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Title:
GLAZING AGENT COMPRISING WHEY PROTEIN
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/144214
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a process for the manufacture of a composition comprising whey protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets and a process for drying the whey protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets to obtain a dry powder ready for re- hydration. The invention also relates to a ready-to-use liquid composition wherein the liquid composition is a glazing agent. In addition, the invention relates to a method for preparing a glazed dough product and to the use of a liquid composition as a glazing agent.

Inventors:
SCHRÖDER, René (Højvang Nord 48, Vamdrup, DK-6580, DK)
Application Number:
DK2011/050168
Publication Date:
November 24, 2011
Filing Date:
May 23, 2011
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ARLA FOODS AMBA (Sønderhøj 14, Viby J, DK-8260, DK)
SCHRÖDER, René (Højvang Nord 48, Vamdrup, DK-6580, DK)
International Classes:
A21D13/00; A21D2/26; A21D6/00; A23G3/34; A23L1/00
Domestic Patent References:
2006-02-23
1994-01-20
2006-02-23
Foreign References:
CH694144A52004-08-13
US5202138A1993-04-13
EP0402090A21990-12-12
US4637937A1987-01-20
AU2001243950B22004-10-07
NL6813493A1970-03-24
EP0327120A21989-08-09
US4389420A1983-06-21
US4762721A1988-08-09
US5466478A1995-11-14
JP3671877B22005-07-13
CH694144A52004-08-13
US5202138A1993-04-13
EP0402090A21990-12-12
US4637937A1987-01-20
AU2001243950B22004-10-07
NL6813493A1970-03-24
Other References:
DATABASE WPI Week 200232, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 2002-280843, XP002609023, "Oil-in-water creamy composition for use as glazing agent for baked foods"
PARRIS ET AL., JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, vol. 74, no. 1, pages 58 - 64
FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 113, no. 1, 2009, pages 191 - 195
JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, vol. 74, no. 1, 1991, pages 58 - 68
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PLOUGMANN & VINGTOFT A/S (Sundkrogsgade 9, PO Box 831, Copenhange Ø, DK-2100, DK)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

A process for the manufacture of a composition comprising protein-stabilized lipid-droplets, said process comprising the steps of:

a. providing a premix comprising whey protein and water;

b. adding to said premix one or more edible lipids to form a protein and edible lipid mixture in which the ratio of protein to lipid is from 1 :9 to 1 :3, and

c. homogenizing said protein and edible lipid mixture to provide an oil-in water emulsion, and

d. heat treating the said oil-in-water emulsion.

2. A process according to claim 1 wherein said premix comprises whey protein in an amount of 5-40 w/w%, and wherein the ratio of whey protein to water is preferably from 1 : 19 to 2:3.

3. A process according to any of claims 1-2, wherein the ratio of whey protein to oil in said protein and edible lipid mixture is adjusted to result in said oil-in- water emulsion having a viscosity of 10-70 cP at a temperature of 10°C. 4. A process according to any of claims 1-3, wherein said whey protein in said premix is a mixture of about 62-72% native whey protein and about 28-38% partly denatured or denatured whey protein.

5. A process according to any of claims 1-4, wherein casein constitutes from 0-20 w/w% of the total amount of protein in said premix.

6. A process according to any of claims 1-5, wherein the whey protein in said premix is a whey protein comprising at least 80% acid whey and have a pH of 9.8-10.6 when dissolved in water at 5 % (w/w) at a temperature of 20-25 °C.

7. A process according to claim 6, wherein said acid whey comprises 0-5 w/w% cGMP.

8. The process according to any of claims 1-7, wherein said protein and edible lipid mixture comprises whey protein in an amount of 3-25 w/w%, and edible lipid in an amount of 15-73w/w%, and wherein the ratio of whey protein to water is from 1 : 19 to 2 : 3, and wherein the ratio of whey protein to lipid is from 1 :9 to 1 :3.

9. The process according to any of claims 1-8, wherein said oil-in-water emulsion is dried to provide a powdered composition having a water content of 1-10 w/w%. 10. The process according to claim 9, wherein said powdered composition

comprising protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets is subject to re-hydration.

11. A powdered composition comprising whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, wherein;

a. said whey protein is present in an amount of 3-25 w/w% and is at least partly denaturated, and

b. said edible lipid is present in an amount of 28-73 w/w%, and

c. the ratio of said whey protein to water is from 1 : 5 to 2:3, and

d. the ratio of said whey protein to said edible lipid is from 1 :9 to 1 :3.

12. A powdered composition according to claim 11, having a water content of at the most 15 w/w%.

13. A powdered composition according to any of claims 11-12, wherein said

powdered composition is stable for at least 2 months during conventional domestic and/or conventional industrial storage conditions.

14. A powdered composition according to any of claims 11-13, wherein said whey protein comprises at least 80% acid whey and have a pH of 9.8-10.6 when dissolved in water at a concentration of 5 w/w% and at a temperature of 20- 25 °C.

15. A powdered composition according to any of claims 11-14, wherein casein

constitutes from 0-20 w/w% of the total amount of protein in said powdered composition.

16. A powdered composition according to any of claims 11-15, comprising 11-36 w/w% lactose or sugars or combinations thereof. 17. A liquid composition comprising whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid; a. wherein said whey protein is present in an amount of 3-25 w/w% and is at least partly denaturated, and

b. wherein said edible lipid is present in an amount of 15-73 w/w%, and c. the ratio of said whey protein to said edible lipid is from 1 :9 to 1 :3.

18. A liquid composition according to claim 17, wherein said liquid composition is stable for at least 1 week during conventional domestic and/or conventional industrial storage conditions. 19. The liquid composition according to any claims 17-18 in which casein

constitutes from 0-20 w/w% of the total amount of protein in said liquid composition.

20. Method for preparing a glazed dough product comprising applying the liquid composition according to any of claims 17-19, or a rehydrated composition according to claim 10 onto the surface or the exterior of a dough.

21. The method according to claim 20, wherein said composition is applied in amounts of 20-100 mg/cm2.

22. A dough product in which a composition according to any of claims 17-19, or a rehydrated composition according to claim 10 has been applied to the exterior or the surface of said product. 23. A dough product according to claim 22, which is a fresh, freshly moulded, proved, baked, frozen or thawed dough product.

24. Use of a liquid composition according to any of claims 17-19, or a rehydrated composition according to claim 10 as a glazing agent.

Description:
GLAZING AGENT COMPRISING WHEY PROTEIN

Technical field of the invention

The present invention relates to a process for the manufacture of a composition comprising protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets. In addition the present invention relates to a powdered composition comprising whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, said composition optionally being obtainable by said process.

In an embodiment the present invention relates to a liquid composition comprising or consisting essentially of whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, said composition optionally being obtainable by said process.

In another embodiment the invention relates to a method for preparing a glazed dough product comprising or consisting essentially of applying the liquid composition onto the surface or the exterior of a dough. In particular, the present invention relates to a dough product, which is obtainable by said method. In a preferred embodiment the present invention relates to a dough product, such as a dough product which is obtainable by said process in which said composition has been applied to the exterior or the surface of said product.

In particular, the present invention relates to the use of a liquid composition as a glazing agent.

Background of the invention

Due to the tradition in bread making today a great part of breads and buns are brushed or sprayed with glazing agents to provide shine and appealing looks on baked goods i.e. to make the product shiny/glossy. This tradition is particular strong in southern Europe and South America.

Traditionally whole eggs or milk is applied on the surface of the dough before baking. Today a large part of this is replaced by blends of gums and sugars, mainly in order to avoid the hazard of handling eggs and milk in the production, but also in order to save costs related to cold storage of milk/eggs. Thus, whole eggs or milk are not very convenient to use. A high number of commercial products for providing shine/gloss to bread products exist in the market. Some of them are ready to use dry powder glazing agents for solubilization in water. They comprise e.g. a series of ingredients like gums, emulsifiers, sugars, and stabilizers.

US 4,389,420 discloses a glaze for refrigerated doughs. The glaze comprises a proteinaceous liquid comprising e.g. whey protein concentrate as a source of protein and e.g. oil as a liquid carrier.

US 4,762,721 discloses an oil-in-water emulsion glazing agent for foodstuffs that contains protein, oil, water and a starch component.

US 5,466,478 discloses a glazing agent that contains casein, vegetable oil, emulsifier, maillard browning agent and water.

JP 3671877, CH 694144 and WO 2006/018077 disclose certain liquid water-in-oil emulsions comprising protein for use in baking products as glaze or frosting. US 5202138, EP 0402090, and US 4637937 disclose certain liquid water-in-oil emulsions comprising protein for use in various applications that do not include glazing. AU 2001 243950 and NL 6813493 disclose powdered compositions made from water-in-oil emulsions comprising protein for use in food products (not glazing).

Hence, an improved ready to use glazing agent composed of nature's own ingredients would be advantageous, and in particular a more efficient and/or reliable glazing agent would be advantageous.

Summary of the invention

It is as an object of the present invention to provide a ready-to-use glazing agent that solves the above mentioned problems.

Thus, one aspect the invention relates to a process for the manufacture of a composition comprising protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets, said process comprising the steps of: a. providing a premix comprising whey protein and water;

b. adding to said premix one or more edible lipids to form a protein and edible lipid mixture in which the ratio of protein to lipid is from 1 :9 to 1 : 3;

c. homogenizing said protein and edible lipid mixture to provide an oil-in- water emulsion; and

d. heat treating the said oil-in-water emulsion.

An embodiment of the present invention relates to a process according to the invention, said process comprising a step of drying said oil-in-water emulsion to provide a powdered composition comprising protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets.

Yet another embodiment of the present invention relates to a process according to the invention, wherein said powdered composition comprising protein-stabilized- lipid-droplets is subject to re-hydration.

A further aspect of the present invention relates to a powdered composition comprising whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, said composition optionally being obtainable by a process according to the invention.

Still another aspect of the present invention is to provide a powdered composition, such as a powdered composition being obtainable by a process according to the invention, comprising whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, wherein; a. said whey protein is present in an amount of 3-25 w/w% and is partly denaturated, and

b. said edible lipid is present in an amount of 28-73 w/w%, and

c. the ratio of said whey protein to said water is preferably from 1 : 19 to 2 : 3, and

d. the ratio of said whey protein to said edible lipid is from 1 :9 to 1 :3.

Another aspect of the present invention relates to a liquid composition comprising or consisting essentially of whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, said composition being obtainable by a process according to the invention.

Yet another aspect of the present invention is to provide a liquid composition comprising or consisting essentially of whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, such as a composition being obtainable by a process according to the invention; a. wherein said whey protein is present in an amount of 3-25 w/w% and is partly denaturated, and

b. wherein said edible lipid is present in an amount of 28-73 w/w%, and c. the ratio of said whey protein to said edible lipid is from 1 :9 to 1 :3.

Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method for preparing a glazed dough product comprising or consisting essentially of applying the liquid composition according to the invention onto the surface or the exterior of a dough.

Yet another aspect of the present invention relates to a dough product, which is obtainable by the process according to the invention.

Still another aspect of the present invention is to provide a dough product, such as a dough product which is obtainable by the process according to the invention, in which a composition according to the invention has been applied to the exterior or the surface of said product.

Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of a liquid composition according to the invention as a glazing agent.

Brief description of the figures

Figure 1 (upper part) shows an example of a native whey isolate (WPI) product which has been separated on an HPLC apparatus. Figure 1 (lower part) shows an example of a denatured whey isolate (WPI) product which has been separated on an HPLC apparatus.

Figure 2 shows particle size and particle size distribution of emulsion powders.

Figure 3 shows an example of viscosity of a rehydrated emulsion.

The present invention will now be described in more detail in the following.

Detailed description of the invention

Prior to discussing the present invention in further details, the following terms and conventions will first be defined : Definitions

In the present context, the term "glazed product" means a food product onto which has been applied a thin, shiny coating, a shiner or a glazing agent. Thus, a glazed product has a shiny or glossy appearance. The glazing on a glazed product may serve the purpose of protecting the product, e.g. by reducing evaporation of moisture from the product.

By the term "glazing" is in the present context meant the act of applying a coating and/or a glaze to e.g. a food preparation such as a baked goods.

By the term "glazing agent" is meant a lightly viscous, homogenous and ready-to- use liquid composition which can be used to improve or enhance gloss or shine on dough products. Conventional glazing agents are often sweet mixtures and include whole egg and/or milk.

By the term "denatured protein" is meant protein that has permanently lost its original (native) configuration. Thus the denatured protein is irreversibly denatured. Denatured protein has different functionality than native protein.

Denaturation can e.g. be imposed on a protein by chemicals, pH changes, homogenization, temperature and pressure. Caseins do not normally denaturate possibly due to their irregular molecular structure (see further below) whereas whey proteins have the ability to denature as they are globular with an

organized/regular structure. Suitable methods for determining the degree of protein denaturation are well-known in the art, e.g. as described by Parris et al (Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 74(1) p.58-64), or as described in details in

Example 9.

By "partly denatured protein" is meant a protein which is reversibly denatured whereas denatured proteins remain (irreversibly) denatured. Thus, without being bound by theory the partly denatured proteins when comprised within the protein- stabilized-lipid-droplets of the invention are stabilized by the presence of the lipid. In the present context the term "protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet" defines a drc comprising an edible lipid, a denatured protein and/or partly denatured protein and optionally water. Herein a droplet is a particle which can either be a liquid particle, semi-solid particle or solid particle, depending on the exact nature of the composition, such as e.g. the water content and the melting point of the edible lipid. Also, a protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet may be comprised in for example an emulsion type composition or in a powdered composition. The protein-stabilized- lipid-droplets are stabilized by the presence of denatured protein and/or partly denatured protein in the composition. Some proteins such as whey protein will upon denaturation expose their hydrophobic core which is then available for hydrophobic interactions with e.g. lipids. Lipids may also induce full or partial denaturation of whey protein. The presence of denatured proteins will help stabilize the shape and size of the lipid droplets both in aqueous and partially dried compositions. This is mainly due the denatured whey proteins forming protective interfacial layers on the surface of the protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet, as described for e.g. skimmed milk emulsions where such layers form between the continuous and the discontinuous phase (Food Chemistry, volume 113, 1, 2009, 191-195).

The terms "Mpid-in-water emulsion" and "oil-in-water emulsion" refer in the present context to a mixture of a lipid phase and a water phase wherein the water phase comprises partly water soluble proteins that may stabilize the lipid-droplet. Thus, without being bound by theory, the partly water soluble proteins may stabilize the lipid-in-water emulsion or the oil-in-water emulsion of the invention. A lipid-in-oil emulsion may be and oil-in-water emulsion when the lipids are fluent at ambient temperatures.

By the term "cassionate" is meant sodium cassionate, or calcium cassionate or milk protein.

By the term "casein" is meant casein which form micelles. Casein accounts for nearly 80% of proteins in cow milk and cheese and is therefore the predominant phosphoprotein. The protein fraction in casein comprises four protein fractions (aSl, aS2, β, κ). Whey protein accounts for the remaining part of the proteins from cow's milkas described below. Casein is not coagulated or denatured by heat. It is precipitated by acids and by rennet enzymes, a mixture of chymosin, pepsin and other proteolytic enzymes typically obtained from the stomachs of calves. Casein consists of a fairly high number of proline peptides, which do not interact. There are also no disulfide bridges. As a result, it has relatively little tertiary structure. Because of this, it cannot denature. It is relatively hydrophobic, making it poorly soluble in water.

By the term "whey protein" is meant the collection of globular proteins which may be isolated from whey, a by-product of cheese manufactured from cow's milk. Whey protein may also be isolated directly from milk, e.g. from skim milk, by the use of suitable filtration techniques, such as e.g. microfiltration. The protein fraction in whey comprises four major protein fractions and six minor protein fractions. The major protein fractions in whey are beta-lactoglobulin, alpha- lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulins. Acid whey comprises beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulins and close to 0% casein glycol macro peptide (CGMP) although a content of up to 5% is possible, such as up to 4%, such as up to 3%, such as up to 2%, such as up to 1%, such as 0%. Sweet whey comprises approximately 20% CGMP, such as 0-35%, such as 5-30% such as 10-25% such as 15-20%, such as 15-25% such as 20-25%, such as 20-30%, and such as 20-35%. Thus, the most pronounced difference between sweet and acid whey is the content of cGMP.

By the term "lipid" refers to oil or fat which is liquid, solid or semi-solid at ambient temperatures, such as edible vegetable or animal oil or fat. By "ambient temperatures" is meant temperature which may be 5-40 °C, such as 10-35 °C, such as 15-30 °C, and such as 20-25 °C. Some typical lipids are selected from the group consisting of vegetable oil such as soya oil, rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower oil, and/or animal oil, and or animal fat such as butterfat. By the term "emulsion" is meant a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids, the present context emulsion is meant to imply that both the dispersed and the continuous phase are liquid. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase).

By the term "ratio" is meant the proportion between two given numbers e.g. the lipid to oil ratio 1 :7 equals the ratio of one part of lipid present along with 7 parts of oil to result in a mixture of 8 parts in total. Thus, in this ratio the amount of lipid is 11% and the amount of oil is 89%. The ratio is unit less because the units of the two given values in a ratio are always the same namely w/w%. Therefore, if the ratio of whey protein to water is from 1 : 7 to 1 :3 then the unit of whey protein and water have the same unit i.e. w/w%. The amount of whey protein will be one part per 7 parts of water to one part per 3 parts of water i.e. the percent of whey protein ranges from 13% to 25% and the water from 87% to 75% for a mixture consisting of only whey protein and water.

The below table shows different ratios, their corresponding values, and

percentages for mixtures consisting only of components in the ratio.

Ratio Value Percent

1:19 0.05 5.0%/95%

1:18 0.06 5.2%/94.8%

1:17 0.08 5.6%/94.4%

1:16 0.08 5.9%/94.1%

1:15 0.08 6.2%/93.8%

1:14 0.08 6.7%/93.3%

1:13 0.08 7.1%/93.9%

1:12 0.08 7.7%/93.3%

1:11 0.09 8.3%/91.7%

1:10 0.10 9.1%/90.9%

1:9 0.11 10.0%/90.0%

1:8 0.13 ll.l%/88.9%

1:7 0.14 12.5%/87.5%

1:6 0.17 14.3%/85.7%

1:5 0.20 16.7%/83.3%

1:4 0.25 20.0%/80.0%

2:7 0.29 22.2%/77.8%

1:3 0.33 25.0%/75.0%

3:7 0.43 30.0%/70.0%

1:2 0.50 33.3%/66.7%

4:7 0.57 36.4%/63.6%

2:3 0.67 40.0%/60.0%

5:7 0.71 41.7%/58.3%

6:7 0.86 46.2%/53.8%

7:7 or 1:1 1 50.0%/50.0%

The term "at the most" and "no more than" in relation to any ratio as defined herein mean any ratio up to and including the ratio mentioned. Thus, "at the most a ratio of 1:5" and "no more than a ratio of 1:5" mean all ratios up to and including 1:5, e.g. a ratio of 1:5, such as 1:6, such as 1:7; such as 1:8, such as 1:9, such as 1:10, such as 1:11, and such as 1:12. Therefore, if the ratio was e.g. protein to lipid then the term "at the most 1:5" would mean no more protein than up to and including 17% and from 83% lipid and more, if the composition consists of protein and lipid only.

By the term "weight-weight percentage" or "w/w%" is meant grams substance per grams of another substance in percent (per 100 gram). Thus, if e.g. water is used in an amount of 10 w/w% in a mixture with ethanol, it is meant to mean 10 grams of water is mixed with 90 grams of ethanol. The total weight will be 100 grams of the mixture but the volume of the 100 grams of mixture may be different from 100 ml.

By the term "cGMP" or "CGMP" is meant casein glyco macro peptide which consists of approximately 50% a-glyco casein macro peptide and 50% casein glyco macro peptide. The cGMP comes from the casein fraction derived from cheese production from cow 's milk.

By the term "WPI" is meant whey protein isolate which is a standard that can be purchased via conventional manufactures. In general the WPI comprises approximately of 50% beta-lactoglobuline, 25% alfa-lactalbumine and 25% cGMP.

By the term "variolac 960" is meant a commercial whey permeate product which consist of 96% lactose and 3% minerals, and 1% whey protein.

By the term "Shoguwar 38" made by AarhusKarlsham, AAK, is meant a high melt lipid commercial product which consist of hydrogenated, refined and deodorized soya bean oil.

By the term "laprodan 80" is meant a commercial standard whey protein concentrate from cheese fabrication made by Aria Foods ingredients containing approximately 78% whey protein, 8% lactose, 8% fat, 4% water, and 2% minerals.

By the term "droplet size" is meant the diameter of a given droplet which leaves through a nozzle of that same given size. Thus, the size of the nozzle corresponds to the droplet size. Therefore, when the mixtures as described in the present invention leave the homogenization equipment they have obtained the given droplet size of for instance no more than 5 μΜ.

The term viscosity is a well-known parameter used as a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". Viscosity may typically be measured using various types of viscometers and rheometers well known in the art. The usual unit used for measuring dynamic viscosity is "cP" which means centipoise. The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimeter gram second system of units. 1 P = 1 g-cm -1 ^ "1 . The analogous unit in the International System of Units is the (Pa-s) : 1 Pa-s = 1 kg-m _1 -s _1 = 10 P. A useful method for measuring viscosity in the present context is described in Example 11.

By the term "modified starch" is meant starch that is prepared by being treated physically, enzymatically or chemically (native) thereby changing the properties of the starch. Modified starches are used in all starch applications: in food products for example as a thickening agent, stabilizer or emulsifier, in pharmaceuticals as disintegrant, in paper as a binder and in many other applications.

Starches are modified to enhance their performance in different applications. Starches may be modified to increase their stability against excessive heat, acid, shear, time and cooling or freezing; to change their texture; to decrease or increase the viscosity, to lengthen or shorten gelatinization time or to increase the visco-stability.

In the present context, the term "powdered composition" refers to a granular material that has a fine grain size. A fine grain size may be 0.01-100 μιτι, such as 0.02-80 pm, such as 0.03-70 μιη such as 0,04-60 μιτι. such as 0,05-50 pm, such as 0.06- 40 pm, such as 0.07-30 μιτι, such as 0.08-20 μιτι, such as 0.09-10 μητι, such as 0.1-1 μιτι, such as 0.02-0.1 pm. such as 0.01-0.1 μιτι, such as 0.01-0.9 μιη, such as 0.01-0.08 μιτι, such as 0.01-0.07 μιη, such as 0.01-0.06 μιη, such as 0.01-0.05 μιη, such as 0.01-0.04 pm, such as 0.01-0.03 pm, and such as 0.01- 0.02 pm. A powdered composition of the present invention is further defined as a particulate composition comprising e.g. fat droplets i.e. protein-stabilized-lipid- droplets.

By the term "pH control agents" is meant food additives which are added to change or maintain pH (acidity or alkalinity). They can be organic or mineral acids, bases, neutralizing agents, or buffering agents. Acidity regulators are indicated by their E-number, such as E260 (acetic acid), or simply listed as "food acid".

By the term "conventional domestic storage conditions" is meant ambient temperature and humidity. The temperature may be 5-40 °C, such as 10-40 °C, such as 15-40 °C, such as 20-40 °C, such as 25-40 °C, such as 30-40 °C, such as 35-40 °C, such as 5-35 oc, such as 5-30 °C, such as 5-25 °C, such as 5-20 oc, such as 5-15 °C, such as 5-10 °C. The humidity may be defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour (in a gaseous mixture of air and water vapour) to the saturated vapour pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage and the humidity may be 0-100%, such as 10- 100%, such as 20-100%, such as 30-100%, such as 40-100%, such as 50-100%, such as 60-100%, such as 70-100%, such as 80-100%, such as 90-100%, such as 0-90%, such as 0-80%, such as 0-70%, such as 0-60%, such as 0-50%, such as 0-40%, such as 0-30%, such as 0-20%, such as 0-10%.

By the term "conventional industrial storage conditions" is meant cool and dry conditions. Cool conditions may be a temperature such as 1-20 °C, such as 1-15 °C, such as 1-10 °C, such as 1-5 °C, such as 5-20 °C, such as 10-20 °C, such as 15-20 °C, such as at the most 20 °C, preferably at the most 10 °C. Dry conditions may be defined as a relative humidity as defined above such as 0-80%, such as 10-800%, such as 20-80%, such as 30-80%, such as 40-80%, such as 50-80%, such as 60-80%, such as 70-80%, such as 0-70%, such as 0-60%, such as 0- 50%, such as 0-40%, such as 0-30%, such as 0-20%, such as 0-10%, preferably so that no water spray or droplets appear on packeting material.

By the term "stable powder" is meant a powder that does not significantly change its properties over time. In the present context those properties are mainly the physical properties of the powder, i.e. a powder maintaining the same same physical form (a powdered composition comprising protein-stabilized-lipid- droplets) is considered "stable". A stable powder does not exhibit any significant caking or aggregation/agglomeration upon storage and/or handling/transport. Specifically, the protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets do not exhibit any bleeding of oil components, from said droplets. Thus, the ability of a powder to be stable is in the present context meant to mean that the flowability remains essentially constant (+/- 5 % change in properties) and as defined below. In the present context "over time" is meant to be a period such as up to 6 months, such as up to 12 months, such as up to 18 months, such as up to 24 months, such as up to 30 months and such as up to 36 months.

Surprisingly, the powdered composition comprising protein-stabilized-lipid droplets is stable even though the powdered composition comprises liquid lipid within the protein-stabilized-lipid droplets i.e. the lipid in the stable powder is liquid at temperatures of more than 5 °C.

By the term "stable liquid composition" is meant a liquid composition that does not significantly change its physical properties over time. In the present context it particularly means an aqueous composition comprising whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid which does not exhibit significant phase separation of lipid or protein components from the emulsion such as creaming and/or sedimentation over an extended period of time upon storage and/or transport of the emulsion.

In the present context "pressure" is meant to be either pressure expressed in bar such as at the most 500 bar, such as at the most 400 bar, such as at the most 300 bar, such as at the most 200 bar, such as at the most 100 bar, such as at the most 50 bar, and such as 1-50 bar or pressure as expressed by g/cm 2 .

"Moisture" may be defined as a relative humidity and may be 0-100%, such as 10-100%, such as 20-100%, such as 30-100%, such as 40-100%, such as 50- 100%, such as 60-100%, such as 70-100%, such as 80-100%, such as 90-100%, such as 0-90%, such as 0-80%, such as 0-70%, such as 0-60%, such as 0-50%, such as 0-40%, such as 0-30%, such as 0-20%, such as 0-10%. A "free flowing powder" is a powder having the ability to flow freely through narrow holes when influenced by gravity only. Thus, free flowing powders are powders that have low cohesion and a small friction between the powder particles.

"Flowability" can be measured as the time in seconds necessary for a given volume of powder to leave a rotary drum through a slit of a certain size as measured by GEA Niro Method No. A 23 as described in the example section.

The term "powder structure" refers to a wide range of parameters, which all contribute to the definition of a particular powder.These paramerters include uniformity of the size of the particles, hygroscopicity (ability to attract moisture), density gram/ml, electrical repulsion/attraction amongst particles and between powder and surroundings, porosity, and bulk volume.

By the term "shelf life" is meant the length of time that any perishable item of the present invention like e.g. a powdered composition of the present invention is given before it is considered unsuitable for sale or human consumption. Shelf-life may typically be affected by biological phenomena such as degradation caused by bacteria, yeast, mold or other organisms. These phenomena may also affect the physical stability and cause caking or aggregation, while the physical stability rarely effects the shelf-life.

By the term "gloss" or "shine" is meant a shiny visual appearance by reflected light. Shininess is the visual property of something shining with reflective light; shine can be computed as the coefficient of specular reflectivity associated with the surface of an object being displayed. Specular reflection is the mirror-like reflection of light (or sometimes other kinds of wave) from a surface, in which light from a single incoming direction (a ray) is reflected into a single outgoing direction. Such behaviour is described by the law of reflection, which states that the direction of incoming light (the incident ray), and the direction of outgoing light reflected (the reflected ray) make the same angle with respect to the surface normal, thus the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection; mathematically this is Θ, = Θ Γ . A second defining characteristic of specular reflection is that the incident, normal, and reflected directions are coplanar. Gloss or shine can also be determined by visual inspection e.g. by a panel of test persons. When so determined, gloss or shine is ranked on a scale from 0 (no shine) to 6 (high shine) where the glance of whole liquid egg is ranked 5.

One aspect of the invention relates to a process for the manufacture of a composition comprising protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets, said process comprising the steps of:

a. providing a premix comprising whey protein and water;

b. adding to said premix one or more edible lipids to form a protein and edible lipid mixture in which the ratio of protein to lipid is from 1:9 to 1:3; such as from 1:8 to 1:3, such as from 1:7 to 1:3, such as from 1:6 to 1:3, such as from 1:5 to 1:3, such as from 1:9 to 1:4, such as from 1:9 to 1:5, such as from 1:9 to 1:4, such as from 1:8 to 1:4, such as 1:7 to 1:4, such as 1:6 to 1:4;

c. homogenizing said protein and edible lipid mixture to provide an oil-in- water emulsion; and

d. heat treating the said oil-in-water emulsion.

Preferably, the ratio of protein to lipid in said protein and edible lipid mixture is 1:5

In an embodiment, the said premix comprises whey protein preferably in an amount of 5-40 w/w%, such as 5-35 w/w%, such as 5-30 w/w%, such as 5-25 w/w%, such as 5-20 w/w%, such as 5-15 w/w%, such as 5-10 w/w%, such as 10-40 w/w%, such as 15-40 w/w%, such as 20-40 w/w%, such as 25-40 w/w%, such as 30-40 w/w%, such as 35-40 w/w%, and wherein the ratio of whey protein to water is preferably from 1:19 to 2:3, such as from 1:19 to 1:2, such as from 1:19 to 1:3, such as from 1:19 to 1:4, such as from 1:19 to 1:5, such as from 1:19 to 1:6, preferably such as from 1:19 to 1:7, such as from 1:19 to 1:8, such as from 1:19 to 1:9, such as from 1:19 to 1:10, such as from 1:19 to 1:11, such as from 1:19 to 1:12, such as from 1:19 to 1:13, such as from 1:19 to 1:14, such as from 1:19 to 1:15, such as from 1:19 to 1:16, such as from 1:19 to 1:17, such as from 1:19 to 1:18, such as from 1:18 to 2:3, such as from 1:17 to 2:3, such as from 1:16 to 2:3, such as from 1:15 to 2:3, such as from 1:14 to 2:3, such as from 1:13 to 2:3, such as from 1:12 to 2:3, such as from 1:11 to 2:3, such as from 1:10 to 2:3, such as from 1:9 to 2:3, such as from 1:8 to 2:3, such as f 1:7 to 2:3, such as from 1:6 to 2:3, such as from 1:5 to 2:3, such as from 1:4 to 2:3, such as from 1:3 to 2:3, such as from 1:2 to 2:3, such as from 4:7 to 2:3.

Thus, a premix which has a protein content of 5% and a water content of 95% is to be understood as having a ratio of 1:19. A premix which has a protein content of 40% and a water content of 60% is to be understood as having a ratio of 2:3. A premix which has a protein content of 20% and a water content of 80% is to be understood as having a ratio of 1:4. Thus a preferred ratio of the invention is 1:7 which can be obtained by mixing 13% protein with 87% water.

In an embodiment the invention relates to a process, wherein

a) said protein and edible lipid mixture comprises whey protein in an amount of preferable 3-25 w/w%, such as 5-25 w/w%, such as 10-25 w/w%, such as 15-25 w/w%, such as 20-25 w/w%, such as 3-20 w/w%, such as 3-15 w/w%, such as 3-10 w/w%, and such as 3-5 w/w%, and

b) edible lipid is added in an amount of 28-73 w/w%, such as 30-70 w/w%, such as 30-65 w/w%, such as 30-60 w/w%, such as 30-55 w/w%, such as 30-50 w/w%, such as 30-45 w/w%, such as 30-40 w/w%, such as 30-35 w/w%, such as 30-73 w/w%, such as 35-73 w/w%, such as 40-73 w/w%, such as 45-73 w/w%, such as 50-73 w/w%, such as 55-73 w/w%, such as 60-73 w/w%, such as 65-73 w/w%, and such as 70-73 w/w%, or such as 15-73 w/w%, such as 15-35 w/w%, such as 20-30 w/w%, and

c) wherein the ratio of whey protein to water is preferably from 1:19 to 2:3, such as from 1:19 to 1:4, such as from 1:19 to 1:7, and

d) wherein the ratio of whey protein to lipid is from 1:9 to 1:3 preferable 1:5; such as from 1:8 to 1:3, such as from 1:7 to 1:3, such as from 1:6 to 1:3, such as from 1:5 to 1:3, such as from 1:9 to 1:4, such as from 1:9 to 1:5, such as from 1:9 to 1:6, such as from 1:8 to 1:4, such as 1:7 to 1:4, such as 1:6 to 1:4.

Thus, a protein-stabilized-lipid droplet which has a protein content of 3% and a lipid content of 28% is to be understood as having a protein to lipid ratio of 1:9. A protein-stabilized-lipid droplet which has a protein content of 15% and a lipid content of 45% is to be understood as having a protein to lipid ratio of 1:3. A protein-stabilized-lipid droplet which has a protein content of 25% and a lipid content of 73% is to be understood as having a protein to lipid ratio of 1 :3. Thus a preferred protein to lipid ratio of the invention is 1 :5 which can be obtained by mixing 12% protein with 60% oil.

The amount of water u.sed in the process can be varied as preferred. If the intention is to manufacture a liquid glazing agent with no steps of drying the agent, one would aim at adding water to reach the preferred viscosity of the glazing agent. If the objective is to manufacture a dried product as described herein below it is preferred to minimize the amount of water so as to avoid excessive expenditure of energy when drying the mixture to obtain the dried powder.

In particular embodiments, said protein and edible lipid mixture may comprise edible lipid in an amount of 10-70 w/w%, such as 10-65 w/w% such as 10-60 w/w%, such as 10-55 w/w%, such as 10-50 w/w%, such as 10-45 w/w%, such as 10-40 w/w%, such as 10-35 w/w%, such as 10-30 w/w%, such as 10-25 w/w%, such as 10-20 w/w%, such as 10-15 w/w%, such as 15-70 w/w%, such as 20-70 w/w%, preferable 20-60% w/w%, such as 25-70 w/w%, such as 30-70 w/w%, such as 35-70 w/w%, such as 40-70 w/w%, such as 45-70 w/w%, such as 50-70 w/w%, such as 55-70 w/w%, such as 60-70 w/w%, and such as 65-70 w/w%. Also, said ratio of whey protein to oil may be from 1 :9 to 1 :3 preferable 1 : 5; such as from 1 :8 to 1 :3, such as from 1 : 7 to 1 : 3, such as from 1 :6 to 1 :3, such as from 1 : 5 to 1 :3, such as from 1 :9 to 1 :4, such as from 1 :9 to 1 : 5, such as from 1 :9 to 1 :6, such as from 1 :8 to 1 :4, such as 1 :7 to 1 :4, such as 1 :6 to 1 :4.

In an embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said premix is provided at a temperature within the range of 20-60 °C, such as 20-55 °C, such as 20-50 °C, such as 20-45 °C, such as 20-40 °C, such as 20-35 oc, such as 20-30 °C, such as 20-25 °C, such as 25-60 °C, such as 30-60 °C, such as 35-60 °C, such as 40-60 °C, such as 45-60 °C, such as 50-60 °C, such as at the most 55 °C. In an embodiment the invention relates to the process accord ing¾to the inven wherein the edible lipid is added to said premix in an amount and under conditions so as to cause at least partial denaturation of said whey protein.

In an embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said protein and edible lipid mixture is homogenized under conditions so as to denature or further denature the whey protein.

In an embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said homogenized protein and edible lipid mixture is heat treated so as to denature or further denature the whey protein.

In an embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said protein and edible lipid mixture is homogenized by forcing it trough a homogenizer at preferably 160-270 bar, such as at 160-250 bar, such as at 160- 230 bar, such as at 160-210 bar, such as 160-190 bar, such as at 160-170 bar, such as 140-270 bar, such as 160-270 bar, such as 180-270 bar, such as 200-270 bar, such as 220-270 bar, such as 240-270 bar, such as 260-270 bar, at a temperature of preferably 30-60 °C, such as 30-55 °C, such as 30-50 °C, such as 30-45 °C, such as 30-40 °C, such as 30-35 °C, such as 35-60 °C, such as 40-60 oc, such as 45-60 °C, such as 50-60 °C, such as at the most 55 °C.

In an embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said homogenized protein and edible lipid mixture is heat treated at 65- 72 °C, such as 65-70 °C, such as 65-68 °C, such as 65-66 °C, such as 67-72 °C, such as 69-72 °C such as 71-72 °C for 15-30 seconds, such as 15-25 seconds, such as 15-20 seconds, such as 20-30 seconds, such as 25-30 seconds, and preferable to 72 °C for at least 15 seconds.

In an embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said oil-in-water emulsion is heat treated by pasteurization, HTST- treatment and/or sterilization.

The heat treatment is done due to two reasons: One reason is to control the microbiology of the resulting emulsion and emulsion powder. Especially thermo file organisms. Heat treatmentis directly correlated with functionality. The other reason for heat treating is to obtain denatured or partly denatured proteins. Thus, denaturing or partly denaturing proteins results in a higher viscosity and therefore shine on different baked goods.

Preferred heat treatments as mentioned hereinabove are those that do not make the whey proteins gel or become/behave jelly-like. While increased viscosity is desirable one would generally aim at avoiding gel formation. A heat treatment method is pasteurization which the milk is heated to 69 °C for at least 30 seconds, such as 70 °C for 15-30 seconds, such as 71 °C for 15-30 seconds and preferable to 72 °C for at least 15 seconds. This treatment does not cause gel formation. Another heat treatment method is sterilization, in which the milk is heated to 135°C for at least 1.0 second. This treatment does cause gel formation. Yet another heat treatment method is HTST pasteurization (high

temperature/short time), in which the milk is heated to 72°C for at least 15 seconds. This treatment does not cause gel formation.

In a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said homogenized protein and edible lipid mixture is subjected to a cooling step, wherein said mixture is cooled to a temperature of preferably 1- 10 °C, such as 1-9 °C, such as 1-8 °C, such as 1-7 °C, such as 1-6 °C, such as 1- 5 °C, such as preferably 1-4 °C, such as 1-3 °C, such as 1-2 °C, such as 2-10 °C, such as 3-10 °C, such as 4-10 °C, such as 5-10 °C, such as 6-10 °C, such as 7-10 °C, such as 8-10 °C, such as 9-10 °C.

Cooling of a resulting emulsion is primarily done to control the growth of hazardous microorganisms. Extensive growth of micro organisms will lower the pH of an emulsion and consequently result in a "gelling" of the emulsion. Secondly, viscosity is correlated with temperature. A lower temperature will result in a higher viscosity resulting in a higher film formation on a baked goods.

In a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein the said protein and edible lipid mixture is homogenized at a pressure sufficient to provide a droplet size of 5.0 pm or less, such as at the most ϊ -4.0 μητι, such as at the most 3.0 μιτι, such as at the most 2.0 μητι, arid such a the most 1.0 pm.

In a still further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein the ratio of whey protein to oil in said protein and edible lipid mixture is adjusted to result in said oil-in-water emulsion having a viscosity of 10- 70 cP at a temperature of 10°C, such as 10-60 cP at a temperature of 10°C, such as 10-50 cP at a temperature of 10°C, preferably 10-40 cP at a temperature of 10°C, such as 15-25 cP at a temperature of 10°C.

In yet a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, comprising a step of adjusting the pH to preferably 7.0-10.0, such as 8.0-10.0, such as 9.0-10.0, such as 4.0-8.0, such as preferably 4.6-8.0, such as 5.0-8.0, such as 6.0-8.0, such as 7.0-8.0, such as 4.0-7.0, such as 4.0-6.0, and such as 4.0-5.0.

In a further embodiment said edible lipid is selected from the group consisting of vegetable oil such as soya oil, rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower oil, and/or animal oil, and or animal fat such as butterfat. In a particular embodiment the oil is rapeseed oil.

The whey protein in said premix may preferably be a mixture of about 62-72% native whey protein and about 28-38% partly denatured or denatured whey protein. The whey protein may be denatured in a number of ways known to the skilled person including addition of denaturation agents (e.g. organic acids such as acetic acid, lipids, chaotropic agents such as urea, solvents such as ethanol, disulfide bond reducers, such as 2-mercaptoethanol etc.), homogenization , heat treatment, and/or pH alterations. The degree of denaturation of whey may generally be measured as described in example 9. The whey protein may also be hydrolyzed or partly hydrolyzed.

In a preferred embodiment casein constitutes from 0-20 w/w% of the total amount of protein in said premix, such as 0-15 w/w%, 0-10 w/w%, 0-5 w/w%, such as 0-2 w/w% casein. Preferably said premix does not comprise casein. A preferred whey protein in said premix is a whey protein comprising at least 80% acid whey and have a pH of about 10.2 when dissolved in water at 5 % (w/w) at a temperature of 20-25 °C, such as a pH of 9.8-10.6, pH 10.0-10-4, preferably pH 10.1-10-3 when dissolved in water at 5 % (w/w) at a temperature of 20-25 °C. This preferred whey protein may preferably be 28-38% partly denatured or denatured, such as 30-34% partly denatured or denatured.

In a further embodiment said whey protein is acid whey such as acid whey comprising preferably 0-5 w/w% cGMP, such as 0-4 w/w%, such as 0-3 w/w%, such as 0-2 w/w%, such as 0-1 w/w%, such as 1-4 w/w%, such as 1-3 w/w%, such as 1-2 w/w%, such as at the most 1 w/w%, and such as 2-5 w/w%, such as 2-4 w/w%, such as 2-3 w/w%, and such as at the most 2 w/w%.

In a further embodiment said whey protein is sweet whey, such as sweet whey comprising preferably 0-25% cGMP w/w%, such as 0-20 w/w%, such as 0-15 w/w%, such as 0-10 w/w%, such as 0-5 w/w%, such as 5-25 w/w%, such as 10- 25 w/w%, such as 15-25 w/w%, such as 20-25 w/w%, such as 10-25 w/w%, such as 10-20 w/w%, such as 10-15 w/w%, and such as 20-25 w/w%.

In a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, comprising a step of adding one or more components selected from the group consisting of whey permeate in an amount of preferably 10-14 w/w%, such as 10-13 w/w%, such as 10-12 w/w%, such as 10-11 w/w%, such as 11-14 w/w%, such as 12-14 w/w%, such as 13-14 w/w%, and lactose in an amount of preferably 7-14 w/w%, 10-14 w/w%, such as 10-13 w/w%, such as 10-12 w/w%, such as 10-11 w/w%, such as 11-14 w/w%, such as 12-14 w/w%, such as 13-14 w/w%, sugars and combinations thereof.

In a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said components are added to said premix in process step a), to said protein and edible lipid mixture in b) and/or to said oil-in-water emulsion in c), and

a. wherein said whey permeate and or said lactose is present in step a) in an amount of preferably 12-16 w/w%, such as 12-15 w/w%, such as 12-14 w/w%, such as 12-13 w/w%, such as 13-16 w/w%/-such as 14- 16 w/w%, such as 15-16 w/w%, and

b. wherein said whey permeate and or said lactose is present in step b) in an amount of preferably 10-14 w/w%, such as 10-13 w/w%, such as 10-12 w/w%, such as 10-11 w/w%, such as 11-14 w/w%, such as 12- 14 w/w%, such as 13-14 w/w%, and

c. wherein said whey permeate and or said lactose is present in step c) in an amount of preferably 7-14 w/w%, 10-14 w/w%, such as 10-13 w/w%, such as 10-12 w/w%, such as 10-11 w/w%, such as 11-14 w/w%, such as 12-14 w/w%, such as 13-14 w/w%.

In a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, comprising a step of adding one or more components selected from the group consisting of a fat-soluble antioxidant, a non-proteinaceous emulsifier, a gum, liquid whole egg, a hydrocolloid, a modified starch and combinations thereof.

In a further embodiment the fat-soluble antioxidants are acorbylpalmitat and tocopherol.

In a further embodiment said one or more components is/are added to said premix in process step a) and/or to said oil-in-water emulsion in c).

In a further embodiment said fat-soluble antioxidant and/or said liquid whole egg is added to said premix in process step a) and/or to said oil-in-water emulsion in c).

In a further embodiment said liquid whole egg is added in an amount

corresponding to 70 w/w% or less, such as 60 w/w% or less, preferably such as 50 w/w% or less, such as 40 w/w% or less, such as 30 w/w% or less, such as 20 w/w% or less, such as 10 w/w% or less, or such as 5 w/w% or less of said oil-in- water emulsion.

The invention works very well with the addition of whole eggs resulting in high shine/gloss on baked goods/dough. In a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said hydrocolloid/gums and/or modified starch is added in an amount corresponding to at the most 0.2 w/w%, preferably such as 0.1-0.2 w/w%, or at the most 0.1 w/w% of said oil-in-water emulsion.

In a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention said process being for the manufacture of a composition consisting essentially of, or consisting of, protein-stabilized-lipid-droplets and one or more components selected from the group consisting of whey permeate in an amount of preferably 10-14 w/w%, such as 10-13 w/w%, such as 10-12 w/w%, such as 10- 11 w/w%, such as 11-14 w/w%, such as 12-14 w/w%, such as 13-14 w/w%, and lactose in an amount of preferably 7-14 w/w%, 10-14 w/w%, such as 10-13 w/w%, such as 10-12 w/w%, such as 10-11 w/w%, such as 11-14 w/w%, such as 12-14 w/w%, such as 13-14 w/w%, sugars, fat-soluble antioxidant, a non- proteinaceous emulsifier, a gum, liquid whole egg, a hydrocolloid, a modified starch and combinations thereof.

Although it would be advantageous to use a glazing agent according to the invention composed of nature's own ingredients, the invention works as well with the addition of the above mentioned compounds.

In a further embodiment said process does not comprise addition of a non- proteinaceous emulsifier.

In a further embodiment the process according to the invention is for the manufacture of a composition consisting essentially of, or consisting of, protein- stabilized-lipid-droplets, antioxidants and lactose.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention the process comprises a step of drying said oil-in-water emulsion to provide a powdered composition comprising protein- stabilized-lipid-droplets.

In a further embodiment of the invention the said oil-in-water emulsion is dried to provide a powdered composition having a water content of at the most 15 w/w%, such as at the most 14 w/w%, such as at the most 13 w/w%, such as at the most 12 W" w%, such as at the most 11 w/w%, such as at the most 10 w/w%r ; - preferably such as 1-10 w/w%, such as at the most 9 w/w%, such as at the most 8 w/w%, such as at the most 7 w/w%, such as at the most 6 w/w%, such as at the most 5 w/w%, such as at the most 4 w/w%, such as at the most 3 w/w%, such as at the most 2 w/w%, and such as at the most 1 w/w%.

It is desirable to keep the content of water low in the powdered composition, so that the powder is stable upon conventional and/or domestic storage conditions. However, the amount of water in the powder composition does not significantly affect the functionality of the powder upon rehydration. Thus the water content as mentioned above may lead to powdered composition that work equally well.

The powder structure does not significantly affect the gloss or shine of the resulting glazed products when using a liquid obtained from the powdered composition. The powder structure will affect the time it takes to re-hydrate the powdered composition of the invention. The re-hydration process is described further below.

In a further embodiment, the invention provides a process, wherein said oil-in- water emulsion is spray-dried and/or freeze-dried and/or roller-dried in a spray- drying chamber and/or a freeze-drying chamber and/or by a roller-drying equipment at a temperature of 90-180 °C in a spray-drying chamber, and at -18 °C - 36 °C in a freeze-drying chamber and at 130 - 250 °C in a roller-drying equipment.

A preferred temperature in a spray-drying chamber is a temperature of 80 - 190 °C, preferably 90 - 180 °C, such as 80 - 180 °C, such as 80 - 170 °C, such as 80

- 160 °C, such as 80 - 150 °C, such as 80-140 °C, such as 80-130 °C, such as 80-120 °C, such as 80- 110 °C, such as 80 - 100 oc, such as 80 - 90 °C, such as 90 - 190 °C, such as 100 - 190 °C, such as 110 - 190 °C, such, such as 120 - 190 °C, such as 130 - 190 °C, such as 140 - 190 °C, such as 150- 190 °C, such as 160 - 190 °C, such as 170 - 190 °C, and such as 180 - 190 °C.

A preferred temperature in a freeze-drying chamber is -20 - 40 °C, preferably -18

- 36 °C, such as -20 - 36 °C, such as -20 - 34 °C, such as -20 - 32 °C, such as - 20 - 30 °C, such as -20 - 28 °C, such 'as -20 - 26 °C, such as -20 - 24 °C, such as -20 - 22 °c, such as -20 - 20 °C, such as -20 - 15 °C, such as -20 - 10 °C, such as -20 - 15 °C, such as -20 - 10 °C, such as -20 - 5 °C, such as -20 - 0 °C, such as -20 - (-5) °C, such as -20 - (-10) °C, such as -20 - (-15) °C, such as -18 - 40 °C, such as - 16 - 40 °C, such as -14 - 40 °C, such as -12 - 40 °C, such as - 10 - 40 °C, such as -8 - 40 °C, such as -6 - 40 °C, such as -4 - 40 °C, such as - 2 - 40 °C, such as 0 - 40 °C, such as 5 - 40 °C, such as 10 - 40 °C, such as 10 - 40 °C, such as 15 - 40 °C, such as 20 - 40 °C, such as 25 - 40 °C, such as 30 - 40 °C, such as 35 - 40 °C.

A preferred temperature in a roller-drying chamber is 120 - 260 °C, preferably 130 - 250 oc, such as 120 - 250 °C, such as 120 - 240 °C, such as 120 - 230 °C, such as 120 - 220 °C, such as 120 - 210 °C, such as 120 - 200 °C, such as 120 - 190 oc, such as 120 - 180 oc, such as 120 - 170 °C, such as 120 - 160 °C, such as 120 - 150 °C, such as 120 - 140 °C, such as 130 - 260 °C, such as 140 - 260 °C, such as 150 - 260 oc, such as 160 - 260 °C, such as 170 - 260 °C, such as 180 - 260 °C, such as 190 - 260 °C, such as 200 - 260 oc, such as 210 - 260 °C, such as 220 - 260 °C, such as 230 - 260 °C, and such as 240 - 260 °C.

The choice of drying equipment does not influence the functionality of the resulting dried powder composition .

In a further embodiment, the invention provides a process, wherein said oil-in- water emulsion is spray-dried using spray-drying equipment;

a . wherein the diffuser has a diffuser opening size of preferably 1 -10 mm, such as 1-9 mm, such as 1-8 mm, such as 1-7 mm, and such as 1-6 mm, such as 1-5 mm, and such as 1-4 mm, such as 1-3 mm, and such as 1-2 mm, such as 2-10 mm, such as 3-10 mm, such as 4- 10 mm, such as 5-10 mm, such as 6-10 mm, such as 7- 10 mm, such as 8- 10 mm, and such as 9-10 mm, and

b. wherein the speed of the spray drying is 50 - 1500 m/s, such as 50 - 1400 m/s, such as 50 - 1300 m/s, such as 50 - 1200 m/s, such as 50 - 1100 m/s, such as 50 - 1000 m/s, preferably such as 100 - 1000 m/s, such as 100 - 1500 m/s, such as 200 - 1500 m/s, such as 300 - 1500 m/s, such as 400 - 1500 m/s, such as 500 - 1500 m/s, such as 600 - 1500 m/s, 700 - 1500 m/s, such as 800 - 1500 m/s, such as 900 - 1500 m/s, 1000 - 1500 m/s, such as 1100 - 1500 m/s, such as 1200 - 1500 m/s, 1300 - 1500 m/s, such as 1400 - 1500 m/s, and

c. wherein the pressure in the diffuser is preferably 1 - 8 bar, such as 1-7 bar, such as 1-6 bar, such as 1-5 bar, such as 1-4 bar, such as 1-3 bar, such as 1-2 bar, such as 2-8 bar, such as 3-8 bar, such as 4-8 bar, such as 5-8 bar, such as 6-8 bar, and such as 7-8 bar, and

d. wherein the temperature of the drying chamber is 70 - 110 °C, such as 70 - 100 °C, such as 70 - 90 °C, such as 70 - 80 °C, such as 80 - 110 °C, preferably 80 - 100 °C, such as 90 - 110 °C, such as at the most 100 °C, at the bottom with an average temperature of preferably 80 - 90 °C, such as at the most 80 °C, such as at the most 90 °C, and

e. wherein the temperature of the drying chamber is 150 - 220 °C, such as 150 - 210 °C, such as 150 - 200 °C, such as 150 - 190 °C, such as 150 - 180 °C, such as 150 - 170 °C, such as 150 - 160 °C, such as 160-220 °C, preferably 160 - 210 °C, such as 170 - 220 °C, such as 180 - 220 °C, such as 190 - 220 °C, such as 200 - 220 °C, such as at the most 210 °C at the top with an average temperature at the most 150 °C, such as at the most 160 °C, such as at the most 170 °C, preferably such as at the most 180 °C, such as at the most 190 °C, such as at the most 200 °C, such as at the most 210 °C, and such as at the most 220 °C.

In a further embodiment the said powdered composition comprising protein- stabilized-lipid-droplets is subject to re-hydration. In a further embodiment the said powdered composition is re-hydrated by addition of a suitable liquid aqueous solvent. In a further embodiment the said powdered composition is re-hydrated by addition of water, such as tap water or filtered water or demineralised water, or another suitable liquid edible solvent, such as milk, a liquid dairy product, or a fruit juice.

In a further embodiment the said powdered composition is re-hydrated by a process comprising the steps of;

a. adding water or other suitable edible liquid solvents or combinations

thereof, and b. mixing or homogenizing said powdered composition and said water or said other suitable edible liquid solvents or combinations thereof.

In a further embodiment the invention relates to the process according to the invention, wherein said composition is re-hydrated to a water content of 5-95 w/w %, such as 5-90 w/w %, 5-85 w/w %, 5-75 w/w %, such as 5-70 w/w %, such as 5-65 w/w %, such as 5-60 w/w %, such as 5-55 w/w %, such as 5-50 w/w %, such as 5-45 w/w %, such as 5-40 w/w %, such as 5-35 w/w % such as 5-30 w/w %, such as 5-25 w/w %, such as 5-20 w/w %, such as 5-15 w/w %, such as at the most 10 w/w %, such as 10-95 w/w %, such as 15-95 w/w %, such as 20- 95 w/w %, such as 25-95 w/w %, such as 30-95 w/w %, such as 35-95 w/w %, such as 40-95 w/w %, such as 45-95 w/w %, such as 50-95 w/w %, such as 55- 95 w/w %, such as 60-95 w/w %, such as 65-95 w/w %, such as 70-95 w/w %, such as 75-95 w/w %, such as 80-95 w/w %, such as 85-95 w/w %, such as 45- 85 w/w %, preferably such as 50-80 w/w %, such as 45-80 w/w %, such as 45- 75 w/w %, such as 45-70 w/w %, such as 45-65 w/w %, such as 45-60 w/w %, such as 45-55 w/w %, such as 45-50 w/w %, such as 50-85 w/w %,such as 55- 85 w/w %, such as 60-85 w/w %, such as 65-85 w/w %, such as 70-85 w/w %, such as 75-85 w/w %, and such as 80-85 w/w %.

The amount of water in the powdered composition does not influence the glazing ability of the re-hydrated powder. If much water is added to the powdered composition, the viscosity will become low, whereas a small amount of water will make the liquid very viscous.

In yet a further embodiment the said composition is re-hydrated to provide a viscosity of 5-75 cP, such as 5-70 cP, such as 5-65 cP, such as 5-60 cP, such as 5-55 cP, such as 5-50 cP, such as 5-45 cP, such as 5-40 cP, such as 5-35 cP, such as 5-30 cP, such as 5-25 cP, such as 5-20 cP, such as 5-15 cP, such as 5-10 cP, such as 10-70 cP, such as 10-75 cP, such as 15-75 cP, such as 20-75 cP, such as 25-75 cP, such as 30-75 cP, such as 35-75 cP, such as 40-75 cP, such as 45-75 cP, such as 50-75 cP, such as 55-75 cP, such as 60-75 cP, such as 65-75 cP, such as 70-75 cP at a temperature of 10°C, preferably a viscosity of 15-25 cP, such as 15-20 cP, such as 20-25 cP at a temperature of 10°C. Thus, the^viscosity of the glazing agent i.e. the rehydrated composition of the invention, is a factor that may determine the layer thickness (i.e. film formation) when applying the glaze to a dough product. Viscosity is correlated with

temperature, thus, a lower temperature may lead to higher viscosity thus resulting in a higher film formation on a baked products.

Generally the embodiments described for the oil-in-water emulsion obtained from the process for manufacture described above also apply for the rehydrated powdered composition.

In still a further embodiment the process according to the invention is for the manufacture of a glazing agent.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a powdered composition comprising whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, said composition optionally being obtainable by a process according to the invention.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a powdered composition, such as a powdered composition being obtainable by a process according to the invention, comprising whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, wherein;

a. said whey protein is present in an amount of preferable 3-25 w/w%, such as 5-25 w/w%, such as 10-25 w/w%, such as 15-25 w/w%, such as 20-25 w/w%, such as 3-20 w/w%, such as 3-15 w/w%, such as 3-10 w/w%, and such as 3-5 w/w%, and is at least partly denaturated, and

b. said edible lipid is present in an amount of preferably 28-73 w/w%, such as 30-70 w/w%, such as 30-65 w/w%, such as 30-60 w/w%, such as 30-55 w/w%, such as 30-50 w/w%, such as 30-45 w/w%, such as 30-40 w/w%, such as 30-35 w/w%, such as 30-73 w/w%, such as 35-73 w/w%, such as 40-73 w/w%, such as 45-73 w/w%, such as 50-73 w/w%, such as 55-73 w/w%, such as 60-73 w/w%, such as 65-73 w/w%, and such as 70-73 w/w%, and

c. the ratio of said whey protein to said water is preferably from 1 : 19 to 2: 3, such as from 1 : 19 to 1 :2, such as from 1 : 19 to 1 :3, such as from 1 : 19 to 1 :4, such as from 1 : 19 to 1 :5, such as from 1 : 19 to 1 :6, preferably such as from 1 : 19 to 1 : 7, such as from 1 : 19 to 1 :8, such as from 1 : 19 to 1 :9, such as from 1:19 to 1:10, such as from 1:19 to 1:11, such as from 1:19 to 1:12, such as from 1:19 to 1:13, such as from 1:19 to 1:14, such as from 1:19 to 1:15, such as from 1:19 to 1:16, such as from 1:19 to 1:17, such as from 1:19 to 1:18, such as from 1:18 to 2:3, such as from 1:17 to 2:3, such as from 1:16 to 2:3, such as from 1:15 to 2:3, such as from 1:14 to 2:3, such as from 1:13 to 2:3, such as from 1:12 to 2:3, such as from 1:11 to 2:3, such as from 1:10 to 2:3, such as from 1:9 to 2:3, such as from 1:8 to 2:3, such as from 1:7 to 2:3, such as from 1:6 to 2:3, such as from 1:5 to 2:3, such as from 1:4 to 2:3, such as from 1:3 to 2:3, such as from 1:2 to 2:3, such as from 4:7 to 2:3, or such as from 10:1 to 1:5, 7:1 to 1:2, 5:1 to 1:1, and

d. the ratio of said whey protein to said edible lipid is from 1:9 to 1:3

preferable 1:5; such as from 1:8 to 1:3, such as from 1:7 to 1:3, such as from 1:6 to 1:3, such as from 1:5 to 1:3, such as from 1:9 to 1:4, such as from 1:9 to 1:5, such as from 1:9 to 1:6, such as from 1:8 to 1:4, such as 1:7 to 1:4, such as 1:6 to 1:4.

Preferably, the said whey protein is denatured or partly denatured. Thus, a preferred stable powdered composition is a composition which comprises 3 - 25 w/w% whey protein, said whey protein being a mixture of about 60-70% native whey protein and about 30-40% partly denatured or denatured whey protein.

In a preferred embodiment casein constitutes from 0-20 w/w% of the total amount of protein in said powdered composition, such as 0-15 w/w%, 0-10 w/w%, 0-5 w/w%, such as 0-2 w/w% casein. Preferably said composition does not comprise casein.

A powdered composition comprising protein-stabilized-lipid droplet which has a protein content of 3% and a lipid content of 28% is to be understood as having a ratio of 1:9. A protein-stabilized-lipid droplet which has a protein content of 15% and a lipid content of 45% is to be understood as having a ratio of 1:3. A protein- stabilized-lipid droplet which has a protein content of 25% and a lipid content of 73% is to be understood as having a ratio of 1:3. Thus a preferred ratio of the invention is 1:5 which can be obtained by mixing 12% protein with 60% oil. A further embodiment the invention relates to the powdered composition according to the invention, said composition having a water content of at the most 15 w/w%, such as at the most 14 w/w%, such as at the most 13 w/w%, such as at the most 12 w/w%, such as at the most 11 w/w%, such as at the most 10 w/w%, such as at the most 9 w/w%, such as at the most 8 w/w%, such as at the most 7 w/w%, such as at the most 6 w/w%, such as at the most 5 w/w%, such as at the most 4 w/w%, such as at the most 3 w/w%, such as at the most 2 w/w%, such as such as at the most 1 w/w%, preferably such as 1-10 w/w%, and such as 1-5 w/w%.

In a further embodiment the powdered composition according to the invention, said composition comprising components selected from the group consisting of whey permeate or lactose, or sugars or combinations thereof.

In one embodiment the powdered composition according to the invention comprises 11-36 w/w%, such as 11-30 w/w%, such as 11-25 w/w%, such as 11- 20 w/w%, such as 11-25 w/w%, such as 11-20 w/w%, such as 11-15 w/w%, such as 15-36 w/w%, such as 20-36 w/w%, preferably 20-25 w/w%, such as 25- 36 w/w%, such as 30-36 w/w%, permeate or preferably 11-36 w/w%, such as 11-30 w/w%, such as 11-25 w/w%, such as 11-20 w/w%, such as 11-25 w/w%, such as 11-20 w/w%, such as 11-15 w/w%, such as 15-36 w/w%, such as 20-36 w/w%, preferably 20-25 w/w%, such as 25-36 w/w%, such as 30-36 w/w%, lactose or sugars or combinations thereof. In a preferred embodiment the total amount of sugar in the powdered composition is no more than 22 w/w%, such as 0-22% (w/w), such as no more than 20% (w/w), such as no more than 18% (w/w), such as no more than 16% (w/w), such as no more than 14% (w/w), such as no more than 12% (w/w), such as no more than 10% (w/w).

Without being bound by theory the presence of lactose enhances and speed up the formation of the powder in the drying step of the powder formation as lactose is speculated to keep the particles separated thus avoiding particle agglomeration.

In a further embodiment the powdered composition according to the invention comprises whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid and one or more components selected from the group consisting of fat-soluble antioxidant, a non- proteinaceous emulsifier, a gum, liquid whole egg, a hydrocolloid, a modified starch, pH control agent and combinations thereof.

In yet a further embodiment the powdered composition according to the invention essentially consists of, or consists of, whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid and one or more components selected from the group consisting of whey permeate, lactose, sugars, a fat-soluble antioxidant, a non-proteinaceous emulsifier, a gum, liquid whole egg, a hydrocolloid, a modified starch, a pH control agent and combinations thereof.

The powdered composition according to the inventionmay have a droplet size of at the most 5.0 μιτι, such as at the most 4.0 μιτι, such as at the most 3.0 pm, such as at the most 2.0 pm, and such as at the most 1.0 pm.

In a further embodiment the invention provides a powdered composition which is stable for at least 36 months, such as at least 30 months, such as for preferably at least 24 months, such as at least 18 months, such as preferably for at least 12 months, such as preferably for at least 6 months such as at least 3 months, such as at least 2 months and such as up to 1 month during conventional domestic and/or conventional industrial storage conditions.

A further embodiment the invention relates to a powdered composition according to the invention, which is a stable, free flowing powder. The powdered

composition according to the invention may be a stable powder ready for rehydration, such as by addition of water or other suitable edible solvents.

The powdered composition may have a shelf life of at least 36 months, such as at least 30 months, such as at least 24 months, such as at least 18 months, such as at least 12 months, such as at least 6 months, such as at least 3 months, such as at least 2 months and such as up to 1 month.

Thus, an advantage of the invention may be that the powdered composition has a long storage time thus making it easy to store, transport and sell at locations also far away due to the stable powdered composition with a long shelf life. A further aspect of the invention relates to a liquid composition comprising or consisting essentially of whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, said composition being obtainable by a process according to the invention.

Yet a further aspect of the invention relates to a liquid composition comprising or consisting essentially of whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid, such as a composition being obtainable by a process according to the invention;

a. wherein said whey protein is present in an amount of preferable 3-25

w/w%, such as 5-25 w/w%, such as 10-25 w/w%, such as 15-25 w/w%, such as 20-25 w/w%, such as 3-20 w/w%, such as 3-15 w/w%, such as 3- 10 w/w%, and such as 3-5 w/w%, and is at least partly denaturated, and b. wherein said edible lipid is present in an amount of preferably 28-73

w/w%, such as 30-70 w/w%, such as 30-65 w/w%, such as 30-60 w/w%, such as 30-55 w/w%, such as 30-50 w/w%, such as 30-45 w/w%, such as 30-40 w/w%, such as 30-35 w/w%, such as 30-73 w/w%, such as 35-73 w/w%, such as 40-73 w/w%, such as 45-73 w/w%, such as 50-73 w/w%, such as 55-73 w/w%, such as 60-73 w/w%, such as 65-73 w/w%, and such as 70-73 w/w%, such as 15-73 w/w%, such as 15-55 w/w%, such as 15-35 w/w%, and

c. the ratio of said whey protein to said edible lipid is from 1 :9 to 1 :3 such as from 1 :8 to 1 :3, such as from 1 : 7 to 1 :3, such as from 1 :6 to 1 : 3, such as from 1 : 5 to 1 :3, such as from 1 :9 to 1 :4, such as from 1 :9 to 1 : 5, such as from 1 :9 to 1 :6, such as from 1 :8 to 1 :4, such as 1 :7 to 1 :4, such as 1 :6 to 1 :4.

In a preferred embodiment the ratio of said whey protein to said edible lipid is 1 : 5.

Preferably, the said whey protein is denatured or partly denatured, as described for the corresponding method and powdered composition.

The liquid composition according to the invention may comprise one or more components selected from the group consisting of whey permeate in an amount of 10-14 w/w%, lactose in an amount of 10-14 w/w%, sugars and combinations thereof. In a preferred embodiment the amount of whey permeate or lactose and

combinations thereof is preferably 10-14 w/w%, such as 10-13 w/w%, such as 10-12 w/w%, such as 10-11 w/w%, such as 11-14 w/w%, such as 12-14 w/w%, such as 13-14 w/w %.

Each of said components selected from the group consisting of whey permeate, lactose, sugars and combinations thereof may be present in an amount

corresponding to at the most 30 w/w%, such as at the most 25 w/w%, such as at the most 20 w/w%, such as at the most 15 w/w%, such as at the most 10 w/w%, such as at the most 5 w/w%, such as 5-30 w/w%, such as 5-25 w/w%, such as 5-20 w/w%, such as 5-15 w/w%, such as 5-10 w/w%, such as 10-30 w/w%, such as 10-25 w/w%, such as 10-20 w/w%, such as 10-15 w/w%, such as 15-30 w/w%, such as 15-25 w/w%, such as 15-20 w/w%, such as 20-25 w/w%, preferably such as 10-30 w/w%, such as 15-30 w/w%, such as 20-30 w/w%, and such as 25-30 w/w%.

In a further embodiment the liquid composition according to the invention comprises one or more components selected from the group consisting of fat- soluble antioxidant, a non-proteinaceous emulsifier, a gum, liquid whole egg, a hydrocoiioid, a modified starch, a pH control agent and combinations thereof.

In still a further embodiment the liquid composition according to the invention essentially consists of, or consists of, whey protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid and one or more components selected from the group consisting of whey permeate, lactose, sugars, a fat-soluble antioxidant, a non-proteinaceous emulsifier, a gum, liquid whole egg, a hydrocoiioid, a modified starch, a pH control agent and combinations thereof.

The liquid composition according to the invention may have a viscosity of 10-70 cP at a temperature of 10°C, such as 10-60 cP at a temperature of 10°C, such as 10-50 cP at a temperature of 10°C, preferably such as 10-40 cP at a temperature of 10°C, such as 15-25 cP at a temperature of 10°C. The liquid composition according to the invention may further have a droplet size of at the most 5.0 μητι, such as 4.0 pm, such as 3.0 μιη, such as 2.0 pm, such as 1.0 μιτι.

In a further embodiment the liquid composition according to the invention has a pH of 7.0-10.0, such as 8.0-10.0, such as 9.0-10.0, such as 4.0-8.0, such as preferably 4.6-8.0, such as 5.0-8.0, such as 6.0-8.0, such as 7.0-8.0, such as 4.0-7.0, such as 4.0-6.0, and such as 4.0-5.0.

In yet a further embodiment the liquid composition according to the invention is ready-to-use. Also the liquid composition is preferably a stable liquid composition, such as a liquid composition which is stable for at least 1 week, such at least 2 weeks, 3 weeks or preferably 4 weeks. Preferably the liquid composition does not exhibit any phase separation or sedimentation upon industrial or domestic storage for at least 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, or preferably for at least 4 weeks.

In particular embodiments of the invention, the liquid composition is a glazing agent.

In yet further embodiments the liquid composition according to the invention, is capable of enhancing and/or improving gloss or shine on dough products.

The liquid composition according to the invention is preferably homogenous and ready-to-use.

Generally, the embodiments applying to the water-in-oil emulsion obtained from the process of manufacturing a composition comprising protein-stabilized-lipid- droplets also apply to the liquid composition of the present aspect.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a method for preparing a glazed dough product, said method comprising or consisting essentially of applying the liquid composition according to the invention onto the surface or the exterior of a dough. In particular embodiments the said composition is applied by brush, spray, aerosol or by bath immersion.

A further embodiment relates to the method according to the invention, wherein said product is fresh out of an oven or other suitable heating sources such as a microwave oven, such as a deep-fryer, or fresh out of a freezer or fresh out of a refrigerator.

In a further embodiment of the invention the dough product is fresh, freshly moulded, proved, baked, frozen or thawed.

In yet a further embodiment the dough product according to the invention comprises flour and water and one or more components selected from the group consisting of sugar, salt, animal fat, animal oil, vegetable oil, yeast, baking powder, emulsifiers, and enzymes.

In still further embodiments of the invention the dough product consists

essentially of, or consists of, flour and water and one or more components selected from the group consisting of sugar, salt, animal fat, animal oil, vegetable oil, yeast, baking powder, emulsifiers, and enzyme.

A further embodiment of the invention relates to the method according to any of the invention, wherein said composition is applied in amounts of preferably 10- 200 mg/cm 2 , such as 50-150 mg/cm 2 , 10-150 mg/cm 2 , 50-125 mg/cm 2 , 10-125 mg/cm 2 , 10-100 mg/cm 2 , such as 10-90 mg/cm 2 , such as 10-80 mg/cm 2 , such as 10-70 mg/cm 2 , such as 10-60 mg/cm 2 , such as 10-50 mg/cm 2 , such as 10-40 mg/cm 2 , such as 10-30 mg/cm 2 , such as 10-20 mg/cm 2 , such as no more than 10 mg/cm 2 , such as 20-100 mg/cm 2 , such as 30-100 mg/cm 2 , such as 40-100 mg/cm 2 , such as 50-100 mg/cm 2 , such as 60-100 mg/cm 2 , such as 70-100 mg/cm 2 , such as 80-100 mg/cm 2 , and such as 90-100 mg/cm 2 .

A further embodiment of the invention relates to the method according to the invention, said method comprising the steps of;

a) Mixing a dough, such as a dough as defined in the invention;

b) Optionally moulding and/or proving the dough; c) Applying the : said liquid composition to a surface of said optionally moulded and/or proved dough;

d) Baking the dough to provide a glazed dough product.

In particular embodiments the method comprising the steps of;

a) Mixing a dough, such as a dough as defined in the invention;

b) Optionally moulding and/or proving the dough;

c) Applying the said liquid composition to a surface of said optionally moulded and/or proved dough;

d) freezing and optionally thawing the dough, prior to or after applying the said liquid composition;

e) optionally storing the dough when frozen for preferably 5 days to 6 months, such as 5 days to 5 months, such as 5 days to 4 months, such as 5 days to 3 months, such as 5 days to 2 months, such as 5 days to 1 month, such as 5 days to 20 days, such as 5 days to 15 days, such as 5 days to 10 days, and for no more than 5 days;

f) baking the dough to provide a glazed dough product.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a dough product, which is obtainable by the process according to the invention.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a dough product, such as a dough product which is obtainable by the process according to the invention, in which a composition according to the invention has been applied to the exterior or the surface of said product.

In a further embodiment the dough product according to the invention comprises flour and water and optionally one or more components selected from the group consisting of sugar, salt, animal fat, animal oil, vegetable oil, yeast, baking powder, emulsifiers, baking enzyme, whole eggs liquid, and enzymes.

The dough product according to the invention may consist essentially or consists of flour and water and one or more components selected from the group consisting of: sugar, salt, animal fat, animal oil, vegetable oil, yeast, baking powder, emulsifiers, baking enzyme, whole eggs liquid, and enzymes. The dough product according to the invention may be selected from the group consisting of wheat dough, puff pastry, Danish pastry, sweet buns, Berliner, doughnuts, hamburgers, brioche and other combination dough. Preferably the dough product is of ambient temperature.

The dough product according to the invention may be frozen and optionally thawed.

The dough in the dough product according to the invention may be fresh, freshly moulded, proved or baked.

The surface of the product may be considered shiny or glossy.

A further aspect of the invention relates to the use of a liquid composition according to the invention as a glazing agent. The liquid composition may be used on a dough product as provided according to the invention.

In a preferred embodiment the liquid composition or glazing agent does not contain conventional food emulgators. Thus, the liquid composition or glazing agent preferably comprises natural ingredients only.

It should be noted that embodiments and features described in the context of one of the aspects of the present invention also apply to the other aspects of the invention.

All patent and non-patent references cited in the present application, are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

The invention will now be described in further details in the following non-limiting examples. Examples

Example 1: Manufacture of protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet

The water was mixed (20-60°C) with Lacprodan 80 (whey protein) by stirring in a mixer. Variolac 960 (whey permeate) was added. When it was dissolved the rapeseed oil was added and mixed until homogeny (macro level). It should be stirred continuously. It was passed through a homogenizer (Rannie) at 250 bar followed by being directly pasteurized (scrape heat exchanger) at 69°C for 30 seconds. It was dried at a drying chamber (Anhydro 251250 evaporatrion/h) experimental unit at 180°C top 80°C bottom. Spinning wheel 14000 RPM. The ingredients are listed in the table below. VARIOLAC® 960 comprised 96% lactose.

Table 1 : Ingredients for protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet

Table 2 and table 3 shows the percentage of whey protein respectively water in the premix for different batches of premixes. Table 2: The amount of whey protein in the premix

Table 3: The amount of water in the premix

Example 2: Overall manufacture of protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet wherein the lipid is oil

The process flow was as following : The protein was dissolved in the liquid (water 30°C) by agitating. The permeate/sugar was added into this liquid. The oil was mixed with the antioxidants. The water and oil phase was mixed by stirring. The mix was kept agitated. This macro homogenius mix was passed through a homogenizer (Rannie Bluetop 24-60) at 100-250 bar. It was passed through a scrape heat exchanger at 69° for 30 sec. The resulting pasteurized emulsion was cooled to 10°C by scrape heat exchanger.

Example 3: Overall manufacture of protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet as powder wherein the lipid is oil

The process flow was as following : The protein was dissolved in the liquid (water 30°C) by agitating. The permeate/sugar was added into this liquid. The oil was mixed with the antioxidants. The water and oil phase was mixed by stirring. This mix was kept agitated. This macro homogenous mix was passed through a homogenizer( Rannie Bluetop 24-60) at 250 bar and passed through a scrape heat exchanger at 69° for 30 sec.

The resulting pasteurized emulsion was dried directly at a drying chamber at 190°C top temperature bottom temperature 90°C on a spinning wheel (Walzel by Niro) rotation 8800 RPM. It was cooled in a fluid bed to a maximum 50°C. The resulting powder was packed in plastic bags.

Example 4: Overall manufacture of protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet wherein the lipid is high melting fat

The process flow was as following: The protein was dissolved in the liquid (water 10°C above melting point of the fat)) by agitating. The permeate/sugar was added in this liquid. The high melting fat was melted at min 10°C above the melting point. The oil was mixed with the antioxidants. The water and oil phase was mixed by stirring. The mix was kept agitated. This macro homogenius mix was passed through an homogenizer (Rannie Bluetop 24-60) at 100-250 bar. It was passed through a scrape heat exchanger at 69° for 30 sec. The resulting pasteurized emulsion was cooled to 10°C.

Example 5: Overall manufacture of protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet as powder wherein the lipid is high melting fat

The process flow was as following : The protein was dissolved in the liquid (the water was 10°C above the melting point of the fat) by agitating. The

permeate/sugar was added into this liquid. The high melting fat was melted at min 10°C above melting point. The oil was mixed with the antioxidants. The water and oil phase was mixed by stirring. This mix was kept agitated. This macro homogenius mix was passed through a homogenizer (Rannie Bluetop 24-60) at 250 bar. The mix was hereafter passed through a scrape heat exchanger at 69° C for 30 sec. The resulting pasteurized emulsion was dried directly at a drying chamber at 190°C top temperature and bottom temperature 90°C. Spinning wheel (Walzel by Niro) rotation 8800 RPM. It was cooled in fluid bed to a maximum of 50°C. The powder was packed in plastic bags. Example 6: Overall manufacture of protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet wherein the lipid is oil and whole egg.

The process flow is as following: The protein is dissolved in the liquid (water and liquid pasteurized whole eggs at 30°C) by agitating. The permeate/sugar is added into this liquid. The oil is mixed with the antioxidants. The water and oil phase is mixed by stirring. This mix is kept agitated. This macro homogenous mix is passed through a homogenizer (Rannie Bluetop 24-60) at 100-250 bar followed bypassing through a scrape heat exchanger at 69°C for 30 sec. The resulting pasteurized emulsion is cooled to 10°C.

Example 7: Overall manufacture of protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet as powder wherein the lipid is oil and whole egg.

The process flow is as following: The protein is dissolved in the liquid (water and liquid pasteurized whole eggs at 30°C) by agitating. The permeate/sugar is added into this liquid. The oil is mixed with the antioxidants. The water and oil phase is mixed by stirring. This mix is kept agitated. This macro homogenous mix is passed through a homogenizer (Rannie Bluetop 24-60) at 250 bar followed bypassing through a scrape heat exchanger at 69°C for 30 sec. The resulting pasteurized emulsion is dried directly at a drying chamber at 190°C top temperature and bottom temperature 90°C on a spinning wheel (Walzel by Niro) with a rotation of 8800 RPM. It is cooled in fluid bed to a maximum of 50°C. The powder is packed in plastic bags.

Example 8: Amounts of whey protein and lipids in different batches of powder

The powdered composition of the invention was packed in paper bags with a plastic inner bag. A vacuum steep was applied at the packeting station. The invention powder has to be stored at cool (max 10°C) and dry (no water spray or droplets on packeting material) conditions. At current level and combination of ascorbylpamitat and thocopherol the shelf life is minimum 12 month at the described storage conditions. At the double level antioxidants the shelf-live is minimum 18 month at described storage conditions. Tables 4 and table 5 show the amount of whey protein respectively lipids in different batches that have been made of protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet as powder.

Table 4: The amount of whey protein in different batches of protein-stabilized- lipid-droplet as powder

Table 5: The amount of lipids in different batches of protein-stabilized-lipid- droplet as powder

Example 9: Measurement and detection of denatured protein

By applying heat at a certain pH (e.g. pH 7-10) to a solution containing whey protein will convert the whey protein in its native state to a more or less denatured state (irreversible). The whey ' s natural configuration will change initiating reactions like agglomeration (particle formation). This ; ehange is detectable as demonstrated in Figure 1 and explained below.

Since native whey protein will precipitate from an aquous solution at pH 4.6 (whiled denatured whey protein remains in solution), the percentage of denatured protein in a whey protein sample may be calculated from the equation below:

% Denaturation = ([total protein]-[precipated protein at pH 4.6])/[total protein]

The determination of [total protein] and [precipated protein at pH 4.6] may be performed either using the Kjeldahl/modified Kjeldahl method or alternatively by a reverse phase HPLC detection method. The Kjeldahl method is well known to the skilled person, and when using that method the [total protein] value is simply represented by % measured nitrogen in a control sample where no precipitation has been performed whereas the [precipated protein at pH 4.6] value is

represented by the % measured nitrogen in a corresponding sample comprising the precipitated protein (i.e. a redissolved filtrate).

For the HPLC method samples of whey proteins were collected and loaded into a HPLC system (Waters HPLC with a pH 7.5). The different components of whey were separated by size. It is well known to the person skilled in the art that by comparing samples to references, identification of components in a sample can be done. The amount of a component is evaluated by the area under the curve. Beta- lactoglobulin appeared after 33.9 minutes and alfa lactoalbumin appeared after 36.1 minutes etc. (see table 6). When using the HPLC method the [total protein] value may be represented by the sum of the standardized peak areas

representing BSA, alpha-LA, beta-LG (A and B) in a control sample where no precipitation has been performed whereas the ([total protein]-[precipated protein at pH 4.6]) value may represented by the sum of the standardized peak areas representing BSA, alpha-LA, beta-LG (A and B) in a corresponding sample comprising the soluble fraction after precipitation. This method is described in detail in journal of dairy science 74, no 1, 1991, 58-68, specifically on page 59 under the heading chromatography. Table 6: Reference measurements of whey molecules

Figure 1 (upper part) shows an example of a native whey protein isolate (WPI) which has been separated on an HPLC apparatus. Level of beta-lactoglobulin and alfa lactoalbumin and ratio was normal for a native sweet whey product.

Figure 1 (lower part) shows WPI that has been heat treated and thus denatured. The figure shows an example of a denatured whey protein isolate shown separated on an HPLC apparatus. Level of beta-lactoglobulin and alfa lactoalbumin ratio was changed dramatically indicating heavy denaturations of this sweet whey product.

Example 10: Detection of size distribution of emulsion powders

Figure 2 shows size and size distribution of emulsion powders as tested. The highest line (line to the left) shows the particle distribution in quantity. The lower, widespread line demonstrates the existence of particle of the indicated size. The rehydrated protein-stabilized-lipid-droplet powder was analyzed with a Malvern hydro 2000G equipment which is a laser diffraction analysis equipment. Protein powder was analyzed by preparing a mixture of 10 w/w% protein powder dissolved in water. A solution of protein in oil is made by sprinkling the protein powder directly into the Malvern hydro 2000g which is filled with oil. Lactose powder is analyzed by introducing a measured amount of lactose powder placed in a container into the Malvern. The sample in the container is subjected to pressure and the sample is measured via airflow (suction) in the Malvern.

Example 11: Detection of viscosity of a rehydrated emulsion

Figure 3 shows an example of the viscosity of a rehydrated emulsion. The viscosity is shown of a 40% powder in tap water solution which was measured at 10°C. The Y-axis shows the viscosity in cP at a given shear rate as demonstrated on the x-axis (A in 1/s). Viscosity is measured by a Haake RF-75 Reostress equipment at a constant temperature of 10°C of a 40% powder in tap water solution. Table 7 below shows the percentage amounts of components in powder and rehydrated emulsion for viscosity measurements in a 40% solution. The ratio of protein to oil was approximately 1 :6 in the powder and the solution. Thus, the ratio of protein to oil remained constant regardless of the amount of water present in the powder or the solution.

Table 7: Examples of percentage amounts of components in powder and rehydrated emulsion for viscosity measurements in a 40% solution. The ratio of protein to oil was approximately 1 :6 in the powder and the solution.

Example 12: Heat treatment and cooling

Heat treatment was done on an APV scrape heat exchanger (10001/h) running at 3°C higher temperature than the feed for 30 seconds.

Cooling was done on an APV scrape heat exchanger (10001/h) running at 3°C lower temperature than the feed for 30 seconds.

Example 13: Dry matter measurement

The resulting pasteurized emulsion was dried directly at a drying chamber at 190°C top temperature bottom temperature 90°C with massive airflow. Spinning wheel (Walzel by Niro) rotation 8800 RPM. Cooling was made in fluid bed to maximum 50° C. The resulting powder was packed in plastic bags. Dry matter measurement was done as a standard method. A known amount of sample was scaled into a metal cup followed by heating the sample to 102°C. The sample was heated until the weight was stable on a Mettler Toledo equipment. Example 14: Various measurements

Measurement of pH : By the addition of 1 M hydrochloric acid or 1 M sodium hydroxide the pH can be adjusted to the pH interval 4.6-8.0. The measurement was done by a Mettler-Toledo 7 Easy pH .

Measurement of Maillard reaction : The result of a Maillard reaction is brown appearance of baked goods. Liquid pasteurized whole eggs were ranked by the standard value of 5. The emulsion of the present invention will result in a larger Maillard reaction thus resulting in a higher degree of browning at pH above 6.5 in an emulsion and to lesser browning in an emulsion at pH below 6.5.

Measurement of flowability of powders: Flowability can be measured as the time in seconds necessary for a given volume of powder to leave a rotary drum through a slit of the diameter 1.0 mm as measured by GEA Niro Method No. A 23 a. The amount of powder which is used in this measurement is 25 times the amount of the bulk density in g/cm 3 which has been tapped 100 times. The "bulk density" is measured by measuring a sieved amount of powder V 0 (bulk volume) into a measuring cup followed by stamping the powder in the measuring cup until a stable volume is established. The minimal bulk volume V k can hereby be determined. V t is the bulk volume at the time t. Free flowing powders are defined as having a small difference between V 0 and V k . The relationship between V 0 and V k can be used as a measure of the flowability of a powder.

Compression/compressibility "K" can be used to defined the flowability of a powder i.e. K = ^ ^ x lO!> . K is normally below 15% for freely flowing powders whereas it is above 25% for powders with high cohesion and/or large friction between powder particles. The bulk volume can also be evaluated and performed by following the guidelines in the European Pharmacopeia e.g. Chapter 2.9.14.

Example 15: Rehydration of powder

In order to rehydrate the powder of the invention, the dry powder was mixed in a suitable container with water at 5-25°C until the powder was dissolved and the solutions was homogenous. T-afele 8 shows 3 different solutions of rehydrated powders along with ?he percentage (in %w/w) of powder before it was rehydrated and the resulting solution of the 3 different rehydrated solutions. Their respective viscosity was also measured and is also shown in the table below.

Table 8: Different solutions of powders

Example 16: Manufacture of baked goods

Table 9 below shows the recipes of doughs for baked goods i.e. 1 : Sweet buns; 2: Berliner; 3: Doughnuts; 4: Hamburgers; 5: Puff pastry; 6: Danish pastry; 7: Brioche.

The process parameters are as follows:

RH = room humidity

Sweet buns direct: Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until optimal. Optimal was what is commonly known for the person skilled in the art of making and baking dough. The dough was proved for 20 minutes. It was scaled into the wanted size. The dough was shaped and placed on a baking tray. The dough was proved at 37°C, 80% RH until optimal. It was baked at 220°C for 12-20 minutes depending on size.

Sweet buns freezing : Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until optimal. The dough was proved for 20 minutesplt was scaled into the wanted size. The dough was shaped and placed on a baking tray. It was frozen at -18°C and thawed at 25 °C. The dough was proved at 37°C, 80% RH until optimal and baked at 220°C for 12-20 minutes depending on size.

Berliners direct: Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until optimal.

The dough was proved for 10 minutes and scaled to the wanted size. The dough was shapeda nd placed on a baking tray and proved at 37°C, 80% RH until optimal. It was cooked in oil at 180°C for 3+3 minutes depending on size.

Berliners freezing : Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until optimal. The dough was proved for 10 minutes and scaled to wanted size. The dough was shaped and placed on a baking tray. The dough was frozen at -18°C, and thawed at 25 °C. The dough was proved at 37°C, 80% RH until optimal followed by being cooked in oil at 180°C for 3+3 minutes depending on size.

Doughnuts direct: Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until optimal. The dough was laminated to 10-20 mm and cut out at wanted size. The dough was placed on a baking tray and proved at 37°C, 80% RH until optimal. The dough was cooked in oil at 180°C for 2+2 minutes depending on size.

Doughnuts freezing: Mixing: All ingredients were mixed until optimal. The dough was laminated to 10-20 mm and cut out at wanted size. The dough was placed on a baking tray. The dough was frozen at -18°C and thawed at 25 °C. The dough was proved at 37°C, 80% RH until optimal. The dough was cooked in oil at 180°C for 2+2 minutes depending on size.

Hamburgers (direct method) direct: Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until optimal. The dough was proved for 60 minutes and scaled into wanted size. The dough was shaped and placed on a hamburger baking tray. The dough was proved at 40°C, 80% RH until optimal and baked at 240°C for 10-16 minutes depending on size.

Puff pastry direct: Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until semi optimal. Semi optimal is what is commonly known for the person skilled in the art of making and bakirrcrdough. The roll was wrapped in margarine/butter, laminated and-felded 3x4x3x4. The dough was shaped and placed on a baking tray where it rested for the minimum of 1 hour. The dough was baked at 200°C for 10-20 minutes depending on the shape and size.

Puff pastry freezing: Mixing: All ingredients were mixed until semi optimal. The dough was wrapped in the roll in margarine/butter, laminated and folded

3x4x3x4. The dough was shaped and placed on a baking tray and frozen at -18°C. Thawing was not necessary. The dough was baked at 180-200°C for 12-23 minutes depending on shape and size.

Danish pastry direct: Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until semi optimal. The dough was wrapped in the roll in margarine/butter, laminated and folded 3x3x3. The dough was shaped and placed on a baking tray and proved at 37°C, 80% RH until optimal. The dough was baked at 220 °C for 10-25 minutes depending on shape and size.

Danish pastry freezing: Mixing: All ingredients were mixed until semi optimal. The dough was wrapped in the roll in margarine/butter, laminated and folded 3x3x3. The dough was shaped and placed on a baking tray. The dough was frozen at - 18°C and thawed at 25 °C. The dough was proved at 35°C, 80% RH until optimal and baked at 200-220°C for 12-23 minutes depending on shape and size.

Brioche direct: Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until optimal. The dough was proved for 60 minutes and scaled in the wanted size. The dough was shaped and placed in a baking mould and proved at 40°C, 80% RH until optimal. The dough was baked at 200°C for 20-40 minutes depending on size.

Brioche freezing : Mixing : All ingredients were mixed until optimal. The dough was proved for 30 minutes and scaled into wanted size. The dough was shaped and placed in a baking mould and frozen at -18°C, thawed at 25 °C and proved at 37°C, 80% RH until optimal. The dough was baked at 200°C for 20-40 minutes depending on size. Applying shiner/glazing agent: Brush, spray or submersion was used as methods for applying the glazing agent. The shiner/glazing agent can be applied at different times in the process i.e. the glazing agent was applied on the surface of a dough after shaping (before proving direct) or after proving direct procedure or before freezing shaped dough. The shiner/glazing agent was also applied after freezing or before proving or after proving (after thawing/proving). In addition the glazing agent was also applied on the hot surface of baked goods that have just left the oven.

Table 9: Recipes of dough's for baked goods. All amounts are in grams.

Recipe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Ingredients

Wheat flour 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Sucrose 5 4 4 4 0 10 10 salt 1 1.5 1.5 1.2 0.5 0.3

SSL 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0 0.3 0.3

Yeast 5 4 4 6 NA 8 7

Water 48 48 45 55 50 45 42

Oil/fat/butter 8 4 5 3 5 4 10

Baking enzyme 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 NA 0.2 0.2 (various)

Whole eggs 2 4 5 0 0 10 8 liquid

Roll in 100 50

margarine

Baking powder 0 0.1 0.2 0 0 0 0

Dough 27 25 25 29 12 10 29 temperature

direct

Dough 22 20 20 NA NA 8 24 temperature

Freezing

Mixing until until until until semi semi until optimal optimal optimal optimal optimal optimal optimal Recipe numbers indicate: 1 : Sweet buns; 2: Berliner; 3 : Dough nuts; 4:

Hamburgers; 5: Puff pastry; 6: Danish pastry; 7: Brioche. SSL is an abbreviation for Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate.

Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate is an emulsifier commonly used in the food industry.

Example 17: Evaluation of shine/gloss of baked goods

The examples in Table 10 below show results that were obtained with different compositions for glazing doughs and/or baked goods.

As a reference, the characteristic/performance of whole eggs as glazing agent was ranked the value 5 when evaluating shine on buns, darkness on puff pastry, shine on puff pastry, darkness on pizza dough and shine on pizza dough. Higher scores than 5 indicated higher characteristic/performance of the glazing agent used and lower scores than 5 indicated less of the desired characteristic/performance.

Tabel 10: All amounts are in grams (continued on page 52).

Whole Sweet Acid EWP* Soy Sodium Mono- eggs whey whey protein cassionate glycerides

Water 2530 2530 2530 2530 2530 2530

Rapeseed oil 1590 1590 1590 1590 1590 1590

Permeate 650 650 650 650 650 650

Whey protein 1

Sweet whey 375

Mono and 375 diglyceride

(Danisco)

Whey protein 2 375

Acid whey

EWP 375

Soy protein 375

Sodium 350

cassionate

Homogenization 40/160 40/160 40/160 40/160 40/160 40/160 temperature (° C) and pressure

(bar)

Protein % in 12.5 5.8 5.8 6 6.5 6.2 0 glazing

Viscosity 5 6 6 8.5 10 6 8.8

PH 5.6 6.46 8.8 7.04 6.45 6.45 6.8

Whole Sweet Acid EWP* Soy Sodium Mono ' s eggs whey whey cassionate

Darkness on 5 5.5 5.5 4.5 5.5 5 3.5 buns

Shine on buns 5 4.5 6 4 0 4.5 0

Weight on buns 0.65 0.75 0.7 1.08 1.5 0.82 1.06 (average of 6

buns)

Darkness on 5 6 6 5.5 5.5 5.5 4 puff pastry

Shine on puff 5 7 8 5.5 0 5.5 0 pastry

Darkness on 5 4.5 5 5.5 5 0 H 4 pizza dough

Shine on pizza 5 3.5 4 4.5 0 6 0 dough

Temperature of 12 13 12 11 11 13 10 glaze

#EWP stands for "egg white powder". « The surface of the pizza dough was totally white.

The surface of a bun in Table 10 was approximately 24 cm 2 . Thus, when 0.65 grams glazing agent was applied to a bun the resulting amount of glazing agent applied was 27 mg/cm 2 .

As deduced from Table 10 above the emulsion containing acid whey had the highest performance in regard of shine/gloss compared to whole eggs except for the shine on pizza. As can be noted from the table, the usage of sodium

cassionate resulted in a white, non-appealing un-baked appearance of the surface on pizza dough whereas the usage of whey (both sweet and acid whey) resulted" in a desired Maillard browning of the dough along with high shine/gloss. Although sodium cassionate did result in high shine on pizza dough it did not provide the overall desired characteristics/performance as the reference whole eggs does provide. Whey provides a constant level of desired characteristics/performance over the wide range of tested dough products as presented in table 10 above which is not the case when casein (sodium cassionate) is used.

Example 18: Evaluation of physical stability of powdered composition

The stable powdered composition comprising whey-protein-stabilized droplets of edible lipid of the present invention was tested for its physical stability under real- life conditions in relation to storage, transportation and handling. Stability was evaluated in terms of bleeding of lipid from the powdered composition and caking (agglomeration). The compositions comprised anti-oxidants in sufficients amounts to ensure that lack of shelf-life did not affect measurements. Bleeding and caking were evaluated using visual inspection. During industrial storage and transport, the powdered compositions are stacked, and thus subjected to a considerable pressure that would be expected to increase bleeding and caking. When testing storage/transport stability 15 Kg sacks of protein-stabilized-lipid droplets powdered compositions where positioned on a "Euro-pallet" (9600 cm 2 ) and 2000 Kg of salt (also in sacks, density = 2.165 g/cm 3 , volume = 924xl0 3 cm 3 , height of salt = 96 cm, minimum pressure on powdered composition= 2.165 g/cm 3 x 96 cm = 208 g/cm 2 ) was positioned on top. Surprisingly, even though the oils used where liquid at ambient temperature, the powdered compositions were stable under all of the test conditions as shown in table 11.

Table 11 - stability of powdered compositions-

Example 19: Quantitative evaluation of physical stability of powdered compositions

To further evaluate the physical stability of the powdered compositions the flowability is measured before and after storage and/or transport. The ability of a powder to be stable is in the present context reflects in the flowability of the powder remaining essentially constant (+/- 5 % change in properties). Flowability is measured according to example 14.

Table 12 - flowability of powdered compositions

Example 20: Evaluation of physical stability of liquid composition

To evaluate the physical stability of the liquid compositions (lipid stabilized oil-in- water emulsions) they are subjected to storage under domestic and industrial conditions. Stability is evaluated in terms of the amount of observed phase separation, and sedimentation of the liquid composition. The compositions comprise anti-oxidants in sufficients amounts to ensure that lack of shelf-life does not affect measurements. The amount of creaming and sedimentation is evaluated using visual inspection (Table 13).

Table 13

References

Food Chemistry, volume 113, 1, 2009, 191-195

JP 3671877

CH 694144

WO 2006/018077

US 5202138

EP 0402090

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AU 2001 243950

NL 6813493