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Title:
FUNCTIONALIZED POLYDICYCLOPENTADIENE POLYMER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/139889
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed herein are embodiments of methods for making and using functionalized forms of polydicyclopentadiene polymers. The disclosed polymers and methods enable a greater range of uses than the unmodified polydicyclopentadiene, which is currently used industrially. In addition, the presence of the functional groups contemplated by the disclosed compounds and formulae allow for the control of the polymer surface energy, and also enables the use of reversible chemical crosslinks, which permits recycling of the material.

Inventors:
WULFF, Jeremy E. (University of Victoria, Sedgewick A WingP.O. Box 1700 STN CS, Victoria British Columbia V8W 2Y2, V8W 2Y2, CA)
CHEN, Jun (University of Victoria, Sedgewick A WingP.O. Box 1700 STN CS, Victoria British Columbia V8W 2Y2, V8W 2Y2, CA)
MOFFITT, Matthew G. (University of Victoria, Sedgewick A WingP.O. Box 1700 STN CS, Victoria British Columbia V8W 2Y2, V8W 2Y2, CA)
BURNS, Fraser P. (University of Victoria, Sedgewick A WingP.O. Box 1700 STN CS, Victoria British Columbia V8W 2Y2, V8W 2Y2, CA)
Application Number:
CA2017/050199
Publication Date:
August 24, 2017
Filing Date:
February 16, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UVIC INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS INC. (University of Victoria, Sedgewick A WingP.O. Box 1700 STN CS, Victoria British Columbia V8W 2Y2, V8W 2Y2, CA)
International Classes:
C08F32/08; C07C2/42; C08J3/24; C08J3/28; C09B69/10
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015084436A12015-06-11
Foreign References:
US20100010185A12010-01-14
Other References:
GONG, L. ET AL.: "ROMP of acetoxy-substituted dicyclopentadiene to a linear polymer with high Tg", RSC ADV., vol. 5, no. 33, 2015, pages 26185 - 26188, XP055377649
SUTHASUPA, S. ET AL.: "Recent Advances in ring-opening metathesis polymerization, and application to synthesis of functional materials", POLYMER JOURNAL, vol. 42, 2010, pages 905 - 915, XP055362565
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SMART & BIGGAR (900-55 Metcalfe Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6L5, K1P 6L5, CA)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WE CLAIM:

1. A method, comprising:

reacting cyclopentadiene with a substituted cyclopentadiene compound, or a salt thereof, to form a multicyclic compound having a structu and/or Formula B

Formula A Formula B

wherein the substituted cyclopentadiene compound has a structure satisfying a formula

and

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the salt of the substituted cyclopentadiene has a structure

® satisfying a formula , wherein M is a metal counterion or non-metal counterion, and wherein reacting occurs under acidic conditions.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein M is an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, or a tetra- substituted ammonium species.

4. The method of any one of claims 1-3, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH2)yOH; -(CH2)ySH; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

6. The method of any one of claims 1 -3 , further comprising performing an olefin metathesis reaction on the multicyclic compound.

7. A polymer made from polymerizing a multicyclic compound having structure satisfying a formula

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

8. The polymer of claim 7, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH2)yOH; -(CH2)ySH; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

9. The polymer of claim 8, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

10. The polymer of any one of claims 7-9, wherein the polymer is a reaction product of an olefin metathesis reaction product made from the multicyclic compound.

11. A polymer made from polymerizing a mixture of multicyclic compounds, wherein the mixture of multicyclic compounds comprises a mixture of regioisomeric compounds having structures satisfying formulas

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

12. The polymer of claim 11, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH2)yOH; -(CH2)ySH; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

13. The polymer of claim 12, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

14. The polymer of any one of claims 11-13, wherein the polymer is a reaction product of an olefin metathesis reaction between at least one multicyclic compound having a formula

at least one multicyclic compound having a formula

GO-

15. A method, comprising combining (i) a photoredox mediator compound or (ii) a catalyst comprising ruthenium (Ru), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), or a

having a structure satisfying a formula , or a combination thereof, to form a polymer; wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

16. A linear pol

wherein each of G and G' independently is selected from an end-capping group;

n is any integer value greater than 10; and

X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

17. The linear polymer of claim 16, wherein the end-capping group is selected from -Ctb, -CH(aryl), -CH(aliphatic), -CH(heteroaliphatic), or -CH(heteroaryl).

18. The linear polymer of claim 16 or claim 17, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur- containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(Ctb)yOH; (CI 1 >)?SI 1; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

19. The linear polymer of claim 18, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

20. A polymer or copolymer comprising at least one subunit having a structure satisfying a formula

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

21. The polymer or copolymer of claim 20, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH2)yOH; -(Ctb)ySH; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

22. The polymer or copolymer of claim 21 , wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

23. A crosslinked polymer made from a polymer and/or copolymer of any one of claims 20-22.

24. The crosslinked polymer of claim 23, wherein the crosslinked polymer has a structure satisfying a formula selected from:

wherein a bold line of the formula comprises a primary molecular crosslink, which can further comprise one or more functional groups or polymer subunits; and

X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

25. The crosslinked polymer of claim 23 or claim 24, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(Ctb)yOH; -(Ctb)ySH; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl,

heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

26. The crosslinked polymer of claim 25, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

27. A polymer, comprising one or more molecular crosslinks and having a structure satisfying a formula selected from:

wherein one or more bold lines of the formula independently comprises a primary molecular crosslink, which can further comprise one or more functional groups or polymer subunits;

A is a heteroatom or heteroatom-containing group;

B is a linking group;

Z is an integer between 0 and 10; and

X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

28. The polymer of claim 27, wherein the heteroatom is O or S and the heteroatom group is NH or NR, wherein R is alkyl, aromatic, heteroaromatic, or a combination thereof.

29. The polymer of claim 27 or claim 28, wherein the linking group is selected from an alkyl group, aromatic group, a heteroaromatic group, or a combination thereof

30. The polymer of any one of claims 27-29, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH2)yOH; -(Ctb)ySH; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

31. The polymer of claim 30, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

32. A polymer or copolymer made from a pre-crosslinked monomer having a structure satisfying a formula:

or a combination thereof; wherein G is a linking group or a cleavable linking group.

33. The polymer or copolymer of claim 32, wherein the linking group is selected from an ester, an amide, an alkyl group, an aromatic group, a heteroaromatic group, an olefin, an alkyne, an ether, a silyl ether, an alkyl silane, a disulfide, a cyclic group, or a combination thereof; and the cleavable linking group is selected from a linking group capable of being cleaved under radical conditions, oxidative conditions, enzymatic conditions, electromagnetic radiation conditions, reductive conditions, acidic conditions, basic conditions, or metal-catalyzed conditions.

34. A polymer comprising at least one molecular crosslink, wherein the polymer has a structure satisfying a formula:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

35. The polymer of claim 34, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH2)yOH; -(CH2)ySH; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

36. The polymer of claim 35, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

37. A method for reversing the molecular crosslink of any one of claims 23-36, comprising exposing the polymer to radical conditions, oxidative conditions, enzymatic conditions, electromagnetic radiation conditions, reductive conditions, acidic conditions, basic conditions, or metal-catalyzed conditions.

38. The method of claim 37, wherein reversing comprises cleaving all molecular crosslinks of the polymer.

39. The method of claim 37, wherein reversing comprises cleaving fewer than all molecular crosslinks of the polymer.

40. The method of any one of claims 37-39, wherein reversing comprises cleaving interstrand and/or intrastrand bonds of the polymer.

41. The method of any one of claims 37-40, wherein the method is used to recycle polymer or copolymers derived from linear polymers having a subunit having a structure satisfying a formula:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

42. The method of claim 41, wherein X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH2)yOH; -(CH2)ySH; or -(CH2)yNRaRb, where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and Ra and Rb independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

44. A method of modifying a polymer of any one of claims 7-14, 27-31, or 34-36, a polymer or copolymer of any one of claims 20-22, 32 or 33, or a crosslinked polymer of any one of claims 23-26, wherein the method comprises exposing the polymer to a chemical process or physical process capable of converting a functional group of the polymer.

45. The method of claim 44, wherein the chemical process is selected from an esterification reaction, a hydrolysis reaction, a condensation reaction, a metal-mediated coupling, a decarboxylation reaction, a photochemical reaction, an addition of a nucleophilic species, or combinations thereof.

46. The method of claim 44 or claim 45, wherein the method is used to control the surface energy of the polymer to improve adhesion or other properties.

Description:
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit of and priority to earlier filed U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/297,567, filed on February 19, 2016, and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/347,446, filed on June 8, 2016, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

FIELD

The present disclosure relates to a method for making and using functionalized forms of polydicyclopentadiene polymers.

BACKGROUND

Polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD) is a heavily crosslinked organic polymer produced by ring -opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of dicyclopentadiene. Crosslinked PDCPD has a very high impact resistance (due to the extensive crosslinking), coupled with a large resistance to chemical corrosion (particularly if the alkenes in the final structure are hydrogenated), and a high heat deflection temperature. These properties make PDCPD attractive for use in the automotive industry. After initially being used to make cowlings for snowmobiles (due to its high impact resistance at low temperatures), PDCPD is now used to make body panels, bumpers and engine blocks for trucks, buses, tractors and construction equipment. In addition to these automotive applications, PDCPD components are used in the chlor-alkali industry, both as storage tanks for corrosive chemicals, and as cell covers for electrolyzers.

One significant limitation to polydicyclopentadiene, however, is a lack of chemical tunability, owing to the unfunctionalized homodimeric monomer feedstock. Thus, whereas polymers of functionalized ethylene (e.g. propylene, styrene, acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, acrylonitrile, methyl methacrylate, vinylidene chloride, etc.) exhibit a broad range of very distinct and very useful material properties, no such variability can be readily obtained for PDCPD-based polymers.

A second, related, limitation for polydicyclopentadiene concerns its lack of recyclability. As is the case with most thermoset polymers, the crosslinks in PDCPD are chemically irreversible. Due to this irreversibility, there exists no convenient way to recycle PDCPD products that have reached the end of their useful lifetimes back to a processable form, so that the material can be re-used for new products. This, combined with PDCPD 's lack of malleability at high temperatures, makes the current generation of PDCPD products a material dead-end.

A third current limitation for polydicyclopentadiene (once again owing to its lack of chemical tunability) relates to the low surface energy of the polymer. This makes it difficult to robustly bond other parts to objects made from PDCPD, without resorting to separate air oxidation steps and/or lengthy adhesion protocols (often requiring specialized equipment). Given increasing consumer and legislative demands for product recyclability, the continued growth of the PDCPD industry is unsustainable without a long-term solution to the problem of material recycling. This is true even as the automotive industry looks to replace increasing amounts of metal parts with lighter weight polymer materials; while PDCPD would be ideal for many of these applications, the current pressures from the US government to ensure that a larger percentage of automotive plastics can be recycled at the end of the vehicle's useful lifetime will make non-recyclable PDCPD an unsuitable choice. As such, there exists a need in the art for new forms of functionalized polydicyclopentadiene (also referred to as " PDCPD"), the creation of a truly recyclable form of PDCPD, and the ability to modify the surface energy of the polymer in a consistent and controllable fashion.

SUMMARY

Disclosed herein are embodiments of polymers derived by an olefin metathesis reaction from monomeric species of the following formulae:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

In some embodiments, the above-mentioned structures are present within mixtures of related regioisomers.

In some embodiments, polymerization of the above-referenced monomers is described, using catalysts described herein. In some embodiments, the polymerization methods can involve using metal-free olefin metathesis methods.

Also disclosed herein are embodiments of linear polymers having structures meeting the following general formulae:

wherein G and G' are suitable polymer end-capping groups such as -Ctb, -CH(aryl), -CH(aliphatic), -CH(heteroaliphatic), or -CH(heteroaryl); however, other suitable end-capping groups can be used; n is any integer value greater than 10; and X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

Also disclosed herein are embodiments of polymers or copolymers incorporating subunits of the following formulae:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

Also disclosed herein are embodiments of crosslinked polymers derived from the linear polymers or copolymers described herein. Polymer disclosed herein can comprise molecular crosslinks described by formulae provided herein. Also described are polymers or copolymers derived from pre-crosslinked monomers, described by the following formulae:

wherein G is a suitable linking group as described herein.

Additional embodiments described herein concern methods for reversing crosslinks described herein as well as using such reversible crosslinks as the basis for recycling polymers or copolymers derived from linear polymers incorporating subunits formulae described herein.

A further aspect of this disclosure relates to the use of chemical or physical processes wherein the functional groups on the linear or crosslinked polymers are altered. These alterations may include esterification reactions, hydrolysis reactions, condensation reactions, metal -mediated coupling or decarboxylation reactions, photochemical reactions, additions of nucleophilic species, or other

transformations that will be recognized by those skilled in the art, with the benefit of this disclosure, to be conceptually similar to those summarized here.

Yet another aspect of this disclosure relates to using the above monomers, linear polymers or crosslinked polymers or copolymers described herein for manufacturing processes, including injection molding, resin transfer molding, reaction injection molding (RIM), sheet molding compound (SMC) processes, bulk molding compound (BMC) processes, glass reinforced plastic (GRP) processes, and other processes used in polymer manufacturing. Another aspect of this disclosure relates to using the above mentioned monomers, linear polymers or crosslinked polymers or copolymers in foams, gels, aerogels, films or coatings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES FIG. 1 illustrates a reaction scheme for making crosslinked polydicyclopentadiene.

FIG. 2 illustrates proton NMR spectra for a representative method of making a polymer described herein.

FIGS. 3A-3B are gel permeation chromatography (GPC) traces obtained using refractive index detection methods (FIG. 3A) and low angle light scattering ("LALS") detection methods (FIG. 3B) to analyze linear polymers described herein at different concentrations (300 = 2 mg/mL and 302 = 1 mg/mL). FIG. 4 provides a photographic image of a polymer embodiment and a corresponding crosslinked polymer, along with a corresponding reaction scheme.

FIG. 5 is a graph of heat flow as a function of temperature illustrating results obtained from analyzing a polymer embodiment using differential scanning calorimetry thermal analysis.

FIG. 6 is a graph illustrating the effects of air on the hydrodynamic radius of different polymer embodiments over three days.

FIGS. 7A-7C include an exemplary surface functionalization reaction scheme (FIG. 7 A) and the effects of surface functionalization on water contact angle (FIG. 7B) and surface roughness (FIG. 7C).

FIG. 8 is an image of a glass coverslip comprising two different sections coated with an ester- functionalized polymer and a carboxylate polymer, wherein water has migrated to the portion of the coverslip coated with the carboxylate-functionalized polymer, thereby illustrating the ability to control hydrophilicity of polymers disclosed herein.

FIG. 9 is a graph of heat flow as a function of temperature illustrating results obtained from analyzing a polymer embodiment using differential scanning calorimetry thermal analysis.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

I. Explanation of Terms

The following explanations of terms and methods are provided to better describe the present disclosure and to guide those of ordinary skill in the art in the practice of the present disclosure. The singular forms "a," "an," and "the" refer to one or more than one, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. For example, the term "comprising the compound" includes single or plural molecules and is considered equivalent to the phrase "comprising at least one compound." The term "or" refers to a single element of stated alternative elements or a combination of two or more elements, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. As used herein, "comprises" means "includes." Thus, "comprising A or B," means "including A, B, or A and B," without excluding additional elements. A wavy line (" ·~>~ "), is used to indicate a bond disconnection, and a dashed line ("— ") is used to illustrate that a bond may optionally be present at a particular position.

Unless explained otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood to one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present disclosure, suitable methods and materials are described below. The materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.

Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of components, molecular weights, percentages, temperatures, times, and so forth, as used in the specification or claims are to be understood as being modified by the term "about." Accordingly, unless otherwise indicated, implicitly or explicitly, the numerical parameters set forth are approximations that can depend on the desired properties sought and/or limits of detection under standard test conditions/methods. When directly and explicitly distinguishing embodiments from discussed prior art, the embodiment numbers are not approximates unless the word "about" is recited. Furthermore, not all alternatives recited herein are equivalents.

To facilitate review of the various examples of this disclosure, the following explanations of specific terms are provided:

Aldehyde: Is a carbonyl-bearing functional group having a formula

where the line drawn through the bond indicates that the functional group can be attached to any other moiety, but that such moiety simply is not indicated.

Aliphatic: A substantially hydrocarbon-based compound, or a radical thereof (e.g., C Un, for a hexane radical), including alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, including cyclic versions thereof, and further including straight- and branched-chain arrangements, and all stereo and position isomers as well. Unless expressly stated otherwise, an aliphatic group contains from one to twenty-five carbon atoms; for example, from one to fifteen, from one to ten, from one to six, or from one to four carbon atoms. The term "lower aliphatic" refers to an aliphatic group containing from one to ten carbon atoms. An aliphatic chain may be substituted or unsubstituted. Unless expressly referred to as an "unsubstituted aliphatic," an aliphatic group can either be unsubstituted or substituted. An aliphatic group can be substituted with one or more substituents (up to two substituents for each methylene carbon in an aliphatic chain, or up to one substituent for each carbon of a -C=C- double bond in an aliphatic chain, or up to one substituent for a carbon of a terminal methine group). Exemplary substituents include, but are not limited to, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxy, alkylamino, alkylthio, acyl, aldehyde, amide, amino, aminoalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, carboxyl, cyano, cycloalkyl, dialkylamino, halo, haloaliphatic, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, heterocycloaliphatic, hydroxyl, oxo, sulfonamide, sulfhydryl, thioalkoxy, or other functionality.

Alkoxy: A group (or substituent) having the structure -OR, where R is aliphatic. Methoxy (-OCH3) is an exemplary alkoxy group. In a substituted alkoxy, R is aliphatic substituted with a non-interfering substituent.

Alkyl: A hydrocarbon group having a saturated carbon chain. The chain may be cyclic, branched or unbranched. Examples, without limitation, of alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl and decyl.

Amide: Refers to a carbonyl-bearing functional group having a formula

where R and R' are virtually any group, including H, aliphatic, substituted aliphatic, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, etc.

Amino: A chemical functional group -N(R)R' where R and R' independently are selected from hydrogen, aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, or heteroaryl. Analog (or Derivative or Mimetic): A molecule that differs in chemical structure from a parent compound, for example a homolog (differing by an increment in the chemical structure, such as a difference in the length of an alkyl chain), a molecular fragment, a structure that differs by one or more functional groups, or a change in ionization.

Aryl: A substantially hydrocarbon-based aromatic compound, or a radical thereof (e.g. CsHs) as a substituent bonded to another group, particularly other organic groups, having a ring structure as exemplified by benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, etc.

Arylalkyl: An acyclic aliphatic group in which one of the hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom, typically a terminal or sp 3 carbon atom, is replaced with an aryl group. Typical arylalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, benzyl, 2-phenylethan-l-yl, naphthylmethyl, 2-naphthylethan-l-yl, naphthobenzyl, 2-naphthophenylethan-l-yl and the like. Where specific alkyl moieties are intended, the nomenclature arylalkanyl, arylalkenyl and/or arylalkynyl may be used.

Carboxylic Acid: Refers to a carbonyl-bearing functional group having a formula

Copolymer: A polymeric material comprised of two or more different types of repeating subunits. These subunits may occur randomly throughout the polymer, or may be grouped together into blocks of similar subunits. Other monomers suitable for use in forming copolymers with the structures in the present disclosure include a variety of cyclic olefins, such as cyclobutene, cyclopentene, cycloheptene, cyclooctene, cyclononene, cyclodecene, cyclododecene, norbornene, cyclooctadiene, cyclononadiene, norbomadiene, and the like, as well as functionalized forms of the above-listed compounds. Acyclic dienes could also be used. Alternatively, two different substituted dicyclopentadienes (in which the substituent is different in each monomer) could be used for copolymerization.

Cyclic: Designates a substantially hydrocarbon, closed-ring compound, or a radical thereof. Cyclic compounds or substituents also can include one or more sites of unsaturation, but this term does not include aromatic compounds. One example of such a cyclic compound is cyclopentadienone. In the usage herein, cyclic includes heterocyclic.

Dye: A compound that exhibits color and/or changes the color of substance, reaction mixture, or the like. Exemplary dyes can include, but are not limited to, acridine dyes (including any derivatives of acridine), anthraquinone dyes (including any derivatives of anthraquinone), arylmethane dyes (including diarylmethane dyes, triarylmethane dyes), azo dyes (including dyes having an azo group), diazonium dyes (including diazonium salt compounds), nitro dyes (including dyes having a nitro group), nitroso dyes (including dyes having a nitroso functional group), phthalocyanine dyes (including derivatives of phthalocyanine), quinone-imine dyes (including azin dyes, indamins, indophenols, oxazins, oxazones, thiazines, or derivatives of quinone), thiazole dyes (including thiazole derivatives), safranin dyes (including derivatives of safranin), xanthene dyes (including derivatives of xanthene, fluorine, and rhodamine), and the like. Ester: Refers to a carbonyl-bearing substituent having a formula

where R is virtually any group, including aliphatic, substituted aliphatic, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, etc.

Ether: A substituent having a general formula R-O-R, where R and R' independently can be selected from aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, or heteroaryl and typically at least one of R and/or R' are attached to a compound disclosed herein.

Fluorophore: A functional group or portion of a molecule that is capable of fluorescence. In some embodiments, a fluorophore can cause the molecule to fluoresce when exposed to an excitation source. Exemplary fluorophores include, but are not limited to, fluorescein, rhodamine, and BODIPY.

Heteroaliphatic: An aliphatic group comprising at least one heteroatom to 20 heteroatoms, such as one to 15 heteroatoms, or one to 5 heteroatoms, which can be selected from, but not limited to oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium, phosphorous, and oxidized forms thereof within the group.

Heteroaryl: An aryl group comprising at least one heteroatom to six heteroatoms, such as one to four heteroatoms, which can be selected from, but not limited to oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium, phosphorous, and oxidized forms thereof within the ring. Such heteroaryl groups can have a single ring or multiple condensed rings, wherein the condensed rings may or may not be aromatic and/or contain a heteroatom, provided that the point of attachment is through an atom of the aromatic heteroaryl group. Heteroaryl groups can be substituted with one or more substituents.

Heterocyclic: Refers to a closed-ring compound, or radical thereof as a substituent bonded to another group, particularly other organic groups, where at least one atom in the ring structure is other than carbon, and typically is oxygen, sulfur and/or nitrogen.

Ketone: Refers to a carbonyl-bearing substituent having a formula

where R is virtually any group, including aliphatic, substituted aliphatic, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, Nitrile: Refers to a substituent having a formula

Molecular Sensor: A compound or functional group capable of sensing/detecting the presence of an analyte. Exemplary molecular sensors include, but are not limited to, boronic acids, which are useful sensors for determining the presence of sugar compounds, and fluorescent molecules (or fluorophores), which can gain or lose fluorescence upon metal binding, thereby making them useful for sensing the presence of metals. Photoredox mediator: A photoredox catalyst that comprises an organic component, such as a dye molecule and may or may not comprise a metal component. An exemplary photoredox mediator comprising a metal component is Ru(bipy);, (known also as tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride).

Polymer: An organic or mixed organic / inorganic molecule comprised of repeating subunits.

Salt Form (or "salt thereof): In some embodiments, salt forms of compounds are described herein, such as salt forms of substituted cyclopentadiene compounds. In some embodiments, these salt forms of the substituted cyclopentadiene compounds can be referred to as a salt of the substituted cyclopentadiene (or a "salt thereof). Such salts can have a formula illustrated below, wherein M is an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, or a non-metallic counterion, with examples being described herein

©

Substituted: A fundamental compound, such as an aryl or aliphatic compound, or a radical thereof, having coupled thereto, typically in place of a hydrogen atom, a second substituent. For example, substituted aryl compounds or substituents may have an aliphatic group coupled to the closed ring of the aryl base, such as with toluene. Again solely by way of example and without limitation, a long-chain hydrocarbon may have a substituent bonded thereto, such as an aryl group, a cyclic group, a heteroaryl group or a heterocyclic group. All functional groups described herein can be substituted unless otherwise specified; however, the lack of the word "substituted" before a functional group and/or variable described herein does not mean that the functional group and/or variable is not substituted.

A person of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that the definitions provided above are not intended to include impermissible substitution patterns (e.g., methyl substituted with 5 different groups, and the like). Such impermissible substitution patterns are easily recognized by a person of ordinary skill in the art. Any functional group disclosed herein and/or defined above can be substituted or unsubstituted, unless otherwise indicated herein.

II. Introduction

Polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD) is a heavily crosslinked organic polymer produced by ring -opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of dicyclopentadiene, as illustrated in FIG. 1. While ?c«i-polymerization strategies to functionalize the residual double bonds in the PDCPD polymer matrix exist, such as epoxidation, bromination, inverse-demand Diels Alder, and radical -initiated thiol -ene addition of the residual double bonds, these methods depend on the ability of reagents to access the olefin in the polymer. As a result, these strategies are largely limited to the functionalization of PDCPD foams, or else to functionalization solely at the surface. Co-polymerization strategies have also been used to incorporate functionality into products, such as Quintone 1500 and Quintone 1700, which are copolymers of dicycyclopentadiene and vinyl ester or allyl alcohol, respectively. Two reports of polymerization of a 1-hydroxy-substituted dicyclopentadiene have occurred in the art. In these reports, the 1-hydroxy-substituted dicyclopentadiene compound was generated by known allylic oxidation protocols. Following an optional reaction of the alcohol to produce a corresponding acetate, benzoate, or -0(CH 2 )nCH;, group (where n is 0, 2, or 7), polymerization delivered the corresponding functionalized materials. However, the placement of the functional group at the allylic position makes the final products much less thermally robust than the parent polymers (possibly due to the ready formation of allylic cations), and in many cases catastrophic mass loss occurs upon heating beyond ca. 220 °C. Moreover, the degree of crosslinking appears to be greatly reduced for this class of polymers, as evidenced by the low T g values reported for the majority of products.

The disclosed polymers and methods enable a greater range of uses than the unmodified polydicyclopentadiene that is currently used industrially, while maintaining the high T g and good thermal stability of the parent polymer. In addition, the presence of the functional groups of the disclosed polymers allows for the control of the polymer surface energy, and also enables the use of reversible chemical crosslinks, which permits recycling of the material.

III. Compounds

Disclosed herein are embodiments of compounds, such as polymers, copolymers, and polymers comprising molecular crosslinks. These embodiments are described in more detail below.

In some embodiments, polymers derived by olefin metathesis reaction from monomeric species of the following formulae are described:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, X independently may be selected from heteroatom-containing functional groups, such as, but not limited to, esters (-C0 2 R), acids (-C0 2 H), amides (-CONRR'), ketones (-COR), aldehydes (-COH), nitriles (-CN), nitro groups (-NO 2 ), trifluoromethyl groups (-CF 3 ), alkoxy groups (-OR), phosphine oxides, sulfur- containing species (such as sulfones (-SO2R), sulfoxides (-SOR), sulfonic acids (-SO2OH), sulfonates (-SO2OR), sulfinic acids (-S(O)OH), thiols, thioethers (-SR), and disulfides (-SSR)), or other groups capable of stabilizing adjacent anionic or radical species. In some embodiments, R and R' independently can be selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH 2 ) y OH; - (Ctb)ySH; or -(CH2) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R a and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof. In yet some additional embodiments, R, R', R a , and/or R b independently can be selected from H, alkyl (e.g., lower alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and the like), branched alkyl (e.g., branched lower alkyl, such as iso-propyl, iso- butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and the like), cyclic alkyl (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like), phenyl, naphthyl, ethers, thioethers, amines, esters, thioesters, amides, and combinations thereof. In yet additional embodiments, R and R' independently can comprise (e.g., be substituted with) a functional group such as a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

Also disclosed are polymers derived by an olefin metathesis reaction from a monomeric species that is present in the following mixture of related re ioisomers:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, X independently may be selected from heteroatom-containing functional groups, such as, but not limited to, esters (-CO2R), acids (-CO2H), amides (-CONRR'), ketones (-COR), aldehydes (-COH), nitriles (-CN), nitro groups (-NO2), trifluoromethyl groups (-CF3), alkoxy groups (-OR), phosphine oxides, sulfur- containing species (such as sulfones (-SO2R), sulfoxides (-SOR), sulfonic acids (-SO2OH), sulfonates (-SO2OR), sulfinic acids (-S(O)OH), thiols, thioethers (-SR), and disulfides (-SSR)), or other groups capable of stabilizing adjacent anionic or radical species. In some embodiments, R and R' independently can be selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(Ctb) y OH; - (CH 2 ) y SH; or -(CH 2 ) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R a and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof. In yet some additional embodiments, R, R', R a , and/or R b independently can be selected from H, alkyl (e.g., lower alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and the like), branched alkyl (e.g., branched lower alkyl, such as iso-propyl, iso- butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and the like), cyclic alkyl (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like)phenyl, naphthyl, ethers, thioethers, amines, esters, thioesters, amides, and combinations thereof. In yet additional embodiments, R and R' independently can comprise (e.g., be substituted with) a functional group such as a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

In some embodiments, the compound can be a linear polymer having a structure meeting any of the following general formulae:

wherein G and G' are suitable polymer end-capping groups. In some embodiments, an end-capping group can be obtained from the catalyst employed during polymerization and/or by quenching polymerization with an additional chemical reagent. In some embodiments, the end-capping group can be selected from -CH2, -CH(aryl), -CH(aliphatic), -CH(heteroaliphatic), or -CH(heteroaryl), such as -CH(phenyl) or -CH(alkyl). In some embodiments, other suitable end-capping groups can be used. With respect to these formulae, n is any integer value greater than 10; and X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, X independently may be selected from heteroatom-containing functional groups, such as, but not limited to, esters (-CO2R), acids (-CO2H), amides (-CONRR'), ketones (-COR), aldehydes (-COH), nitriles (-CN), nitro groups (-NO2), trifluoromethyl groups (-CF3), alkoxy groups (-OR), phosphine oxides, sulfur-containing species (such as sulfones (-SO 2 R), sulfoxides (-SOR), sulfonic acids (-SO 2 OH), sulfonates (-SO 2 OR), sulfinic acids (-S(O)OH), thiols, thioethers (-SR), and disulfides (-SSR)), or other groups capable of stabilizing adjacent anionic or radical species. In some embodiments, R and R' independently can be selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; (CI l >) ? OI 1; (CI 1 >)>SI 1; or -(CH2) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R' and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof. In yet some additional embodiments, R, R', R a , and/or R b independently can be selected from H, alkyl (e.g., lower alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and the like), branched alkyl (e.g., branched lower alkyl, such as iso-propyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and the like), cyclic alkyl (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like), phenyl, naphthyl, ethers, thioethers, amines, esters, thioesters, amides, and combinations thereof. In yet additional embodiments, R and R' independently can comprise (e.g., be substituted with) a functional group such as a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

Also disclosed herein are polymers or copolymers incorporating subunits of compounds having structures meeting the following formulae:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, X independently may be selected from heteroatom-containing functional groups, such as, but not limited to, esters (-CO2R), acids (-CO2H), amides (-CONRR'), ketones (-COR), aldehydes (-COH), nitriles (-CN), nitro groups (-NO2), trifluoromethyl groups (-CF3), alkoxy groups (-OR), phosphine oxides, sulfur- containing species (such as sulfones (-SO2R), sulfoxides (-SOR), sulfonic acids (-SO2OH), sulfonates (-SO2OR), sulfinic acids (-S(O)OH), thiols, thioethers (-SR), and disulfides (-SSR)), or other groups capable of stabilizing adjacent anionic or radical species. In some embodiments, R and R' independently can be selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH 2 ) y OH; - (CH2) y SH; or -(CH2) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R a and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof. In yet some additional embodiments, R, R', R a , and/or R b independently can be selected from H, alkyl (e.g., lower alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and the like), branched alkyl (e.g., branched lower alkyl, such as iso-propyl, iso- butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and the like), cyclic alkyl (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like), phenyl, naphthyl, ethers, thioethers, amines, esters, thioesters, amides, and combinations thereof. In yet additional embodiments, R and R' independently can comprise (e.g., be substituted with) a functional group such as a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

In some embodiments, crosslinked polymers derived from the above-mentioned linear polymers or copolymers are contemplated by the present disclosure. In yet additional embodiments, polymers containing molecular crosslinks described by the following formulae are disclosed:

With respect to these formulae, the bold line (illustrated with arrows labeled "BL") constitutes a primary molecular crosslink, which may be accompanied by the addition of further functional groups or sub-units; and X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, X independently may be selected from heteroatom-containing functional groups, such as, but not limited to, esters (-CO 2 R), acids (-CO2H), amides (-CONRR'), ketones (-COR), aldehydes (-COH), nitriles (-CN), nitro groups (-NO2), trifluoromethyl groups (-CF3), alkoxy groups (-OR), phosphine oxides, sulfur-containing species (such as sulfones (-SO 2 R), sulfoxides (-SOR), sulfonic acids (-SO 2 OH), sulfonates (-SO 2 OR), sulfinic acids (-S(O)OH), thiols, thioethers (-SR), and disulfides (-SSR)), or other groups capable of stabilizing adjacent anionic or radical species. In some embodiments, R and R' independently can be selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(Ctb) y OH; -(Ctb) y SH; or - (CH2) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R a and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof. In yet some additional embodiments, R, R', R a , and/or R b independently can be selected from H, alkyl (e.g., lower alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and the like), branched alkyl (e.g., branched lower alkyl, such as iso-propyl, iso-butyl, sec- butyl, tert-butyl, and the like), cyclic alkyl (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like), phenyl, naphthyl, ethers, thioethers, amines, esters, thioesters, amides, and combinations thereof. In yet additional embodiments, R and R' independently can comprise (e.g., be substituted with) a functional group such as a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

A further aspect of the invention relates to polymers containing molecular crosslinks described by the following formulae:

wherein the bold lines illustrated in the formulae (enclosed with the dashed-line circles illustrated above) constitute a primary molecular crosslink, which may be accompanied by the addition of further functional groups or sub-units; A is any heteroatom, such as O, S, N, or the like; or any heteroatom-containing group such as NH, NR, where R is aliphatic, aromatic, heteroaromatic, or a combination thereof; B is any suitable linking group including an aliphatic group, aromatic group, or heteroaromatic group, or a combination of these groups; Z is an integer between 0 and 10; and X is an electron- withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, X independently may be selected from heteroatom-containing functional groups, such as, but not limited to, esters (-CO2R), acids (-CO2H), amides (-CONRR'), ketones (-COR), aldehydes (-COH), nitriles (-CN), nitro groups (-NO 2 ), trifluoromethyl groups (-CF 3 ), alkoxy groups (-OR), phosphine oxides, sulfur-containing species (such as sulfones (-SO 2 R), sulfoxides (-SOR), sulfonic acids (-SO 2 OH), sulfonates (-SO 2 OR), sulfinic acids (-S(O)OH), thiols, thioethers (-SR), and disulfides (-SSR)), or other groups capable of stabilizing adjacent anionic or radical species. In some embodiments, R and R' independently can be selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(Ctb) y OH; -(Ctb) y SH; or -(CH2) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R' and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof. In yet some additional embodiments, R, R', R a , and/or R b independently can be selected from H, alkyl (e.g., lower alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and the like), branched alkyl (e.g., branched lower alkyl, such as iso-propyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and the like), cyclic alkyl (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like), phenyl, naphthyl, ethers, thioethers, amines, esters, thioesters, amides, and combinations thereof. In yet additional embodiments, R and R' independently can comprise (e.g., be substituted with) a functional group such as a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

Also disclosed herein are embodiments of polymers or copolymers derived from pre-crosslinked monomers having structures meeting any of the following formulae:

wherein G is a suitable linking group. In some embodiments, G can be selected from, but is not limited to, esters, amides, aliphatic groups, aryl groups, heteroaryl groups, olefins, alkynes, ethers, silyl ethers, aliphatic silanes, disulfides, ring structures (e.g., cyclic groups), or other groups recognized by those skilled in the art to be cleavable under specific conditions as described herein.

Also disclosed herein are embodiments of polymers containing molecular crosslinks having structures meeting the following formulae:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, X independently may be selected from heteroatom-containing functional groups, such as, but not limited to, esters (-CO2R), acids (-CO2H), amides (-CONRR'), ketones (-COR), aldehydes (-COH), nitriles (-CN), nitro groups (-NO2), trifluoromethyl groups (-CF3), alkoxy groups (-OR), phosphine oxides, sulfur- containing species (such as sulfones (-SO2R), sulfoxides (-SOR), sulfonic acids (-SO2OH), sulfonates (-SO2OR), sulfinic acids (-S(O)OH), thiols, thioethers (-SR), and disulfides (-SSR)), or other groups capable of stabilizing adjacent anionic or radical species. In some embodiments, R and R' independently can be selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(Ctb) y OH; - (Ctb)ySH; or -(CH 2 ) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R a and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof. In yet some additional embodiments, R, R', R a , and/or R b independently can be selected from H, alkyl (e.g., lower alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and the like), branched alkyl (e.g., branched lower alkyl, such as iso-propyl, iso- butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and the like), cyclic alkyl (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like), naphthyl, ethers, thioethers, amines, esters, thioesters, amides, and combinations thereof. In yet additional embodiments, R and R' independently can comprise (e.g., be substituted with) a functional group such as a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

In some embodiments, the disclosed molecular crosslinked compounds comprise reversible crosslinks. Such reversible crosslinks allow for these compounds to serve as the basis for recycling polymers or copolymers derived from linear following formulae:

wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, X independently may be selected from heteroatom-containing functional groups, such as, but not limited to, esters (-CO2R), acids (-CO2H), amides (-CONRR'), ketones (-COR), aldehydes (-COH), nitriles (-CN), nitro groups (-NO2), trifluoromethyl groups (-CF3), alkoxy groups (-OR), phosphine oxides, sulfur- containing species (such as sulfones (-SO2R), sulfoxides (-SOR), sulfonic acids (-SO2OH), sulfonates (-SO2OR), sulfinic acids (-S(O)OH), thiols, thioethers (-SR), and disulfides (-SSR)), or other groups capable of stabilizing adjacent anionic or radical species. In some embodiments, R and R' independently can be selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(CH2) y OH; - (CH 2 ) y SH; or -(CH 2 ) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R a and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof. In yet some additional embodiments, R, R', R a , and/or R b independently can be selected from H, alkyl (e.g., lower alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and the like), branched alkyl (e.g., branched lower alkyl, such as iso-propyl, iso- butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and the like), cyclic alkyl (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like), phenyl, naphthyl, ethers, thioethers, amines, esters, thioesters, amides, and combinations thereof. In yet additional embodiments, R and R' independently can comprise (e.g., be substituted with) a functional group such as a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

Exemplary compounds, polymers, copolymers, and crosslinked polymers are provided below:

IV. Exemplary Methods for Making Disclosed Compounds

Disclosed embodiments of the present disclosure also concern making the disclosed compounds, and compositions comprising the compounds. The compositions are prepared by applicable variety of organic synthetic techniques, as will be understood by a person of ordinary skill in the art based on the following discussion. These include, but are not limited to, condensations, cycloadditions or alkylations from any applicable acyclic, monocyclic or bicyclic precursors. These also include degradations from compounds of higher molecular weight.

One ex below.

Scheme 1

A method for making compounds having the general formula 3 and 4 is disclosed, wherein each X and M can be as described herein. As part of this method, a starting material 1 is deprotonated with a base, and an electrophile is added to deliver the functional group "X." It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, with the benefit of the present disclosure, that the starting material may already be acquired in deprotonated form, for example as a cyclopentadienylide with a corresponding metal or non-metallic counterion. Suitable counterions can include, but are not limited to alkali or alkaline earth metals, or organic counterions. In some embodiments, alkali metal counterions can be selected from sodium, lithium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. In some embodiments, alkaline earth metal counterions can be selected from magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium, or beryllium. In exemplary embodiments, sodium, lithium or potassium cyclopentadienylides can be used. Organic counterions can include, but are not limited to, tetra-substituted ammonium species, such as tetra-alkylated ammonium ions, tetra-aryl ammonium ions, or tetra-substituted ammonium ions comprising mixtures of alkyl and aryl groups. Exemplary tetra-substituted ammonium compounds can include, but are not limited to, tetra-methyl ammonium cations, tetra-ethyl ammonium cations, tetra-butyl ammonium cations, tetra-phenyl ammonium cations, and the like. Depending on the electrophile employed in the method, the building block 2 may be isolated as the neutral species or as the salt form. If the salt form is used, this material may be isolated for purification or handling purposes, or may be carried on crude to the next step of the reaction sequence.

Intermediate 2 is then reacted with compound 1 to arrive at the desired products 3 and 4.

Compounds 3 and 4 may be separated, or may be left as a mixture.

A further exemplary method for preparing disclosed materials is provided in Scheme 2 below.

cracking to reform (reversibly) crosslinked

original building blocks polymer products

Scheme 2

Exemp d below.

With respect to these embodiments, a method for making the functionalized linear polymer 5 is disclosed, wherein a mixture of compounds 3 and 4 (or else purified or partially purified compound 4) is subjected to a catalyst capable of promoting ring-opening / cross-metathesis reactions. The catalyst may contain a ruthenium, molybdenum or tungsten metal, or may contain other metals. Exemplary catalysts include, but are not limited to, ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts, such as Grubbs catalysts (e.g., berizylidene-bis(tricyclohexylphosphino)-dichlororuthenium, CAS #172222-30-9; [l,3-bis-(2,4,6- trimethylphenyl)-2 imidazolidinylidene]dichloro(phenylmethylene)(tricyclohexylp hosphino)ruthenium, CAS # 246047-72-3), Hoveyda-Grabbs catalysts (e.g., Dichloro(o- isopropoxyphenylmethylene)(tricyclohexylphosphine)rathenium( II), CAS # 203714-71-0); Dichloro(o- isopropoxyphenylmethylene)(tricyclohexylphosphine)ratherdum( II), CAS # 203714-71-0; [l,3-Bis-(2,4,6- trimethylphenyl)-2-irrridazolidinylidene]dicM CAS # 301224-

40-8), other Grabbs catalysts (e.g., Dichloro[l,3-bis(2-methylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene](2- isopropoxyphenylmethylene)rathenium(II), CAS # 927429-61-6); Dichloro[l,3-bis(2,6-isopropylphenyl)-2- irnidazolidinylidene](2-isopropoxyphenylmethylene)ratherdum( II), CAS # 635679-24-2); Dichloro[l,3- bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-irnidazolidinylidene](3-methyl- 2-butenylidene)

(tricyclohexylphosphine)rathenium(II), CAS # 253688-91-4; [2-(l-Methylethoxy-( )phenylmethyl- C] (nitrato-O, 0 {re/-(2i?,5i?,7i?)-adamantane-2, 1 -diyl[3 -(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)- 1 -imidazolidinyl-2-y lidene]} ruthenium, CAS # 1352916-84-7), Piers catalysts (e.g.,

Dichloro(tricyclohexylphosphine)[(tricyclohexylphosphoranyl) methylidene]ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate, CAS # 1020085-61-3); Dichloro[l,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2- imidazolidinylidene][(tricyclohexylphosphoranyl)methylidene] ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate, CAS # 832146-68-6); molybdenum carbine catalysts, such as catalysts having structures meeting the formula

( " p> l i( " h RMgX. wherein "Cp" is ;/ -c cIopeiuadien I. R is CH;„ C2H5, -C3H7, «-C |I l>. /;-( 1 or C ( ,I I5. and X is CI, Br, or I; Red Mo iSn catalyst systems; Tungsten(IV) or molybdenum(IV)-based catalysts, such as Schrock alkyldenes derived catalysts (e.g., W(C-i-Bu)(CH 2 -i-Bu) 3 , Mo(C-i-Bu)(CH 2 -i-Bu) 3 , W(CH-i- Bu)(0)(PR 3 )2Cl 2 , W(CH-i-Bu)(0)(PR 3 )Cl 2 , Mo(NAr)(CH-i-Bu)(OHIPT)(Pyrrolide), and W(0)(CH-i- Bu)(OHMT)(Me2Pyr)), Schrock-Hoveyda Catalyst (e.g., 2,6-Diisopropylphenylimido-neophylidene[(S)-(-)- BIPHEN]molybdenum(VI), CAS # 205815-80-1); allyl silane/tungsten catalysts (e.g., catalysts consisting of WC16 and/or WOC and organosilicon compounds such as SiAllyl4, SiMe2Allyl2, (iBu)2Al-0-Al(iBu)2), and the like. In some embodiments, the amount of catalyst is selected depending on the reaction rate desired. In some embodiments, 0.00001 to 0.10 mole of catalyst can be used per mole of monomer(s), such as 0.00005 to 0.001 mole of catalyst per mole of monomer(s).

Alternatively, metal-free conditions and/or catalysts may be used to promote the reaction. For example, the monomers can be polymerized in a suitable solvent (such as THF, CH2CI2 or toluene) using an enol ether initiator [such as, ethyl propenyl ether, l-methoxy-4-phenyl butane, or 2-cyclohexyl- 1 - methoxyethylene] and photoredox mediator [such as a pyrylium salt, an acridinium salt, a thiopyrylium salt, a persulfated salt, 2,4,6-tris(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrylium tetrafluoroborate or 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-l,4- benzoquinone] and further exposing the reaction mixture to blue LED light. In such embodiments, the conditions and reagents described by Goetz and Boydston, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 7572-7575, which is incorporated herein by reference, can be adapted for use with the disclosed compounds to facilitate metal- free polymerization.

If a mixture of 3 and 4 was used, unreacted monomer 3 may be recovered and recycled, though cracking and subsequent Diels-Alder dimerization.

A further exemplary method for preparing disclosed materials is provided in Scheme 3 below.

5 5'

Scheme 3

Ex

5 5·

As illustrated by these embodiments, a method for making reduced or partially reduced linear polymer 5' is disclosed, wherein polymer 5 is subjected to reducing conditions. This method may involve hydrogenation over a palladium- platinum- or nickel-containing catalyst, or may involve hydrogenation (or transfer hydrogenation) over a different metal catalyst. Examples of such catalysts include, but are not limited to, palladium oxide, platinum oxide, Pd/C, Pt/C, tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), palladium acetate, nickel boride, and the like. Alternatively, metal-free conditions such as diimide reductions may be employed.

A further exemplary method for preparing disclosed ded in Scheme 4 below.

5 or 5"

Scheme 4

Exemplary embodiments of the method of Scheme 4 are illustrated below.

As illustrated by these embodiments, a method for thermally curing linear polymer 5 or 5' is disclosed, wherein the linear polymer is heated to induce chemical crosslinks. The crosslinked polymer may be described by structure 6, or may be described by other chemical formulae.

In these embodiments, linear polymer 5 or 5' is subjected to a conjugate addition or related reaction with a bifunctional (or multifunctional) crosslinking reagent, represented by the generic structure HA-B-AH, where A is a heteroatom (typically O, S or NH) and B is any suitable linking group.

A further exemplary vided in Scheme 6 below.

Scheme 6

Exemp

In these embodiments, a linear polymer 5 or 5' bearing an ester or carboxylic acid functional group (or any derivative thereof, such as an acyl halide, anhydride, or nitrile) is cross-coupled through the carbonyl functional group, using a bifunctional (or multifunctional) crosslinking reagent, represented by the generic structure HA-B-AH, where A is a heteroatom (typically O, S or NH) and B is any suitable linking group.

A further exemplary method for preparing disclosed materials is provided in Scheme 7 below.

Scheme 7

In these embodiments, the carbonyl-containing functional group of linear polymer 5 or 5' contains additional nucleophilic functionality that can be induced to undergo cross-strand conjugate addition or acyclation chemistry to crosslink the polymer.

A further ex me 8 below.

Scheme 8

Exemplary embodiments of the method of Scheme 8 are illustrated below.

In these embodiments, interstrand (or intrastrand) crosslinks such as those illustrated by structures 6, 7, 8, and 9, can be reversed by treatment under specific radical conditions, oxidative conditions, enzymatic conditions, electromagnetic radiation conditions, reductive conditions, acidic conditions, basic conditions, or metal-catalyzed conditions to regenerate some form of the uncrosslinked (or less crosslinked) linear polymer 5 or 5'. In some embodiments, reductive conditions (e.g. sodium borohydride or similar reagents, or phosphines, or thiols, or electrochemical reduction) can be used to cleave possible disulfide linkers for certain polymers (e.g., compounds 7 or 8). In some embodiments, basic conditions (e.g. NaOH, KOH, 2CO3, amines, etc.) can be used to trigger β-elimination from the polymers (e.g., compounds 7-9), or to trigger retro-Michael addition from the polymers (e.g., compound 6). In some embodiments, acidic aqueous solutions (e.g., water containing HC1 or H 2 SO 4 or any other acid) can be used to trigger hydrolysis of amide or ester groups in the polymers (e.g., compounds 8 or 9). In yet additional embodiments, light can be used to trigger pericyclic reactions (e.g., retro-[2+2] additions) that lead to the fragmentation of the polymers (e.g., compounds 7 or 8). In yet additional embodiments, free radicals (e.g., free radicals produced from exposure of Et;,B to air, or generated through photoredox catalysis, etc.) can be used to trigger β -fragmentation pathways in the polymers (e.g., compounds 6-9).

A further exemplary method for preparing disclosed materials is provided in Scheme 9 below.

Scheme 9

In this embodiment, linear or crosslinked polymer, prepared by any of the methods described above, or by similar strategies, is chemically treated to convert a functional group present on the polymer into another type of functional group. Such chemical alterations may include esterification reactions (e.g., reaction of an ester with an excess of an alcohol solvent to generate a different ester, with different properties), hydrolysis reactions (e.g., treatment of esters or amides with aqueous base or acid to produce the corresponding carboxylic acids or carboxylate salts), condensation reactions (e.g., reaction of a carboxylic acid-containing polymer with an amine in the presence of a peptide-coupling reagent, such as EDC or DCC, to produce the corresponding amide), metal-mediated coupling or decarboxylation reactions, photochemical reactions, additions of nucleophilic species (e.g., addition of a Grignard or organolithium reagent to an ester- containing polymer to provide the corresponding ketone or tertiary alcohol), or other transformations that will be recognized by those skilled in the art, with the benefit of the present disclosure, to be conceptually similar to those summarized here.

Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to the disclosed molecules and methods wherein the surface area of the polymer is modified to control the surface energy of the polymer to improve adhesion or other properties. Yet another aspect of the present disclosure relates to modifying the material after polymerization. For example, a disclosed polymer, copolymer, or a crosslinked polymer can be modified after polymerization such that the polymer is exposed to a chemical process or physical process capable of converting a functional group of the polymer to control the surface energy of the polymer to improve adhesion or other properties. In yet additional embodiments, the surface energy of the polymer can be modified to improve adhesion or other properties without having to expose the polymer to additional chemical treatments, such as those described herein.

V. Examples

The following examples are provided to illustrate certain features of working embodiments of the present disclosure. A person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the disclosure is not limited to such features. Example 1

Sample Protocol: A flame-dried round bottom flask fitted with an oven-dried condensor was charged with 7 mL sodium cyclopentadienylide solution (2 M in THF, 14 mmol). To this solution was added 5.9 mL dimethylcarbonate (70 mmol), at room temperature with stirring. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for six h, then cooled to room temperature. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo. To the resulting solid was added PrOH (to 0.33 M), 0.41 mL sulfuric acid (0.55 equiv, 7.7 mmol) and 2.35 mL of freshly cracked cyclopentadiene (28 mmol) at room temperature with stirring. Acidification was marked by a brown to orange color change. The solution was heated to 50 °C overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the resulting oil was dissolved in toluene, and loaded onto a silica gel column. Elution with hexanes-ethyl acetate provided 1.60 g of a mixture of 3a and 4a (60%). Ή NMR for 3a (300 MHz, CDCl;,) δ 6.84 (d, J = 3.5 Hz ,1H), 5.45-5.50 (m, 2H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 3.35-3.40 (m, 1H), 3.28-3.31 (m, 1H), 3.01-3.04 (m, 1H), 2.23 (ddq, J = 18.3,10.3, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 1.70-1.77 (m, 1H), 1.64 (dt, J = 8.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 1.30 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H). 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCI3) δ 166.9, 148.5, 133.1 , 133.1 , 130.8, 54.2, 51.4, 50.6, 47.1 , 46.4, 40.8, 34.2; I I NMR for 4a (300 MHz, CDCI3) δ 6.54 (d, J = 2.3 Hz . 1 1 1). 6.03 (dd, J = 5.7, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (dd, J = 5.7, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (s, 3H), 2.92-2.96 (m, 1H), 2.89-2.92 (m, 1H), 2.80-2.88 (m, 2H), 2.42 (ddt, J = 17.3, 10.3, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 1.91 (dtd, J = 17.3, 4.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 1.49 (dt, J = 8.2, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 1.30 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H). 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCh) δ 166.7, 144.5, 137.1, 135.7, 133.0, 55.0, 51.3, 50.3, 46.3, 45.6, 41.3, 33.6; IR (cm "1 , film) 2955, 1732, 1717, 1634, 1439, 1268, 1096, 735. GCMS 190, 125, 93, 66 m/z observed for four isomeric species in a ratio of 1 : 0.6 : 0.17 : 0.015. HRMS (ESI) calcd for [M + Na | Ci 2 Hi 4 0 2 Na 213.08861, found 213.08864.

Additional Information:

In some examples, sodium cyclopentadienylide was prepared in house from cyclopentadiene and sodium hydride (NaH) or from cyclopentadiene and sodium metal. Neither of these alterations to the above procedure resulted in a substantive difference to the outcome of the reaction.

The direct preparation of sodium cyclopentadienylide from uncracked dicyclopentadiene and sodium metal is also known to proceed efficiently, and may represent an efficiency for large scale production. The appropriate protocol, incorporated here by reference, can be found in Panda et al., Organometallics 2003, 22, 877-878. For example, in some embodiments, freshly cut sodium (e.g., 0.43 mol) or potassium (e.g., 33.8 mol) is added to dicyclopentadiene (e.g., 400 mL or 50 mL) at room temperature. On heating, the solution turns blue (around 35 °C). Before the sodium is completely molten, the solution may slowly discolor. The mixture is heated for 6 hour to 160 °C. On heating, a white solid precipitates. When the alkali metal is quantitatively consumed, the dihydrogen evolution stops. To ensure a quantitative conversation, the heating can be continued for another 30 min after the dihydrogen evolution end. The reaction mixture is filtered, and the white residue is washed with three 50 mL portions of n-pentane and dried in vacuo. The unreacted dicyclopentadiene can be used again for the same reaction.

In some examples, the intermediate salt 2a was isolated by precipitation and was partially purified by washing with nonpolar solvents. The appropriate protocol, incorporated here by reference, can be found in Chen et al., J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 8979-8989.

In some examples, the preparation of 3a and 4a was accomplished on 45 gram scale, with no loss of yield or product purity.

In some examples, 3a and 4a were isolated by distillation rather than column chromatography. This may represent an efficiency for large scale production.

In some examples, 3a and 4a (together with two very minor isomers) were found to have separate boiling points as determined by GC-MS. This indicates that the separation of 3a and 4a by fractional distillation is also achievable, and the use of such methods also is disclosed herein.

In some examples, 3a was selectively degraded by conjugate addition of an amine. This method likewise allows for the isolation of purified 4a. This method was used to unambiguously assign the spectra for the two species.

Example 2

Sample Protocol: To a mixture of 3a and 4a (190 mg, 1 mmol) in 3 mL of DCM was added 8 mg Grubbs second generation catalyst (monomer: catalyst = 40:1). See FIG. 2 for an exemplary reaction scheme. The mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 40 min. To this solution was added 1 mL ethyl vinyl ether. The reaction was stirred for an additional 1 h, after which 10 mL of diethyl ether was added. White precipitate indicated formation of the polymer. The resulting mixture was centrifuged at 3000 rpm and 4 °C for 5 min. The polymer 5a was isolated as a precipitate (64 mg, 90% based upon the amount of 4a in the starting mixture) and unreacted 3a was obtained in the ether supernatant. Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl;,) δ 6.52-6.65 (br, IH), 5.22-5.55 (br, 2H), 3.69-3.75 (br, 3H), 3.33-3.42 (br, IH), 2.85-3.02 (br, 2H), 2.47-2.73 (br, 2H), 1.59-1.76 (br, IH), 1.20-1.34 (br, IH). 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl;,) δ 165.3, 143.9, 136.6, 131.5, 130.7, 56.0, 51.4 (the remaining carbon resonances appeared as overlapping signals from 47.3 to 34.2 ppm). Additional Information:

In some examples, lower catalyst loadings were used. At a ratio of 400: 1 monomencatalyst, a longer time was needed to ensure a complete reaction, but the metathesis polymerization still proceeded to completion at room temperature.

In reference to FIG. 2, polymer formation was indicated by broadening of the NMR signals (particularly for the downfield signal in 4a corresponding to the electron-deficient alkene C-H) and an upfield shift for the protons on the unfunctionalized olefin (corresponding to the formation of a less strained alkene). As anticipated, compound 3a was completely unreactive under the conditions employed. Indeed, even when the reaction was repeated at higher temperatures (refluxing benzene or toluene) no polymer arising from compound 3a was observed. Removal of the solvent and washing of the product residue with diethyl ether allowed for near- complete extraction of unreacted 3a from the less soluble polymer. Although evidently insoluble in ethereal solvent, polymer 5a proved to be completely soluble in both chlorinated solvents and THF, which facilitated product characterization.

Recycling of carboxylated cyclopentadienes like recovered 3a back to the building blocks 1 and 2a (as illustrated in Scheme 2 A, above) can be utilized if desired.

The molecular weight of the polymer (estimated by comparative NMR integration of the phenyl end-group to the downfield vinylic C-H of the polymer repeating unit) was -45,000 Da, and this value could be tuned somewhat by alteration of the reaction conditions. No evidence whatsoever for the existence of any crosslinks in freshly prepared polymer was observed.

Product 5a is somewhat air-sensitive (see Example 4, below) and the resulting oxidative crosslinks complicate its characterization by GPC methods. Nonetheless GPC experiments with a freshly-prepared (-4- hour-old) sample of 5a revealed Mw and Mn values that were consistent with the molecular weight determined by NMR. The following data were obtained from samples at 1 and 2 mg/mL:

1 mg/mL sample: Mw = 94445 Da, Mn = 39824 Da, PDI = 2.37, dn/dc = 0.103;

2 mg/mL Sample: Mw = 93290 Da, Mn = 47684 Da, PDI = 1.96, dn/dc = 0.108.

The original GPC traces are shown in FIGS. 3A and 3B (FIG. 3A = refractive index detection; FIG. 3B = low angle light scattering detection.

Example 3

Sample Protocol: To demonstrate that polymer 5 could be crosslinked under identical conditions to its unfunctionalized congener, an oven dried vial was charged with 5a under an argon atmosphere. The sample was heated to 180 °C overnight. A hard, tough, and insoluble material 6a was obtained, as illustrated in FIG. 4. DSC data for 6a revealed a T g value of 200 °C. This is the highest T g reported for any unaged polydicyclopentadiene, and is consistent with the structure shown above, where crosslinking results in the formation of quaternary centers. These increase the T due to increased steric crowding and therefore reduced rotational freedom within the polymer. DSC data leading to the assignment of T g (asterisk) is illustrated in FIG. 5.

Additional Information:

The color in the samples shown above is due to trapped ruthenium catalyst; for the preparation of colorless polymer films, see below.

The thermal crosslinking protocol was repeated several times to evaluate the reproducibility of the measured T g value. In all cases, a T g of 200 °C was determined.

Crosslinking of the linear polymer 5a inside the DSC apparatus allowed for the direct observation of the crosslinking step as an endothermic event at ca. 145 °C. Rerunning of the now-crosslinked polymer by DSC confirmed that this step was not reversible under thermal conditions. Details are available in Chen et al., ACS Omega, 2016, i, 532-540, which is incorporated here by reference. For example, freshly prepared linear polymer can be dried under vacuum and transferred directly to the DSC device under a nitrogen atmosphere. DSC and TGA measurements can be conducted on a TA Instruments Q600 SDT simultaneous thermal analyzer with samples being placed in an aluminum oxide crucible, and referenced against an empty aluminum oxide crucible. In some embodiments, data is collected with a ramp rate of 5 °C/min following temperature equalization at 50 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere flowing at 100 niL/min.

Measurement of the thermal stability of 6a by TGA revealed that the polymer was stable (i.e. experienced no significant mass loss) up to ca. 300 °C. Details are available in Chen et al., ACS Omega, 2016, i, 532-540, which is incorporated here by reference. In some embodiments, TGA can be conducted using the parameters and device discussed above for DSC analysis.

Much like the increased T g noted above, the increased thermal robustness shown here is hypothesized to be a result of our positioning the functional group at C2 of the dicyclopentadiene monomer. In contrast to the allylically functionalized materials prepared by other groups, products derived from C2- functionalization cannot easily fragment upon thermal activation.

Example 4

Protocol and Discussion:

Uncrosslinked or partially crosslinked PDCPD is oxidatively sensitive due to the density of double bonds in the molecular structure. For example, up to 35% oxygen incorporation following exposure to air has been reported in the art. Without being limited to a particular operating theory, it is currently believed that that this autoxidation process proceeds via radical intermediates and therefore such aerobic oxidation would also constitute a slow crosslinking process, which could be more easily followed spectroscopically or by light scattering than the rapid crosslinking described in Example 3.

Samples of 5a were exposed to air, and their hydrodynamic radius was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS). As shown in the graph of FIG. 6, an increase in hydrodynamic radius was clearly observed. Similar trends were observed for three separate preparations of polymer. This is consistent with the molecular weight range that was obtained following GPC analysis on a 2-day-old sample (-30,000,000 Da). After this time, the sample starts to become distinctly less soluble. Since both GPC and light-scattering data depend on having soluble samples, the numbers obtained from these assays underestimate the actual degree of crosslinking in the samples (i.e. only the less-crosslinked portions of the sample are sufficiently soluble to be analyzed; the remaining material is lost to filtration).

Example 5

Protocol and Discussion:

To demonstrate that polymer 6 could be chemically modified to control surface energy, a spin- coated film of ester-functionalized polymer on a glass slide was incubated in a solution of sodium hydroxide in methanol to produce an intermediate polymer containing sodium carboxylate groups. This was further incubated in a solution of aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce a polymer containing carboxylic acid groups. See FIG. 7A for a schematic representation. AFM characterization of each polymer surface showed that the samples were all smoother than the glass control. Water-droplet contact angle measurements (FIG. 7B) confirmed that the surface became substantially more hydrophilic as a result of this surface treatment. Since no surface defects on the scale of the drop-size were observed by AFM (FIG. 7C), this property is attributed to changes in the surface chemistry of the polymer.

Exemplary Protocol:

Spin Casting and Functionalization of Polymers - Spin casting was performed on freshly cleaned, 18x18 mm glass coverslips. Cleaning was performed as follows: 10 min of sonication in chloroform and 10 min in methanol followed by overnight drying under vacuum. Polymer samples were dissolved to 4 wt% in CH2CI2 and a 50 iL droplet was dropped onto a coverslip spinning at 2000 rpm. Following deposition, the film was allowed to spin for 60 s to ensure the majority of solvent had been removed.

Linear polymer 5a was spin coated on pre-cleaned glass slides. These coated glass slides were kept in a 180 °C oven under vacuum overnight to give crosslinked polymer 6a. These polymer 6a coated slides were immersed in solution of methanolic NaOH (1 : 1 MeOH/ 10% aqueous NaOH) under vacuum. After 8 h, the slides were washed with water and MeOH, then dried in a 70 °C oven under vacuum overnight. The resulting slides (now coated with polymer containing carboxylate residues) were acidified with 10% HC1 solution under vacuum for 30 min. All the slides were then washed with water and MeOH, and dried in a 70 °C oven under vacuum overnight to give slides that were coated with carboxylic acid residues.

(2) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Measurements.

AFM measurements of the coated glass coverslips were performed on an Agilent Technologies 5500 Scanning Probe Microscope equipped with a Ted Pella TAP190-G AFM probe operating in tapping mode. In order to minimize vibrations, the microscope was covered in a vibration resistant case on a vibration isolation platform maintained at 80 psi. Each sample was imaged at 3 separate locations on the slide, surface roughness measurements being collected over a 10x10 μηι area. Data was analyzed with the use of the Gwyddion data analysis software package. All images underwent slight modification to remove experimental artifacts such as sloped background, contrast alteration for ease of viewing (this was performed after measurements) and in some cases performing Fourier filtering of an unknown 10 Hz noise.

Contact Angle Measurements - A drop of liquid (2 μΙ_) was deposited on the freshly prepared substrate using a Hamilton microsyringe with a mechanical dispenser. Side view images of the drop on the substrate were taken by a high performance aberration corrected imaging lens with precise manual focus adjustment (CMOS sensor). Advancing contact angles were measured on these images. Two glass chips were prepared for each substrate. Three drops of liquid were deposited at three different regions of each film. A mean contact angle and standard deviation were thus determined from the resulting measurements. A sample of conventional PDCPD was obtained from Product Rescue BVBA, Waarschoot, Belgium. Prior to analysis, the sample was polished with 400 grit sandpaper, then washed with water and MeOH, and dried at 70 °C in a vacuum oven overnight.

Surface tensions were calculated by the combination of the OWRK equation (1) and equation (2). 0.5 γ {1 + cos θ) = Jr s ¾ - Jy,% (1)

¾0 γ = 72.8 mN/m, ftO ^ = 21.8 mN/m H ; 0 γ = 50.0 mN/m

CH 2 = 50.8 mN/m, CHJ f = 50.8 mN/m ; CHJ, f = 0.0 mN/m

Θ = contact ande

Example 6

Protocol and Discussion:

To demonstrate the change in hydrophilicity on the macroscale, a glass coverslip spin-coated with ester-functionalized polymer 6 was half-submerged in a solution of methanolic NaOH (1 : 1 MeOH/10% aqueous NaOH) for 8 h under argon. The resulting slides were washed with water and MeOH, and then dried at 70 °C oven under vacuum overnight. Water (containing green food coloring for imaging purposes) was applied to the surface of the coated slide, using a Pasteur pipette. Drops of water were found to migrate spontaneously to the side of the slide containing the treated (carboxylate-containing) polymer, and away from the untreated (ester-containing) polymer (FIG. 8).

Example 7 polymer

Protocol and Discussion:

A dicyclopentadiene functionalized on both olefins with an ester group (Thiele's ester, pictured above) was also tested as a substrate in the polymerization reaction. This reaction does not proceed under the conditions described for 4a (CH2CI2, r.t.) because the strained double bond now contains an additional substituent that impedes the initiation and progress of the olefin metathesis reaction. Even using more vigorous reaction conditions (toluene, 110 °C) returned mostly just dimers or oligomers. No evidence of polymer formation was observed.

Although Thiele ester derivatives are readily available, these data help to illustrate that unsymmetrical monomers such as those disclosed and used herein (e.g., monomer 4) can exhibit superior reactivity.

Exemplary Protocol:

To a solution of Thiele's ester (100 mg, 0.4 mmol) in 10 mL of dry toluene was added Grubbs' second-generation catalyst (17 mg, 0.02 mmol, monomer/catalyst = 20: 1). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at 110 °C under an argon atmosphere overnight. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo to yield a crude black oil. Analysis of the crude 'H-NMR spectrum revealed no polymer arising from Thiele's ester. Example 8

To a solution of 4a (1.1 g, 5.8 mmol) in /PrOH (20 mL) was added KOH (10% solution, 5 mL) dropwise. After 5 hours, iPrOH was removed in vacuo. The mixture was acidified to pH = 1 by addition of HCl (2 M) and extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO i and concentrated in vacuo to afford 0.9 g of the corresponding acid as a white powder without further purification. This was dissolved in DCM (20 mL) and SOCI 2 (3.6 ml, 50 mmol) was added slowly at 0 °C. The mixture was allowed to stir at 40 °C for 2 hours. Then the excess SOCI2 was removed in vacuo. To the resulting residue was added DCM (20ml), triethylamine (2.1 mL, 15 mmol) and ethylenediamine (0.17 mL, 2.6 mmol). The reaction was stirred overnight. The mixture was quenched by the addition of saturated NH4CI and extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were dried over gSO 1. and concentrated in vacuo. Chromatography (DCM-methanol, 95:5) afforded 4b as a tan solid (798 mg, 73% over 3 steps). I I NMR (300 MHz, CDCI 3 ) δ 6.33 (q, J = 2.1 Hz, 2H), 6.00 (dd, J = 5.6, 3.0 Hz, 2H), 5.93 (dd, J = 5.6, 3.0 Hz, 2H), 3.36-3.44 (m, 4H), 3.28-3.37 (m, 2H), 2.79-2.97 (m, 6H), 2.39 (ddt, J = 16.6, 10.3, 2.0 Hz, 2H), 1.90 (dtd, J = 16.6, 3.6, 2.0 Hz, 2H), 1.49 (dt, J = 8.2, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 1.29 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H). 13 C NMR (75 MHz, CDCI3) δ 166.7, 139.8, 139.6, 136.1 , 132.9, 55.0, 50.4, 46.5, 45.7, 41.7, 40.3, 33.7.

To a solution of 4b (94 mg, 0.25 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) was added Grubbs second-generation catalyst (5.3 mg, 0.0063 mmol). The mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for an hour. To this solution was added 7 mL ether. Black precipitate indicated formation of the polymer. The resulting mixture was centrifuged at 3000 rpm and 4 °C for 5 min. The precipitate was isolated and dried in vacuo to give polymer 5 (70 mg, 74%). The insoluble polymer was characterized by DLS, revealing a T g of ca. 200 °C as illustrated in FIG. 9.

VI. Overview of Several Embodiments

Described herein are embodiments of a method, comprising reacting cyclopentadiene with a substituted cyclopentadiene compound, or a salt thereof, to form a multicyclic compound having a structure satisfying Formula A and/or Formula B

Formula A Formula B

; wherein the substituted cyclopentadiene compound has a structure satisfying a formula 0^ x a o " /rd Q- x ; and wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments, the salt of the substituted cyclopentadiene has a

© structure satisfying a formula , wherein M is a metal counterion or non-metal counterion and in such embodiments, the reaction can occur under acidic conditions.

In any or all of the above embodiments, M is an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, or a tetra- substituted ammonium species.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the method can further comprise performing an olefin metathesis reaction on the multicyclic compound.

polymerizing a multicyclic compound having structure satisfyi rein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical- stabilizing group are described.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the polymer is a reaction product of an olefin metathesis reaction product made from the multicyclic compound.

In some embodiments, a polymer made from polymerizing a mixture of multicyclic compounds, wherein the mixture of multicyclic compounds comprises a mixture of regioisomeric compounds having wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group is described.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the polymer is a reaction product of an olefin metathesis reaction between at least one multicyclic compound having a formula x J ' QK> and at least one multicyclic compound having a formula

In some embodiments, methods are described wherein the methods comprise combining (i) an photoredox mediator compound or (ii) a catalyst comprising ruthenium (Ru), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum or a combination thereof; and a compound having a structure satisfying a formula - ; or a combination thereof, to form a polymer; wherein X is an electron- withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group. In some embodiments a linear polymer is described having a structure satisfying a formula wherein each of G and G' independently is selected from an end- capping group; n is any integer value greater than 10; and X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical- stabilizing group.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the end-capping group is selected from -Ctb, -CH(aryl), -CH(aliphatic), -CH(heteroaliphatic), or -CH(heteroaryl).

In comprising at least one subunit having a structure

satisfying wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group is described.

In some embodiments, a crosslinked polymer made from a polymer and/or copolymer as described by any or all of the above embodiments.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the crosslinked polymer can have a structure satisfying a formula selected from:

wherein a bold line of the formula comprises a primary molecular crosslink, which can further comprise one or more functional groups or polymer subunits; and X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical- stabilizing group.

Also described herein are polymers comprising one or more molecular crosslinks and having a structure satisfying a formula selected from:

wherein one or more bold lines of the formula independently comprises a primary molecular crosslink, which can further comprise one or more functional groups or polymer subunits; A is a heteroatom or heteroatom-containing group; B is a linking group; Z is an integer between 0 and 10; and X is an electron- withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the heteroatom is O or S and the heteroatom group is NH or NR, wherein R is alkyl, aromatic, heteroaromatic, or a combination thereof.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the linking group is selected from an alkyl group, aromatic group, a heteroaromatic group, or a combination thereof

In some embodiments, pre-crosslinked monomer having a

structure satisfying a formula: or a combination thereof; wherein G is a linking group or a cleavable linking group are described.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the linking group is selected from an ester, an amide, an alkyl group, an aromatic group, a heteroaromatic group, an olefin, an alkyne, an ether, a silyl ether, an alkyl silane, a disulfide, a cyclic group, or a combination thereof; and the cleavable linking group is selected from a linking group capable of being cleaved under radical conditions, oxidative conditions, enzymatic conditions, electromagnetic radiation conditions, reductive conditions, acidic conditions, basic conditions, or metal-catalyzed conditions.

In some embodiments, a polymer comprising at least one molecular crosslink is disclosed, wherein

the polymer has a structure satisfying a formula: wherein X is an electron-withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

Also disclosed herein are methods for reversing the molecular crosslinks any or all of the above embodiments, comprising exposing the polymer to radical conditions, oxidative conditions, enzymatic conditions, electromagnetic radiation conditions, reductive conditions, acidic conditions, basic conditions, or metal-catalyzed conditions.

In any or all of the above embodiments, reversing comprises cleaving all molecular crosslinks of the polymer. In any or all of the above embodiments, reversing comprises cleaving fewer than all molecular crosslinks of the polymer.

In any or all of the above embodiments, reversing comprises cleaving interstrand and/or intrastrand bonds of the polymer.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the method is used to recycle polymer or copolymers

subunit having a structure satisfying a formula: wherein X is an electron- withdrawing group or radical-stabilizing group.

In some embodiments, methods of modifying a polymer, copolymer, and/or crosslinked polymer of any or all of the above embodiments are described wherein the method comprises exposing the polymer, copolymer, and/or crosslinked polymer to a chemical process or physical process capable of converting a functional group of the polymer, copolymer, and/or crosslinked polymer.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the chemical process is selected from an esterification reaction, a hydrolysis reaction, a condensation reaction, a metal-mediated coupling, a decarboxylation reaction, a photochemical reaction, an addition of a nucleophilic species, or combinations thereof.

In any or all of the above embodiments, the method is used to control the surface energy of the polymer to improve adhesion or other properties.

In any or all of the above embodiments, X is selected from an ester (-CO2R), an acid (-CO2H), an amide (-CONRR'), a ketone (-COR), an aldehyde (-COH), a nitrile (-CN), a nitro group (-NO2), a trifluoromethyl group (-CF3), an alkoxy group (-OR), a phosphine oxide, or a sulfur-containing species; wherein R and R' independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof; -(0¾) ν ΟΗ; -(CH 2 ) y SH; or -(CH 2 ) y NR a R b , where y is an integer between 0 and 10 and R a and R b independently are selected from H, aliphatic, aryl, heteroaliphatic, heteroaryl, or combinations thereof.

In any or all of the above embodiments, wherein one or both of R and R' is substituted with a functional group selected from a dye, fluorophore, or molecular sensor.

In view of the many possible embodiments to which the principles of the disclosed technology may be applied, it should be recognized that the illustrated embodiments are only preferred examples of the present disclosure and should not be taken as limiting the scope of the present disclosure. Rather, the scope is defined by the following claims. We therefore claim as our invention all that comes within the scope and spirit of these claims.