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Title:
FUNCTIONAL FOODS COMPRISING FLAVONOIDS AND TOCOTRIENOLS AND METHODS THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/115377
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed in certain embodiments is a functional food comprising an active agent combination comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols. The flavonoids may comprise naringenin, hesperetin, nobiletin or tangeretin. The tocotrienols may comprise alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol or delta-tocotrienol. The formulations may be used to treat cardiovascular disease, for example by lowering total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, LDL cholesterol or Apo B. They may be in the form of a chewable or edible bar, a confectionary product, a juice drink, a puree, a baked or simulated baked good, a biscuit or chewing gum.

Inventors:
Guthrie, Najla (389 Dundas Street, London, Ontario N6B 3L5, CA)
Application Number:
PCT/IB2005/001424
Publication Date:
December 08, 2005
Filing Date:
May 24, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
KGK SYNERGIZE INC (One London Place, Suite 1030 255 Queens Avenu, London Ontario N6A 5R8, CA)
Guthrie, Najla (389 Dundas Street, London, Ontario N6B 3L5, CA)
International Classes:
A23C9/12; A23C9/13; A23C9/152; A23C15/00; A23L1/03; A23L1/30; A23L1/302; A23L2/52; A61K9/00; A61K31/352; A61K31/353; A61K36/752; A61P3/06; A61P9/10; (IPC1-7): A61K31/353; A23L1/03; A23L2/52; A23C9/12; A61P3/06; A61P9/10; A61K31/352; A61K9/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2002034072A22002-05-02
WO2002055071A12002-07-18
Foreign References:
CA2403548A12001-09-27
US20040176311A12004-09-09
Other References:
KUROWSKA E. ET AL: "Hypolipidemic Effects and Absorption of Citrus Polymethoxylated Flavones in Hamsters with Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia", J. AGR. FOOD CHEM., vol. 52, 2004, pages 2879 - 2886, XP003015254
KERCKHOFFS D. ET AL: "Effects on the Human Serum Lipoprotein Profile of beta-Glucan, Soy Protein and Isoflavones, Plant Sterols and Stanols, Garlic and Tocotrienols", J. NUTR., vol. 132, no. 9, September 2002 (2002-09-01), pages 2494 - 2505, XP002459647
See also references of EP 1748773A4
Download PDF:
Claims:
AMENDED CLAIMS [received by the International Bureau on November 22, 2005 (22.11.2005); original claims
1. 14 and 61. 70 replaced by new claims 1. 14 and 61. 70] + STATEMENT 1 A functional food comprising an edible solid or liquid; and an active agent combination comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols.
2. The functional food according to claim 1, wherein the active agent combination comprises flavonoids and tocotrienols in a ratio of about 75:25 to about 95:5.
3. The functional food according to claim 1, wherein the active agent combination comprises flavonoids and tocotrienols in a ratio of about 90:10.
4. The functional food according to claim 1, wherein the active agent combination comprises flavonoids and tocotrienols in a ratio of about 80:20.
5. The functional food according to claim 1, wherein the flavonoid comprises a member consisting of naringenin, hesperetin, nobiletin, and tangeretin.
6. The functional food according to claim 1, wherein the tocotrienol is selected from the group consisting of alpha. tocotrienol, gamma. tocotrienol, and delta. tocotrienol.
7. The functional food of claim 1, wherein the flavonoid is derived from a member selected from the group consisting of an essence oil isolated from a citrus fruit, a peel oil isolated from a citrus fruit, a peel isolated from a citrus fruit, decharacterized citrus fruit, and combinations thereof.
8. The functional food of claim 1, wherein the combination is in an effective amount to treat a human subject at risk of or suffering from a cardiovascular disease.
9. The functional food of claim 8, wherein the cardiovascular disease is hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis.
10. The functional food according to claim 1, in the form of a chewable or edible bar, a confectionary product, a cookie, a juice drink, a puree, a baked or simulated baked good, a biscuit, a lozenge or chewing gum.
11. The functional food according to claim 1 , in the form of a brownie or a chocolate bar.
12. The functional food according to claim 1, in the form of butter, margarine, bread, cake, a milk shake, ice cream, yogurt or other fermented milk product.
13. The functional food according to claim 1, in the form of a powder or a cereal.
14. The functional food according to claim 1, comprising from about 10 mg to about 80 mg of the tocotrienol and from about 150mg to about 750 mg of the flavonoid per serving. 61. The method of claims 54. 59, wherein the combination is administered in a daily dose of about 30 mg/day of the tocotrienol and about 270 mg/day of the flavonoid.
15. 62 The method of claims 54. 59, wherein the combination is administered in a daily dose of about 60 mg/day of the tocotrienol and about 560 mg/day of the flavonoid.
16. The method of claims 56. 59, wherein the administration is single dose administration.
17. 67 The functional food of claim 7, wherein the citrus fruit is citrus aurentium.
18. 68 The functional food of any of claims 1. 54, comprising less than about 1% synephrine.
19. The functional food of any of claims 1. 54, comprising less than about 0.5% synephrine.
20. The functional food of any of claims 1. 54, comprising less than about 0.1% synephrine. Statement Under Article 19(1) In accordance with Article 19, Applicant submits replacement pages 20, 21 and 28, which contain amendments to the claims thereon. On replacement page 20: claim 1 has been amended to replace the term "polymethoxylated flavonoids" to "flavonoids"; claim 4 has been amended to replace the term "pharmaceutical ingredient" with the term "functional food"; claim 7 has been amended to replace the phrase "active agent combination" with the term "flavonoid"; claims 2. 3 and 5. 6 are unchanged. On replacement page 21 : claim 9 has been amended to change the dependency from claim 10 to claim 8; claims 8 and 10. 14 are unchanged. On replacement page 28: claims 64. 66 have been cancelled; claim 68 has been amended to recite a limitation of less than about 1% synephrine; claims 69. 70 are new claims which are a result of the division of claim 68, as originally filed; claims 61. 67 are unchanged. It is respectfully submitted that no new matter has been added by virtue of these amendments.
Description:
FUNCTIONAL FOODS COMPRISING FLAVONOIDS AND TOCOTRIENOLS AND METHODS THEREOF

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/574,655, filed May 26, 2004, which is hereby incorporated by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Hyperlipidemia is a pathological state in mammals, where there is an abnormally high concentration of lipids circulating in the serum. The composition of the lipid pool in the circulation consists mostly of triglyceride (fatty acid esters of glycerol), cholesterol, and fatty acid esters of cholesterol. Such molecules are generally found bound to specific proteins in the form of complexes which act as transporting mechanisms. Hyperlipidemia is a condition which is commonly associated with elevated levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, and/or triglycerides in the blood serum of mammals.

[0003] The hyperlipidemias include six types of inheritable hyperlipoproteinemias; these types frequently are referred to as lipoprotein phenotypes. The major plasma lipids, including cholesterol and the triglycerides do not circulate freely in solution in plasma, but are bound to proteins and transported as macromolecular complexes called lipoproteins. Classification of inherited hyperlipoproteinemias according to phenotype is important, since dietary management and drug therapy are largely dependent on this information. (The Merck Manual, 16.sup.th edition, Robert Berkow and Andrew J. Fletcher, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ. 1992). In the current practice of treating hyperlipidemia the goal is to lower lipid levels by weight control and diet control. As an adjunct to diet and weight control, blood lipid reducing agents, including, e.g., prescription drugs, may also be administered.

[0004] Plasma lipoproteins are carriers of lipids from the sites of synthesis and absorption to the sites of storage and/or utilization. Lipoproteins are spherical particles with triglycerides and cholesterol esters in their core and a layer of phospholipids, nonesterified cholesterol and apolipoproteins on the surface. Lipoproteins are categorized into five major classes based on their hydrated density as very large, triglyceride-rich particles known as chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and, high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

[0005] Apolipoproteins are protein components of lipoproteins with three major functions which include: (1) maintaining the stability of lipoprotein particles, (2) acting as cofactors for enzymes that act on lipoproteins, and (3) removing lipoproteins from circulation by receptor-mediated mechanisms. The four groups of apolipoproteins are apolipoproteins A (Apo A), B (Apo B), C (Apo C) and E (Apo E).

[0006] LDL consists of a hydrophobic lipid core composed of cholesterol esters and triglycerides. The lipid core of the LDL particle is surrounded by an amphipathic coat composed of phospholipids, unesterified cholesterol and Apo B.

[0007] Several studies have shown that an increased Apo B level in blood is a reliable marker for coronary atherosclerosis (Sniderman, A. et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77:604-608 (1980); Kwiterovich, P. O. et al., Am. J. Cardiol., 71 :631-639 (1993); McGiIl et al. Coron. Artery Dis., 4:261-270 (1993); Tornvall, P. et al., Circulation, 88:2180-2189 (1993)). [0008] In the United States, the complications of arteriosclerosis account for about one half of all deaths and for about one third of deaths in persons between 35 and 65 years of age. Atherosclerosis, or the development of atheromatous plaques in large and medium-sized arteries, is the most common form of arteriosclerosis. Many factors are associated with the acceleration of atherosclerosis, regardless of the underlying primary pathogenic change, for example, age, elevated plasma cholesterol level, high arterial blood pressure, cigarette smoking, reduced high- density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, or family history of premature coronary artery disease.

[0009] The risk of death from coronary artery disease has a continuous and graded relation to total serum cholesterol levels greater than 180 mg/dl (Stamler, J. et al., (1986) JAMA 256:2823). Approximately one third of adults in the United States have levels that exceed 240 mg/dl and, therefore, have a risk of coronary artery disease that is twice that of people with cholesterol levels lower than 180 mg/dl. Acceleration of atherosclerosis is principally correlated wilh elevation of LDL, or beta fraction, has a negative correlation with atherosclerosis (Castelli, W. P. et al. (1986) JAMA 256:2835). HDL exerts a protective effect and the ratio oftotal cholesterol to HDL cholesterol is a better predictor of coronary artery disease than the level of either alone. Total cholesterol levels are classified as being desirable (<200 mg/dl), borderline high (200-239 mg/dl), or high (>240 mg/dl)(Report of the National Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (1988) Arch Intern Med 148:36).

[0010] Advances in the study of cholesterol metabolism and coronary disease have initiated an era of increased emphasis on preventive therapy. New guidelines for the detection and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults recommend that patients with high cholesterol levels or with borderline-high levels and two or more additional risk factors should have a measurement of LDL. LDL cholesterol levels are then classified as borderline high risk (130-159 mg/dl) or high risk (>160 mg/dl). Dietary treatment is recommended for those patients with high-risk levels of LDL and for those with borderline-high risk levels who have two or more additional risk factors. Drug treatment is recommended for all patients with LDL levels greater than 189 mg/dl and for those patients with LDL cholesterol levels between 159 and 189 mg/dl who have two or more additional risk factors.

[0011] In view of the above, it is not surprising to find that a number of compounds have been proposed for the treatment of hyperlipidemia in mammals. For example, colestipol hydrochloride (U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,692,895 and 3,803,237) is a basic anion exchange resin which, when ingested, sequesters bile acids in the intestine. This stimulates the production of bile acids, which uses and depletes the body's stored cholesterol. This in turn reduces LDL levels. Gemfibrozil, described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,674,836 is also used in such treatment. Niacin (3- pyridinecarboxylic acid) is also administered for hypercholesterolemia, at a dosage of about 1.5 to 6 g/day orally. Other pharmaceutical agents occasionally administered for hyperlipidemia include neomycin, norethindrone acetate, oxandrolone, and dextrothyroxine (Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, (17th Ed., Mack Pub. Co., 1985), pp. 863-865). U.S. Pat. No. 4,499,303 describes the use of a class of N-benzoylsulfamates and benzoylsulfonamides as useful hypolipidemic agents. U.S. Pat. No. 4,395,417 proposes the use of cyclic imides, diones, reduced diones and analogs as useful agents.

[0012] The present invention relates to functional foods and methods for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis with combinations of flavonoids and tocotrienols. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur unbiquitiously in plant foods especially in orange, grapefruit, and tangerine. Tocotrienols are present in palm oil and are a form of vitamin E having an unsaturated side chain. In the practice of the prevention and/or treatment of atherosclerosis and/or hypercholesterolemia, the flavonoids and tocotrienols are used to inhibit production of cholesterol, low- density lipoprotein (LDL) and Apo B protein. Compositions comprising citrus flavonoids and tocotrienols are used to prevent and/or inhibit production of total serum cholesterol, LDL and apoB.

Flavonoids [0013] Epidemiological studies have shown that flavonoids present in the Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of death from coronary heart disease (Hertog, M.G. et al., 1993, Lancet: 342, 1007-101 1). Soybean isoflavones for example, genistein, which is a minor component of soy protein preparations may have cholesterol-lowering effects (Kurowska, E.M. et al., 1990, J. Nutr. 120:831- 836). The flavonoids present in citrus juices such as orange and grapefruit include, but are not limited to, hesperetin, and naringenin respectively. The flavonoids present in tangerine include, but are not limited to tangeretin or nobiletin.

[0014] Tocotrienols are present in palm oil and are a form of vitamin E having an unsaturated side chain. They include but are not limited to alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol or delta-tocotrienol.

[0015] There exists a further need in the art for functional foods comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease.

[0016] Throughout this application, various patents and publications are referred to. Disclosure of these publications and patents in their entirety are hereby incorporated by reference into this application.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0017] It is an object of the present invention to provide a functional food for treating and/or preventing cardiovascular disease comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols.

[0018] It is a further object of the present invention to provide methods of treating cardiovascular diseases by administering a functional food comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols.

[0019] It is another object of the invention is to provide functional food and methods to treat atherosclerosis or hypercholesterolemia by lowering total cholesterol utilizing flavonoids and tocotrienols.

[0020] It is another object of the invention is to provide functional food and methods to treat atherosclerosis or hypercholesterolemia by lowering triacylglycerols utilizing flavonoids and tocotrienols.

[0021] It is another object of the invention is to provide a functional food and methods to treat atherosclerosis or hypercholesterolemia by lowering LDL cholesterol utilizing flavonoids and tocotrienols.

[0022] It is another object of the invention is to provide a functional food and methods to treat atherosclerosis or hypercholesterolemia by lowering Apo B utilizing flavonoids and tocotrienols. [0023] It is another object of the invention is to provide functional foods and methods to treat atherosclerosis or hypercholesterolemia by utilizing flavonoids and tocotrienols, wherein the functional foods have low levels of synephrine.

[0024] Certain of the above objects of the invention can be achieved by the present invention which in certain embodiments is directed to a functional food comprising an active agent combination comprising polymethoxylated flavonoids and tocotrienols.

[0025] In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to a functional food comprising an active agent combination comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols in a ratio of about 75:25 to about 95.

[0026] In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to a functional food comprising an active agent combination comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols, the functional food lowering total cholesterol by at least 10% after administration.

[0027] In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to a functional food comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols, the functional food lowering triaglycerols by at least 15% after administration.

[0028] In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to a functional food comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols, the functional food lowering LDL cholesterol by at least 10% after administration.

[0029] In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to a functional food comprising an active agent combination comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols, the functional food lowering Apo B by at least 10% after administration.

[0030] In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to methods of treating cardiovascular disease by administering a functional food disclosed herein.

[0031] The term "essence oil" refers to the oil-soluble components (e.g., fraction) remaining after evaporation of a fruit juice.

[0032] The term "peel oil" refers to oil isolated from the peel of a citrus fruit.

[0033] The term "peel" refers to the peel of a citrus fruit which, for purposes of the present invention, may be e.g., dried, shredded, or pelletized.

[0034] The term "citrus fruit" refers to a fruit from the genus Citrus that includes, e.g., orange, lemon, lime, tangerine, grapefruit (e.g., pink grapefruit, red peel grapefruit) and, in particular, citrus aurentium.

[0035] The term "decharacterized fruit" refers to fruit from which the juice has been extracted. The decharacterized fruit can be in the form of, for example, a mash or presscake. The term "Tomah presscake" refers to a particularly preferred presscake described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,320,861 and 5,320,861 which contains higher levels of desirable phytochemicals than are present in presscake made via conventional methods. In particular, decharacterized cranberry fruit in the form of "Tomah presscake" contains higher levels of anthocyanins, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins than that found in presscake produced through conventional methods. For example, the anthocyanin content is typically 30% or greater of that present in native cranberry fruit, the phenolic acid content is typically 8% or greater of that present in native cranberry fruit and the proanthocyanidin content is typically 60% or greater of that present in native cranberry fruit.

[0036] The term "isolated" refers to the removal or change of a composition or compound from its natural context.

[0037] The term "flavonoid" includes, but is not limited to polymethoxylated flavonoids and refers to any member of the group of aromatic, oxygen- containing, heterocyclic pigments found in the derivatives of the invention and includes for example members of the chemical subgroups 1) catechins, 2) leucoanthocyanidins and flavanones, 3) flavanins, flavones, and anthocyanins, and 4) flavonols. In preferred embodiments, a flavonoid includes, e.g., a proanthocyanidin, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin, or flavanol. The flavonoid can include e.g., naringenin, hesperetin, nobiletin, and/or tangeretin.

[0038] The term "tocotrienol" refers to any tocopherol (T) or tocotrienol (T3) compound, for example, .alpha.-tocopherol, .gamma.-tocopherol, .delta.- tocopherol, .alpha.-tocotrienol, .gamma. -tocotrienol, .delta.-tocotrienol, or a combination thereof, that is present in measurable levels in the fruit derivatives of the invention.

[0039] The term " functional food " for purposes of the present invention are any edible or drinkable foods or dietary components (e.g., juices, bakery products, applesauce, etc) that are fortified or enhanced with flavonoids and tocotrienols as disclosed herein. The functional food can be, e.g., solid, liquid, semisolid, or a combination thereof. The term "functional food" also encompasses edible and drinkable nutritional supplements. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0040] In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a functional food comprising an active agent combination comprising polymethoxylated flavonoids and tocotrienols.

[0041] In certain embodiments, the functional food is in the form of edible or drinkable compositions, e.g., foodstuffs such as chewable or edible bars, confectionary products (e.g., chocolate bars), cookies, juice drinks, baked or simulated baked goods (e.g., brownies), biscuits, lozenges or chewing gum. Preferred chewable or edible bars include chocolate bars and brownies. Such foods are beneficial as they provide the benefits of flavonoids and tocotrienols as disclosed above and also provide the benefit of relieving hunger or fatigue. Such functional foods can be particularly useful to people participating in sports or other forms of exercise.

[0042] The functional foods may also be in the form of, for example, butter, margarine, bread, cake, milk shakes, ice cream, yogurt and other fermented milk product.

[0043] The functional food can also be in the form of a powder to be sprinkled on meats, salads or other foods. They may be incorporated into solid foods such as candy bars, cereals, health bars and other comestibles.

[0044] Other forms if the functional foods can be breakfast cereals such as grain flakes or muesli.

[0045] In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a functional food comprising a pharmaceutical ingredient comprising an active agent combination comprising polymethoxylated flavonoids and tocotrienols, the pharmaceutical ingredient selected from the group consisting of an essence oil isolated from a citrus fruit, a peel oil isolated from a citrus fruit, a peel isolated from a citrus fruit, decharacterized citrus fruit, and combinations thereof.

[0046] In certain embodiments, the active agent combination comprises flavonoids and tocotrienols in a ratio of about 75:25 to about 95:5; in a ratio of about 90:10; in a ratio of about 80:20; or in a ratio of about 95:5.

[0047] In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical ingredient of the functional food comprising from about 50% to about 90% of flavonoids and tocotrienols; from about 60% to about 80% of the active agent combination; or about 70% of the active agent combination.

[0048] The flavonoid of the present invention can be a polymethoxylated flavonoid. In certain embodiments, the flavonoid comprises a member selected from the group considting of naringenin, hesperetin, nobiletin, tangeretin and combinations thereof.

[0049] The tocotrienol of the present invention can be, e.g., selected from the group consisting of alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, delta-tocotrienol, and combinations thereof.

[0050] In certain embodiments, the active combination of the functional food of the present invention is derived from a member selected from the group consisting of an essence oil isolated from a citrus fruit, a peel oil isolated from a citrus fruit, a peel isolated from a citrus fruit, decharacterized citrus fruit, and combinations thereof.

[0051] In certain embodiments, the functional food comprises an effective amount of flavonoids and tocotrienols to treat a human subject at risk of or suffering from a cardiovascular disease, e.g., hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis.

[0052] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention comprises from about 60 mg of the tocotrienol and about 560 mg of the flavonoid per serving; from about 10 mg to about 80 mg of the tocotrienol and from about 150mg to about 750 mg of the flavonoid per serving; or about 30 mg of the tocotrienol and about 270 mg of the flavonoid per serving.

[0053] In the methods of the present invention, the daily dose of the active agents can be, e.g., from about 60 mg of the tocotrienol and about 560 mg of the flavonoid; from about 10 mg to about 80 mg of the tocotrienol and from about 150mg to about 750 mg of the flavonoid; or about 30 mg of the tocotrienol and about 270 mg of the flavonoid.

[0054] In the methods of the present invention, the flavonoids and the tocotrienols can be administered in the same functional food or in separate functional food.

[0055] In certain embodiments, the functional food contains less than about 1% synephrine; less than about 0.5% synephrine; or less than 0.1 % synephrine.

[0056] In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical ingredient of the functional food contains less than about 1% synephrine; less than about 0.5% synephrine; or less than 0.1 % synephrine. [0057] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention lowers total cholesterol by at least 10%, 20% or 30%.

[0058] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention lowers total cholesterol by at least 10%, 20% or 30% in a single patient or in a patient population; after single dose administration, multiple dose administration (e.g., after four weeks) or after steady state administration.

[0059] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention lowers triacylglycerols by at least 15%, 25% or 35%.

[0060] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention lowers triacylglycerols by at least 15%, 25% or 35% in a single patient or in a patient population; after single dose administration, multiple dose administration (e.g., after four weeks) or after steady state administration.

[0061] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention lowers LDL cholesterol by at least 10%, 20% or 30%.

[0062] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention lowers LDL cholesterol by at least 10%, 20% or 30% in a single patient or in a patient population; after single dose administration, multiple dose administration (e.g., after four weeks) or after steady state administration.

[0063] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention lowers Apo B by at least 10%, 20% or 30%.

[0064] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention lowers total cholesterol by at least 10%, 20% or 30% in a single patient or in a patient population; after single dose administration, multiple dose administration (e.g., after four weeks) or after steady state administration.

[0065] In certain embodiments, the functional food of the present invention comprises an active agent combination comprising flavonoids and tocotrienols and an additional active agent selected from the group consisting of soy protein, soy isoflavones, grapeseed extract, pine bark extract, gugulipids, policosinols, pantesine, niacin, alpha lipoic acid, tea flavins, coenzyme qlO, lutein, statins, and combimations thereof.

[0066] In certain embodiments, the statin drug is selected from the group consisting of pravastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, cerivastatin and combinations thereof.

EXAMPLE 1

[0067] The effect of a combination of flavones and tocotrienols on lowering cholesterol in human subjects were studied.

Study Design:

[0068] Ten hypercholesterolemic subjects with serum total cholesterol > 5.9 mmol/L, LDL cholesterol 4.0 mmol/L and serum triacylglycerols < 3.5 mmol/L (>230 mg/dl, > 155 mg/dl and < 307 mg/dl, respectively) were given a daily supplement consisting of 270 mg polymethoxyflavones and 30mg tocotrienols for four weeks. To be included in this study, the subjects had to be free of thyroid disorders, kidney disorders and diabetes. Also, subjects taking cholesterol- lowering medications were asked to discontinue the treatment four weeks before the study.

[0069] To determine whether this treatment improved parameters associated with high risk of heart disease fasting blood samples were drawn at the onset of the study and at the end of a 4-week for analysis of plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma apolipoprotiens B (associated with LDL) and Al (associated with HDL), total triacylglycerols. The protocol was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Western Ontario and informed consent was obtained from each subject.

[0070] Cholesterol and triacylglycerols were measured with enzymatic timed- endpoint methods by using CHOL Reagent or Triacylglycerol GPO reagent. Plasma concentrations of apo B and apo Al were analyzed immunoephelometrically with a BNII System.

[0071] Subjects were instructed to maintain their caloric intake during the study. This was measured by measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) before and after treatment.

[0072] Changes from baseline after four weeks were analyzed by using repeated- measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed byDunnet's t tests.

Results: [0073] Treatment with the combination of 90% flavonoid and 10% tocotrienol was associated with a number of beneficial effects. Treatment associated with this combination was associated with a significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and serum triacylglycerols. See Table 1. The results suggest that the combination of flavonoid and tocotrienol lowers cholesterol in humans.

Table 1 Variable Baseline 4 weeks

Example 2

Clinical Trial 2: Cholesterol-Lowering Properties of Combination of Polymethoxylated Flavones and Tocotrienols in Human Subjects.

[0074] The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardio protective potential of a combination of flavones and tocotrienols in human subjects.

Study Design: [0075] Ten hypercholesterolemia subjects were given a daily supplement consisting of 270 mg polymethoxyflavones and 30mg tocotrienols for four weeks. To be included in this study, the subjects had to be free of thyroid disorders, kidney disorders and diabetes. Also, subjects taking cholesterol-lowering medications were asked to discontinue the treatment four weeks before the study.

[0076] Blood samples were taken from the forearm vein before the start (baseline), and at the end of the 4 week period. Plasma lipids profiles and other metabolic parameters were analyzed using standard methods. Blood pressure was recorded in the sitting position, using a conventional mercury manometer, by calculating a mean of two readings.

Results:

[0077] Treatment with the combination of 90% flavonoid and 10% tocotrienol was associated with a number of beneficial effects. Treatment associated with this combination was associated with a reduction in total cholesterol (19.7%) , LDL cholesterol (22.01%), serum triacylglycerols (28.4%), apo B (20.9%), and systolic blood pressure. See Table 2. The results suggest that the combination of flavonoid and tocotrienol has cardio protective potential in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Table 2 Variable Week O Week 4

EXAMPLE 3 An ingredient comprising polymethoxylated flavonoids and tocotrienols selected from the group consisting of an essence oil isolated from a citrus fruit, a peel oil isolated from a citrus fruit, a peel isolated from a citrus fruit, decharacterized citrus fruit, and combinations thereof can be incorporated into one or more of the following foods to prepare a functional food. a) brownie b) milk shake c) fruit juice d) applesauce e) energy bar f) sports drink g) chocolate bar h) breakfast cereal i) yogurt j) margarine