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Title:
FUEL PROCESSOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/051625
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention provides a fuel processor is organized as follows: The inlet end of the post-processing tube (3) is connected to the outlet end of the pre- processing tube (2), forming the path for the liquid. A laser source (L) is mounted outside the pre-processing tube (2) so that the laser light is emitted on the liquid inside the pre- processing tube (2) through a window (1 1 ) on the tube wall. The inside of the pre- processing tube (2) is filled with quartz crystal particles forming a quarts filter (Q). In the inlet (12) and outlet (13) sections of the pre-processing tube (2), helical ribbons (12a, 13a) wound in opposite directions are installed so that the liquid enters the pre-processing tube (2) spiraling in one direction and exits the pre-processing tube (2) spiraling in the reverse direction. Inside the post-processing tube (3) is a double-helical ribbon (21, 22) of equal pitch so that the liquid travelling through is guided in a steady-state spiral before being discharged.

Inventors:
SAITO, Thomas lsamu (5 Dixon Court, Barrie, Ontario L4N 7H1, CA)
Application Number:
CA2009/001573
Publication Date:
May 14, 2010
Filing Date:
October 30, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CB WILLIAMS ENERGY GROUP CORP. (World Trade Center, 404-999 Canada PlaceVancouver, BC V6C 3E2, CA)
SAITO, Thomas lsamu (5 Dixon Court, Barrie, Ontario L4N 7H1, CA)
International Classes:
F02M27/06
Foreign References:
US20040245085A12004-12-09
US4569737A1986-02-11
US6659088B22003-12-09
US20070074683A12007-04-05
US4302217A1981-11-24
US4726336A1988-02-23
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Riches, McKenzie & Herbert LLP (2 Bloor Street East, Suite 1800Toronto, Ontario M4W 3J5, CA)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A fuel processor with the following characteristics: the inlet end of the postprocessing tube (3) is connected to the outlet end of the pre-processing tube (2), forming the path for the liquid, a laser source (L) is mounted outside the pre-processing tube (2) so that the laser light is emitted on the liquid inside the pre-processing tube (2) through a window (11) on the tube wall, the inside of the pre-processing tube (2) is filled with quartz crystal particles forming a quarts filter (Q), in the inlet and outlet sections of the preprocessing tube (2), helical ribbons (12a, 13a) wound in opposite directions are installed so that the liquid enters the pre-processing tube (2) spiraling in one direction and exits the pre-processing tube (2) spiraling in the reverse direction, inside the post-processing tube (3) is a double-helical ribbon (21, 22) of equal pitch so that the liquid travelling through is guided in a steady-state spiral before being discharged.

2. The fuel processor of Claim 1 whereby the aforementioned laser light is specified to be in the green spectral region.

3. The fuel processor of Claim 1 with the addition of a mixing section where the liquid passing through, upon being discharged from the aforementioned post-processing tube (3), is mixed in with the unprocessed liquid at a prescribed ratio.

Description:
Title

FUEL PROCESSOR

Field of the Invention

[0001] This invention is about a fuel processor for purposes such as purification of engine exhaust gases.

Background of the Invention

[0002] As for fuel processors that are effective as a means for purification of exhaust gases mainly for automobile engines, there are known technologies such as the one shown in published Japanese Patent Application No. 2007-76961, whereby the irradiation of laser or some other effect is used to make the passing hydrocarbon fuel hydrogen-rich.

[0003] However, such methods have had issues in terms of manufacturing cost because precision of parts and materials need to be high in order to ensure that performance is at a practical level in such areas as compliance to emission standards or improvement of fuel efficiency.

[0004] The problem we are trying to solve is the provision of a fuel processor which, due to its simple configuration, is low cost and enables efficient operation.

Summary of the Invention

[0005] In one aspect, the present invention provides a fuel processor. The inlet end of the post-processing tube is connected to the outlet end of the pre-processing tube, forming the path for the liquid. A laser source is mounted outside the pre-processing tube so that the laser light is emitted on the liquid inside the tube through a window on the tube wall. The inside of the pre-processing tube is filled with quartz crystal particles forming a quarts filter. In the inlet and outlet sections of the pre-processing tube, helical ribbons wound in opposite directions are installed so that the liquid enters the pre-processing tube spiraling in one direction and exits the pre-processing tube spiraling in the reverse direction. Inside the post-processing tube is a double-helical ribbon of equal pitch so that the liquid travelling through is guided in a steady-state spiral before being discharged. [0006] Preferably, the aforementioned laser light is specified to be in the green spectral region.

[0007] Preferably, the invention further comprises the configuration of Claim 1 with the addition of a mixing section where the liquid passing through, upon being discharged, is mixed in with the unprocessed liquid at a prescribed ratio.

[0008] The fuel processor invention provides for efficient conversion of laser light energy in the pre-processing tube due to contact with the quartz crystal particles in the processing flow path. The distance of travel during contact is long because of the spiral flow created between the spiral flow guides at both ends of the tube, likely causing the molecular structure of the passing liquid to be changed. Also, the laser light beam is being dispersed by the quartz crystal particles throughout the flow of the treated liquid, thus increasing the interaction between the laser light and the liquid under treatment. The dispersion occurs as the quartz particles are semi-transparent, thus allowing the light to go through by refraction and also to be reflected on the particles surface. The steady-state spiral action in the ensuing post-processing tube stabilizes the liquid's microstructure. Accordingly, the system can be applied not only to the enhancement of the combustion efficiency of an engine through modification of hydrocarbon fuels and oils, but also to a variety of other areas including food and pharmaceuticals. Additionally, the simple configuration consisting of a pre-processing tube where the laser light is introduced and an adjoining post-processing tube enables reliable processing at low cost.

[0009] The fuel processor invention preferably allows for stable handling through the use of a simple laser source.

[00010] The fuel processor invention preferably enables efficient processing for large quantities of liquid through admixing.

Brief Description of the Drawings

[Figure 1 ] Overall configuration of the fuel processor which represents an example of implementation for this invention

[Figure 2] Enlarged side-view of the pre-processing tube, together with partial cross-sections [Figure 3] Enlarged frontal view of the post-processing tube in the form of a partial lateral cross-section

[Figure 4] Microscope images of diesel fuel

[Figure 5] Microscope images of engine lubricating oil

[Explanation of symbols]

1 Fuel Processor

2 Pre-processing Tube

2a Tubular Section (Processing Path)

3 Post-processing Tube 3a Straight Tube

1 1 Irradiation Window

12 Spiral Inlet 12a Helical Ribbon

13 Spiral Outlet 13a Helical Ribbon

14 Mesh

21 Helical Ribbon

22 Helical Ribbon L Laser Light

Q Quartz Crystal Particles (Quartz Filter) Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiment

[00011] A form of implementation that has been actually put together based on the aforementioned technical philosophy is described here with reference to diagrams.

Figure 1 shows the overall configuration of the fuel processor which represents an instance of implementation for this invention.

The fuel processor 1 connects with the laser, not shown in the diagram, and comprises the pre-processing tube 2, made with tubular material shaping the processing path 2a that guides the liquid which passes through while being subjected to the laser light L, and the post-processing tube 3, which is a straight tube connected downstream and which post-processes the passing liquid. At the end of the post-processing tube, an on-off valve such as a butterfly valve 4 may be installed as needed.

[00012) Figure 2 shows the enlarged side-view of the pre-processing tube 2, together with partial cross-sections. As shown in the figure, the tubular section 2a, which constitutes the processing path, is made of a material such as stainless steel and has an irradiation window 1 1 where the laser light enters from the side. Connected to the front end of the processing path 2a is the conical spiral inlet 12, which houses multiple helical ribbons 12a to rotate the passing liquid in a uniform rotational direction. Connected to the back end of the processing path 2a is the conical spiral outlet 13, which houses multiple helical ribbons 13a to rotate the passing liquid in the opposite rotational direction. The helical ribbons 12a and 13a serve the purpose of creating a rotation and cavitations effect on the fuel flow, thus amplifying the effect of exposure to the laser light. It was found that they are more effective if disposed as shown in Fig.2, i.e. helical ribbonsl2a and 13a are arranged to rotate the liquid in opposite directions. The helical ribbons 12a and 13a of the spiral inlet 12 and spiral outlet 13 are installed, for example, in quarters of the circumference. Also, at the interfaces between the tubular section 2a and both the spiral inlet 12 and spiral outlet 13, meshes 14 and 14 are installed to partition the section while still allowing the liquid to flow through. The intervening space is filled with quartz crystal particles, which come into contact with the liquid passing through while being irradiated by the laser light and are held in by the meshes to form the quartz filter Q. [00013] Figure 3 shows an enlarged frontal view of the post-processing tube 3 in the form of a partial lateral cross-section. The straight tube 3a is made of a material such as stainless steel. Inside the straight tube 3a are two helical ribbons 21 and 22 which guide the flow of the liquid in a steady-state spiral and are also made of a material such as stainless steel. These ribbons are separated by struts 23 and affixed by such means as welding. The two helical ribbons 21 and 22 are designed for insuring a thorough mix of the liquid on its way toward to exit of the fuel processor 1. It has been found that this structure makes the liquid processing more effective and contributes to the stability of the processing results. The front and back ends of the straight tube 3a are fitted with cones 24 and 25 in which the diameter of the liquid path is tapered. These cones connect the postprocessing tube to form a through path for the liquid.

[00014] The fuel processor 1 configured in the above way efficiently converts the passing liquid into an energized state by irradiating the liquid with laser light while it passes through the pre-processing tube 2 in contact with the quartz crystal particles Q of the quartz filter. The liquid is then guided in a steady-state spiral along the double- configuration helical ribbons 21 and 22 of the ensuing post-processing tube 3 where the energized state is stabilized to a steady state.

[00015] The quartz crystal particles exhibit piezoelectric behavior, whereby a bipolar charge-induced voltage is created in response to pressure applied in a certain direction. When the crystal is subjected to a force causing the crystal to move or when the crystal comes into contact with another object, its electron arrangement is disturbed resulting in generation of electrical energy. For this reason, anything that comes into contact with the crystal receives energy from it. The crystal thus has the ability to store, receive, and transmit energy in a stable pattern, which enables it to act as an amplifier and conductor of energy and a stable energy source that converts the laser energy and releases energy into the liquid, due to the pressure created by the moving fluids combined with the cavitation pressure created by the helical pre-processing ribbons.

[00016] In this way, it is likely that the configuration of the aforementioned fuel processor 1 causes the liquid passing through the quartz filter Q, created by the quartz crystal particles in the pre-processing tube 2, to be turned into a uniform cluster through changes to its molecular structure resulting from the emission of high-energy vibration. [00017] In the case of diesel fuel, which is an example of hydrocarbon fuel, we can observe the changes in physical characteristics from both appearance and electrical property, as the broken down micro-structure such as shown by the microscope image presented later, and increase in electrical conductivity. In the case of application as fuel for a diesel engine, use of the additive method, in which the aforementioned processed liquid is added to the unprocessed liquid stored in a mixing tank, or the mixing section, at a specific ratio, or the dilution method, in which the aforementioned processed liquid is, in contrast to the additive method, stored in the mixing tank and diluted, has resulted in significant verifiable effects in reduction of black smoke in the exhaust and improvement in fuel economy and acceleration. The ratio of the processed and un-processed liquid in either of methods described is determined experimentally by testing the electrical conductivity and/or doing microscopic analysis.

[00018] As for the liquid which undergoes this processing, not only do we see benefits in the areas of exhaust composition and fuel economy for hydrocarbon fuels and lubricant oils used in internal combustion engines, but, when the device is applied to a wide variety of other liquids according to their objective in applications including food and pharmaceuticals, there are also various benefits due to the changes in the respective physical properties of such liquids.

Examples

[00019] Next, we describe in concrete terms some examples of application and their effect.

For examples of application at the demonstration level, it is sufficient to use a laser light with low output power, for example a 200 mW standard green laser, with the pre-processing tube 2.

The quartz crystal particles of the quartz filter Q, also known as "rock crystal" or "master stone", are a granularized form of the crystal of silicone dioxide, which is a substance that is mined from natural resources worldwide. Any type of quartz particles can be used, regardless of shape, pattern, or size. [00020] According to the experimental results, the flow rate of the incoming diesel fuel is correlated with the tube diameter and the necessary capacity of the processor. Regardless of the orientation at which the device is installed, the length and diameter of the pre-processing tube 2 are experimentally determined in accordance with the retention time, and the flow rate is adjusted by the pump pressure as appropriate.

For industrial applications such as the processing of hydrocarbons contained in fuels, the spiral flow between, and caused by, the multi-row helical ribbons 12a and 13a in the conical spiral guides 12 and 13 of the induction and discharge sections is effective.

[00021] The double-helical structure of the post-processing tube 3 comprises two narrow helical ribbons 21 and 22 of 5.25 inch pitch length, positioned along the inner surface of the straight tube 3a at a separation of 0.5 inch pitch. This arrangement enables a stable energy state to be sustained. Measurements using natural gas confirmed that a permanent stable state was achieved in the structure of the processed material.

As shown in test reports below, higher combustion temperatures have been achieved by using similar processing of gas in a steam generator model ST302L in Ontario, Canada .

STEAM GENERATOR

Model: ST302L, 3 million BTU capacity, Tri Lobe Blower Model TL-81 with 30HP , 575/3/60 Leeson Motor, Amp rated: 28/18.3

PROCEDURES:

The test was to conduct two separate phases to measure the temperature rise or fall of generators operation by "fixing" or setting the gas flow to the generator and observe the finding in temperature.

Control System: The regular generator was used for reading and recorded.

Treated System: Installed the special treated quartz on the inlet to the generator gas line. Installed a specially designed Vortex unit into the generator's Combustion chamber section or the gun assembly. Procedure 1 : To take all readings and record the findings , read and record every 5 minutes of the regular ( Control ) system.

Procedure 2: Switch the by-pass to the Quartz system and record findings.

Procedure 3: Switch the by-pass of gas system to the regular system ( Control) without he quartz and install the new combustion gun assembly . Record readings.

Procedure 4: To operate final system using both the treated quartz and the new gun assembly. Record the results. And compare both the Control and Treated system in terms of temperature differences.

RECORDINGS: CONTROL SYSTEM:

The steam generator was started for the test at 8:00 am . to ensure all is ready for the test.

Gas Flow : 33 cf/hr. Fixed. Temp. set @ 350F CO reading : Zero

BLOWER

WATER GAS PILOT FUEL

TIME TEMP (F) PRESS A G * U™N (,psi ,) PRE ,SS .U. RE (psi) (psi)

(psi) VF } (psi)

10:00 232 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 11

10:05 266 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 1 1

10: 10 241 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 11

10:15 242 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 11

10:20 250 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 11

10:25 246 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 1 1

10:30 253 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 11 Quartz System'ON" and with Regular Gas Gun:

BLOWER GAS

WATER PILOT FUEL

TIME TEMP (F) PRESS PRESSURE GUN (psi) (psi) (psi)

(psi) (psi)

10:35 240 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 1 1

10:40 243 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 11

10:45 247 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 1 1

10:50 275 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 11

10:55 275 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 11

1 1 :00 274 2.0 20 3.0 8.5 1 1

Note: temperature fluctuated as the rise in temperature but stabilized to its corrected state as recorded.

QUARTZ SYSTEM "ON" & WITH NEW GUN ASSEMBLY:" ON"

Due to time restraint, we proceeded with Procedure 4 instead of Procedure 3. Stopped the generator and replaced the regular gas assembly with the new unit.

BLOWER GAS

WATER PILOT FUEL

TIME TEMP (F) PRESS PRESSURE GUN (psi) (psi) (psi)

(psi) (psi)

1 1 :30 319 2.0 20 2.5 8.2 11

11 :35 308 2.0 20 2.5 8.2 1 1

11:40 306 2.0 20 2.5 8.2 11

11 :45 316 2.0 20 2.5 8.2 11

11 :50 321 2.0 20 2.5 8.2 11

1 1 :55 330 2.0 20 2.5 8.2 11

12:00 332 2.0 20 2.5 8.2 1 1

12:05 339 2.0 20 2.5 8.2 1 1

Note: During the running of this test with the combined quartz and the new gun, there were NO fluctuations of even one degree in temperature. The temperature climb was linear without any changes but a continual rise only. A very interesting observation. Since we did have some time left, we made Procedure Test No.3 with the new gun assembly and without the Quartz system.

We wanted to record temperature with the new gun assembly only.

BL

Γ TEMP PILOT FUEL

I ITJΛV/l1 J17L P RE

(F) (psi) (psi)

12: 15 359 2.0 20 2.5 8.5 11

12:20 352 2.0 20 2.5 8.5 11

12:25 360 2.0 20 2.5 8.5 11

12:30 357 2.0 20 2.5 8.5 11

12:35 358 2.0 20 2.5 8.5 11

The generator was stopped for further test since time has run out.

SUMMARY:

The temperature difference with the Control and the combined treated quartz and the new gun was an 86 Degree ( 253 F and 339F ) It is a temperature rise of 34% based on the same fixed gas flow volume

[00022] The effects of the diesel fuel processing are described hereafter using actual measurement results.

The measurements were made in the following areas: (1) electrical conductivity, (2) molecular structure, and (3) black smoke concentration in engine exhaust. The measurement specifications and results before and after the reforming process are shown. Detailed measurement results follow.

[00023] (1) Electrical conductivity was measured using an electrical conductivity meter for low conductivity. Measurement was made before the process and after 12 days later to observe the change in conductivity.

The measurement results below show that, for a fuel with an electrical conductivity of 222 pS/m, the value increased gradually from 237 pS/m immediately after the reforming process to 544 pS/m 12 days later. The test has been repeated using other low-sulphur diesel fuel batch and aviation fuel. The differential increase of the conductivity was in the range of 30% to 90% as shown in the test reports below.

[00024] (2) The molecular structure was studied through high-magnification micro- structure photographic images obtained using an LTSEM (Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope). The equipment used was the LTSEM at Guelph University of Canada. With co-operation from the university, high-magnification microscopic images were acquired, with pre and post-processed fuel as well as pre and post-processed engine oil as the subject materials. The low-magnification images are for reference.

[00025] For diesel fuel, a comparison of the high-magnification images in Figure 4 shows the micro- structure after processing (lower right, 050898), which can be seen as a collection of fine-particle clusters with uniform size and shape, changed from before the processing (upper right, 050822).

Similarly with engine lubricating oil, a comparison of the high-magnification images in Figure 5 indicates that the micro- structure after processing (lower right, 050804), which can be seen as a collection of fine -particle clusters with uniform size and shape, changed from before the processing (upper right, 050822).

[00026] (3) For the black smoke concentration of the engine exhaust, we used the measurement method prescribed by the Society of Automotive Engineers Standard SAEJ 1667 of the USA. The measurements taken were opacity measurements using a diesel vehicle at three engine speeds, as per the heavy-load truck exhaust inspection report issued by the Ministry of the Environment of the Province of Ontario, Canada. Two vehicles A and B with different engines were used as the subject of measurement. For each vehicle, the black smoke concentration was measured for regular and reformed fuels.

[00027] According to the measurements below, vehicle A showed a reduction in black smoke concentration from 7.0% with regular fuel to 4.1% with the reformed fuel. Vehicle B showed a reduction from 4.3% with regular fuel to 0.0% with the reformed fuel. As such, we were able to confirm a major reduction in black smoke concentration for reformed fuel.

The aforementioned exhaust test is required by the government. All results have been certified to satisfy the Ontario Environment Standard of 30%. [00028] As we have seen, the fuel processor, from before to after the processing induces changes to physical properties, one of which is a sustained increase in electrical conductivity and the other a change into a more uniform micro- structure. In addition to this, we have verified its success in improving engine exhaust using real vehicles. As is evident from these facts, the device has the effect of transforming the passing liquid into an enhanced microstructure. We can therefore not only expect improvement in engine efficiency from processing of hydrocarbon fuels and oils, but also find applications in a variety of other fields including food and pharmaceuticals. Additionally, the simple configuration consisting of a pre-processing tube, where the laser is introduced and a quartz filter is installed, and the post-processing tube with the double-helix enables reliable reform processing at low cost.

[00029] The actual measurement results are given below.

(Electrical conductivity)

Before processing: 222 pS/m (Range of measurements at 4 points within 4.1-9.4 0 C was 215-232 pS/m)

1 st time: 237 pS/m (Range of measurements at 2 points within 9.4-12.3 0 C was 329-344 pS/m)

2nd time: 342 pS/m (Range of measurements at 3 points within 7.6-12.3 0 C was 332-353 pS/m)

3rd time: 351 pS/m (Range of measurements at 3 points within 7.0-1 1.7°C was 343-360 pS/m)

left for 30 min: 410 pS/m (Range of measurements at 3 points within 10.0-1 1.1 0 C was 406-415 pS/m)

Retested after 2 days: 490 pS/m (Measurement at 1 point at 17.0 0 C was 490 pS/m)

Retested after 5 days: 506 pS/m (Measurement at 2 points at 16.4°C was 506 pS/m) Retested after 8 days: 536 pS/m (Measurement at 1 point at 18.2°C was 536 pS/m)

Retested after 12 days: 544 pS/m (Measurement at 1 point at 18.2°C was 544 pS/m)

The following electrical conductivity tests were conducted on other samples of Diesel and Aviation fuel. The duration of testing, temperature correction and the detailed description of the measurements are shown. The temperature correction was done taking into account an approximate variation of lOpS/deg.C as a correction factor, determined experimentally.

The processing in all case was done using 201itres/minute flow rate, and passing the fuel three times through the processor for consistency.

Conductivity Test - Jet A-I fuel

Catalate Test of Aviation Fuel A-I at Armstrong Petroleum

Treated and tested approx. l δlitres of Aviation fuel, procured by Don Armstrong

Fuel: A-I Jet Fuel in 201 plastic container

Conductivity meter: New upgraded 1 153 instrument as received from EMCEE with fresh calibration certificate

New specially treated Jet fuel quartz filled in the reactor

New stainless steel reactor parts

Prior to test, approx. 11 of untreated fuel was used for flushing the pump

Test Goals: treat and test A-I fuel with and without Tsunami Modulator

Avg. Avg.

Test# Test Condition Conduct. Temp. Cond. Avg. Avg. Conduct. Avg. treated deg. pS/m C pS/m Temp. Treated Corrected Cond. Data Incr deg. to at

C 70OmW 2OC 2OC (%)

Control

1 Fresh A-I Control fuel 183 18.7 186.3 18.9 426.1 196 198 in the pail 188 18.7 201

188 19.2 196

Re-circulate through quartz ONLY

Laser and Modulator OFF

Treating Al fuel, 18 litres 381 20.7 383.5 20.7 374 377 90 flow rate 401/min, 386 20.7 379 duration 2 min, in-reactor quartz only, laser and modulator OFF

3 No treatment, 416 20.2 418.5 20.2 414 417 1 1 just Re-test after 5 min. 421 20.2 419

Laser and Ampoule, NO Modulation

Treating same Al fuel

4 sample, 446 21.2 449.7 21.2 434 438 5

1 δlitres, flow rate 401/min 451 21.2 439 duration 2 min, laser ON, 452 21.2 440 ampoule in place, no modulation

Conductivity Test — Diesel fuel

Catalate Re-Test at Armstrong Petroleum

Tested only Fuel stored in various containers of both Control and Treated samples. No Catalate reactor treatment occurred.

Fuel: Low Sulphur Diesel

Conductivity meter: New upgraded 1153 instrument as received from EMCEE with fresh calibration certificate

Avg Avg

Test#l Test Condition Conduct. Temp, Cond. Temp. Avg. Conduct. Avg Cond dee. pS/m C pS/m deg. C Treated Corrected at 2OC

Control 70OmW to 2OC

1 Fresh Control fuel 465 14.9 458.0 14.1 565.2 516 517

As pumped from 456 13.9 517 the fuel tank into 453 13.4 519 the control jar

Re-test of 100% 70OmW

2 100% Treated fuel, 201itres 691 19.2 695.4 18.3 699 713 flow rate 201/min, stored in 692 17.8 714 original bucket since Jan 17 694 17.8 716

699 18.3 716

701 18.3 718

Re-test of 100% 140OmW

3 100% Treated fuel, 201itres flow rate 201/min, stored in 654 18.7 651.3 19.0 667 661 original bucket since Jan 17 651 19.2 659

649 19.2 657

[00030] (Micro- structure)

Figure 4 shows the images of low-sulphur diesel fuel. In the upper row are the pre-processing low-magnification (left: 050812) and high-magnification (right: 050822) images, and in the lower row are the post-processing low-magnification (left: 050895) and high-magnification (right: 050898) images.

The post-reform high-magnification image (bottom right: 050898) shows a collective structure of particle clusters with uniform size and shape.

In Figure 4, the diesel fuel looks somewhat crystalline on the fracture face in the higher Magnification image. The same surface can be seen in the lower magnification but the crystalline nature is not quite as apparent. The lower magnification has little bits attached.

The Energized Diesel Fuel has a fin granular surface at both magnifications. The granules are very small and "uniformly" distributed, thus, contributing to a better combustion and performance of the diesel engine and its gas emissions produced.

[00031] Figure 5 shows the images of 10W30 engine oil. In the upper row are the preprocessing low-magnification (left: 061955) and high-magnification (right: 061954) images, and in the lower row are the post-processing low-magnification (left: 05081 1) and high-magnification (right: 050804) images.

The post-processed high-magnification image (bottom right: 050804) shows a collective structure of particle clusters with uniform size and shape and a finer granulation of the micro-structure domains.

In Figure 5, the images compare the dramatic differences of the molecular structure of the regular engine oil 10W30 (Control and not Treated) both on low and high magnification.

In the Treated Energized (Treated) Diesel Oil in both low and high magnification, there are smaller clustered and structured, arranged patterns compared with a randomly spaced and uneven structures of the Control Oil. In both cases, the low magnification was 30microns/division and the high magnification was όmicrons/division.

[00032] (Engine exhaust)

Shown below are the results of black smoke concentration measurements using opacity (%) for regular and reformed fuels in two types of trucks (vehicle A and vehicle B). [Vehicle A]

Regular fuel: 7.0% (Range of measurements at 3 points within 696-2146 rpm was 6.9-7.1%)

Processed fuel: 4.1% (Range of measurements at 3 points within 2002-2130 rpm was 4.0-4.2%)

[Vehicle B]

Regular fuel: 4.3% (Range of measurements at 3 points within 696-1386 rpm was 4.0-4.4%)

Processed fuel: 0.0% (Range of measurements at 3 points within 696-1995 rpm was 0.0-0.0%)

A gas emission test was conducted on Hyundai D4EA 21itres Diesel engine. The overall result of the testing indicates up to 60% percent reduction in Total Hydrocarbon content of the exhaust gas and a 5% increase in the engine's efficiency under the same load condition.

The main parameters recorded by the Gas Emission analyzer are: the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), the concentration of un-burned hydrocarbon (THC) and concentration of Nitrogen oxides (NOX) all of them measured in ppm (parts per million) of exhausted gas. These results are shown in Fig. 6.

The average concentration of TCH in untreated fuel emission is 4556ppm.

The average concentration of TCH in treated fuel emission is 2888ppm representing a spectacular 40% reduction over the total of two days and 9 complete tests! The reduction of TCH emission in first day of experiment, under this condition was more than 60%. Also note that the reading of the TCH emission during the first day of testing was higher than 5000pm, but the gas analyzer's range stops at 5000ppm.

[00033] Although this disclosure has described and illustrated preferred embodiments of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not restricted to these particular embodiments. Rather, the invention includes all embodiments that are functional or mechanical equivalents of the specific embodiments and features that have been described and illustrated herein. Many modifications will now occur to those skilled in the art. For a definition of the invention, reference is made to the following claims.