 1300 may be mounted deployed in a fixed location, and may have a power supply coupled to an electrical grid. The battery 1330 may be a lithium ion battery, a metal-air battery, such as a zinc-air battery, an aluminum-air battery, a lithium-air battery, and the like. In some implementations, such as in V2X applications, the batter} 1330 may be a ty pical lead-acid automotive battery.

[0139] In some implementations, the battery 1330 may be a“smart battery,” which

includes or is coupled with a Battery Management System (BMS) or battery monitoring integrated circuitry. The BMS may be included in the platform 1300 to track the state of charge (SoCh) of the battery 1330. The BMS may be used to monitor other parameters of the battery 1330 to provide failure predictions, such as the state of health (Soil) and the state of function (SoF) of the battery 1330. The BMS may communicate the information of the battery 1330 to the application circuitry 1305 or other components of the platform 1300. The BMS may also include an analog-to-digital (ADC) convertor that allows the application circuitry 1305 to directly monitor the voltage of the battery 1330 or the current flow from the battery 1330. The battery parameters may be used to determine actions that the platform 1300 may perform, such as transmission frequency, network operation, sensing frequency, and the like.

[0140] A power block, or other power supply coupled to an electrical grid may be

coupled with the BMS to charge the battery 1330. In some examples, the power block 1330 may be replaced with a wireless power receiver to obtain the power wirelessly, for example, through a loop antenna in the computer platform 1300. In these examples, a wireless battery charging circuit may be included in the BMS. The specific charging circuits chosen may depend on the size of the battery 1330, and thus, the current required. The charging may be performed using the Airfuel standard promulgated by the Airfuel Alliance, the Qi wireless charging standard promulgated by the Wireless Power Consortium, or the Rezence charging standard promulgated by the Alliance for Wireless Power, among others.

[0141] User interface circuitry 1350 includes various input/output (I/O) devices present within, or connected to, the platform 1300, and includes one or more user interfaces designed to enable user interaction with the platform 1300 and/or peripheral

component interfaces designed to enable peripheral component interaction with the platform 1300. The user interface circuitry 1350 includes input device circuitry and output device circuitry . Input device circuitry' includes any physical or virtual means for accepting an input including, inter alia, one or more physical or virtual buttons (e.g., a reset button), a physical keyboard, keypad, mouse, touchpad, touchscreen, microphones, scanner, headset, and/or the like. The output device circuitry includes any physical or virtual means for showing information or otherwise conveying information, such as sensor readings, actuator position(s), or other like information. Output device circuitry' may include any number and/or combinations of audio or visual display, including, inter alia, one or more simple visual outputs/indicators (e.g., binary' status indicators (e.g., light emitting diodes (LEDs)) and multi-character visual outputs, or more complex outputs such as display devices or touchscreens (e.g., Liquid Chrystal Displays (LCD), LED displays, quantum dot displays, projectors, etc.), with the output of characters, graphics, multimedia objects, and the like being generated or produced from the operation of the platform 1300. The output device circuitry' may also include speakers or other audio emitting devices, printer(s), and'or the like. In some embodiments, the sensor circuitry 1321 may be used as the input device circuitry (e.g., an image capture device, motion capture device, or the like) and one or more EMCs may be used as the output device circuitry' (e.g., an actuator to provide haptic feedback or the like). In another example, NFC circuitry comprising an NFC controller coupled with an antenna element and a processing device may be included to read electronic tags and'or connect with another NFC-enabled device. Peripheral component interfaces may include, but are not limited to, a non-volatile memory port, a USB port, an audio jack, a power supply interface, etc.

[0142] Although not shown, the components of platform 1300 may communicate with one another using a suitable bus or interconnect (IX) technology, which may include any number of technologies, including ISA, EISA, PCI, PCIx, PCIe, a Time-Trigger Protocol (TIT) system, a FlexRay system, or any number of other technologies. The bus/IX may be a proprietary bus/IX, for example, used in a SoC based system. Other bus/IX systems may be included, such as an I 2 C interface, an SPI interface, point-to-point interfaces, and a power bus, among others.

|0143] Figure 14 illustrates example components of baseband circuitry 1410 and radio front end modules (RFEM) 1415 in accordance with various embodiments. The baseband circuitry 1410 corresponds to the baseband circuitry' 1210 and 1310 of Figures 12 and 13, respectively. The RFEM 1415 corresponds to the RFEM 1215 and 1315 of Figures 12 and 13, respectively. As shown, the RFEMs 1415 may include Radio Frequency (RF) circuitr ' 1406, front-end module (FEM) circuitry 1408, antenna array 141 1 coupled together at least as shown.

|0144] The baseband circuitry' 1410 includes circuitry and/or control logic configured to carry' out various radio/network protocol and radio control functions that

enable communication with one or more radio networks via the RF circuitry' 1406. The radio control functions may include, but are not limited to, signal

modulation/demodulation, encoding/decoding, radio frequency shifting, etc. In some embodiments, modulation/demodulation circuitry' of the baseband circuitry 1410 may include Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT), precoding, or constellation mapping/demapping functionality' . In some embodiments, encoding/decoding circuitry' of the baseband circuitry 1410 may include convolution, tail-biting convolution, turbo, Viterbi, or Low' Density' Parity Check (LDPC) encoder/decoder functionality. Embodiments of modulation/demodulation and encoder/decoder functionality are not limited to these examples and may include other suitable functionality in other embodiments. The baseband circuitry 1410 is configured to process baseband signals received from a receive signal path of the RF circuitry' 1406 and to generate baseband signals for a transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 1406. The baseband circuitry 1410 is configured to interface with application circuitry 1205/1305 (see Figures 12 and 13) for generation and processing of the baseband signals and for controlling operations of the RF circuitry 1406. The baseband circuitry 1410 may handle various radio control functions.

[0145] The aforementioned circuitry' and/or control logic of the baseband circuitry 1410 may include one or more single or multi-core processors. For example, the one or more processors may include a 3G baseband processor I404A, a 4G/LTE baseband processor 1404B, a 5G/NR baseband processor 1404C, or some other baseband processor(s) 1404D for other existing generations, generations in development or to be developed in the future (e.g., sixth generation (6G), etc.). In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 1404A-D may be included in modules stored in the memory 1404G and executed via a Central Processing Unit (CPU) 1404E. In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 1404A-D may be provided as hardware accelerators (e.g., FPGAs, ASICs, etc.) loaded with the appropriate bit streams or logic blocks stored in respective memor cells. In various embodiments, the memory 1404G may store program code of a real-time OS (RTOS), which when executed by the CPU 1404E (or other baseband processor), is to cause the CPU 1404E (or other baseband processor) to manage resources of the baseband circuitry' 1410, schedule tasks, etc.

Examples of the RTOS may include Operating System Embedded (QSE)™ provided by Enea®, Nucleus RTOS™ provided by Mentor Graphics®, Versatile Real-Time Executive (VRTX) provided by Mentor Graphics®, ThreadX™ provided by Express Logic®, FreeRTOS, REX OS provided by Qualcomm®, OKL4 provided by Open Kernel (OK) Labs®, or any other suitable RTOS, such as those discussed herein. In addition, the baseband circuitry 1410 includes one or more audio digital signal processor(s) (DSP) 1404F. The audio DSP(s) 1404F include elements for compression/decompression and echo cancellation and may include other suitable processing elements in other embodiments.

[0146] In some embodiments, each of the processors 1404A-1404E include respective memory interfaces to send/receive data to/from the memory' 1404G. The baseband circuitry' 1410 may further include one or more interfaces to communicatively couple to other circuitries/devices, such as an interface to send/receive data to/from memory' external to the baseband circuitry 1410; an application circuitry interface to send/receive data to/from the application circuitry ' 1205/1305 of FIGS. 12-14); an RF circuitry interface to send/receive data to/from RF circuitry 1406 of Figure 14; a wireless hardware connectivity' interface to send/receive data to/from one or more wireless hardware elements (e.g., Near Field Communication (NFC) components, Bluetooth®/ Bluetooth® Low Energy components, Wi-Fi® components, and/or the like); and a power

management interface to send/receive power or control signals to/from the PMIC 1325.

[0147] In alternate embodiments (which may be combined with the above described embodiments), baseband circuitry 1410 comprises one or more digital baseband systems, which are coupled with one another via an interconnect subsystem and to a CPU subsystem, an audio subsystem, and an interface subsystem. The digital baseband subsystems may also be coupled to a digital baseband interface and a mixed-signal baseband subsystem via another interconnect subsystem. Each of the interconnect subsystems may include a bus system, point-to-point connections, network-on-chip (NOC) structures, and/or some other suitable bus or interconnect technology, such as those discussed herein. The audio subsystem may include DSP circuitry , buffer memory, program memory, speech processing accelerator circuitry , data converter circuitry such as analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter circuitry', analog circuitry' including one or more of amplifiers and filters, and/or other like components. In an aspect of the present disclosure, baseband circuitry' 1410 may include protocol processing circuitry with one or more instances of control circuitry (not shown) to provide control functions for the digital baseband circuitry' and/or radio frequency circuitry · (e.g., the radio front end modules 1415).

[0148] Although not shown by Figue 14, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 1410 includes individual processing device(s) to operate one or more wireless communication protocols (e.g., a“multi -protocol baseband processor” or“protocol processing circuitry ' ”) and individual processing device(s) to implement PHY layer functions. In these embodiments, the PHY layer functions include the aforementioned radio control functions. In these embodiments, the protocol processing circuitry' operates or implements various protocol layers/entities of one or more wireless communication protocols. In a first example, the protocol processing circuitry may operate LTE protocol entities and/or 5G/NR protocol entities when the baseband circuitry 1410 and/or RF circuitry' 1406 are part of mmWave communication circuitry' or some other suitable cellular communication circuitry. In the first example, the protocol processing circuitry would operate MAC, RLC, PDCP, SDAP, RRC, and NAS functions. In a second example, the protocol processing circuitry may operate one or more IEEE-based protocols when the baseband circuitry 1410 and/or RF circuitry 1406 are part of a Wi-Fi communication system. In the second example, the protocol processing circuitry would operate Wi-Fi MAC and logical link control (LLC) functions. The protocol processing circuitry' may include one or more memory structures (e.g., 1404G) to store program code and data for operating the protocol functions, as well as one or more processing cores to execute the program code and perform various operations using the data. The baseband circuitr ' 1410 may also support radio communications for more than one wireless protocol.

[0149] The various hardware elements of the baseband circuitry' 1410 discussed herein may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits (ICs), a single packaged IC soldered to a main circuit board or a multi - chip module containing two or more ICs. In one example, the components of the baseband circuitry 1410 may be suitably combined in a single chip or chipset, or disposed on a same circuit board. In another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry' 1410 and RF circuitry 1406 may be implemented together such as, for example, a system on a chip (SoC) or System-in-Package (SiP). In another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry' 1410 may be implemented as a separate SoC that is communicatively coupled with and RF circuitry' 1406 (or multiple instances of RF circuitry 1406). In yet another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 1410 and the application circuitry' 1205/1305 may be implemented together as individual SoCs mounted to a same circuit board (e.g., a“multi-chip package”).

[0150] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry' 1410 may provide for

communication compatible with one or more radio technologies. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry' 1410 may support communication with an E- UTRAN or other WMAN, a WLAN, a WPAN. Embodiments in which the baseband circuitry' 1410 is configured to support radio communications of more than one wireless protocol may be referred to as multi-mode baseband circuitry.

[0151] RF circuitry· 1406 may enable communication with wireless networks

using modulated electromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. In v arious embodiments, the RF circuitry 1406 may include switches, filters, amplifiers, etc. to facilitate the communication with the wireless network. RF circuitry' 1406 may include a receive signal path, which may include circuitry to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry' 1408 and provide baseband signals to the baseband circuitry 1410. RF circuitry 1406 may also include a transmit signal path, which may include circuitry' to up-convert baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 1410 and provide RF output signals to the FEM circuitry ' 1408 for transmission. [0152] In some embodiments, the receive signal path of the RF circuitry 1406 may include mixer circuitr ' 1406a, amplifier circuitry' 1406b and filter circuitry 1406c. In some embodiments, the transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 1406 may include filter circuitry 1406c and mixer circuitry' 1406a. RF circuitry 1406 may also include synthesizer circuitry 1406d for synthesizing a frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path and the transmit signal path. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry' 1406a of the receive signal path may be configured to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry' 1408 based on the synthesized frequency' provided by synthesizer circuitry' 1406d. The amplifier circuitry' 1406b may be configured to amplify the down- converted signals and the filter circuitry' 1406c may be a low-pass filter (LPF) or band pass filter (BPF) configured to remove unwanted signals from the down-converted signals to generate output baseband signals. Output baseband signals may be provided to the baseband circuitry' 1410 for further processing. In some embodiments, the output baseband signals may be zero-frequency baseband signals, although this is not a requirement. In some embodiments, mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path may comprise passive mixers, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0153] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry' 1406a of the transmit signal path may be configured to up-convert input baseband signals based on the synthesized frequency provided by the synthesizer circuitry' 1406d to generate RF output signals for the FEM circuitry 1408. The baseband signals may be provided by the baseband circuitry' 1410 and may be filtered by filter circuitry 1406c.

[0154] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path and the mixer circui try 1406a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for quadrature downconversion and upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry' 1406a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry' 1406a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for image rejection (e.g., Hartley image rejection). In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry' 1406a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry' 1406a of the transmit signal path may be arranged for direct downconversion and direct upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry' 1406a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1406a of the transmit signal path may be configured for super heterodyne operation.

[0155] In some embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be analog baseband signals, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. In some alternate embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be digital baseband signals. In these alternate embodiments, the RF circuitry 1406 may include analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuitry and the baseband circuitry 1410 may include a digital baseband interface to communicate with the RF circuitry 1406.

[0156] In some dual-mode embodiments, a separate radio IC circuitry may be provided for processing signals for each spectrum, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0157] In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 1406d may be a fractional-N

synthesizer or a fractional N/N+l synthesizer, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect as other types of frequency synthesizers may be suitable. For example, synthesizer circuitry' 1406d may be a delta-sigma synthesizer, a frequency multiplier, or a synthesizer comprising a phase-locked loop with a frequency divider.

|0158] The synthesizer circuitry' 1406d may be configured to synthesize an output

frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 1406a of the RF circuitry 1406 based on a frequency input and a divider control input. In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 1406d may be a fractional N/N+l synthesizer.

[0159] In some embodiments, frequency input may be provided by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), although that is not a requirement. Divider control input may be provided by either the baseband circuitry' 1410 or the application circuitry' 1205/1305 depending on the desired output frequency'. In some embodiments, a divider control input (e.g., N) may be determined from a look-up table based on a channel indicated by the application circuitry' 1205/1305.

[0160] Synthesizer circuitry 1406d of the RF circuitry 1406 may include a divider, a delay-locked loop (DLL), a multiplexer and a phase accumulator. In some embodiments, the divider may be a dual modulus divider (DMD) and the phase accumulator may be a digital phase accumulator (DP A). In some embodiments, the DMD may be configured to divide the input signal by either N or N+l (e.g., based on a carry out) to provide a fractional division ratio. In some example embodiments, the DLL may include a set of cascaded, tunable, delay elements, a phase detector, a charge pump and a D-type flip-flop. In these embodiments, the delay elements may be configured to break a VCO period up into Nd equal packets of phase, where Nd is the number of delay elements in the delay line. In this way, the DLL provides negative feedback to help ensure that the total delay through the delay line is one VCO cycle.

[0161] In some embodiments, synthesizer circuitry 1406d may be configured to generate a carrier frequency as the output frequency, while in other embodiments, the output frequency may be a multiple of the carrier frequency (e.g., twice the carrier frequency, four times the carrier frequency) and used in conjunction with quadrature generator and divider circuitry to generate multiple signals at the carrier frequency with multiple different phases with respect to each other. In some embodiments, the output frequency may be a LO frequency (fLO). In some embodiments, the RF circuitry 1406 may include an IQ/polar converter.

[0162] FEM circuitry' 1408 may include a receive signal path, which may include

circuitry' configured to operate on RF signals received from antenna array 1411 , amplify the received signals and provide the amplified versions of the received signals to the RF circuitry 1406 for further processing. FEM circuitry 1408 may also include a transmit signal path, which may include circuitry configured to amplify signals for transmission provided by the RF circuitry' 1406 for transmission by one or more of antenna elements of antenna array 1411. In various embodiments, the amplification through the transmit or receive signal paths may be done solely in the RF circuitry 1406, solely in the FEM circuitry' 1408, or in both the RF circuitry' 1406 and the FEM circuitry 1408.

[0163] In some embodiments, the FEM circuitry' 1408 may include a TX/RX switch to switch between transmit mode and receive mode operation. The FEM circuitry 1408 may include a receive signal path and a transmit signal path. The receive signal path of the FEM circuitry' 1408 may include an LNA to amplify received RF signals and provide the amplified received RF signals as an output (e.g., to the RF circuitry 1406). The transmit signal path of the FEM circuitry' 1408 may include a power amplifier (PA) to amplify input RF signals (e.g., provided by RF circuitry' 1406), and one or more filters to generate RF signals for subsequent transmi ssion by one or more antenna elements of the antenna array 1411. [0164] The antenna array 1411 comprises one or more antenna elements, each of which is configured convert electrical signals into radio waves to travel through the air and to convert received radio waves into electrical signals. For example, digital baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 1410 is converted into analog RF signals (e.g., modulated waveform) that will be amplified and transmitted via the antenna elements of the antenna array 141 1 including one or more antenna elements (not shown). The antenna elements may be omnidirectional, direction, or a combination thereof. The antenna elements may be formed in a multitude of arranges as are known and/or discussed herein. The antenna array 1411 may comprise microstrip antennas or printed antennas that are fabricated on the surface of one or more printed circuit boards. The antenna array 1411 may be formed in as a patch of metal foil (e.g., a patch antenna) in a variety' of shapes, and may be coupled with the RF circuitry 1406 and/or FEM circuitry' 1408 using metal transmission lines or the like.

[0165] Processors of the application circuitry 1205/1305 and processors of the baseband circuitry' 1410 may be used to execute elements of one or more instances of a protocol stack. For example, processors of the baseband circuitry 1410, alone or in combination, may be used execute Layer 3, Layer 2, or Layer 1 functionality , while processors of the application circuitry' 1205/1305 may utilize data (e.g., packet data) received from these layers and further execute Layer 4 functionality (e.g., TCP and UDP layers). As referred to herein, Layer 3 may comprise a RRC layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 2 may comprise a MAC layer, an RLC layer, and a PDCP layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 1 may comprise a PHY layer of a UE/RAN node, described in further detail below.

[0166] Figure 15 illustrates various protocol functions that may be implemented in a wireless communication device according to various embodiments. In particular, Figure 15 includes an arrangement 1500 showing interconnections between various protocol layers/entities. The following description of Figure 15 is provided for various protocol layers/entities that operate in conjunction with the 5G/NR system standards and LIE system standards, but some or all of the aspects of Figure 15 may be applicable to other wireless communication network systems as well.

[0167] The protocol layers of arrangement 1500 may include one or more of PHY 1510, MAC 1520, RLC 1530, PDCP 1540, SDAP 1547, RRC 1555, and NAS layer 1557, in addition to other higher layer functions not illustrated. The protocol layers may include one or more service access points (e.g., items 1559, 1556, 1550, 1549, 1545, 1535, 1525, and 1515 in Figure 15) that may provide communication between two or more protocol layers.

[0168] The PHY 1510 may transmit and receive physical layer signals 1505 that may be received from or transmitted to one or more other communication devices. The physical layer signals 1505 may comprise one or more physical channels, such as those discussed herein. The PHY 1510 may further perform link adaptation or adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), power control, cell search (e.g., for initial synchronization and handover purposes), and other measurements used by higher layers, such as the RRC 1555. The PHY 1510 may still further perform error detection on the transport channels, forward error correction (FEC) coding/decoding of the transport channels,

modulation/demodulation of physical channels, interleaving, rate matching, mapping onto physical channels, and M1MO antenna processing. In embodiments, an instance of PHY 1510 may process requests from and provide indications to an instance of MAC 1520 via one or more PHY-SAP 1515. According to some embodiments, requests and indications communicated via PHY-SAP 1515 may comprise one or more transport channels.

[0169] Instance(s) of MAC 1520 may process requests from, and provide indications to, an instance of RLC 1530 via one or more MAC-SAPs 1525. These requests and indications communicated via the MAC-S AP 1525 may comprise one or more logical channels. The MAC 1520 may perform mapping between the logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC SDUs from one or more logical channels onto TBs to be delivered to PHY 1510 via the transport channels, de-multiplexing MAC SDUs to one or more logical channels from TBs delivered from the PHY 1510 via transport channels, multiplexing MAC SDUs onto TBs, scheduling information reporting, error correction through HARQ, and logical channel prioritization.

[0170] Instance(s) of RLC 1530 may process requests from and provide indications to an instance of PDCP 1540 via one or more radio link control service access points (RLC- SAP) 1535. These requests and indications communicated via RLC-SAP 1535 may comprise one or more RLC channels. The RLC 1530 may operate in a plurality of modes of operation, including: Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM), and Acknowledged Mode (AM). The RLC 1530 may execute transfer of upper layer protocol data units (PDUs), error correction through automatic repeat request (ARQ) for AM data transfers, and concatenation, segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs for UM and AM data transfers. The RLC 1530 may also execute re-segmentation of RLC data PDUs for AM data transfers, reorder RLC data PDUs for UM and AM data transfers, detect duplicate data for UM and AM data transfers, discard RLC SDUs for UM and AM data transfers, detect protocol errors for AM data transfers, and perform RLC re-establishment.

[0171] Instance(s) of PDCP 1540 may process requests from and provide indications to instance(s) of RRC 1555 and/or instance(s) of SDAP 1547 via one or more packet data convergence protocol service access points (PDCP-SAP) 1545. These requests and indications communicated via PDCP-S AP 1545 may comprise one or more radio bearers. The PDCP 1540 may execute header compression and decompression of IP data, maintain PDCP Sequence Numbers (SNs), perform in-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs at re-establishment of lower layers, eliminate duplicates of lower layer SDUs at re establishment of lower layers for radio bearers mapped on RLC AM, cipher and decipher control plane data, perform integrity protection and integrity verification of control plane data, control timer-based discard of data, and perform security operations (e.g., ciphering, deciphering, integrity protection, integrity' verification, etc,).

|0172] Instance(s) of SDAP 1547 may process requests from and provide indications to one or more higher layer protocol entities via one or more SDAP-SAP 1549. These requests and indications communicated via SDAP-SAP 1549 may comprise one or more QoS flows. The SDAP 1547 may map QoS flows to DRBs, and vice versa, and may also mark QFIs in DL and UL packets. A single SDAP entity 1547 may be configured for an individual PDU session. In the UL direction, the NG-RAN 910 may control the mapping of QoS Flows to DRB(s) in two different ways, reflective mapping or explicit mapping. For reflective mapping, the SDAP 1547 of a UE 901 may monitor the QFIs of the DL packets for each DRB, and may apply the same mapping for packets flowing in the UL direction. For a DRB, the SDAP 1547 of the LIE 901 may map the UL packets belonging to the QoS flows(s) corresponding to the QoS flow ID(s) and PDU session observed in the DL packets for that DRB. To enable reflective mapping, the NG-RAN 1110 may mark DL packets over the Uu interface with a QoS flow ID. The explicit mapping may involve the RRC 1555 configuring the SDAP 1547 with an explicit QoS flow' to DRB mapping rule, which may be stored and followed by the SDAP 1547. In embodiments, the SDAP 1547 may only be used in NR implementations and may not be used in LTE implementations.

[0173] The RRC 1555 may configure, via one or more management service access points

(M-SAP), aspects of one or more protocol layers, which may include one or more instances of PHY 1510, MAC 1520, RLC 1530, PDCP 1540 and SOAP 1547. In embodiments, an instance of RRC 1555 may process requests from and provide indications to one or more NAS entities 1557 via one or more RRC-SAPs 1556. The main services and functions of the RRC 1555 may include broadcast of system information (e.g., included in MIBs or SIBs related to the NAS), broadcast of system information related to the access stratum (AS), paging, establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE 901 and RAN 910 (e.g., RRC connection paging, RRC connection establishment, RRC connection modification, and RRC connection release), establishment, configuration, maintenance and release of point to point Radio Bearers, security functions including key management, inter-RAT mobility, and measurement configuration for UE measurement reporting. The MIBs and SIBs may comprise one or more IEs, which may each comprise individual data fields or data structures.

[0174] The NAS 1557 may form the highest stratum of the control plane between the UE

901 and the AMF 1121. The NAS 1557 may support the mobility of the UEs 901 and the session management procedures to establish and maintain IP connectivity between the UE 901 and a P-GW in LTE systems.

[0175] According to various embodiments, one or more protocol entities of arrangement

1500 may be implemented in UEs 901, RAN nodes 911, AMF 1121 in NR

implementations or MME 1021 in LTE implementations, UPF 1 102 in NR

implementations or S-GW 1022 and P-GW 1023 in LTE implementations, or the like to be used for control plane or user plane communications protocol stack between the aforementioned devices. In such embodiments, one or more protocol entities that may be implemented in one or more of UE 901, gNB 911, AMF 1121 , etc. may communicate with a respective peer protocol entity that may be implemented in or on another device using the services of respective lower layer protocol entities to perform such

communication. In some embodiments, a gNB-CU of the gNB 911 may host the RRC 1555, SDAP 1547, and PDCP 1540 of the gNB that controls the operation of one or more gNB-DUs, and the gNB-DUs of the gNB 911 may each host the RLC 1530, MAC 1520, and PHY 1510 of the gNB 911.

[0176] In a first example, a control plane protocol stack may comprise, in order from highest layer to lowest layer, NAS 1557, RRC 1555, PDCP 1540, RLC 1530, MAC 1520, and PHY 1510. In this example, upper layers 1560 may be built on top of the NAS 1557, which includes an IP layer 1561, an SCTP 1562, and an application layer signaling protocol (AP) 1563.

[0177] In NR implementations, the AP 1563 may be an NG application protocol layer

(NGAP or NG-AP) 1563 for the NG interface 913 defined between the NG-RAN node 911 and the AMF 1121, or the AP 1563 may be an Xn application protocol layer (XnAP or Xn-AP) 1563 for the Xn interface 912 that is defined between two or more RAN nodes

911.

[0178] The NG-AP 1563 may support the functions of the NG interface 913 and may comprise Elementary' Procedures (EPs). An NG-AP EP may be a unit of interaction between the NG-RAN node 911 and the AMF 1121. The NG-AP 1563 services may comprise two groups: UE-associated services (e.g., services related to a UE 901, 902) and non-UE-associated services (e.g., services related to the whole NG interface instance between the NG-RAN node 911 and AMF 1121). These services may include functions including, but not limited to: a paging function for the sending of paging requests to NG- RAN nodes 91 1 involved in a particular paging area; a UE context management function for allowing the AMF 1121 to establish, modify, and/or release a UE context in the AMF 1121 and the NG-RAN node 911; a mobility ' function for UEs 901 in ECM- CONNECTED mode for intra-system HOs to support mobility within NG-RAN and inter-system HOs to support mobility from/to EPS systems; a NAS Signaling Transport function for transporting or rerouting NAS messages between UE 901 and AMF 1121; a NAS node selection function for determining an association between the AMF 1121 and the UE 901 ; NG interface management function(s) for setting up the NG interface and monitoring for errors over the NG interface; a warning message transmission function for providing means to transfer warning messages via NG interface or cancel ongoing broadcast of warning messages; a Configuration Transfer function for requesting and transferring of RAN configuration information (e.g., SON information, performance measurement (PM) data, etc.) between two RAN nodes 911 via CN 920; and/or other like functions.

[0179] The XnAP 1563 may support the functions of the Xn interface 912 and may

comprise XnAP basic mobility procedures and XnAP global procedures. The XnAP basic mobility procedures may comprise procedures used to handle UE mobility within the NG RAN 91 1 (or E-UTRAN 1010), such as handover preparation and cancellation procedures, SN Status Transfer procedures, UE context retrieval and UE context release procedures, RAN paging procedures, dual connectivity related procedures, and the like. The XnAP global procedures may comprise procedures that are not related to a specific UE 901, such as Xn interface setup and reset procedures, NG-RAN update procedures, cell activation procedures, and the like.

[0180] In LTE implementations, the AP 1563 may be an SI Application Protocol layer

(Sl-AP) 1563 for the S I interface 913 defined between an E-UTRAN node 911 and an MME, or the AP 1563 may be an X2 application protocol layer (X2AP or X2-AP) 1563 for the X2 interface 912 that is defined between two or more E-UTRAN nodes 911.

[0181] The SI Application Protocol layer (Sl-AP) 1563 may support the functions of the

SI interface, and similar to the NG-AP discussed previously, the Sl-AP may comprise Sl-AP EPs. An Sl-AP EP may be a unit of interaction between the E-UTRAN node 911 and an MME 1021 within an LTE CN 920. The Sl-AP 1563 services may comprise two groups: UE-associated services and non UE-associated services. These services perform functions including, but not limited to: E-UTRAN Radio Access Bearer (E-RAB) management, UE capability indication, mobility, NAS signaling transport, RAN

Information Management (RIM), and configuration transfer.

[0182] The X2AP 1563 may support the functions of the X2 interface 912 and may

comprise X2AP basic mobility procedures and X2AP global procedures. The X2AP basic mobility procedures may comprise procedures used to handle UE mobility within the E- UTRAN 920, such as handover preparation and cancellation procedures, SN Status Transfer procedures, UE context retrieval and UE context release procedures, RAN paging procedures, dual connectivity related procedures, and the like. The X2AP global procedures may comprise procedures that are not related to a specific UE 901, such as X2 interface setup and reset procedures, load indication procedures, error indication procedures, cell activation procedures, and the like. [0183 j The SCTP layer (alternatively referred to as the SCTP/IP layer) 1562 may provide guaranteed delivery of application layer messages (e.g., NGAP or XnAP messages in NR implementations, or Sl-AP or X2AP messages in LTE implementations). The SCTP 1562 may ensure reliable delivery of signaling messages between the RAN node 911 and the AMF 1121/MME 1021 based, in part, on the IP protocol, supported by the IP 1561. The Internet Protocol layer (IP) 1561 may be used to perform packet addressing and routing functionality'. In some implementations the IP layer 1561 may use point-to-point transmission to deliver and convey' PDUs. In this regard, the RAN node 911 may comprise L2 and LI layer communication links (e.g., wired or wireless) with the

MME/AMF to exchange information.

[0184] In a second example, a user plane protocol stack may comprise, in order from highest layer to lowest layer, SDAP 1547, PDCP 1540, RLC 1530, MAC 1520, and PHY 1510. The user plane protocol stack may be used for communication between the UE 901, the RAN node 911, and UPF 1102 in NR implementations or an S-GW 1022 and P-GW 1023 in LTE implementations . In this example, upper layers 1551 may be built on top of the SDAP 1547, and may include a user datagram protocol (UDP) and IP security layer (UDP/IP) 1552, a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunneling Protocol for the user plane layer (GTP-U) 1553, and a User Plane PDU layer (UP PDU) 1563.

[0185] The transport network layer 1554 (also referred to as a“transport layer”) may be built on IP transport, and the GTP-U 1553 may be used on top of the LIDP/IP layer 1552 (comprising a UDP layer and IP layer) to carry user plane PDUs (UP-PDUs). The IP layer (also referred to as the“Internet layer”) may be used to perform packet addressing and routing functionality'. The IP layer may assign IP addresses to user data packets in any of IPv4, IPv6, or PPP formats, for example.

[0186] The GTP-U 1553 may be used for carrying user data within the GPRS core

network and between the radio access network and the core network. The user data transported can be packets in any of IPv4, IPv6, or PPP formats, for example. The UDP/IP 1552 may provide checksums for data integrity', port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination, and encryption and authentication on the selected data flows. The RAN node 911 and the S-GW 1022 may utilize an Sl-U interface to exchange user plane data via a protocol stack comprising an LI layer (e.g., PHY 1510), an L2 layer (e.g., MAC 1520, RLC 1530, PDCP 1540, and/or SDAP 1547), the UDP/IP layer 1552, and the GTP-U 1553. The S-GW 1022 and the P-GW 1023 may utilize an S5/S8a interface to exchange user plane data via a protocol stack comprising an LI layer, an L2 layer, the UDP/IP layer 1552, and the GTP-U 1553. As discussed previously, NAS protocols may support the mobility of the UE 901 and the session management procedures to establish and maintain IP connectivity between the UE 901 and the P-GW 1023.

[0187] Moreover, although not shown by Figure 15, an application layer may be present above the AP 1563 and/or the transport network layer 1554. The application layer may be a layer in which a user of the UE 901, RAN node 91 1 , or other network element interacts with software applications being executed, for example, by application circuitry 1205 or application circuitry 1305, respectively. The application layer may also provide one or more interfaces for software applications to interact with communications systems of the UE 901 or RAN node 911, such as the baseband circuitry 1410. In some implementations the IP layer and/or the application layer may provide the same or similar functionality as layers 5-7, or portions thereof, of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model (e.g., OSI Layer 7 - the application layer, OSI Layer 6 - the presentation layer, and OSI Layer 5 - the session layer).

|0188] Figure 16 illustrates components of a core network in accordance with various embodiments. The components of the CN 1020 may be implemented in one physical node or separate physical nodes including components to read and execute instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium). In embodiments, the components of CN 1120 may be implemented in a same or similar manner as discussed herein with regard to the components of CN 1020. In some embodiments, NFV is utilized to virtualize any or all of the above-described network node functions via executable instructions stored in one or more computer- readable storage mediums (described in further detail below). A logical instantiation of the CN 1020 may be referred to as a network slice 1601, and individual logical instantiations of the CN 1020 may provide specific netw ork capabilities and network characteristics. A logical instantiation of a portion of the CN 1020 may be referred to as a network sub-slice 1602 (e.g., the network sub-slice 1602 is shown to include the P-GW 1023 and the PCRF 1026). [0189] As used herein, the terms“instantiate,”“instantiation,” and the like may refer to the creation of an instance, and an“instance” may refer to a concrete occurrence of an object, which may occur, for example, during execution of program code. A network instance may refer to information identifying a domain, which may be used for traffic detection and routing in case of different IP domains or overlapping IP addresses. A network slice instance may refer to a set of network functions (NFs) instances and the resources (e.g., compute, storage, and networking resources) required to deploy the network slice.

[0190] With respect to 5G systems (see, e.g., Figure 11 ), a network slice always

comprises a RAN part and a CN part. The support of network slicing relies on the principle that traffic for different slices is handled by different PDU sessions. The network can realize the different network slices by scheduling and also by providing different L1/L2 configurations. The UE 1 101 provides assistance information for network slice selection in an appropriate RRC message, if it has been provided by NAS. While the network can support large number of slices, the UE need not support more than 8 slices simultaneously.

[0191] A network slice may include the CN 1120 control plane and user plane NFs, NG-

RANs 1110 in a serving PLAIN, and a N3IWF functions in the serving PLMN. Individual network slices may have different S-NSSAI and/or may have different SSTs. NSSAI includes one or more S-NSSAIs, and each network slice is uniquely identified by an S- NSSAI. Network slices may differ for supported features and network functions optimizations, and/or multiple network slice instances may deliver the same

service/features but for different groups of UEs 1101 (e.g., enterprise users). For example, individual network slices may deliver different committed service(s) and/or may be dedicated to a particular customer or enterprise. In this example, each network slice may- have different S-NSSAIs with the same SST but with different slice differentiators.

Additionally, a single UE may be served with one or more network slice instances simultaneously via a 5G AN and associated with eight different S-NSSAIs. Moreover, an AMF 1121 instance serving an individual UE 1101 may belong to each of the netw ork slice instances serving that UE.

[0192] Network Slicing in the NG-RAN 1110 involves RAN slice awareness. RAN slice awareness includes differentiated handling of traffic for different network slices, which have been pre-configured. Slice awareness in the NG-RAN 1110 is introduced at the PDU session level by indicating the S-NSSAI corresponding to a PDU session in all signaling that includes PDU session resource information. How the NG-RAN 1110 supports the slice enabling in terms of NG-RAN functions (e.g., the set of network functions that comprise each slice) is implementation dependent. The NG-RAN 1110 selects the RAN part of the network slice using assistance information provided by the UE 1101 or the 5GC 1120, which unambiguously identifies one or more of the pre-configured network slices in the PLMN. The NG-RAN 1110 also supports resource management and policy enforcement between slices as per SLAs. A single NG-RAN node may support multiple slices, and the NG-RAN 1110 may also apply an appropriate RRM policy for the SLA in place to each supported slice. The NG-RAN 1110 may also support QoS differentiation within a slice.

[0193] The NG-RAN 1110 may also use the UE assistance information for the selection of an AMF 1121 during an initial attach, if available. The NG-RAN 1110 uses the assistance information for routing the initial NAS to an AMF 1121. If the NG-RAN 1110 is unable to select an AMF 1121 using the assistance information, or the UE 1101 does not provide any such information, the NG-RAN 1 1 10 sends the NAS signaling to a default AMF 1121, which may be among a pool of AMFs 1121. For subsequent accesses, the UE 1101 provides a temp ID, which is assigned to the UE 1101 by the 5GC 1120, to enable the NG-RAN 1 1 10 to route the NAS message to the appropriate AMF 1121 as long as the temp ID is valid. The NG-RAN 1110 is aware of, and can reach, the AMF 1121 that is associated with the temp ID. Otherwise, the method for initial attach applies.

[0194] The NG-RAN 1110 supports resource isolation between slices. NG-RAN 1110 resource isolation may be achieved by means of RRM policies and protection

mechanisms that should avoid that shortage of shared resources if one slice breaks the service level agreement for another slice. In some implementations, it is possible to fully dedicate NG-RAN 1110 resources to a certain slice. How NG-RAN 1 1 10 supports resource isolation is implementation dependent.

[0195] Some slices may be available only in part of the network. Awareness in the NG-

RAN 1110 of the slices supported in the cells of its neighbors may be beneficial for inter frequency mobility' in connected mode. The slice availability may not change within the UE’s registration area. The NG-RAN 1110 and the 5GC 1120 are responsible to handle a service request for a slice that may or may not be available in a given area. Admission or rejection of access to a slice may depend on factors such as support for the slice, availability of resources, support of the requested service by NG-RAN 1110.

|0196] The UE 1101 may be associated with multiple network slices simultaneously. In case the UE 1 101 is associated with multiple slices simultaneously, only one signaling connection is maintained, and for intra-frequency cell reselection, the UE 1101 tries to camp on the best cell. For inter-frequency cell reselection, dedicated priorities can be used to control the frequency on which the UE 1101 camps. The 5GC 1120 is to validate that the UE 1 101 has the rights to access a network slice. Prior to receiving an Initial Context Setup Request message, the NG-RAN 1110 may be allowed to apply some provisional / local policies, based on awareness of a particular slice that the UE 1101 is requesting to access. During the initial context setup, the NG-RAN 1110 is informed of the slice for which resources are being requested.

[0197] NFV architectures and infrastructures may be used to virtualize one or more NFs, alternatively performed by proprietary hardware, onto physical resources comprising a combination of industry-standard server hardware, storage hardware, or switches. In other words, NFV systems can be used to execute virtual or reconfsgurable implementations of one or more EPC components/functions .

[0198] Figure 17 is a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments, of a system 1700 to support NFV. The system 1700 is illustrated as including a VIM 1702, an NFVI 1704, an VNFM 1706, VNFs 1708, an EM 1710, an NFVO 1712, and a NM 1714.

[0199] The VIM 1702 manages the resources of the NFVI 1704. The NFVI 1704 can include physical or virtual resources and applications (including hypervisors) used to execute the system 1700. The VIM 1702 may manage the life cycle of virtual resources with the NFVI 1704 (e.g., creation, maintenance, and tear down of VMs associated with one or more physical resources), track VM instances, track performance, fault and security of VM instances and associated physical resources, and expose VM instances and associated physical resources to other management systems.

[0200] The VNFM 1706 may manage the VNFs 1708. The VNFs 1708 may be used to execute EPC components/functions. The VNFM 1706 may manage the life cycle of the VNFs 1708 and track performance, fault and security of the virtual aspects of VNFs 1708. The EM 1710 may track the performance, fault and security of the functional aspects of VNFs 1708. The tracking data from the VNFM 1706 and the EM 1710 may comprise, for example, PM data used by the VIM 1702 or the NFVI 1704. Both the VNFM 1706 and the EM 1710 can scale up/down the quantity of VNFs of the system 1700.

[0201] The NFVO 1712 may coordinate, authorize, release and engage resources of the

NFVI 1704 in order to provide the requested service (e.g., to execute an EPC function, component, or slice). The NM 1714 may provide a package of end-user functions with the responsibility for the management of a network, which may include network elements with VNFs, non-virtualized network functions, or both (management of the VNFs may occur via the EM 1710).

10202] Figure 18 is a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments, able to read instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium) and perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. Specifically, Figure 18 shows a diagrammatic representation of hardw are resources 1800 including one or more processors (or processor cores) 1810, one or more memory/storage devices 1820, and one or more communication resources 1830, each of which may be communicatively coupled via a bus 1840. For embodiments where node virtualization (e.g., NFV) is utilized, a hypervisor 1802 may be executed to provide an execution environment for one or more network slices/sub-slices to utilize the hardware resources 1800.

[0203] The processors 1810 may include, for example, a processor 1812 and a processor

1814. The processor(s) 1810 may be, for example, a central processing unit (CPU), a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor, a complex instruction set computing (CISC) processor, a graphics processing unit (GPU), a DSP such as a baseband processor, an ASIC, an FPGA, a radio-frequency integrated circuit (RFIC), another processor (including those discussed herein), or any suitable combination thereof.

[0204] The memory /storage devices 1820 may include main memory, disk storage, or any suitable combination thereof. The memory/storage devices 1820 may include, but are not limited to, any type of volatile or nonvolatile memory such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM), static random access memory (SRAM), erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory

(EEPROM), Flash memory, solid-state storage, etc. [0205] The communication resources 1830 may include interconnection or network interface components or other suitable devices to communicate with one or more peripheral devices 1804 or one or more databases 1806 via a network 1808. For example, the communication resources 1830 may include wired communication components (e.g., for coupling via USB), cellular communication components, NFC components,

Bluetooth® (or Bluetooth® Low Energy ) components, Wi-Fi® components, and other communication components..

[0206] Instructions 1850 may comprise software, a program, an application, an applet, an app, or other executable code for causing at least any of the processors 1810 to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. The instructions 1850 may reside, completely or partially, within at least one of the processors 1810 (e.g., within the processor’s cache memory), the memory /storage devices 1820, or any suitable combination thereof. Furthermore, any portion of the instructions 1850 may he transferred to the hardware resources 1800 from any combination of the peripheral devices 1804 or the databases 1806. Accordingly, the memory of processors 1810, the memory/storage devices 1820, the peripheral devices 1804, and the databases 1806 are examples of computer-readable and machine-readable media.

[0207] For one or more embodiments, at least one of the components set forth in one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to perform one or more operations, techniques, processes, and/or methods as set forth in the example section below. For example, the baseband circuitry as described above in connection with one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to operate in accordance with one or more of the examples set forth below. For another example, circuitry associated with a UE, base station, network element, etc. as described above in connection with one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to operate in accordance with one or more of the examples set forth below' in the example section.

EXAMPLES

[0208] Example 1 may include system and method of wireless communication for a fifth generation (5G) or new radio (NR) system: [0209] Aligning symbol boundary and slot boundary between cyclic prefix - orthogonal frequency -division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) based waveform and single carrier waveform.

[0210] Example 2 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein single carrier waveform includes at least single carrier-cyclic prefix-frequency domain equalizer (SC-CP-FDE) and single carrier-unique word-frequency domain equalizer (SC-UW-FDE).

[0211] Example 3 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein a block of samples for single carrier waveform is defined where (positive) integer number of blocks composes a reference unit time duration; wherein The reference unit time duration can be equal to a slot duration of OFDM system with subcarrier spacing of = 2 n · 15 kHz and with cyclic prefix (CP) length that corresponds to 7.03125% of the DFT duration of the OFDM symbol, or integer multiple of slot duration of OFDM system, or 0.5ms, or lms.

[0212] Example 4 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein efficient Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) size for DFT operation for single carrier waveform to convert the time domain signal to frequency domain signal can be defined as 2 l 3 ; · S k , where i, j, k are non-negative integers.

[0213] Example 5 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein integer fraction sampling rate between CP-OFDM and single carrier waveform is defined.

[0214] Example 6 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein subframe boundary with duration of lms is aligned for single carrier waveform with different sampling time (or chip rate); wherein within one subframe, slot duration is equally divided by an integer, K, which also depends on the sampling time.

[0215] Example 7 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein slot boundary for single carrier waveform can be aligned with that for CP-OFDM and Discrete Fourier Transform-spread-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM) waveform.

[0216] Example 8 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein symbol boundary for single carrier waveform can be aligned with that for CP- OFDM and DFT-s-OFDM waveform. [0217] Example 9 may include an apparatus comprising means to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1-8, or any other method or process described herein.

[0218] Example 10 may include one or more non-transitory computer-readable media comprising instructions to cause an electronic device, upon execution of the instructions by one or more processors of the electronic device, to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1-8, or any other method or process described herein.

[0219] Example 1 1 may include an apparatus comprising logic, modules, or circuitry to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1-8, or any other method or process described herein.

[0220] Example 12 may include a method, technique, or process as described in or

related to any of examples 1-8, or portions or parts thereof.

[0221] Example 13 may include an apparatus comprising: one or more processors and one or more computer-readable media comprising instructions that, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to perform the method, techniques, or process as described in or related to any of examples 1-8, or portions thereof.

[0222] Example 14 may include a signal as described in or related to any of examples 1 -

8, or portions or parts thereof.

[0223] Example 15 may include a signal in a wireless network as shown and described herein.

[0224] Example 16 may include a method of communicating in a wireless network as shown and described herein.

[0225] Example 17 may include a system for providing wireless communication as

shown and described herein.

[0226] Example 18 may include a device for providing wireless communication as shown and described herein.

[0227] Any of the above-described examples may be combined with any other example

(or combination of examples), unless explicitly stated otherwise. The foregoing description of one or more implementations provides illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the scope of embodiments to the precise form disclosed. Modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teachings or may be acquired from practice of various embodiments.

Abbreviations

[0228] For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations may apply to the examples and embodiments discussed herein.

[0229] 3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project

[0230] 4G Fourth Generation

[0231] 5G Fifth Generation

[0232] 5GC 5G Core network

[0233] ACK Acknowledgement

[0234] AF Application Function

[0235] AM Acknowledged Mode

[0236] AMBR Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate

[0237] AMF Access and Mobility Management Function

[0238] AN Access Network

[0239] ANR Automatic Neighbour Relation

[0240] AP Application Protocol, Antenna Port, Access Point

[0241] API Application Programming Interface

[0242] APN Access Point Name

[0243] ARP Allocation and Retention Priority

[0244] ARQ Automatic Repeat Request

[0245] AS Access Stratum

[0246] ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One

[0247] AUSF Authentication Server Function

[0248] AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise

[0249] BCH Broadcast Channel

[0250] BER Bit Error Ratio

[0251] BFD Beam Failure Detection

[0252] BLER Block Error Rate

[0253] BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying

[0254] BRAS Broadband Remote Access Server

[0255] BSS Business Support System [0256] BS Base Station

[0257] BSR Buffer Status Report

[0258] BW Bandwidth

[0259] BWP Bandwidth Part

[0260] C-RNTI Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0261] CA Carrier Aggregation, Certification Authority

[0262] CAPEX CAPital Expenditure

[0263] CBRA Contention Based Random Access

[0264] CC Component Carrier, Country Code, Cryptographic Checksum

[0265] CCA Clear Channel Assessment

[0266] CCE Control Channel Element

[0267] CCCH Common Control Channel

[0268] CE Coverage Enhancement

[0269] CDM Content Delivery Network

[0270] CDMA Code-Division Multiple Access

[0271] CFRA Contention Free Random Access

[0272] CG Cell Group

[0273] Cl Cell Identity

[0274] CID Cell-ID (e.g., positioning method)

[0275] CIM Common Information Model

[0276] CIR Carrier to Interference Ratio

[0277] CK Cipher Key

[0278] CM Connection Management, Conditional Mandatory

[0279] CMAS Commercial Mobile Alert Service

[0280] CMD Command

[0281] CMS Cloud Management System

[0282] CO Conditional Optional

[0283] CoMP Coordinated Multi-Point

[0284] CORESET Control Resource Set

[0285] COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf

[0286] CP Control Plane, Cyclic Prefix, Connection Point

[0287] CPD Connection Point Descriptor [0288] CPE Customer Premise Equipment

[0289] CPICH Common Pilot Channel

[0290] CQI Channel Quality Indicator

[0291] CPU CSI processing unit, Central Processing Unit

[0292] C/R Command/Response field bit

[0293] CRAN Cloud Radio Access Network, Cloud RAN

[0294] CRB Common Resource Block

[0295] CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check

[0296] CRI Channel-State Information Resource Indicator, CSI-RS Resource

Indicator

[0297] C-RNTI Cell RNTI

[0298] CS Circuit Switched

[0299] CSAR Cloud Service Archive

[0300] CSI Channel-State Information

[0301] CSI-IM CSI Interference Measurement

[0302] CSI-RS CSI Reference Signal

[0303] CSI-RSRP CSI reference signal received power

[0304] CSI-RS RQ CSI reference signal received quality

[0305] CSI-SINR CSI signal -to-noise and interference ratio

[0306] CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access

[0307] CSMA/CA CSMA with collision avoidance

[0308] CSS Common Search Space, Cell-specific Search Space

[0309] CTS Clear-to-Send

[0310] cw Codeword

[0311] cws Contention Window Size

[0312] D2D Device-to-Device

[0313] DC Dual Connectivity, Direct Current

[0314] DCI Downlink Control Information

[0315] DF Deployment Flavour

[0316] DL Downlink

[0317] DMTF Distributed Management Task Force

[0318] DPDK Data Plane Development Kit [0319] DM-RS, DMRS Demodulation Reference Signal

[0320] DN Data network

[0321] DRB Data Radio Bearer

[0322] DRS Discovery Reference Signal

[0323] DRX Discontinuous Reception

[0324] DSL Domain Specific Language. Digital Subscriber Line

[0325] DSLAM DSL Access Multiplexer

[0326] DwPTS Downlink Pilot Time Slot

[0327] E-LAN Ethernet Local Area Network

[0328] E2E End-to-End

[0329] ECCA extended clear channel assessment, extended CCA

[0330] ECCE Enhanced Control Channel Element, Enhanced CCE

[0331] ED Energy Detection

[0332] EDGE Enhanced Datarates for GSM Evolution (GSM Evolution)

[0333] EGMF Exposure Governance Management Function

[0334] EGPRS Enhanced GPRS

[0335] EIR Equipment Identity Register

[0336] eLAA enhanced Licensed Assisted Access, enhanced LAA

[0337] EM Element Manager

[0338] eMBB Enhanced Mobile Broadband

[0339] EMS Element Management System

[0340] eNB evolved NodeB, E-UTRAN Node B

[0341] EN-DC E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity

[0342] EPC Evolved Packet Core

[0343] EPDCCH enhanced PDCCH, enhanced Physical Downlink Control Cannel

[0344] EPRE Energy per resource element

[0345] EPS Evolved Packet System

[0346] EREG enhanced REG, enhanced resource element groups

[0347] ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute

[0348] ETWS Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

[0349] eUICC embedded UICC, embedded Universal Integrated Circuit Card

[0350] E-UTRA Evolved UTRA [0351] E-UTRAN Evolved UTRAN

[0352] EV2X Enhanced V2X

[0353] F1AP FI Application Protocol

[0354] Fl-C FI Control plane interface

[0355] Fl-U FI User plane interface

[0356] FACCH Fast Associated Control CHannel

[0357] FACCH/F Fast Associated Control Channel/Full rate

[0358] FACCH/H Fast Associated Control Channel/Half rate

[0359] FACH Forward Access Channel

[0360] FAUSCH Fast Uplink Signalling Channel

[0361] FB Functional Block

[0362] FBI Feedback Information

[0363] FCC Federal Communications Commission

[0364] FCCH Frequency Correction CHannel

[0365] FDD Frequency Division Duplex

[0366] FDM Frequency Division Multiplex

[0367] FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0368] FE Front End

[0369] FEC Forward Error Correction

[0370] FFS For Further Study

[0371] FFT Fast Fourier Transformation

[0372] feLAA further enhanced Licensed Assisted Access, further enhanced

LAA

[0373] FN Frame Number

[0374] FPGA Field-Programmable Gate Array

[0375] FR Frequency Range

[0376] G-RNTI GERAN Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0377] GERAN GSM EDGE RAN, GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

[0378] GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node

[0379] GLONASS GLObal'naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (Engl.:

Global Navigation Satellite System)

[0380] gNB Next Generation NodeB [0381] gNB-CU gNB-centralized unit, Next Generation NodeB centralized unit

[0382] gNB-DU gNB-distributed unit, Next Generation NodeB distributed unit

[0383] GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System

[0384] GPRS General Packet Radio Service

[0385] GSM Global System for Mobile Communications, Groupe Special

Mobile

[0386] GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol

[0387] GTP-U GPRS Tunnelling Protocol for User Plane

[0388] GTS Go To Sleep Signal (related to WUS)

[0389] GUMMEI Globally Unique MME Identifier

[0390] GUTI Globally Unique Temporary UE Identity

[0391] HARQ Hybrid ARQ, Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

[0392] HANDO, HO Handover

[0393] HFN HyperFrame Number

[0394] HHO Hard Handover

[0395] HLR Home Location Register

[0396] HN Home Network

[0397] HO Handover

[0398] HPLMN Home Public Land Mobile Network

[0399] HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access

[0400] HSN Hopping Sequence Number

[0401] HSPA High Speed Packet Access

[0402] HSS Home Subscriber Server

[0403] HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access

[0404] HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

[0405] HTTPS Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (https is http/ 1.1 over SSL, i.e. port 443)

[0406] I-Block Information Block

[0407] ICCID Integrated Circuit Card Identification

[0408] ICIC Inter-Cell Interference Coordination

[0409] ID Identity, identifier

[0410] IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform [0411] IE Information element

[0412] IBE In-Band Emission

[0413] IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

[0414] IEI Information Element Identifier

[0415] IEIDL Information Element Identifier Data Length

[0416] IETF Internet Engineering Task Force

[0417] IF Infrastructure

[0418] IM Interference Measurement, Intermodulation, IP Multimedia

[0419] IMC IMS Credentials

[0420] IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity

[0421] IMGI International mobile group identity

[0422] IMPI IP Multimedia Private Identity

[0423] IMPU IP Multimedia Public identity

[0424] IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem

[0425] IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity

[0426] IoT Internet of Things

[0427] IP Internet Protocol

[0428] Ipsec IP Security, Internet Protocol Security

[0429] IP-CAN IP-Connectivity Access Network

[0430] IP-M IP Multicast

[0431] IPv4 Internet Protocol V ersion 4

[0432] IPv6 Internet Protocol V ersion 6

[0433] IR Infrared

[0434] IS In Sync

[0435] IRP Integration Reference Point

[0436] ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

[0437] ISIM IM Services Identity Module

[0438] ISO International Organisation for Standardisation

[0439] ISP Internet Service Provider

[0440] IWF Interworking-Function

[0441] I -WLAN Interworking WLAN [0442] K Constraint length of the convolutional code, USIM Individual key

[0443] kB Kilobyte (1000 bytes)

[0444] kbps kilo-bits per second

[0445] Kc Ciphering key

[0446] Ki Individual subscriber authentication key

[0447] KPI Key Performance Indicator

[0448] KQI Key Quality Indicator

[0449] KSI Key Set Identifier

[0450] ksps kilo-symbols per second

[0451] KVM Kernel Virtual Machine

[0452] LI Layer 1 (physical layer)

[0453] Ll-RSRP Layer 1 reference signal received power

[0454] L2 Layer 2 (data link layer)

[0455] L3 Layer 3 (network layer)

[0456] LAA Licensed Assisted Access

[0457] LAN Local Area Network

[0458] LBT Listen Before Talk

[0459] LCM LifeCycle Management

[0460] LCR Low Chip Rate

[0461] LCS Location Services

[0462] LCID Logical Channel ID

[0463] LI Layer Indicator

[0464] LLC Logical Link Control, Low Layer Compatibility

[0465] LPLMN Local PLMN

[0466] LPP LTE Positioning Protocol

[0467] LSB Least Significant Bit

[0468] LTE Long Term Evolution

[0469] LWA LTE-WLAN aggregation

[0470] LWIP LTE/WLAN Radio Level Integration with IPsec Tunnel

[0471] LTE Long Term Evolution

[0472] M2M Machine-to-Machine [0473] MAC Medium Access Control (protocol layering context)

[0474] MAC Message authentication code (security/encryption context)

[0475] MAC-A MAC used for authentication and key agreement (TSG T WG3 context)

[0476] MAC -I MAC used for data integrity of signalling messages (TSG T

WG3 context)

[0477] MANO Management and Orchestration

[0478] MBMS Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service

[0479] MBSFN Multimedia Broadcast multicast service Single Frequency

Network

[0480] MCC Mobile Country Code

[0481] MCG Master Cell Group

[0482] MCOT Maximum Channel Occupancy Time

[0483] MCS Modulation and coding scheme

[0484] MDAF Management Data Analytics Function

[0485] MDAS Management Data Analytics Service

[0486] MDT Minimization of Drive Tests

[0487] ME Mobile Equipment

[0488] MeNB master eNB

[0489] MER Message Error Ratio

[0490] MGL Measurement Gap Length

[0491] MGRP Measurement Gap Repetition Period

[0492] MIB Master Information Block, Management Information Base

[0493] MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output

[0494] MLC Mobile Location Centre

[0495] MM Mobility Management

[0496] MME Mobility Management Entity

[0497] MN Master Node

[0498] MO Measurement Object, Mobile Originated

[0499] MPBCH MTC Physical Broadcast CHannel

[0500] MPDCCH MTC Physical Downlink Control CHannel

[0501] MPDSCH MTC Physical Downlink Shared CHannel [0502] MPRACH MTC Physical Random Access CHannel

[0503] MPUSCH MTC Physical Uplink Shared Channel

[0504] MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching

[0505] MS Mobile Station

[0506] MSB Most Significant Bit

[0507] MSC Mobile Switching Centre

[0508] MSI Minimum System Information, MCH Scheduling Information

[0509] MSID Mobile Station Identifier

[0510] MSIN Mobile Station Identification Number

[0511] MSISDN Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number

[0512] MT Mobile Terminated, Mobile Termination

[0513] MTC Machine-Type Communications

[0514] niMTC massive MTC, massive Machine-Type Communications

[0515] MU-MIMO Multi User MIMO

[0516] MWUS MTC wake-up signal, MTC WUS

[0517] NACK Negative Acknowledgement

[0518] NAI Network Access Identifier

[0519] NAS Non-Access Stratum, Non-Access Stratum layer

[0520] NCT Network Connectivity Topology

[0521] NEC Network Capability Exposure

[0522] NE-DC NR-E-UTRA Dual Connectivity

[0523] NEF Network Exposure Function

[0524] NF Network Function

[0525] NFP Network Forwarding Path

[0526] NFPD Network Forwarding Path Descriptor

[0527] NFV Network Functions Virtualization

[0528] NFVI NFV Infrastructure

[0529] NFVO NFV Orchestrator

[0530] NG Next Generation, Next Gen

[0531] NGEN-DC NG-RAN E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity

[0532] NM Network Manager

[0533] NMS Network Management System [0534] N-PoP Network Point of Presence

[0535] NMIB, N-MIB Narrowband MIB

[0536] NPBCH Narrowband Physical Broadcast CHannel

[0537] NPDCCH Narrowband Physical Downlink Control CHannel

[0538] NPDSCH Narrowband Physical Downlink Shared CHannel

[0539] NPRACH Narrowband Physical Random Access CHannel

[0540] NPUSCH Narrowband Physical Uplink Shared CHannel

[0541] NPSS Narrowband Primary Synchronization Signal

[0542] NSSS Narrowband Secondary Synchronization Signal

[0543] NR New Radio, Neighbour Relation

[0544] NRF NF Repository Function

[0545] NRS Narrowband Reference Signal

[0546] NS Network Service

[0547] NSA Non-Standalone operation mode

[0548] NSD Network Service Descriptor

[0549] NSR Network Service Record

[0550] NSSAI 'Network Slice Selection Assistance Information

[0551] S-NNSAI Single-NSSAI

[0552] NSSF Network Slice Selection Function

[0553] NW Network

[0554] NWUS Narrowband wake-up signal, Narrowband WUS

[0555] NZP Non-Zero Power

[0556] O&M Operation and Maintenance

[0557] ODU2 Optical channel Data Unit - type 2

[0558] OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

[0559] OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0560] OOB Out-of-band

[0561] OOS Out of Sync

[0562] OPEX OPerating EXpense

[0563] OSI Other System Information

[0564] OSS Operations Support System

[0565] OTA over-the-air [0566] PAPR Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

[0567] PAR Peak to Average Ratio

[0568] PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel

[0569] PC Power Control, Personal Computer

[0570] PCC Primary Component Carrier, Primary CC

[0571] PCell Primary Cell

[0572] PCI Physical Cell ID, Physical Cell Identity

[0573] PCEF Policy and Charging Enforcement Function

[0574] PCF Policy Control Function

[0575] PCRF Policy Control and Charging Rules Function

[0576] PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol, Packet Data Convergence

Protocol layer

[0577] PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel

[0578] PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol

[0579] PDN Packet Data Network, Public Data Network

[0580] PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel

[0581] PDU Protocol Data Unit

[0582] PEI Permanent Equipment Identifiers

[0583] PFD Packet Flow Description

[0584] P-GW PDN Gateway

[0585] PHICH Physical hybrid-ARQ indicator channel

[0586] PHY Physical layer

[0587] PLMN Public Land Mobile Network

[0588] PIN Personal Identification Number

[0589] PM Performance Measurement

[0590] PMI Precoding Matrix Indicator

[0591] PNF Physical Network Function

[0592] PNFD Physical Network Function Descriptor

[0593] PNFR Physical Network Function Record

[0594] POC PTT over Cellular

[0595] PP, PTP Point-to-Point

[0596] PPP Point-to-Point Protocol [0597] PRACH Physical RACH

[0598] PRB Physical resource block

[0599] PRG Physical resource block group

[0600] ProSe Proximity Services, Proximity-Based Service

[0601] PRS Positioning Reference Signal

[0602] PRR Packet Reception Radio

[0603] PS Packet Services

[0604] PSBCH Physical Sidelink Broadcast Channel

[0605] PSDCH Physical Sidelink Downlink Channel

[0606] PSCCH Physical Sidelink Control Channel

[0607] PSSCH Physical Sidelink Shared Channel

[0608] PSCell Primary SC ell

[0609] PSS Primary Synchronization Signal

[0610] PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network

[0611] PT-RS Phase-tracking reference signal

[0612] PTT Push-to-Talk

[0613] PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel

[0614] PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

[0615] QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

[0616] QCI QoS class of identifier

[0617] QCL Quasi co-location

[0618] QFI QoS Flow ID, QoS Flow Identifier

[0619] QoS Quality of Service

[0620] QPSK Quadrature (Quaternary) Phase Shift Keying

[0621] QZSS Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

[0622] RA-RNTI Random Access RNTI

[0623] RAB Radio Access Bearer, Random Access Burst

[0624] RACH Random Access Channel

[0625] RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User Service

[0626] RAN Radio Access Network

[0627] RAND RANDom number (used for authentication)

[0628] RAR Random Access Response [0629] RAT Radio Access Technology

[0630] RAU Routing Area Update

[0631] RB Resource block, Radio Bearer

[0632] RBG Resource block group

[0633] REG Resource Element Group

[0634] Rel Release

[0635] REQ REQuest

[0636] RF Radio Frequency

[0637] RI Rank Indicator

[0638] RIV Resource indicator value

[0639] RL Radio Link

[0640] RLC Radio Link Control, Radio Link Control layer

[0641] RLC AM RLC Acknowledged Mode

[0642] RLC UM RLC Unacknowledged Mode

[0643] RLF Radio Link Failure

[0644] RLM Radio Link Monitoring

[0645] RLM-RS Reference Signal for RLM

[0646] RM Registration Management

[0647] RMC Reference Measurement Channel

[0648] RMSI Remaining MSI, Remaining Minimum System Information

[0649] RN Relay Node

[0650] RNC Radio Network Controller

[0651] RNL Radio Network Layer

[0652] RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identifier

[0653] ROHC RObust Header Compression

[0654] RRC Radio Resource Control, Radio Resource Control layer

[0655] RRM Radio Resource Management

[0656] RS Reference Signal

[0657] RSRP Reference Signal Received Power

[0658] RSRQ Reference Signal Received Quality

[0659] RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator

[0660] RSU Road Side Unit [0661] RSTD Reference Signal Time difference

[0662] RTP Real Time Protocol

[0663] RTS Ready-To-Send

[0664] RTT Round Trip Time

[0665] Rx Reception, Receiving, Receiver

[0666] S1AP SI Application Protocol

[0667] S 1 -MME S 1 for the control plane

[0668] Sl-U SI for the user plane

[0669] S-GW Serving Gateway

[0670] S-RNTI SRNC Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0671] S-TMSI SAE Temporary Mobile Station Identifier

[0672] SA Standalone operation mode

[0673] SAE System Architecture Evolution

[0674] SAP Service Access Point

[0675] SAPD Service Access Point Descriptor

[0676] SAPI Service Access Point Identifier

[0677] SCC Secondary Component Carrier, Secondary CC

[0678] SCell Secondary Cell

[0679] SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0680] SCG Secondary Cell Group

[0681] SCM Security Context Management

[0682] SCS Subcarrier Spacing

[0683] SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol

[0684] SDAP Service Data Adaptation Protocol, Service Data Adaptation

Protocol layer

[0685] SDL Supplementary Downlink

[0686] SDNF Structured Data Storage Network Function

[0687] SDP Service Discovery Protocol (Bluetooth related)

[0688] SDSF Structured Data Storage Function

[0689] SDU Service Data Unit

[0690] SEAF Security Anchor Function

[0691] SeNB secondary eNB [0692] SEPP Security Edge Protection Proxy

[0693] SFI Slot format indication

[0694] SFTD Space-Frequency Time Diversity, SFN and frame timing difference

[0695] SFN System Frame Number

[0696] SgNB Secondary gNB

[0697] SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node

[0698] S-GW Serving Gateway

[0699] SI System Information

[0700] SI-RNTI System Information RNTI

[0701] SIB System Information Block

[0702] SIM Subscriber Identity Module

[0703] SIP Session Initiated Protocol

[0704] SiP System in Package

[0705] SL Sidelink

[0706] SLA Service Level Agreement

[0707] SM Session Management

[0708] SMF Session Management Function

[0709] SMS Short Message Service

[0710] SMSF SMS Function

[0711] SMTC SSB-based Measurement Timing Configuration

[0712] SN Secondary Node, Sequence Number

[0713] SoC System on Chip

[0714] SON Self-Organizing Network

[0715] SpCell Special Cell

[0716] SP-CSI-RNTI Semi-Persistent CSI RNTI

[0717] SPS Semi-Persistent Scheduling

[0718] SQN Sequence number

[0719] SR Scheduling Request

[0720] SRB Signalling Radio Bearer

[0721] SRS Sounding Reference Signal

[0722] ss Synchronization Signal [0723] SSB Synchronization Signal Block, SS/PBCH Block

[0724] SSBRI SS/PBCH Block Resource Indicator, Synchronization Signal

Block Resource Indicator

[0725] SSC Session and Service Continuity

[0726] SS-RSRP Synchronization Signal based Reference Signal Received Power

[0727] SS-RSRQ Synchronization Signal based Reference Signal Received Quality

[0728] SS-SINR Synchronization Signal based Signal to Noise and Interference

Ratio

[0729] SSS Secondary Synchronization Signal

[0730] SSSG Search Space Set Group

[0731] SSSIF Search Space Set Indicator

[0732] SST Slice/Service Types

[0733] SU-MIMO Single User MIMO

[0734] SUL Supplementary Uplink

[0735] TA Timing Advance, Tracking Area

[0736] TAC Tracking Area Code

[0737] TAG Timing Advance Group

[0738] TAU Tracking Area Update

[0739] TB Transport Block

[0740] TBS Transport Block Size

[0741] TBD To Be Defined

[0742] TCI Transmission Configuration Indicator

[0743] TCP Transmission Communication Protocol

[0744] TDD Time Division Duplex

[0745] TDM Time Division Multiplexing

[0746] TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

[0747] TE Terminal Equipment

[0748] TEID Tunnel End Point Identifier

[0749] TFT Traffic Flow Template

[0750] TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

[0751] TNL Transport Network Layer

[0752] TPC Transmit Power Control [0753] TPMI Transmited Precoding Matrix Indicator

[0754] TR Technical Report

[0755] TRP, TRxP Transmission Reception Point

[0756] TRS Tracking Reference Signal

[0757] TRx Transceiver

[0758] TS Technical Specifications, Technical Standard

[0759] TTI Transmission Time Interval

[0760] Tx Transmission, Transmiting, Transmiter

[0761] U-RNTI UTRAN Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0762] UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmiter

[0763] UCI Uplink Control Information

[0764] UE User Equipment

[0765] UDM Unified Data Management

[0766] UDP User Datagram Protocol

[0767] UDSF Unstructured Data Storage Network Function

[0768] UICC Universal Integrated Circuit Card

[0769] UL Uplink

[0770] UM Unacknowledged Mode

[0771] UML Unified Modelling Language

[0772] UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

[0773] UP User Plane

[0774] UPF User Plane Function

[0775] URI Uniform Resource Identifier

[0776] URL Uniform Resource Locator

[0777] URLLC Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency

[0778] USB Universal Serial Bus

[0779] USIM Universal Subscriber Identity Module

[0780] uss UE-specific search space

[0781] UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

[0782] UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

[0783] UwPTS Uplink Pilot Time Slot

[0784] V2I V ehicle-to-Infrastruction [0785] V2P Vehicle-to-Pedestrian

[0786] V2V V ehicle-to-V ehicle

[0787] V2X V ehicle-to-every thing

[0788] VIM Virtualized Infrastructure Manager

[0789] VL Virtual Link,

[0790] VLAN Virtual LAN, Virtual Local Area Network

[0791] VM Virtual Machine

[0792] VNF Virtualized Network Function

[0793] VNFFG VNF Forwarding Graph

[0794] VNFFGD VNF Forwarding Graph Descriptor

[0795] VNFM VNF Manager

[0796] VoIP Voice-over-IP, Voice-over-Internet Protocol

[0797] VPLMN Visited Public Land Mobile Network

[0798] VPN Virtual Private Network

[0799] VRB Virtual Resource Block

[0800] WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

[0801] WLAN Wireless Local Area Network

[0802] WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network

[0803] WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network

[0804] X2-C X2-Control plane

[0805] X2-U X2-User plane

[0806] XML extensible Markup Language

[0807] XRES EXpected user RESponse

[0808] XOR exclusive OR

[0809] ZC Zadoff-Chu

[0810] ZP Zero Power

Terminology

[0811] For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions are applicable to the examples and embodiments discussed herein.

|0812] The term“circuitry” as used herein refers to, is pail of, or includes hardware

components such as an electronic circuit, a logic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group) and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group), an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), a field-programmable device (FPD) (e.g., a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a programmable logic device (PLD), a complex PLD (CPLD), a high- capacity PLD (HCPLD), a structured ASIC, or a programmable SoC), digital signal processors (DSPs), etc., that are configured to provide the described functionality'. In some embodiments, the circuitry may execute one or more software or firmware programs to provide at least some of the described functionality'. The term“circuitry” may also refer to a combination of one or more hardw are elements (or a combination of circuits used in an electrical or electronic system) with the program code used to carry' out the functionality' of that program code. In these embodiments, the combination of hardware elements and program code may be referred to as a particular type of circuitry'.

10813] The term“processor circuitry'” as used herein refers to, is part of, or includes circuitry capable of sequentially and automatically carrying out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations, or recording, storing, and/or transferring digital data. The term “processor circuitry” may refer to one or more application processors, one or more baseband processors, a physical central processing unit (CPU), a single-core processor, a dual-core processor, a triple-core processor, a quad-core processor, and/or any other device capable of executing or otherwise operating computer-executable instructions, such as program code, software modules, and/or functional processes. The terms “application circuitry” and/or“baseband circuitry” may be considered synonymous to, and may be referred to as,“processor circuitry.”

[0814] The term“interface circuitry'” as used herein refers to, is part of, or includes

circuitry' that enables the exchange of information between tw o or more components or devices. The term“interface circuitry” may refer to one or more hardware interfaces, for example, buses, I/O interfaces, peripheral component interfaces, network interface cards, and/or the like.

[0815] The term“user equipment” or“UE” as used herein refers to a device with radio communication capabilities and may describe a remote user of netw ork resources in a communications netw'ork. The term“user equipment” or“UE” may be considered synonymous to, and may be referred to as, client, mobile, mobile device, mobile terminal, user terminal, mobile unit, mobile station, mobile user, subscriber, user, remote station, access agent, user agent, receiver, radio equipment, reconfigurable radio equipment, reconfigurable mobile device, etc. Furthermore, the term“user equipment” or“UE” may include any type of wireless/wired device or any computing device including a wireless communications interface.

[0816] The term“network element” as used herein refers to physical or virtualized

equipment and/or infrastructure used to provide wired or wireless communication network services. The term“network element” may be considered synonymous to and/or referred to as a networked computer, networking hardware, network equipment, network node, router, switch, hub, bridge, radio network controller, RAN device, RAN node, gateway, server, virtualized VNF, NFV1, and/or the like.

[0817] The term“computer system” as used herein refers to any type interconnected electronic devices, computer devices, or components thereof. Additionally, the term “computer system” and/or“system” may refer to various components of a computer that are communicatively coupled with one another. Furthermore, the term“computer system” and/or“system” may refer to multiple computer devices and/or multiple computing systems that are communicatively coupled with one another and configured to share computing and/or networking resources.

[0818] The term“appliance,”“computer appliance,” or the like, as used herein refers to a computer device or computer system with program code (e.g., software or firmware) that is specifically designed to provide a specific computing resource. A“virtual appliance” is a virtual machine image to be implemented by a hypervisor-equipped device that virtualizes or emulates a computer appliance or otherwise is dedicated to provide a specific computing resource.

[0819] The term“resource” as used herein refers to a physical or virtual device, a

physical or virtual component within a computing environment, and/or a physical or virtual component within a particular device, such as computer devices, mechanical devices, memory space, processor/CPU time, processor/CPU usage, processor and accelerator loads, hardware time or usage, electrical power, input/output operations, ports or network sockets, channel/link allocation, throughput, memory usage, storage, network, database and applications, workload units, and/or the like. A“hardware resource” may refer to compute, storage, and/or network resources provided by physical hardware element(s). A“virtualized resource” may refer to compute, storage, and/or network resources provided by virtualization infrastructure to an application, device, system, etc. [0820] The term“network resource” or“communication resource” may refer to resources that are accessible by computer devices/systems via a communications network. The term “system resources” may refer to any kind of shared entities to provide services, and may include computing and/or network resources. System resources may be considered as a set of coherent functions, network data objects or services, accessible through a server where such system resources reside on a single host or multiple hosts and are clearly identifiable.

[0821] The term“channel” as used herein refers to any transmission medium, either tangible or intangible, which is used to communicate data or a data stream. The term “channel” may be synonymous with and/or equivalent to“communications channel,” “data communications channel,”“transmission channel,”“data transmission channel,” “access channel,”“data access channel,”“link,”“data link,”“carrier,”“radiofrequency carrier,” and/or any other like term denoting a pathway or medium through which data is communicated. Additionally, the term“link” as used herein refers to a connection between two devices through a RAT for the purpose of transmitting and receiving information.

[0822] The terms“instantiate,”“instantiation,” and the like as used herein refers to the creation of an instance. An“instance” also refers to a concrete occurrence of an object, which may occur, for example, during execution of program code.

[0823] The terms“coupled,”“communicatively coupled,” along with derivatives thereof are used herein. The term“coupled” may mean two or more elements are in direct physical or electrical contact with one another, may mean that two or more elements indirectly contact each other but still cooperate or interact with each other, and/or may- mean that one or more other elements are coupled or connected between the elements that are said to be coupled with each other. The term“directly coupled” may mean that two or more elements are in direct contact with one another. The term“communicatively- coupled” may mean that two or more elements may be in contact with one another by a means of communication including through a wire or other interconnect connection, through a wireless communication channel or ink, and/or the like.

[0824] The term“information element” refers to a structural element containing one or more fields. The term“field” refers to individual contents of an information element, or a data element that contains content. [0825] The term“SMTC” refers to an SSB-based measurement timing configuration configured by SSB-MeasurementTimingConfiguration.

[0826] The term“SSB” refers to an SS/PBCH block.

[0827] The term“a“Primary Cell” refers to the MCG cell, operating on the primary frequency, in which the UE either performs the initial connection establishment procedure or initiates the connection re-establishment procedure.

[0828] The term“Primary SCG Cell” refers to the SCG cell in which the UE performs random access when performing the Reconfiguration with Sync procedure for DC operation.

[0829] The term“Secondary Cell” refers to a cell providing additional radio resources on top of a Special Cell for a UE configured with CA.

[0830] The term“Secondary Cell Group” refers to the subset of serving cells comprising the PSCell and zero or more secondary cells for a UE configured with DC.

[0831] The term“Serving Cell” refers to the primary cell for a UE in

RRC CONNECTED not configured with CA/DC there is only one serving cell comprising of the primary cell.

[0832] The term“serving cell” or“serving cells” refers to the set of cells comprising the

Special Cell(s) and all secondary cells for a UE in RRC CONNECTED configured with CA/.

[0833] The term“Special Cell” refers to the PCell of the MCG or the PSCell of the SCG for DC operation; otherwise, the term“Special Cell” refers to the Pcell.