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Title:
A FULL TIME-DOMAIN METHOD FOR ANALYZING TWO OR MORE SIGNALS FOR ASSESSING THEM AS ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI)
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/178878
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The method comprising: a) receiving, by an electronic test instrument (102), two or more synchronously acquired time-domain EMI signals; b) processing, by a computing device (103), the two or more measured time-domain EMI signals by means of: performing resolution enhancing and data reduction operations on the time-domain EMI signals; filtering the time- domain EMI signals; equalizing the frequency response of the electronic test instrument (102); applying a window function and combining the time-domain EMI signals, in the time domain; c) performing, by the computing device (103), a non-parametric spectral estimation on said processed signal(s) by applying one or more mathematical functions for obtaining the maximum-hold and the RMS power spectral density of the EMI which are then converted to disturbance voltage measurements complying with specific parameters of the EMI regulations; and correcting errors and performing unit conversion in the time and frequency domain using calibration factors.

Inventors:
SILVA MARTINEZ, Fernando (Av. Sant Salvador 6, Gelida, 08790, ES)
AZPURUA AUYANET, Baron Marco Aurelio (Travessera de les Corts, 220 entl. 1, Barcelona, 08028, ES)
Application Number:
IB2017/000408
Publication Date:
October 19, 2017
Filing Date:
April 11, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIVERSITAT POLITECNICA DE CATALUNYA (C/ Jordi Girona 31, Barcelona, 08034, ES)
International Classes:
G01R23/167; G01R29/08; G01R31/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JUNCOSA MIRÓ, Jaime (Torner, Juncosa I Associats sl,Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 669 bi, 1r.2a. Barcelona, 08013, ES)
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Claims:
Claims

1. A full time-domain method for analyzing two or more signals for assessing them as electromagnetic interference (EMI), the method comprising:

a) receiving, by a multichannel electronic test instrument (102), two or more synchronously acquired time-domain electromagnetic interferences, EMI, signals by taking into account certain parameters previously configured on the electronic test instrument (102) and by sampling the two or more received time-domain EMI signals with a sampling frequency several times higher than the Nyquist rate, wherein said certain parameters including the frequency resolution of the time-domain EMI signals, bandwidth and sensibility thereof, and the time acquisition of the electronic test instrument (102);

b) processing, by a computing device (103), the two or more acquired time-domain EMI signals by means of:

performing resolution enhancing and data reduction operations on the sampled two or more time-domain EMI signals for improving the dynamic range through an increase of an effective number of bits and its subsequent reduction of the quantization noise by adaptively smoothing the time-domain EMI signals without limiting the actual measurement bandwidth based on said Nyquist rate and by selecting an optimum number of bits in flexible resolution analog to digital converters;

- filtering the two or more time-domain EMI signals by removing high bandwidth components thereof and high bandwidth components of acquisition noise generated by the electronic test instrument (102);

- equalizing the frequency response of the electronic test instrument (102);

- applying a window function of a length and shape factor such as it provides a maximal energy concentration in a window main lobe which is optimal for meeting standard selectivity requirements for EMI testing while assuring low spectral leakage for meeting high dynamic range measurements; and

combining the two or more time-domain EMI signals, in the time domain, for performing further measurement exploitation, including, in parallel evaluation of the radiated and conducted emissions from certain equipment under test, EUT, common mode and differential mode voltage analysis and, multi-antenna measurements for dual- polarization and the application of ambient noise cancellation methods;

c) performing, by the computing device (103), a non-parametric spectral estimation on said processed signals by applying one or more mathematical functions on the processed signals for obtaining the maximum-hold and the RMS power spectral density of the EMI which are then converted to disturbance voltage measurements complying with specific parameters of the EMI regulations; and d) correcting, by the computing device (103), errors and performing unit conversion in the time and frequency domain using calibration factors.

2. The method of claim 1 , further comprising displaying the results from the analysis in the time, frequency, time-frequency and, statistical domains, at least two of them in parallel, for detecting non-compliances and identifying their causes by correlating said non-compliances to EUTs functioning modes during EMI troubleshooting.

3. The method of claim 1 , wherein it further comprises, before performing step d), weighting, by the computing device (103), a spectrum of the time-domain EMI signals providing a plurality of results according to standard detector modes including an Amplitude Probability Distribution and an Expected Maximum Mode.

4. The method of any of previous claims, further comprising simultaneously assessing the radiated and conducted radiofrequency emissions produced by a EUT by:

- performing single stage multiline conducted EMI measurements at a mains terminal and at communication or control ports;

- performing dual-polarization radiated EMI measurements for test parallelization;

- embedding capabilities of acquisition triggering for capturing continuous and transient components of the EMI;

- applying multiple detectors on a single deep-memory time-domain acquisition, including peak, quasi-peak, RMS, average, APD and Expected Maximum modes; and

- correlating time domain and frequency domain results though multi domain results visualization.

5. The method of claims 1 to 3, further comprising analyzing a common mode and a differential mode disturbance voltage using multiline conducted EMI measurements for single-phased and three-phased EUTs by:

- performing single stage multiline conducted EMI measurements at a mains terminal;

- embedded capabilities of acquisition triggering for capturing continuous and transient components of the EMI;

- applying multiple detectors on a single deep-memory time-domain acquisition, including peak, quasi-peak, RMS, and average modes; and

- assessing an attenuation and a transfer function of filters and chokes used for common mode and differential mode noise mitigation.

6. The method of claims 1 to 3, further comprising performing background noise cancellation on EMI assessments based on multi-antenna measurements performed in open areas by:

- performing an spectral coherence calculation between the two or more parallel measurements of the radiated and conducted emissions of the EUT and further performing an empirical mode decomposition thereof; and - using information of the spectral coherence to distinguish ambient noise frequency components from the EUT emissions and suppressing the intrinsic modes corresponding with said ambient noise frequency components.

7. The method of claim 1 , wherein said resolution enhancing and data reduction operations being performed by combining the amplitude of multi-scaled acquisitions of the EMI and

Gaussian process regression used to uniformly resample the two or more time-domain EMI signals through a best linear unbiased prediction of the intermediate values of the time- domain EMI signals.

8. The method of claim 1 , wherein said filtering of the two or more time-domain EMI signals being performed by a Finite Impulse Response filter, wherein a filter cutoff frequency, frequency response, and flatness are defined taking into consideration an analog bandwidth of the electronic test instrument (102) and the bandwidth of the time-domain EMI signals.

9. The method of claim 1 , wherein said one or more mathematical functions comprising a Welch's method, a Short-Time Fourier Transform, or a standard weighting detector emulation.

10. The method of claim 1 , wherein said first window function comprising a digital prolate spheroidal sequence, or DPSS, window.

11. The method of claim 1 , comprising using the processed signals obtained in step b) for performing further EMI analysis in the time-domain including: an instantaneous frequency analysis and Hilbert spectrum, EMI signal decomposition, a calculation of common mode and/or differential mode noise.

12. The method of claim 3, wherein said standard detector modes comprising a function of the equivalent pulse repetition frequency obtained from the amplitude ratio between the maximum-hold and the RMS power spectral density and a statistical detector mode calculated from a nonparametric kernel fitting of the distribution of the interferences measured in the time-domain.

13. The method of claim 1 , wherein the time-domain EMI signals in said step a) being further pre-amplified.

14. The method of any of previous claims, wherein the EMI comprising radiated and conducted radiofrequency emissions, low frequency harmonic emissions and/or other type of disturbance with a spectral content from DC up to a maximum measurable frequency defined for a measurement system.

15. The method of claim 1 , comprising performing said processing of the time-domain EMI signals on-line or off-line.

16. The method of any of previous claims, wherein the electronic test instrument (102) comprises a digital real-time sampling oscilloscope, a digitizer or an electronic analog-to- digital acquisition system with one or more analog-to-digital converters.

Description:
A full time-domain method for analyzing two or more signals for assessing them as electromagnetic interference (EMI)

Technical Field

The present invention is directed in general to electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements. In particular, present invention relates to a synchronous multichannel analysis method for the assessment of conducted and/or radiated EMI signals measured in the time- domain with spectral content from DC up to a maximum measurable frequency defined by a measurement system. The measurement method comprises time-domain, frequency-domain (spectral estimation), mixed (time-frequency) domain and statistical techniques that allow processing the direct measurement results on-line (while measuring) and/or off-line (after measuring), providing useful insights by a combination of several EMI measurements. The field of application is mainly related to determining compliance with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) emission limits standards and also for troubleshooting EMI problems.

Background of the Invention In the field of EMC testing the common practice for measuring radiofrequency emissions of a certain Equipment Under Test (EUT) is to use a test receiver which must comply with the requirements defined by the standard CISPR 16-1 -1. Moreover, test receivers are single channel apparatus that detect the EMI using one of the following approaches: frequency sweeps, stepped frequency scans, or time-scans at intermediate frequency, i.e. spectrum analyzers and real-time spectrum analyzers. Such test receivers may have one or two RF inputs for covering different frequency ranges; however, those inputs cannot be used simultaneously because they share the same internal architecture beyond the input stage. The inputs of such EMI receivers are very sensitive and can be damaged by DC. In any case, standard EMI test receivers are intended for measuring only one input signal at the time while presenting the final results as a (semilogarithmic) plot of the EMI magnitude as a function of the frequency in certain frequency range. Besides, the most recent technology of FFT-based test receivers enable faster measurements by performing a set of single channel frequency scans while processing the signal at intermediate frequency using a time-domain approach. Patent application US-A1 -2006043979 discloses an electromagnetic interference (EMI) measuring method and its system for diagnosing EMI of various electronic devices and instructing user to improve design to satisfy Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) criterion. The measuring method includes acquiring a set of time domain signal waveforms from a group of uniformly distributed test points on equipment under test (EUT), and then processing, converting, comparing and analyzing, and finally determining physical position of EMI on EUT. To implement said method, an EMI measuring system is also provided. The system includes signal acquisition portion and signal analysis portion. The signal analysis portion takes computer as carrier, which establishes processing, converting, comparing and analyzing modules on operating system platform of computer.

In the same vein, time domain electromagnetic interference (TDEMI) measurements have been previously proposed for assessing the electromagnetic emissions, especially those arising from transient disturbances. The concept of a TDEMI has been already presented in research papers that focus on comparing the amplitude of the EMI spectrum obtained by processing the measurements performed in the time-domain with an oscilloscope and those performed in the frequency domain with standard EMI test receivers. Unlike the frequency domain EMI measurement approach, the time domain method has been effective for detecting transient events and for measuring the EMI pulse repetition frequency of impulsive emissions [Russer P. "EMC measurements in the time-domain"].

In this regard, the current EMI testing methodology and measuring apparatus have the drawbacks and limitations in comparison with an entirely time domain method: a) They are not adequate for evaluating the impact of broadband impulsive noise disturbances that affect electronic devices and digital wireless communication systems receivers as in-band interferences, b) Can perform a single measurement at the time making them incompatible with test parallelization c) are unable to provide deeper insights resulting from combining multiple synchronous measurement d) even in FFT-based test receivers the time-domain data is disposed during data reduction stages and it is unavailable to the end user for performing an assessment of the results in the time-domain. In fact, modern FFT-based EMI test receivers are focused on emulating the functioning, specifications and performance of the state-of-the- art super-heterodyne EMI receivers at the sacrifice of a comprehensive evaluation of the electromagnetic disturbance in the time-domain. Patent US-B2-9239349 relates to a method of, and a system for, monitoring electromagnetic interference. The method comprising capturing a plurality of time domain waveforms, and a plurality of scatter plots; receiving the plurality of captured time domain waveforms and scatter plots; applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to each of the received time domain waveforms as it is received thereby to receive FFT outputs; storing the FFT outputs in a database; generating a statistically representative spectrograph or spectrogram in the frequency domain based on at least the stored FFT outputs and scatter plots or data associated with the scatter plots, combining constituent FFTs of the statistically representative spectrograph or spectrogram in such a manner as to emulate the result that would be produced by an EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) receiver or spectrum analyzer; and combining resultant outputs from a number of iterations of this process to produce a final result (EMI spectrum). With this measurement system, an approximated realization of the peak and quasi peak detector could be obtained but compliance with the standard requirement for an EMI test receiver is not granted by such procedure.

Patent US-B2-7613576 provides a system that monitors electromagnetic interference (EMI) signals to facilitate proactive fault monitoring in a computer system. During operation, the system receives EMI signals from one or more antennas located in close proximity to the computer system. The system then analyzes the received signals to proactively detect anomalies during operation of the computer system. This fault monitoring system is not intended for standard emissions measurements and it is useful only within its application domain that is, monitoring computer systems using a telemetry system. The EP-A2-1111396 describes the usage of a time domain measurement instrument that incorporate a frequency domain analysis feature that is based on the usage of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating the spectrum of a digitized waveform record and that provides several options such as a configurable window function, frequency spam, record length and resolution bandwidth. Even if this analysis system allows for the detection of both broadband and narrowband interferences in the frequency domain, it has limitations with regards EMI measurement because it is unable to comply with CISPR-16-1 -1 requirements for continued measurement time in both radiated and conducted frequency bands, and also because it does not have the standard weighting detector function required for assessing compliance. With this measuring system, it is in principle possible to receive broadband signals. However, the system neither provides the signal spectrum with a weighting detector mode function nor carries out a correction of the frequency response of the measuring device. Moreover, the scalloping error are not accounted for in this analysis since there is no window overlapping when the amplitude spectrum is calculated and the clipping errors due to the saturation of the oscilloscope inputs are not taken into account. Patent DE-B4-10392151 relates to a method and to an apparatus for detecting a fault in the frequency domain which is particularly used for detecting the radiation emitted by the test device signals in the time domain. The signal processing steps described in this document address the requirements of the CISPR 16-1-1 for standard EMI test receivers and results are delivered in the frequency domain according to a previously selected detector mode in order to perform a fault detection analysis with respect emissions limits. From the detailed description of the embodiments and drawing in DE-B4-10392151 it refers to a single channel device.

The present invention provides further improvements in this field for analyzing EMI signals in the time-domain.

Description of the Invention Embodiments of the present invention provide according to a first aspect a full time-domain method for analyzing two or more signals for assessing them as EMI signals, preferably including radiated and conducted radiofrequency emissions, low frequency harmonic emissions and/or any other type of disturbance with a spectral content from DC up to a maximum measurable frequency defined for a measurement system. The method characteristically comprises:

a) receiving, by a multichannel electronic test instrument, preferably a digital real-time sampling oscilloscope, but also a digitizer or any other electronic analog-to-digital acquisition system, two or more synchronously acquired time-domain EMI signals, coming from a transducer capable to sense an EMI signal, such as antennas, line impedance stabilization networks (LISN), voltage and currents probes, etc. by taking into account certain parameters previously configured on the electronic test instrument and by sampling the two or more measured time-domain EMI signals with a sampling frequency several times higher than the Nyquist rate (i.e. oversampling);

b) processing, by a computing device, either on-line or off-line, the two or more acquired time-domain EMI signals by means of:

- performing resolution enhancing and data reduction operations on the sampled two or more time-domain EMI signals for improving the dynamic range through an increase of the effective number of bits and its subsequent reduction of the quantization noise by adaptively smoothing the time-domain EMI signals without limiting the actual measurement bandwidth based on said Nyquist rate and by selecting an optimum number of bits in flexible resolution analog to digital converters;

- filtering the two or more time-domain EMI signals by removing high bandwidth components of the EMI signals and high bandwidth components of the acquisition noise generated by the electronic test instrument;

- equalizing the frequency response of the electronic test instrument;

- applying a window function such as a digital prolate spheroidal sequence (DPSS) window of a length and shape factor such as it provides a maximal energy concentration in the window main lobe which is optimal for meeting the standard selectivity requirements for EMI testing while assuring low spectral leakage for meeting high dynamic range measurements and minimizing the scalloping losses; and

- combining the two or more time-domain EMI signal, in the time domain, for performing further measurement exploitation, including, in parallel evaluation of the radiated and conducted emissions from certain EUT, common mode and differential mode voltage analysis and, multi-antenna measurements for dual- polarization and the application of ambient noise cancellation methods;

c) performing, by the computing device, a non-parametric spectral estimation on said processed signals by applying one or more mathematical functions on the processed signals for obtaining the maximum-hold and the RMS power spectral density of the EMI which are then converted to disturbance voltage measurements complying with the specific parameters set by the EMI regulations specified for domestic, commercial, industrial, medical, scientific, automotive and/or military and aerospace environments and products; and

d) correcting, by the computing device, errors and performing unit conversion in the time and frequency domain using calibration factors.

According to the proposed method, said certain parameters include the frequency resolution of the time-domain EMI signals, bandwidth and sensibility thereof, and the time acquisition of the electronic test instrument. The processed signal(s) obtained in step b) can be used for performing further EMI analysis in the time-domain including: an instantaneous frequency analysis and Hilbert spectrum, EMI signal decomposition, a calculation of common mode and/or differential mode noise.

The two or more time-domain EMI signals in said step a) can be pre-amplified.

According to an embodiment, the results from the analysis are further displayed in the time, frequency, time-frequency and, statistical domains, at least two of them being displayed in parallel, for an easy detection of non-compliances and identifying their causes by correlating said non-compliances to EUTs functioning modes during EMI troubleshooting.

According to an embodiment, before performing said step d), a spectrum of the time-domain EMI signals is weighted by the computing device providing a plurality of results according to standard detector modes. For instance, the standard detector modes can comprise a function of the equivalent pulse repetition frequency obtained from the amplitude ratio between the maximum-hold and the RMS power spectral density and/or a statistical detector mode calculated from a nonparametric kernel fitting of the distribution of the interferences measured in the time-domain. According to an embodiment, said resolution enhancing and data reduction operations are performed by combining the amplitude of multi-scaled acquisitions of the EMI and Gaussian process regression used to uniformly resample the two or more time-domain EMI signals through a best linear unbiased prediction (e.g. Wiener— Kolmogorov) of the intermediate values (e.g. an interpolation) of the two or more time-domain EMI signals. According to an embodiment, said filtering of the two or more time-domain EMI signals is performed by a Finite Impulse Response filter. Filter cutoff frequency, frequency response, and flatness are defined taking into consideration an analog bandwidth of the electronic test instrument and the bandwidth of the two or more time-domain EMI signals. According to the proposed method, the one or more mathematical functions may comprise a Welch's method, a Short-Time Fourier Transform, or a standard weighting detector emulation by applying a correction factor calculated using a Welch's method and a Short-Time Fourier Transform.

According to an embodiment, the proposed method can be used for simultaneously assessing the radiated and conducted radiofrequency emissions produced by a EUT by performing single stage multiline conducted EMI measurements at a mains terminal and at communication or control ports; performing dual-polarization radiated EMI measurements for test parallelization; embedding capabilities of acquisition triggering for capturing continuous and transient components of the EMI; applying multiple detectors on a single deep-memory time-domain acquisition, including peak, quasi-peak, RMS, average, APD and Expected Maximum modes; and correlating time domain and frequency domain results though multi domain results visualization.

According to another embodiment, the proposed method can be used for analyzing a common mode and a differential mode disturbance voltage using multiline conducted EMI measurements for single-phased and three-phased EUTs by performing single stage multiline conducted EMI measurements at a mains terminal; embedded capabilities of acquisition triggering for capturing continuous and transient components of the EMI; applying multiple detectors on a single deep-memory time-domain acquisition, including peak, quasi-peak, RMS, and average modes; and assessing an attenuation and a transfer function of filters and chokes used for common mode and differential mode noise mitigation.

According to yet another embodiment, the proposed method can be used for performing background noise cancellation on EMI assessments based on multi-antenna measurements performed in open areas by performing an spectral coherence calculation between the two or more parallel measurements of the radiated emissions of the EUT and further performing an empirical mode decomposition thereof; and using information of the spectral coherence to distinguish ambient noise frequency components from the EUT emissions and suppressing the intrinsic modes corresponding with said ambient noise frequency components.

Other embodiments of the present invention may also include, according to a second aspect, a system for implementing the method of the first aspect. According to the proposed invention, the computing device (e.g. a personal computer (PC), a notebook, etc.) and the electronic test instrument (preferably a digital real-time sampling oscilloscope, but also a digitizer or any other electronic analog-to-digital acquisition system) are remote to each other. The electronic test instrument and the computing device may be connected either via a wireless connection or via a wired connection. Alternatively, the computing device forms part of the electronic test instrument (e.g. a computing unit of an oscilloscope).

The system may further comprise pre-amplifier(s) operatively connected to the electronic test instrument and arranged and adapted to pre-amplify the acquired one or more time-domain EMI signals before being analyzed by the electronic test instrument.

The advantages of the present invention are primarily due to its multichannel conception and capabilities that allows for processing synchronous EMI acquisitions providing in-depth analysis for applications such as common mode and differential mode noise characterization, fault correlation analysis and ambient noise cancellation. Secondly, the present invention enhance current time-domain EMI measurement technology by comprising a CISPR 16-1-1 compliant measuring apparatus that implements a method for a quick evaluation of either continuous, impulsive and/or transient emissions of an EUT while enabling test parallelization in either conducted or radiated assessment, this means it allows monitoring multiple lines, antennas in horizontal and vertical polarization simultaneously and also performing concurrent conducted and radiated emissions measurements. Thirdly, the possibility of visualizing the interferences in both time and frequency domain combined with the embedded off-line reprocessing functions represent a step forward the instrumentation of the field. Features like the comprised by this invention are not present in either frequency-domain or time-domain based test receivers and can neither be easily nor cost-effectively replicated by a combination of several individual test receivers. Benefits of this invention are remarkable and evident for practitioners in the field electromagnetic compatibility.

Brief Description of the Drawings

The previous and other advantages and features will be more fully understood from the following detailed description of embodiments, with reference to the attached figures, which must be considered in an illustrative and non-limiting manner, in which:

Fig. 1 is a schematic block diagram of a full time-domain EMI measurement system according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a flow chart of a method for analyzing two or more signals for assessing them as electromagnetic interference (EMI) according to an embodiment of the present invention. Figs. 3 to 5 are three different application examples of the present invention.

Figs 6A and 6B illustrate an example of the measurement system that implements the proposed multichannel analysis method for monitoring and processing, in parallel, the EMI in the time and frequency domain. Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments

Present invention provides a system and a method for analyzing two or more signals for assessing them as Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI) based on a multichannel/multiport, full- spectrum, simultaneous and synchronous, adaptive resolution and entirely time-domain based approach. Fig. 1 shows an embodiment of the proposed system. For the acquisition of radiated and conducted EMI signals an appropriate EMI transducer 90 shall be used such as antennas, line impedance stabilization networks (LISN), voltage and currents probes, etc. The EMI signals could be periodic or sporadic, continuous wave or transient, narrowband or broadband, stationary, quasi-stationary or random EMI signals. The system 100, according to this embodiment, includes a pre-amplifier 101 (it could be more than one) operatively connected to a multichannel electronic test instrument 102 to pre-amplify the two or more synchronously acquired time-domain EMI signals before being analyzed. The electronic test instrument 102, which may be a digital real-time sampling oscilloscope, a digitizer or any other electronic analog-to-digital acquisition system, is responsible of receiving the pre-amplified signals. Finally, the system also includes a computing device 103 to process the two or more acquired time-domain EMI signals, to perform a non-parametric . spectral estimation on it and to correct errors and performing unit conversion in the time and frequency domain.

According to the invention, the computing device 103 can be a personal computer (PC), a notebook or a Tablet, among many other computing devices with processing capabilities, remote to the electronic test instrument 102 and connected thereto either via a wireless connection or via a wired connection. Alternatively, the computing device 103 can be a computing unit/module of the electronic test instrument 102.

Even the above-described embodiment uses a pre-amplifier the use of such unit is not mandatory as in other embodiments, in this case not illustrated, the acquired EMI signals are directly analyzed without being previously pre-amplified.

With reference now to Fig. 2, therein it is illustrated an embodiment of the proposed method. According to this embodiment, the electronic test instrument 102, at step 201 , receives the two or more synchronously acquired time-domain EMI signals by taking into account certain parameters previously adapted/configured on the electronic test instrument 102 (e.g. frequency resolution of the signals to be analyzed, bandwidth and sensibility thereof, and the time acquisition of the electronic test instrument 102) and by sampling (e.g. in real-time) the two or more time-domain EMI signals with a sampling frequency several times higher than the Nyquist rate (i.e. by oversampling them). Then, at step 202, the computing device 103 processes, either on-line (while measuring) and/or off-line (after measuring), the two or more time-domain EMI signals by means of performing resolution enhancing and data reduction operations on them based on said Nyquist rate and by selecting an optimum number of bits in flexible resolution analog to digital converters and by filtering, equalizing the frequency response, applying a window function on the two or more time-domain EMI signals and combining them, in the time domain, to further perform measurement exploitation. Once the signals have been processed, the computing device 103, at step 203, performs a non- parametric spectral estimation on the processed signals by applying one or more mathematical functions (e.g. Welch's method, a Short-Time Fourier Transform, or a standard weighting detector emulation by applying a correction factor calculated using a Welch's method and a Short-Time Fourier Transform, among others) for obtaining the maximum-hold and the RMS power spectral density of the EMI which are then converted to disturbance voltage measurements complying with specific parameters of the EMI regulations, specified for domestic, commercial, industrial, medical, scientific, automotive and/or military and aerospace environments and products. Finally, at step 204, the computing device 103 corrects errors and performs unit conversion in the time and frequency domain using calibration factors.

The resolution enhancing and data reduction operations on the raw time-domain EMI data (the signals) is preferably performed by means of a Gaussian process regression used to uniformly resample the raw time-domain EMI data through the best linear unbiased prediction (e.g. Wiener— Kolmogorov) of the intermediate values (interpolation) that correspond to the EMI sampled at the exact Nyquist rate.

In the example embodiment, the filtering is performed by a Finite Impulse Response filter that avoids aliasing, and removes high bandwidth components of the EMI signals and high bandwidth components of the acquisition noise generated by the electronic test instrument 102 and equalizes the frequency response of the electronic test instrument 102. The filter cutoff frequency, frequency response, and flatness are defined taking into consideration the analog bandwidth of the electronic test instrument 102 and the measurement bandwidth required for the EMI assessment. According to the invention other type of filters can be also used without departing from the scope of protection of the invention. Besides, in the example embodiment, the applied window function is a digital prolate spheroidal sequence (DPSS) window of a length and shape factor such as it provides a maximal energy concentration in the window main lobe which is optimal for meeting a standard selectivity requirement for EMI test receivers' selectivity while assuring low spectral leakage for meeting high dynamic range measurements and minimizing the scalloping losses. According to the invention other window functions can be also used without departing from the scope of protection of the invention.

In an embodiment, the proposed method further displays the results from the analysis in the time, frequency, time-frequency and, statistical domains, at least two of them in parallel, for detecting non-compliances and identifying their causes by correlating said non-compliances to EUTs functioning modes during EMI troubleshooting.

Besides, in another embodiment, the computing device 103 further comprises, before performing said errors correction and conversion to the time and frequency domain, weighting the spectrum of the two or more time-domain EMI signals providing a plurality of results according to standard detector modes including an Amplitude Probability Distribution and an Expected Maximum Mode.

The proposed entirely time-domain approach allows performing further EMI analysis such as: instantaneous frequency analysis and Hilbert spectrum, EMI signal decomposition, calculation of Common Mode and/or Differential Mode noise, statistical analysis of the EMI in the time- domain, etc.

With reference to Figs. 3 to 5, these figures illustrate three different application examples of the present invention.

Fig. 3 illustrates an application example for analyzing the common mode and the differential mode disturbance voltage using multiline conducted EMI measurements for single-phased and three-phased EUTs by firstly performing single stage multiline conducted EMI measurements at the mains terminal. Secondly, embedded capabilities of acquisition triggering for capturing continuous and transient components of the EMI is performed and multiple detectors are applied on a single deep-memory time-domain acquisition, including peak, quasi-peak, RMS, and average modes. Finally, the attenuation and transfer function of filters and chokes for common mode and differential mode noise mitigation is assessed.

Fig. 4 illustrates another application example for simultaneously assessing the radiated and conducted radiofrequency emissions produced by a EUT. To that end, single stage multiline conducted EMI measurements at the mains terminal and at the communication or control ports and dual-polarization radiated EMI measurements for test parallelization are performed. Then, capabilities of acquisition triggering for capturing continuous and transient components of the EMI are embedded and multiple detectors are applied on a single deep-memory time-domain acquisition, including peak, quasi-peak, RMS, average, APD and Expected Maximum modes. Finally, the time domain and frequency domain results are correlated though multi domain results visualization.

Fig. 5 illustrates another application example for background noise cancellation on EMI assessments based on multi-antenna measurements performed in open areas. That is, in this case, it is possible to process measurement results in order to estimate the radiated EMI even when the measurements are carried out in the presence of ambient noise. This is achieved by performing a spectral coherence calculation between the two or more parallel measurements of the radiated emissions of the EUT and further performing an empirical mode decomposition thereof, and by using information of the spectral coherence to distinguish ambient noise frequency components from the EUT emissions and suppressing the intrinsic modes corresponding with said ambient noise frequency components. With reference now to Figs. 6A, and 6B therein it is illustrated a measurement system that implements the multichannel analysis method for monitoring and processing, in parallel, the EMI in the time and frequency domain. Each of the channels A to D, has been indicated with regard to the frequency domain having adjacent, at the right, the related time domain. Moreover, the time domain plot at the right hand side of the frequency domain plot can be interchanged by a time-frequency representation of the EMI or by other time-changing statistics relevant for analyzing the EMI. Time domain acquisitions are synchronous and each active measurement channel can be configured independently with regards the proper spectral estimation settings. Monitoring capabilities are used to trigger deep memory acquisitions that are then further exploited to perform common mode and differential mode analysis, ambient noise cancellation and empirical mode decomposition and compliance evaluation.

The scope of the present invention is defined in the following set of claims.