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Title:
FROZEN CONFECTION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/133863
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed is a frozen confection comprising freezing point depressants in an amount of from 25 to 35% by weight of the frozen confection, wherein the number average molecular weight n of the freezing point depressants is from 200 to 250 g mol-1, and wherein the freezing point depressants comprise erythritol in an amount of from 0.25 to 5 7% by weight of the frozen confection.

Inventors:
MAYES, Daniel, Matthew (Unilever R&D Colworth Sharnbrook, Bedford Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, MK44 1LQ, GB)
OPPONG, Felix, Kwadwo (Unilever R&D Colworth Sharnbrook, Bedford Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, MK44 1LQ, GB)
WIX, Loyd (Unilever R&D Colworth Sharnbrook, Bedford Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, MK44 1LQ, GB)
Application Number:
EP2017/050249
Publication Date:
August 10, 2017
Filing Date:
January 06, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNILEVER PLC (a company registered in England and Wales under company no. of Unilever House, 100 Victoria Embankment, London Greater London EC4Y 0DY, EC4Y 0DY, GB)
UNILEVER N.V. (Weena 455, 3013 AL Rotterdam, 3013 AL, NL)
CONOPCO, INC., D/B/A UNILEVER (800 Sylvan Avenue AG West, S. WingEnglewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 07632, US)
International Classes:
A23G9/28; A23G9/34; A23G9/44
Foreign References:
US20040161503A12004-08-19
EP0941668A11999-09-15
US20150144654A12015-05-28
JPH10117694A1998-05-12
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KEENAN, Robert, Daniel (Unilever Patent Group, Colworth HouseSharnbrook, Bedford Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, MK44 1LQ, GB)
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Claims:
Claims

A frozen confection comprising freezing point depressants in an amount of from 25 to 35% by weight of the frozen confection, wherein the number average molecular weight <M>„ of the freezing point depressants is from 200 to 250 g mol"1, and wherein the freezing point depressants comprise erythritol in an amount of from 0.25 to 7% by weight of the frozen confection.

The frozen confection as claimed in claim 1 wherein the frozen confection is aerated, preferably wherein the frozen aerated confection has an overrun of from 70 to 135%.

The frozen confection as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the amount of freezing point depressants is from 26 to 32% by weight of the frozen confection, preferably from 27 to 31 %.

The frozen confection as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the number average molecular weight <M>„ of the freezing point depressants is from 205 to 230 g mol"1, preferably from 210 to 220 g mol"1.

The frozen confection as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the amount of erythritol is from 0.5 to 6%, preferably 0.7 to 3% by weight of the frozen confection.

The frozen confection as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the freezing point depressants comprise at least 90% by weight of the freezing point depressants of mono, di and oligosaccharides, preferably at least 92%.

The frozen confection as claimed in claim 6 wherein the total amount of mono, di and oligosaccharides and erythritol in the freezing point depressants is at least 98% by weight of the freezing point depressants, preferably 99 to 100%.

The frozen confection as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the freezing point depressants comprise lactose in an amount of at least 5% by weight of the freezing point depressants, preferably from 10 to 25% by weight of the freezing point depressants.

9. The frozen confection as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the frozen confection comprises less than 0.5% ethanol by weight of the frozen confection, preferably less than 0.1 %.

10. The frozen confection as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the total energy content of the frozen confection is at least 150 kcal per 100 g of frozen confection, preferably from 160 to 250 kcal/100 g. 1 1 . The frozen confection as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the frozen confection comprises fat in an amount of from 1 to 15% by weight of the frozen confection, preferably from 4 to 12%.

12. The frozen confection as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the frozen confection comprises protein in an amount of from 0.5 to 8% by weight of the frozen confection, preferably from 1 to 6%.

13. A frozen product comprising a container comprising a product compartment containing the frozen confection as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the product compartment comprises a product outlet and a moveable wall through which a dispensing force can be transmitted to urge the frozen confection through the product outlet.

14. The frozen product as claimed in claim 13 wherein the movable wall is a bag. 15. The frozen product as claimed in claim 14 wherein the container is a bag-in-bottle.

Description:
FROZEN CONFECTION

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to frozen confections such as ice cream. In particular, the invention relates to frozen confections that are formulated to be dispensed from containers at low temperatures.

Background of the invention

In recent years, systems for dispensing frozen confections such as soft ice cream have been developed in which pre-packaged ice cream is delivered from a container by a dispensing device. In particular systems which employ bag-in-bottle type containers or piston-type cartridges have been developed.

WO 2013/124193 A discloses a method for dispensing a frozen confection comprising: providing a refrigerated, insulated chamber, which houses at least one container, containing a frozen confection at a temperature of -12 °C or below; wherein the at least one container has an outlet which is closed by a self-closing valve; wherein the container comprises a flexible bag containing the frozen confection located inside a bottle; pressurising gas in the region inside the bottle and outside the flexible bag thereby applying pressure to the frozen confection so that the valve opens and the frozen confection is forced out of the container through the outlet; releasing the pressure so that the valve closes.

Such systems typically employ frozen confections that are specifically formulated to be dispensed at the desired low temperatures.

US 2004/0161503 A discloses a frozen product comprising a cartridge containing a frozen aerated confection having an overrun of above 20 percent and below 100 percent, and containing less than 1.5 percent w/w glycerol, freezing point depressants in an amount of between 25 percent and 37 percent w/w, and between 2 and 12 percent fat, wherein the freezing point depressants have a number average molecular weight <M>„ of less than 300. The frozen aerated confection has a soft structure and can be extruded from the cartridge at -18 degrees centigrade. WO 03/096821 A discloses a frozen aerated product in a container, the container having at least two compartments (A) and (B), said compartments being gastighlty separated from each other by an at least partially movable wall, compartment (A) containing a propellant and compartment (B) containing the frozen aerated product, compartment (B) being provided with a valve, wherein the frozen aerated product contains freezing point depressants in an amount of between 20 percent and 40 percent w/w and between 0 percent and 15 percent fat, the freezing point depressants having a number average molecular weight <M>„ following a certain condition. The present inventors have now recognized that there is a need for improvements in formulations for use in systems for dispensing frozen confections like soft ice. In particular the present inventors have found that there is a need for confections which have a rheology that is less temperature dependent and so can be extruded at low temperatures but which has the desired structure when extruded at higher temperatures. This is important as commercial and domestic storage freezers have variable storage temperatures. The inventors have found that improved confections can be provided when they are formulated with a specific amount and type of freezing point depressants and wherein the freezing point depressants comprise a specific amount of erythritol. Erythritol (butane-1 ,2,3,4-tetraol) is a sugar alcohol that has been used as a sweetener and sugar-replacer in dietetic foods.

WO 98/16120 A discloses a sherbet which contains erythritol and has a soft texture; and a process for the production thereof. This is said to provide a low-calorie sherbet which exhibits a low hardness in a frozen state even though it contains erythritol, and therefore has a soft texture permitting easy penetration of a spoon even just after it has been taken out of a freezer.

EP 0 965 277 A discloses an iced dessert comprising erythritol as sweetening and texture agent, and an agent for controlling the melt of the ice dessert selected from dextrins and/or non-digestible dextrins. The iced desserts are particularly formulated without added sugar. Neither of the foregoing documents concern frozen confections formulated to be dispensed from containers at a range of temperatures.

Tests and definitions

Average molecular weight

For the purposes of the present invention, the average molecular weight for a mixture of freezing point depressants is defined by the number average molecular weight <M>„ (Equationi ). Where is the mass of species i, M-, is the molar mass of species i and N, is the number of moles of species i of molar mass

(Equation 1 )

Freezing point depressants

Freezing point depressants as defined in this invention consist in:

• monosaccharides and disaccharides

• oligosaccharides containing from three to ten monosaccharide units joined in glycosidic linkage.

· corn syrups with a dextrose equivalent (DE) of greater than 20 preferably > 40 and more preferably > 60. Corn syrups are complex multi-component sugar mixtures and the dextrose equivalent is a common industrial means of classification. Since they are complex mixtures their number average molecular weight <M>„ can be calculated from Equation 2 below. {Journal of Food Engineering, 33 (1997) 221 -226)

DE = 18016

< w> (Equation 2)

• erythritol, arabitol, glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol and malitol.

• ethanol. Overrun.

Overrun {OR) is defined by the following Equation 3 volume..of ..frozen..confection - volume.. of ..premix.. at.. ambient ..temp

volume, .of..premix ..at..ambient, .temp

(Equation measured at atmospheric pressure. Ambient temperature is 20 °C. Summary of the invention

In a first aspect, the present invention is directed to a frozen confection comprising freezing point depressants in an amount of from 25 to 35% by weight of the frozen confection, wherein the number average molecular weight <M>„ of the freezing point depressants is from 200 to 250 g mol "1 , and wherein the freezing point depressants comprise erythritol in an amount of from 0.25 to 7% by weight of the frozen confection.

The amount of ice in the product is determined, to a large extent by the amount and molecular weight of the freezing point depressants. The present inventors have found that if the amount of ice is too high, then regardless of the presence of erythritol, the confection becomes too difficult to extrude at low temperatures found in some storage freezers (for example -22 °C). Thus the freezing point depressants have a number average molecular weight <M>„ of no more than 250 g mol "1 , and are present in an amount of at least 25% by weight of the frozen confection.

Preferably the amount of freezing point depressants is at least 26%, more preferably at least 27% by weight of the frozen confection.

Preferably the number average molecular weight <M> n of the freezing point depressants is no more than 240, more preferably no more than 230 and most preferably no more than 220 g mol "1 .

On the other hand if the amount of freezing point depressants becomes too high and/or their molecular weight becomes too low then the rheology will be too liquid-like at higher temperatures encountered in some storage freezers (for example -16 °C). Thus the freezing point depressants have a number average molecular weight <M>„ of no less than 200 g mol "1 , and are present in an amount of no more than 35% by weight of the frozen confection.

Preferably the amount of freezing point depressants is no more than 32%, more preferably no more than 31 % and most preferably no more than 30% by weight of the frozen confection. Preferably the number average molecular weight <M>„ of the freezing point depressants is no less than 205, more preferably no less than 210 and most preferably no less than 212 g mol "1 .

The present inventors have found that erythritol is particularly effective at imparting the desired rheological properties to the frozen confection. In addition, in comparison to some other sugar alcohols, erythritol does not impart an unpleasant off-taste, is not overly sweet and does not interfere with natural digestion and excretion of food.

Preferably the amount of erythritol is at least 0.5%, more preferably at least 0.7% and most preferably at least 1 % by weight of the frozen confection.

Preferably the amount of erythritol is not too high, otherwise the confection may be too liquid-like and/or it may be difficult to formulate the confection with the desired sweetness. Thus it is preferred that the amount of erythritol is no more than 6%, more preferably no more than 5%, more preferably still no more than 4% and most preferably no more than 3% by weight of the frozen confection.

Other than erythritol, it is preferred that the freezing point depressants are substantially comprised of saccharides. Preferably the freezing point depressants comprise at least 90% by weight of the freezing point depressants of mono, di and oligosaccharides, more preferably at least 92%. The total amount of mono, di and oligosaccharides and erythritol in the freezing point depressants is preferably at least 98% by weight of the freezing point depressants, more preferably 99 to 100%. An especially preferred disaccharide is lactose as this provides freezing point depression without imparting a high amount of sweetness. Preferably the freezing point depressants comprise lactose in an amount of at least 5% by weight of the freezing point depressants, more preferably from 10 to 25% by weight of the freezing point depressants. The lactose may be present in the confection as part of milk solids and/or added separately from milk solids.

Certain freezing point depressants are undesireable as they impart unwanted taste and/or physiological effects.

Preferably the frozen confection comprises less than 0.5% ethanol by weight of the frozen confection, more preferably less than 0.1 % and more preferably still less than 0.01 %, and most preferably 0%. Preferably the frozen confection comprises less than 1 .5% glycerol by weight of the frozen confection, more preferably less than 1 % and more preferably still less than 0.5%, and most preferably from 0.2 to 0%. Additionally or alternatively the total amount of arabitol, glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol and malitol in the frozen confection is less than 1 .5% by weight of the frozen confection, more preferably less than 1 % and more preferably still less than 0.5%, and most preferably from 0.2 to 0%.

Preferably the frozen confection comprises less than 5% fructose by weight of the frozen confection, more preferably less than 3% and most preferably from 0 to 2%. Preferably the freezing point depressant impart the desired sweetness to the frozen confection without the need to use intense sweetener. By "intense sweetener" is meant one or more of aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame K, alitame, thaumatin, cyclamate, glycyrrhizin, stevioside, neohesperidine, sucralose, monellin, and neotame. Preferably the frozen confection is substantially free from intense sweetener. More preferably the frozen confection comprises intense sweetener in an amount less than the amount required to impart an equivalent sweetness as 1 % sucrose, more preferably less than the amount required to impart an equivalent sweetness as 0.5% sucrose, and most preferably less than the amount required to impart an equivalent sweetness as 0.1 % sucrose. Additionally or alternatively, the frozen confection comprises less than 0.003% intense sweetener, more preferably less than 0.001 % and most preferably from 0.0001 to 0%. The present invention is applicable to a range of frozen confections and despite the presence of erythritol the frozen confection need not be dietetic. For example the total energy content of the frozen confection is preferably at least 150 kcal per 100 g of frozen confection, more preferably at least 170 kcal per 100 g and most preferably from 160 to 250 kcal/100 g.

The frozen confection is typically made by freezing a mix (more preferably a pasteurized mix) of ingredients such as water, fat, freezing point depressants, protein (normally milk proteins), and optionally other ingredients such as emulsifiers, stabilisers, colours and flavours. Frozen confections include ice cream, gelato, frozen yoghurt, sorbets, granitas, shaved ices and the like. Preferably the frozen confection is ice cream.

The frozen confection is preferably aerated. By "aerated" is meant that the confection has an overrun of at least 30%. More preferably the frozen aerated confection has an overrun of from 70 to 135%, most preferably from 80 to 1 10%.

The frozen confection preferably comprises fat in an amount of from 1 to 15% by weight of the frozen confection, more preferably from 4 to 12%, and most preferably from 5 to 10%. The frozen confection preferably comprises protein in an amount of from 0.5 to 8% by weight of the frozen confection, more preferably from 1 to 6%, and most preferably from 1 .5 to 5%.

The frozen confection is formulated to be dispensed from a container. Thus in a second aspect the present invention is directed to a frozen product comprising a container comprising a product compartment containing the frozen confection according to any embodiment of the first aspect, wherein the product compartment comprises a product outlet and a moveable wall through which a dispensing force can be transmitted to urge the frozen confection through the product outlet.

The moveable wall is such that a dispensing force can be transmitted through the wall to the frozen confection. Examples of containers comprising a moveable wall include bag- in-bottles (where the bag acts as the moveable wall) and cartridges containing pistons (where the piston acts as the moveable wall) although other configurations are possible including, for example, containers with an end wall that is deformable to become the moveable wall (as described, for example in US 5,893,485). Examples of bag-in-bottle type containers are described in WO 2007/039158 A and examples of piston-in-cartridge type containers are described in EP 1 449 441 A both of which documents are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Most preferred are bag-in-bottle type containers. In one embodiment the container is adapted such that the wall is moveable on application of hand pressure. For example the container may comprise a pouch that is squeezable by hand. Suitable pouches are described, for example in WO 2006/007921 A hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Except in the Examples, all numbers in this description indicating amounts of material, time periods, length scales, conditions of reaction, physical properties of materials and/or use may optionally be understood as modified by the word "about".

It should be noted that in specifying any range of values, any particular upper value can be associated with any particular lower value.

For the avoidance of doubt, the word "comprising" is intended to mean "including" but not necessarily "consisting of" or "composed of. In other words, the listed steps or options need not be exhaustive.

The disclosure of the invention as found herein is to be considered to cover all embodiments as found in the claims as being multiply dependent upon each other irrespective of the fact that claims may be found without multiple dependency or redundancy.

Where a feature is disclosed with respect to a particular aspect of the invention such disclosure is also to be considered to apply to any other aspect of the invention mutatis mutandis.

Detailed description The present invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the following Examples.

EXAMPLE 1 Ice creams were formulated with varying ice contents (as calculated at -18 °C) and erythritol amounts as shown in Table 1 (amounts in % w/w).

TABLE 1

A B c 1 2 3

Coconut oil 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00

Skimmed milk, powder 4.15 4.15 4.15 4.15 4.15 4.15

Whey protein, concentrate (30%) 2.73 2.73 2.73 2.73 2.73 2.73

Low Fructose Corn Syrup (63 DE) 6.00 5.00 10.00 7.80 14.50 9.80

Dextrose monohydrate 12.40 1 1 .62 15.00 14.26 9.30 14.88

Sucrose 4.60 4.60 2.00 2.40 2.00 1 .70

Erythritol 0.00 2.00 0.00 1.40 5.00 1 .40

Locust Bean Gum 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

Kappa Carrageenan 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

Monodiglyceride 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40

Flavour 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28

Colour 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

Water to 100 to 100 to 100 to 100 to 100 to 100 The properties of the formulations are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2

The ice creams were prepared by pasteurizing and homogenizing mixes prepared according to the above formulations. The mixes were aged at 4 °C overnight before freezing and aerating in a scraped surface heat exchanger (standard ice cream freezer). The air input to the freezer was controlled to give a target overrun of 100% (actual overrun varied between 92 and 1 10%). Freezing was controlled to give a target extrusion temperature of -7 °C (actual extrusion temperature varied between -6 and -9 °C).

The mixes were extruded directly into aluminium rheology cups and bag-in-bottle containers. The cups and containers were then hardened to -25 °C for storage. EXAMPLE 2

This example describes measurement of the rheology of the ice cream samples prepared in Example 1 as a function of temperature. Preceding the rheological measurements, the samples in the rheology cups were equilibrated overnight in a portable freezer set at the temperature of interest.

All measurements were performed on an Anton Paar MCR 501 rheometer, which was connected to a double circulating bath for temperature control. The rheometer consisted of a temperature controlled sample holder and a hood to cover the sample. Cold air was blown onto the sample, via the hood, to prevent condensation and frost formation. A vane 10-4V-8.8/1 16 geometry was used, which is a 4-blade vane with a diameter of 8.8 mm, a height of 10 mm and a shaft length of 1 16 mm. Before insertion of the sample, the vane was lowered to the measurement position to equilibrate the vane, sample holder and hood to the test temperature - either -14, -16, -18, -20, or -22 °C. The measurement position was set at 10 mm. After equilibration a rheology cup containing the sample was inserted into the sample holder and the hood was lowered until it touched the base. The wall of the rheology cup was serrated to prevent wall slip. The vane was then further lowered into the measurement position at a very slow speed of 100 μηη per second to not damage the structure of the sample too much.

Before the measurement commenced, the sample was equilibrated for 20 minutes to allow for internal structure recovery and final equilibration to the test temperature. An oscillatory amplitude sweep test was performed on all samples, controlled by Rheoplus software. A strain range of 0.001 % to 100% was imposed with 10 points per decade on a log scale at a frequency of 10 Hz. The measurement point duration was fixed at 20 s. All measurements were performed in triplicate with a new sample being used for every measurement.

The yield stress was obtained from the data, as this is an indicator for the flowability of the ice cream. The yield stress was determined by finding the highest value of the elastic stress before the cross-over point between the elastic stress and the viscous stress. Elastic Stress is calculated by multiplying the storage (elastic) modulus by the strain and viscous Stress is calculated by multiplying the loss (viscous) modulus by the strain. Table 3 shows the mean yield stress for each sample as a function of temperature (values in brackets are the standard error). Also given is the ratio (R) of yield stress at -22 °C to the yield stress at -16 °C for each sample.

The ratio (R) gives an indication of the temperature-dependence of the flowability of the samples over the temperature range typical of domestic and commercial storage freezers (-16 to -22 °C). The higher the value, the more variable the flowability. It can be seen from the data in Table 3 that for the samples containing erythritol (Samples B, 1 , 2 and 3) the yield stress varied by a factor of 2 or less over the temperature range -16 to - 22 °C. On the other hand, for the samples without erythritol (Samples A and C) the yield stress varied by well over a factor of 2 over the same temperature range. Sample C has the same ice content (at -18 °C) as Sample 1 but lacks erythritol and shows a greater temperature dependence of yield stress than Sample 1.

TABLE 3

EXAMPLE 3 This example describes measurement of how easily some of the samples of Example 1 can be dispensed.

Bag-in-bottle containers of four of the samples from Example 1 were tempered at -19 °C and then dispensed using an apparatus as described in WO 2013/124193 A. Each container contained around 2 kg of ice cream. The flow rate of ice cream was determined by measuring the mass dispensed in 5 seconds. The results are shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4

Neither sample A nor B could be dispensed at this temperature. Both of these samples have freezing point depressant levels that give ice contents of 45% and above (at -18 °C). At an ice content of 42%, both the sample with (Sample 1 ) and without (Sample C) erythritol could be dispensed but the Sample containing erythritol had the most acceptable flow rate.