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Title:
GLOBAL WARMING SOLUTION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/044401
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention is a solution to the urgent problem of global warming using sodium from the oceans to remove excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The energy for this is produced from marine solar energy farms situated on the oceans. The farms also harvest rainwater and solar energy and are integrated with auxiliary vessels to process the energy into renewable fuels and chemicals. Sodium bicarbonate, a by-product, is used to reduce ocean acidification. An extensive underlying flexible frame is deployed in the oceans and secures in position a conglomerate of floating catchment modules and other floating structures. The conglomerate is flexibly rafted together and supports light weight solar energy panels and wind turbines. Fresh rainwater is collected and contained in the catchment modules which also function as bioreactors to grow microalgae. Made out of thin film membranes, the low cost catchment modules may be rapidly deployed to cover several million square kilometers of ocean surface.

Inventors:
WAN, Yew Cheng (YC Wan c/o Fay Wan Lamb, 221st Ave NESammamish, Washington, 98074, US)
Application Number:
US2017/042293
Publication Date:
March 08, 2018
Filing Date:
July 17, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
WAN, Yew Cheng (YC Wan c/o Fay Wan Lamb, 221st Ave NESammamish, Washington, 98074, US)
International Classes:
B63B38/00; B63B35/00; F03B13/10; F03G7/05; H01L31/18; H02S20/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2002040125A22002-05-23
WO2007042861A12007-04-19
Foreign References:
US20160059938A12016-03-03
US20130240025A12013-09-19
JP2003138612A2003-05-14
GB2467907A2010-08-25
US20160156304A12016-06-02
US20060090789A12006-05-04
US20120279557A12012-11-08
US20160041255A12016-02-11
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Claims:
Claims: I claim: 1. A marine solar energy farm for installation at sea comprising: a plurality of floating structures such as but not limited to floating platforms, pontoons, rafts, vessels and other containers, float rings and buoys that have means comprising one or more of the following:

a. to collect solar energy;

b. to collect wind energy;

c. to collect rainwater and other forms of freshwater precipitation;

d. to store water;

e. to grow biomass; and

f. to grow marine and agricultural products; conglomerating means to secure said floating structures whereby the position of the whole conglomerate can be controlled; and propulsion means attached to said conglomerating means to control said marine solar energy farm in a predetermined location at sea. 2. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said conglomerating means

consist of an extensive underlying flexible frame comprising several layers of reinforcing network of flexible ties such as ropes, cables, wires, chains and nets of differing load capacities for each of said layers of reinforcing network so as to comprise an hierarchy of layers of reinforcing network graduated by levels of strength so that the layer of reinforcing network of the highest level of strength secures in position the layer of reinforcing network of the next lower level of strength, which in turn secures next layers of reinforcing network of progressively lower levels of strength till the layer of reinforcing network of the lowest level of strength is secured; whereby said extensive underlying flexible frame is installed in the upper surface layer of the sea underlying said floating structures;

whereby said floating structures are attached with flexible ties to one or more said layers of reinforcing network; and

thereby enabling said floating structures to be secured into a conglomerate. 3. A marine solar energy integrated complex comprising the marine solar energy farm of Claim 1, and auxiliary vessels comprising barges, storage tankers, process vessels and other special function vessels;

whereby said auxiliary vessels are connected with means such as but not limited to electrical cables, communication systems, hydraulic and pneumatic pipes and tubes for transferring substances and products to one another of said auxiliary vessels and to said marine solar energy farm; and

whereby said auxiliary vessels provide integrated functions comprising one or more of the following: 1. to process and store products of said marine solar energy farm, and to

transfer processed products to visiting transport vessels for delivery to other global destinations;

2. to process electrical energy to produce chemicals such as hydrogen,

ammonia, ammonium compounds, sodium compounds, hydroxides of ammonia and sodium, chlorine, nitrates, fertilizers and other nitrogen compounds, carbon dioxide, methane and other organic compounds; 3. to cultivate and process biomass to produce biofuels, foods, pharmaceuticals, phytochemicals and plant fertilizers;

4. to process freshwater to produce potable water and other qualities of

freshwater suitable for industrial and agricultural uses;

5. to house, accommodate and provide support services for personnel of said marine solar energy farm;

6. to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by drawing air into scrubbing tanks and mixing with scrubbing chemicals such as sodium hydroxide;

7. to input sodium bicarbonate solution into the upper layers of the ocean to enhance ocean alkalinity;

8. to enhance the diffusion of air through the air water interface of the oceans by injecting air bubbles into the upper surface layer of the oceans. 4. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said float ring is attached to a flexible collection bag made of water impermeable material to form a floating catchment module; whereby the mouth opening of said flexible collection bag is kept open facing upwards by said float ring; and whereby rainwater and other forms of freshwater precipitation may fall into said flexible collection bag and stored therein. 5. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 4 wherein said floating catchment module further comprises:

a. a flexible cover attached to said float ring and made of water-impermeable material;

b. a dam attached to said float ring and surrounds said flexible cover;

c. outlet holes controlled by valves installed through said dam;

d. freshwater detection means installed at base of said dam to automatically detect the presence of freshwater precipitation;

e. means to maintain said cover in an upward facing convex shape;

f. means to channel freshwater into said floating catchment module when

freshwater precipitation is detected within said dam, and to discharge saltwater into the sea when no freshwater is detected within said dam;

whereby freshwater precipitation is automatically collected into said floating catchment module.

6. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 4 wherein said floating catchment module further comprises:

a. an upward facing convex shaped thin film semi-rigid cover made of water- impermeable material and attached to said float ring;

b. a dam attached to said float ring and surrounds said semi-rigid cover;

c. outlet holes controlled by valves installed through the dam;

d. freshwater detection means installed at base of said dam to automatically detect the presence of freshwater precipitation;

e. means to channel freshwater into said floating catchment module when

freshwater precipitation is detected within said dam, and to discharge saltwater into the sea when no freshwater is detected within said dam; whereby freshwater precipitation is automatically collected into said floating catchment module. 7. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 4 wherein said floating catchment module further comprises:

a. a flexible funneling cover made of water-impermeable material with one or more funneling holes that allow rainwater that falls onto said cover to funnel through said funneling holes into said flexible collection bag;

b. freshwater detection means to automatically detect the presence of

freshwater precipitation onto said funneling cover;

c. means to control shape of said funneling cover from an upward facing convex shape when no freshwater precipitation is detected, to an upward facing concave shape when freshwater precipitation is detected;

whereby freshwater precipitation is automatically collected into said floating catchment module. 8. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said floating structures enable reflection of solar radiant energy back towards the sky thereby increasing the albedo at the oceans; whereby the degree of such reflective effect achieved by selection of materials of said floating structures and coatings thereon, and the proportion of the total number of said floating structures so enabled.

9. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said floating structures collect and convert solar energy into electrical energy by means of lightweight thin film solar cell panels incorporated onto the top surface of said floating structures. 10. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said floating structures support wind turbines to convert wind energy to electrical energy. 11. A scrubber to remove carbon dioxide from ambient air comprising:

a. a wind tunnel open at both ends situated on the deck of a floating vessel such as a ship;

b. means to spray a scrubbing chemical solution such as sodium hydroxide that reacts with carbon dioxide within said wind tunnel; whereby said floating vessel maneuvers in the direction such that sea surface winds blow into one end of said wind tunnel to encounter said spray of scrubbing chemical solution thereby removing carbon dioxide from ambient air before exiting at the other end. 12. A method to sequester carbon dioxide and simultaneously reduce ocean

acidification by:

a. providing a scrubbing system that uses an alkaline scrubbing chemical that reacts with carbon dioxide;

b. passing a gas that contains carbon dioxide into said scrubbing system such that said carbon dioxide may react with said alkaline scrubbing chemical to form an alkaline carbonate or bicarbonate compound;

c. inputting said alkaline carbonate or bicarbonate compound into the sea. 13. A method to solve the problem of global warming by convincing governments,

corporations and citizen groups to implement a marine solar energy farm by gaining the wide support of concerned persons through informing them on the urgent issue of global warming and the resultant climate change and globally devastating effects in such a way that said concerned persons understand climate change is real and imminent, and avoidance of devastating effects is yet possible in that at least a technical solution is available to mitigate global warming, comprising:

a. providing a detailed description of said marine solar energy farm that is

capable of producing alternative supplies of renewable energy that does not contribute to further global warming, and may be integrated with auxiliary vessels with means to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification;

b. providing wide dissemination of details of said technical solution as described in this patent specification and published by government patent offices worldwide and made freely available for study by said concerned persons through the Internet; and

c. providing wide dissemination of references to information from published literature, by inclusion in this patent specification, that informs said concerned persons the overwhelming majority of the scientific community believe beyond reasonable doubt global warming is caused by emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, and predicts the extent of global warming should said emissions continue unabated, and that the consequential outcome being imminent climate change with globally devastating effects is highly probable. 14. The method to solve the problem of global warming of Claim 13 wherein said

published literature further includes scriptural literature and messages from spiritual leaders comprising:

a. references to verses from the books of Daniel, Isaiah and Jonah as included in the Holy Bible;

b. references to verses from the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke as included in the Holy Bible;

c. references to verses from the book of Revelations as included in the Holy Bible;

d. reference to the Parliamentary Earth Summit (UNCED) address 1992 by His Holiness the Dalai Lama; e. reference to publication from the International Islamic Climate Change

Symposium (2015);

f. reference to the Rabbinical Letter on the Climate Crisis (October 29, 2015); g. reference to Encyclical Letter‘Laudato Si’ of His Holiness Pope Francis; whereby said concerned persons who have a preferential appeal for the wisdom and knowledge as found in the Holy Bible and messages from spiritual leaders may understand and accept said urgent issue. 15. A method to solve the problem of global warming and ocean acidification,

comprising:

a. providing first means to produce alternative supplies of renewable energy that does not substantially increase emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide; b. providing second means to reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide;

c. providing third means to input alkaline solutions into the oceans to enhance ocean alkalinity;

d. providing fourth means that informs concerned persons the overwhelming majority of the scientific community believe beyond reasonable doubt global warming is caused by emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, and predicts the extent of global warming should said emissions continue unabated, and that the consequential outcome being imminent climate change with globally devastating effects is highly probable thereby gaining the support of said concerned persons to participate in the implementation of said first means, said second means and said third means to solve the problem of global warming and ocean acidification; and

e. providing fifth means that informs said concerned persons who have a

preferential appeal for the wisdom and knowledge as found in scriptural and religious literature that said globally devastating effects are forewarned in such literature, and the teachings and warnings from current spiritual and political leaders, thereby enabling said concerned persons to understand the urgency to solve the problem of global warming and ocean acidification.

AMENDED CLAIMS

received by the International Bureau on 29 January 2018 (29.01.2018)

1. A marine solar energy farm for installation on the ocean comprising: a plurality of floating structures consisting of floating catchment modules and buoys that have means comprising one or more of the following:

a. to collect solar energy;

b. to collect wind energy;

c. to collect rainwater and other forms of freshwater precipitation;

d. to store water;

e. to grow biomass; and

f. to grow marine and agricultural products; conglomerating means to secure said marine solar energy farm when subject to towing under ocean forces of current, winds and storms; and propulsion means attached to said conglomerating means to control said marine solar energy farm in a predetermined location at sea; wherein said floating structures consist substantially of curved structures without planar panels or planar platforms.

2. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said conglomerating means

consist of an extensive underlying flexible frame comprising several layers of reinforcing network of flexible ties such as ropes, cables, wires, chains and nets of differing load capacities for each of said layers of reinforcing network so as to comprise an hierarchy of layers of reinforcing network graduated by levels of strength so that the layer of reinforcing network of the highest level of strength secures in position the layer of reinforcing network of the next lower level of strength, which in turn secures next layers of reinforcing network of progressively lower levels of strength till the layer of reinforcing network of the lowest level of strength is secured; whereby said extensive underlying flexible frame is installed in the upper surface layer of the sea underlying said floating structures;

whereby said floating structures are attached with flexible ties to one or more said layers of reinforcing network; and

thereby enabling said floating structures to be secured into a conglomerate.

3. A marine solar energy integrated complex comprising the marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 , and auxiliary vessels comprising barges, storage tankers, process vessels and other special function vessels;

whereby said auxiliary vessels are connected with means such as but not limited to electrical cables, communication systems, hydraulic and pneumatic pipes and tubes for transferring substances and products to one another of said auxiliary vessels and to said marine solar energy farm; and

whereby said auxiliary vessels provide integrated functions comprising one or more of the following:

1. to process and store products of said marine solar energy farm, and to

transfer processed products to visiting transport vessels for delivery to other global destinations;

2. to process electrical energy to produce chemicals such as hydrogen,

ammonia, ammonium compounds, sodium compounds, hydroxides of ammonia and sodium, chlorine, nitrates, fertilizers and other nitrogen compounds, carbon dioxide, methane and other organic compounds;

3. to cultivate and process biomass to produce biofuels, foods, pharmaceuticals, phytochemicals and plant fertilizers;

4. to process freshwater to produce potable water and other qualities of

freshwater suitable for industrial and agricultural uses;

5. to house, accommodate and provide support services for personnel of said marine solar energy farm;

6. to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by drawing air into scrubbing tanks and mixing with scrubbing chemicals such as sodium hydroxide;

7. to input sodium bicarbonate solution into the upper layers of the ocean to enhance ocean alkalinity;

8. to enhance the diffusion of air through the air water interface of the oceans by injecting air bubbles into the upper surface layer of the oceans.

4. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said floating catchment module consists of a float ring attached to a flexible collection bag made of water impermeable material; whereby the mouth opening of said flexible collection bag is kept open facing upwards by said float ring; and whereby rainwater and other forms of freshwater precipitation may fall into said flexible collection bag and stored therein.

5. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 4 wherein said floating catchment module further comprises:

a. a flexible cover attached to said float ring and made of water-impermeable material;

b. a dam attached to said float ring and surrounds said flexible cover;

c. outlet holes controlled by valves installed through said dam;

d. freshwater detection means installed at base of said dam to automatically detect the presence of freshwater precipitation;

e. means to maintain said cover in an upward facing convex shape;

f. means to channel freshwater into said floating catchment module when

freshwater precipitation is detected within said dam, and to discharge saltwater into the sea when no freshwater is detected within said dam;

whereby freshwater precipitation is automatically collected into said floating catchment module.

6. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 4 wherein said floating catchment module further comprises:

a. an upward facing convex shaped thin film semi-rigid cover made of water- impermeable material and attached to said float ring;

b. a dam attached to said float ring and surrounds said semi-rigid cover;

c. outlet holes controlled by valves installed through the dam;

d. freshwater detection means installed at base of said dam to automatically detect the presence of freshwater precipitation;

e. means to channel freshwater into said floating catchment module when

freshwater precipitation is detected within said dam, and to discharge saltwater into the sea when no freshwater is detected within said dam; whereby freshwater precipitation is automatically collected into said floating catchment module.

7. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 4 wherein said floating catchment module further comprises:

a. a flexible funneling cover made of water-impermeable material with one or more funneling holes that allow rainwater that falls onto said cover to funnel through said funneling holes into said flexible collection bag;

b. freshwater detection means to automatically detect the presence of

freshwater precipitation onto said funneling cover;

c. means to control shape of said funneling cover from an upward facing convex shape when no freshwater precipitation is detected, to an upward facing concave shape when freshwater precipitation is detected;

whereby freshwater precipitation is automatically collected into said floating catchment module.

8. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said floating structures enable reflection of solar radiant energy back towards the sky thereby increasing the albedo at the oceans; whereby the degree of such reflective effect achieved by selection of materials of said floating structures and coatings thereon, and the proportion of the total number of said floating structures so enabled

9. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said floating structures collect and convert solar energy into electrical energy by means of lightweight thin film solar cell panels incorporated onto the top surface of said floating structures.

10. The marine solar energy farm of Claim 1 wherein said floating structures support wind turbines to convert wind energy to electrical energy.

11. A scrubber to remove carbon dioxide from ambient air comprising:

a. a wind tunnel open at both ends situated on the deck of a floating vessel such as a ship;

b. means to spray a scrubbing chemical solution such as sodium hydroxide that reacts with carbon dioxide within said wind tunnel; whereby said floating vessel maneuvers in the direction such that sea surface winds blow into one end of said wind tunnel to encounter said spray of scrubbing chemical solution thereby removing carbon dioxide from ambient air before exiting at the other end.

12. A method to sequester carbon dioxide and simultaneously reduce ocean

acidification by:

a. providing a scrubbing system that uses an alkaline scrubbing chemical that reacts with carbon dioxide;

b. passing a gas that contains carbon dioxide into said scrubbing system such that said carbon dioxide may react with said alkaline scrubbing chemical to form an alkaline carbonate or bicarbonate compound;

c. inputting said alkaline carbonate or bicarbonate compound into the sea.

13. A method to solve the problem of global warming by convincing governments,

corporations and citizen groups to implement a marine solar energy farm by gaining the wide support of concerned persons through informing them on the urgent issue of global warming and the resultant climate change and globally devastating effects in such a way that said concerned persons understand climate change is real and imminent, and avoidance of devastating effects is yet possible in that at least a technical solution is available to mitigate global warming, comprising:

a. providing a detailed description of said marine solar energy farm that is

capable of producing alternative supplies of renewable energy that does not contribute to further global warming, and may be integrated with auxiliary vessels with means to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification;

b. providing wide dissemination of details of said technical solution as described in this patent specification and published by government patent offices worldwide and made freely available for study by said concerned persons through the Internet; and

c. providing wide dissemination of references to information from published literature, by inclusion in this patent specification, that informs said concerned persons the overwhelming majority of the scientific community believe beyond reasonable doubt global warming is caused by emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, and predicts the extent of global warming should said emissions continue unabated, and that the consequential outcome being imminent climate change with globally devastating effects is highly probable.

14. The method to solve the problem of global warming of Claim 13 wherein said

published literature further includes scriptural literature and messages from spiritual leaders comprising:

a. references to verses from the books of Daniel, Isaiah and Jonah as included in the Holy Bible;

b. references to verses from the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke as included in the Holy Bible;

c. references to verses from the book of Revelations as included in the Holy Bible;

d. reference to the Parliamentary Earth Summit (UNCED) address 1992 by His Holiness the Dalai Lama; e. reference to publication from the International Islamic Climate Change Symposium (2015);

f. reference to the Rabbinical Letter on the Climate Crisis (October 29, 2015); g. reference to Encyclical Letter 'Laudato Si' of His Holiness Pope Francis; whereby said concerned persons who have a preferential appeal for the wisdom and knowledge as found in the Holy Bible and messages from spiritual leaders may understand and accept said urgent issue.

15. A method to solve the problem of global warming and ocean acidification,

comprising:

a. providing first means to produce alternative supplies of renewable energy that does not substantially increase emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide; b. providing second means to reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide;

c. providing third means to input alkaline solutions into the oceans to enhance ocean alkalinity;

d. providing fourth means that informs concerned persons the overwhelming majority of the scientific community believe beyond reasonable doubt global warming is caused by emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, and predicts the extent of global warming should said emissions continue unabated, and that the consequential outcome being imminent climate change with globally devastating effects is highly probable thereby gaining the support of said concerned persons to participate in the implementation of said first means, said second means and said third means to solve the problem of global warming and ocean acidification; and

e. providing fifth means that informs said concerned persons who have a

preferential appeal for the wisdom and knowledge as found in scriptural and religious literature that said globally devastating effects are forewarned in such literature, and the teachings and warnings from current spiritual and political leaders, thereby enabling said concerned persons to understand the urgency to solve the problem of global warming and ocean acidification.

Description:
Global Warming Solution Cross Reference to Related Applications

This application claims the benefit of provisional patent application Serial No. US 62/380,977 filed 2016 August 29. Table of Contents A Description................................................. ......................................................3 A.1 Technical Field ............................................................ .................................3 A.2 Technical Problems ............................................................ .........................4 A.2.1 Global Warming– Brief Introduction: ......................................................4 A.2.2 Aspects of the Global Warming Problem: ...............................................5 A.2.2.1 Major Industries Causing Global Warming ............................................................ .5 A.2.2.1.1 Power and Heat Production ............................................................ ....................5 A.2.2.1.2 Fertilizer Production ............................................................ ................................5 A.2.2.1.3 Cement Production ............................................................ ..................................5 A.2.2.1.4 Water Desalination ............................................................ ..................................6 A.2.2.2 Decrease in Earth’s Albedo ............................................................ .........................6 A.2.2.3 Ocean Acidification ............................................................ ......................................6 A .2.2.4 Deep Ocean Hypoxia ............................................................ ..................................6 A.2.3 Difficulties Encountered in our Current Efforts to Reduce Global

Warming: ............................................................ .................................................7 A.2.3.1 Disadvantages of Land-based Efforts: ............................................................ ........7 A.2.3.1.1 Land-based Solar Energy PV and CSP Farms ...................................................8 A.2.3.1.2 Land-based Wind Farms ............................................................ .........................8 A .2.3.1.3 Land-based Biofuels.................................................... ........................................8 A.2.3.2 Difficulty of Collecting Solar Energy on the Ocean Surface: ...................................9 A.2.4 Other Difficulties Encountered: ............................................................ .10 A.2.4.1 Net Positive Carbon Effect of Biofuels: ............................................................ .....10 A.2.4.2 Net Positive Carbon Effect of Hydrogen Fuel for the Transportation Industry: .....10 A.2.4.3 Compensating for the Cost Disadvantage of Renewable Energy: ........................11 A.2.4.4 Global Dependency on Fossil Fuels: ............................................................ ........11 A.2.4.5 Carbon Sequestration ............................................................ ...............................12 A.2.4.6 International Injustice ............................................................ ................................12 A.2.4.7 Dangerous Geo-Engineering Solutions................................................... ..............13 A.2.4.8 Economic and Social Inertia ............................................................ ......................13 B Technical Solution ............................................................ .............................15 C Summary ............................................................ ...........................................24 D List of Drawings ............................................................ .................................25 E Detailed Description ............................................................ ..........................27 F Conclusions, Ramifications and Scope .........................................................46 G Epilogue ............................................................ ............................................48

A Description

A.1 Technical Field This invention relates to the problem of global warming and discloses a technical solution to remove excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere using sodium from the oceans. The energy to achieve this is obtained by harvesting solar energy on the surface of the oceans. The main field of this invention is the collection of solar energy through its four major derivatives that are abundantly found on the surface of the oceans: ● Fresh water - from the natural conversion of ocean solar heat energy that evaporates ocean water into water vapor which subsequently condenses and falls over the oceans, and collected as fresh water precipitation;

● Solar-Electrical energy - from the conversion of sunlight into electrical energy using solar photo-voltaic (PV) panels;

● Biofuel - from the natural conversion of sunlight through photosynthesis to grow biomass such as microalgae;

● Wind-Electrical energy - from the natural conversion of solar heat energy into convectional atmospheric circulation and in turn converted by wind turbines into electrical energy.

Though these derivatives are already being collected on land on a much smaller scale relative to the scale of our present day fossil fuel energy use, no technology has been able to collect these derivatives at sea in any substantial scale. A second field of this invention is the development of a technology for the deployment and positioning control of a multitude of floating structures that support devices to collect these derivatives, extensively covering millions of square kilometers of ocean surface in total and capable of withstanding natural ocean forces.

A third field of this invention is the conversion of these derivatives into renewable energy that can be used to avoid further global warming, and renewable chemicals to reduce ocean acidification. A fourth field of this invention is the development of a technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide capture and sequestration applied on a global scale. A fifth field of this invention is the use of a method of dissemination of information to people in order to overcome the inertia of current economic and social systems that prevent the urgent adoption of a new energy regime based on renewable fuels to avoid further global warming. A.2 Technical Problems A.2.1 Global Warming– Brief Introduction: According to the United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), present day global warming is largely caused by anthropogenic carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels. Concentration of this greenhouse gas has recently breached the 400 ppm level. This drastic increase of carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere over the recent 150 years from the baseline level of 280 ppm of the past millennia is causing global climate change and potentially devastating repercussions. Many parts of the world are already in crisis, and even if the entire world should immediately cease adding emissions, the carbon dioxide that is already in the atmosphere will continue to warm the earth for the next several hundreds to thousands of years. In spite of the seriousness of the problem which has been known for several decades, no satisfactory solution exists to avoid the imminent climate changes. It is an immensely difficult problem to solve due to the gigantic size of the global demand for energy from fossil fuels which necessitates a solution of comparable scale. Present technological efforts to produce alternative fuels are not able to meet the short timeline required to avoid those projected repercussions. Even so, there is yet another extremely difficult problem as challenging as the technological one. It is a psychological problem in that most people have not yet accepted the reality of global warming and its consequences and therefore do not fully understand the imminence of the crisis. This psychological problem needs to be solved in conjunction with any technological solution because immensely large numbers of people need to be involved with the implementation of a solution that, of necessity, has to be gigantic in scale and cost. A.2.2 Aspects of the Global Warming Problem: A.2.2.1 Major Industries Causing Global Warming Global warming commenced since the start of industrialization more than a hundred and fifty years ago. The use of fossil fuels was essential to the

development of industries to achieve the modernization of society that we know today. The major industries contributing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are: A.2.2.1.1 Power and Heat Production The largest contributor to carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere is the use of fossil fuels to generate energy and heat. In order to reduce such emissions, alternative fuels for energy and heat production is required on a massive scale. A.2.2.1.2 Fertilizer Production The present day manufacture of fertilizers uses large quantities of fossil fuels as feedstock. This process, releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, is another major contributor to global warming. Since modern agricultural crop production requires vast amounts of fertilizers, an alternative renewable source of fertilizers is required. A.2.2.1.3 Cement Production The present day manufacture of cement for concreting works uses large quantities of fossil fuels in the calcination of limestone This process releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from both the fossil fuels and the limestone feedstock, is another major contributor to global warming. Since modern infrastructure development requires vast amounts of concrete, an alternative renewable source of cement is required. A.2.2.1.4 Water Desalination Global fresh water availability is reaching crisis levels, with many nations experiencing water stress even to the extent of potential conflict over fresh water resources. A popular modern day solution is to desalinate seawater, but this solution requires use of energy mainly from fossil fuels. An alternative new source of fresh water without use of fossil fuel energy is required. A.2.2.2 Decrease in Earth’s Albedo Global warming is also caused by the decrease of our planet’s albedo effect due to the overall reduction of ice surface area in both of the Polar regions. There is currently no viable method to increase the planet’s overall albedo to compensate for this decrease. A.2.2.3 Ocean Acidification An equally serious problem of ocean acidification accompanies the global warming problem caused by excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This acidification is due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the ocean waters causing the formation of excessive amounts of carbonic acid, especially in its upper layer. The resultant increase in acidity damage plankton life directly and, through the food chain, affects adversely most of the ocean ecology. A viable solution has to address this potentially catastrophic event. A.2.2.4 Deep Ocean Hypoxia Global warming has also caused the upper layer of the oceans to be substantially warmer than deeper layers. The warmer surface layers become less dense. This increases stratification of the ocean layers, thereby reducing intermixing of the layers, and results in hypoxia in the lower depths with loss of deep ocean fauna. A viable solution has to address this problem. A.2.3 Difficulties Encountered in our Current Efforts to Reduce Global Warming: The problem of global warming and ocean acidification is being wrestled with by international governments, political leaders, scientists and engineers for several decades since the alarm was raised. The world is despairing with the prospect of calamitous climate change brought on by global warming beyond 2°C above pre- industrial levels. No solution for the problem is found yet. Efforts are being made to reduce further global warming by the development of renewable energy resources to replace current use of fossil fuels. Some of these alternative energy resources are now well-established and include direct solar energy conversion to electrical energy using photo-voltaic (PV) panels and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, wind farms that use wind turbines to convert wind energy to electrical energy, biofuels produced through the photosynthesis of biomass from sunlight, and freshwater collected from rainfall instead of being produced by desalination and other purification processes that use fossil fuel energy. However, these alternative energy production efforts are mainly land-based and limited in scale. A.2.3.1 Disadvantages of Land-based Efforts: Land-based efforts compete with other industries for the use of land. The costs associated with land use increases the cost of land-based renewable energy and therefore severely limits its volume of output compared with the scale of present day fossil fuel use. Moreover, the process to allocate land areas for renewable energy production especially when it involves a change of use requires extended negotiations with impacted parties and makes it difficult for land-based solutions to proceed rapidly enough to avoid the more severe changes to global climate. A.2.3.1.1 Land-based Solar Energy PV and CSP Farms All of the larger scale land-based solar energy conversion farms occupy land with good sunshine suitable enough for alternative use as agricultural farmland, even if water availability and plant fertilizers need to be supplemented.

Electrical energy produced by solar farms remotely located from power

transmission grids face the additional problem of storage; unless it can be stored or immediately used, the excess energy produced is wasted.

Moreover, the necessary equipment such as PV panels and CSP mirrors need to be transported over significant land distances from their points of distribution using energy intensive modes of land transportation, and have to be assembled and supported on raised structures above ground level.

The PV panels and CSP mirrors are prone to deposition of particles from dust storms and other nearby land-surface-generated dust which adversely affects the efficiency of the panels and mirrors. A.2.3.1.2 Land-based Wind Farms The main environmental impacts of land-based wind farms are noise, effects on wildlife and disruption of radio transmissions. Depending on severity, the

environmental noise pollution may render their vicinity to be less suitable for human habitation. Since the available wind resource is so spread out, vast areas of land are required to provide significant amounts of electricity. Although some turbines have been installed offshore, these are smaller in number and are limited to shallow bays and shorelines.

Similarly to land-based PV and CSP farms, land-based wind farms face the problems of energy intensive land transportation of equipment during construction and installation, and excess energy wastage during operation. A.2.3.1.3 Land-based Biofuels Oilseed-based biofuels such as ethanol competes directly with the agricultural food industries for land and fresh water resources. Land-based algae farms not only require large areas of land but also compete with other industries for fresh water. Present day large algae farms produce mainly for specialty foods and relatively little biofuels. Compared against the well-developed fossil fuel industry, the current sources of alternative energy generated on land cannot be economically scaled up rapidly enough to replace fossil fuels for as long as fossil fuels are plentiful, and so will be insufficient to significantly avoid further global warming. However, owing to the severity of the consequences of global warming, all attempts to combat it are necessary, and these efforts on land represent our path on the learning curve to develop other viable solutions. A wider application of solar, wind and biomass energy sources by several orders of magnitude is needed. A.2.3.2 Difficulty of Collecting Solar Energy on the Ocean Surface: No background art has addressed the large scale collection of ocean surface solar energy to produce renewable energy. In order to combat global warming, the total size of such a collection system needs to cover more than a million square kilometers. Heretofore there has never been constructed any large scale conglomerate of floating structures for the purpose of harnessing the derivatives of solar energy on the oceans and capable of withstanding the forces of waves, currents, and storms. A major problem faced by such an endeavor is the difficulty to control the positioning of the conglomerate. An obvious means to secure the conglomerate is to connect the individual members of the conglomerate adjacently to one another using flexible ties such as ropes and cables, and then using tugboats and other towing vessels secured to the conglomerate to control its position. However, when the conglomerate covers a large area, securing members of the conglomerate only to adjacent members becomes impractical and

uneconomical because each adjacent connection must endure the extremely large overall tension forces encountered by the entire conglomerate. A suitable conglomerating means is required to solve the problem for an ocean-based source of renewable energy. In my earlier patent application WO2007042861A1 of October 11, 2005, for Collector for Rainwater Falling at Sea which dealt mainly with only one derivative of ocean surface solar energy, the network size of the collection system was envisaged to be substantially smaller, intending to be located at littoral areas, and within shallow continental shelves. The collection modules were intended to be anchored to the sea bed to counter the displacement forces due to sea currents and wind. As such, that design did not include any conglomerating means to control the position of the entire network in deep ocean waters. A.2.4 Other Difficulties Encountered: A.2.4.1 Net Positive Carbon Effect of Biofuels: In the present day biofuel industry, the most notable of which is corn-based ethanol production, the net carbon effect is positive, which means it generates more carbon dioxide in its production and use than it captures from the atmosphere. Its carbon effect is actually as high as 70% that of petroleum from fossil fuels. A carbon neutral biofuel needs to be developed. A.2.4.2 Net Positive Carbon Effect of Hydrogen Fuel for the Transportation Industry: The transportation industry is mainly powered by fossil fuels due to its easy portability. While the hydrogen fuel cell is advancing technologically, present day hydrogen production, storage and distribution have many unsolved problems, not the least of which, again, is the positive carbon effect. Hydrogen is mainly produced from the reforming of natural gas, a fossil fuel, and generates carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as waste. A renewable source of hydrogen, together with a viable storage and distribution system, is required to replace fossil fuel use for the transportation industry. A.2.4.3 Compensating for the Cost Disadvantage of Renewable Energy: Some mitigation efforts try to improve the price competitiveness of renewable energy artificially. Due to the urgency of climate change, one proposal is for authorities to impose fiscal measures such as tax subsidies for the alternative energies, and carbon taxes on fossil fuels so that these artificial measures will shift the demand away from fossil fuels towards renewable sources. However, there are difficulties. While fiscal measures may succeed in reducing demand for fossil fuels in some nations, it may then cause the price of fossil fuels to decrease in other nations where these measures are not adopted, resulting in an increase in demand for fossil fuels in those nations. Globally, these measures are insufficient to overcome the world economy’s dependency on fossil fuels (see below) as present systems of government among major energy-user nations are unable to compel replacement of fossil fuel use rapidly enough as long as alternative forms of renewable energy are not economically competitive. A natural solution is urgently needed; otherwise the use of fossil fuels will still be widely preferred over a prolonged period and potentially cause the problem of global warming to enter into an imminently catastrophic phase. A.2.4.4 Global Dependency on Fossil Fuels: The fossil fuel industry comprises coal, oil and gas exploration, production, transportation, refining and distribution. It makes up a large segment of the global economy, and provides energy to many downline industries such as power generation and distribution, transportation, agriculture and manufacturing.

According to the latest United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of 2014, in order to contain global warming to within 2°C above pre-industrial levels so as to avoid irreversible“tipping point” scenarios in global climate, adoption of RCP2.6 is necessary. This requires global greenhouse gas emissions to start decreasing after a decade from now, and to reach zero levels in six decades from now. In other words, in order to avoid catastrophic climate change, use of fossil fuels has to be reduced in ten years, and to be eliminated in sixty years. Such a drastic decrease in fossil fuel use over an abruptly short period of ten to sixty years will potentially cause not only a sharp dislocation of the fossil fuel industry, but also a severe disruption of the global economy because of the indirect effects on those downline industries which depend on fossil fuels for their energy. This interweaving of the global economy with the fossil fuel industry results in a dependency analogous to that of personal substance addiction, except that the addiction is on a global scale. Personal trauma suffered due to withdrawal from the addictive substance is also analogous to the upheaval which the global economy will suffer if fossil fuel use is reduced too abruptly. It is therefore necessary to more gradually supplant the fossil fuel industry with a new alternative industry, and to provide alternative energy supplies for the indirectly affected downline industries. A.2.4.5 Carbon Sequestration There have been many studies done to find ways to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the global atmosphere in order to reduce global warming. For some of these carbon sequestration proposals, while there is no large scale attempt, there also remain the problem of finding a sustainable way to dispose of the sequestered carbon. A.2.4.6 International Injustice International cooperation to solve the problem of global warming is immensely difficult, not least because most nations are not developed to a uniform degree. Whereas global warming is mainly caused by the developed nations, the

developing nations are asked to understand the reasoning that they have to sacrifice their opportunity to develop by reducing their use of fossil fuels. Coming so soon after the end of the Cold War and still within an era of nationalistic strife, it will be difficult for developing nations to overcome this international injustice unless a pathway is found for them to develop their economies. By enabling them to participate in a new global industry that solves the problem of global warming, developing nations will be more willing to drastically reduce their use of fossil fuels. A.2.4.7 Dangerous Geo-Engineering Solutions If a viable and timely solution to global warming is not found, the global climate will potentially enter into a catastrophic phase. In such a desperate situation, there will be a need to resort to desperate solutions. Many have already proposed means to propel megatons of soot into space, to inject megatons of sulphur chemicals into the upper atmosphere, and to introduce vast amounts of salt and seawater into the clouds, in order to reflect away solar radiation from our planet to reduce the warming. These geo-engineering disruptions of the planet’s environment create serious risks to the global ecology, and may result in catastrophes as disastrous as the one they seek to avoid. A.2.4.8 Economic and Social Inertia “Social research shows clearly that the scientific data of climate change has proven unable to galvanise action. Cognitive psychology, supported in recent years by brain neuro-imaging, provides plentiful evidence that our analytic reasoning may accept the data but that we are only compelled to act by emotional triggers based on our values and core identity.”– by George Marshall who wrote the book Don't Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change

(Bloomsbury 2014).

An environmentally safe and ecologically sound solution to global warming by generating vast amounts of renewable energy comparable in price and quantity to present day fossil fuel energy production is urgently needed. However, even if a technologically and economically feasible solution is disclosed, other crucial hurdles remain. The massive financial cost involved will require the raising of funds by a consortium of governments of rich nations. This will in turn require popular support from those nations. Many people in developed nations do not believe the problem is urgent, or that it affects them as seriously as those in the less developed countries, or that it is an eventuality that can be avoided. Therefore, the solution needs to overcome the inertia of current economic and social systems that is dependent on fossil fuels. Winning the hearts and minds of people, including those who are fatalistic in outlook, by informing them of the technological possibilities and their moral obligations to solve the environmental problem must form part and parcel of the solution. It is essential to integrate the technological solution with the means to inform and persuade large numbers of people of the urgency and moral aspects of the problem.

B Technical Solution The Marine Solar Energy Farm

A major aspect of the present invention is to harvest the derivatives of solar energy from the ocean surface on a large enough scale so as to provide alternative renewable fuels for the replacement of fossil fuels. A marine solar energy farm able to withstand the dynamic forces of ocean currents, winds and waves is disclosed. The farm comprises floating structures, rainwater collection bags and other catchment modules capable of supporting solar cell panels and wind turbines. To collect ocean solar energy, transparent waterproof covers above individual catchment modules funnel fresh rainwater into collection bags and protect the contents from contamination. Thin film solar cell panels are incorporated with the covers. Floating structures support wind turbines. Functioning also as bioreactors, the rainwater collection bags are used to cultivate microalgae and other forms of suitable biomass. The area covered by each module is small, and may be only of the order of tens of square meters. However, the total area covered is vastly increased by assembling many clusters of these modules together to form a conglomerate. The Extensive Underlying Flexible Frame (Eufframe)

For the scale envisaged, the floating structures and catchment modules of each marine farm has to cover several square kilometers of ocean surface. This requires a practical solution to secure the vast numbers of floating structures into a conglomerate such that the position of the entire marine farm can be controlled while subjected to ocean forces. A solution that secures all the floating structures together by securing each floating structure only to its immediately adjacent ones is not technically feasible as the overall load from wind and current acting on several square kilometers of floating structures will require the securing means for every floating structure be able to sustain the tons of tensile load encountered. This invention discloses an extensive underlying flexible frame using flexible joints strong enough to withstand the combined ocean dynamic forces to secure the conglomerate such that the securing means efficiently distributes the securing load through several graduated layers of flexible cable networks that underlie the marine farm. The Marine Energy Integrated Complex

The marine solar energy farm is integrated with auxiliary vessels such as towing boats, storage barges and processing vessels in order to process the collected energy and freshwater. The auxiliary vessels are secured to the extensive underlying flexible frame and connected to the floating structures and catchment modules of the farm to form a marine energy integrated complex. Collected Solar Energy Stored as Chemicals

A second aspect of the invention is that it enables the harvested solar energy to be stored as chemical energy. The vast amounts of electrical energy generated from the solar cell panels and wind turbines are conducted through cables to the processing vessels. Following well known and established processes such as the chloralkali process, the electrical energy is used in the processing vessels to produce hydrogen through the electrolysis of brine. Accompanying by-products of such processes are sodium hydroxide and chlorine. The hydrogen gas produced, together with nitrogen from the air, is then used to produce ammonia through other well-known processes such as the Haber Bosch process. The ammonia may be stored as ammonium hydroxide, or converted with chlorine into ammonium chloride, and may also be used to produce ammonium nitrate through processes such as the Ostwald process. Organic chemicals such as methane and methanol from the methanation process may also be produced. As a result, derivatives of ocean solar energy are harvested and converted to chemical energy by the marine energy integrated complex and stored as chemicals. Ambient Carbon Dioxide Removal

A third aspect of the invention is that it enables mitigation of global warming by reducing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide from ambient air is removed in scrubbing vessels of the integrated complex using the sodium hydroxide solution produced from the processes stated above. Large volumes of air can be continuously scrubbed using the energy resources available from the marine solar energy farms to channel air into the scrubbing tanks. The resultant by-product is large quantities of sodium bicarbonate solution. By these means, substantial quantities of carbon dioxide gas can be gradually removed from the atmosphere thus reducing global warming. Increase Ocean Albedo

A fourth aspect of the invention is that it enables mitigation of global warming by increasing the albedo of the oceans where the marine solar energy farms situate. Since these farms occupy a significant area of the ocean surface, the catchment modules are enabled to reflect some of the solar radiant energy back towards the sky. Depending on the degree of albedo desired, an appropriate portion of the modules is coated with suitably reflective substances. Reduce Ocean Acidification

A fifth aspect of the invention is that it enables the reduction of ocean acidification, the conjugate of global warming through excessive atmospheric carbon dioxide. From the scrubbing process stated above, the resultant alkaline solution of sodium bicarbonate is input into the oceans’ upper layer in the vicinity of the farms to enhance its alkalinity. Through the course of time and mixing of ocean current flows, global ocean acidification will be gradually reduced. Bio-Energy as Alternative Energy

A sixth aspect of the invention is that it enables mitigation of global warming by providing cost competitive supplies of bio-energy sources to replace global use of fossil fuels. From the catchment bags functioning as bioreactors, biomass such as microalgae is cultivated. Harvesting is continuously conducted by pumping portions of the algae through tubings into the auxiliary vessels of the integrated complex where the algae is converted mainly to biofuels such as biodiesel and char. Other by-products are foods, food additives, fertilizers, phytochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. All these products are transshipped from the auxiliary vessels to visiting tankers for delivery to other global destinations for distribution. Reduce Deforestation for Agriculture

A seventh aspect of the invention is that it enables mitigation of global warming by reducing deforestation by farmers to produce agricultural foods. The present rate of deforestation in many areas of the world in order to grow agricultural crops such as oil palms and soybeans is causing the dense forests to be carbonized into the atmosphere and only to be replaced by plantations of reduced vegetation.

Furthermore, the agricultural plants do not function as efficiently as the original forests to absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide. By producing alternative supplies of foods and vegetable oils from biomass grown in the catchment modules, the need to deforest for agricultural use will be reduced and with less accompanying disruption to indigenous peoples and wildlife. Chemicals as Alternative Energy

An eighth aspect of the invention is that it enables mitigation of global warming by providing cost competitive supplies of chemicals available for use as energy sources to replace global use of fossil fuels. The ammonium hydroxide, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate and methanol, as stored forms of chemical energy derived from collected solar energy, may be transported to global destinations where reconversion back to other forms of energy is required. Ammonia may be regenerated, and then converted back to hydrogen and nitrogen in processes such as the reverse of the Haber Bosch process. The regenerated hydrogen together with methanol is then available for convenient use by power stations and by transportation vehicles, thus eliminating the use of fossil fuels. Fertilizers from Renewable Source

A ninth aspect of the invention is that it enables mitigation of global warming by replacing global use of fossil fuels in the traditional production of ammonia based fertilizers which generates substantial amounts of carbon dioxide. The ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate produced as stated above are transshipped ashore and made available as fertilizers to replace those produced using fossil fuels. Cement from Renewable Source

A tenth aspect of the invention is that it enables mitigation of global warming by replacing global use of fossil fuels and limestone mineral in the traditional production of cement which generates substantial amounts of carbon dioxide. In the electrolysis of brine (stated above), calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide are obtained as by-products during the process to concentrate seawater brine prior to electrolysis. These essential compounds can be delivered to global destinations as feedstock for cement production without generating carbon dioxide. Alleviate Global Water Shortage

An eleventh aspect of the invention is that it enables mitigation of global warming by replacing global use of fossil fuels in the desalination of seawater to generate freshwater. As rainwater is continually collected into the catchment bags or bioreactors, portions of it is continuously drawn into the auxiliary vessels and transferred ashore for distribution. This freshwater may be filtered, treated and transported onshore for use as potable water. It may also be used directly for agriculture, to recharge aquifers that are depleted, to grow vegetation in areas suffering desertification, and in general, to combat drought where it is economically feasible to distribute. This freshwater will more than directly replace those produced by desalination of seawater using fossil fuel energy; it will alleviate the global water shortage. Reduce Deep Ocean Hypoxia

A twelfth aspect of the invention is that it reduces hypoxia in the oceans by enhancing diffusion of air through the air water interface of the oceans in the vicinity of the marine solar energy farms. Air may be electrically pumped through tubes lowered under the ocean surface throughout the areas covered by the farms. The tiny bubbles of air vastly increase the air water interface area at the farms and will also compensate for the loss of interface due to the floating structures of the farms. Oxygen from the air bubbles dissolve into the upper surface layer of the oceans and through the action of ocean currents will reduce deep ocean hypoxia. The large amount of electrical energy at the farms makes this possible. Offsetting Increased Water Vapour in the Atmosphere

A thirteenth aspect of the invention is that it reduces evaporation of seawater from the oceans in the vicinity of the marine solar energy farms. Since these farms occupy and cover over a significant area of the ocean surface, a decrease of water vapour into the atmosphere from the area of the farms will partially counteract the global warming positive feedback due to the general increase of water vapour from a warmer ocean. As water vapour in the atmosphere is an effective greenhouse gas, a decrease due to the farms will reduce the extent of global warming. Develop Global Economy

A fourteenth aspect of the invention is that it enables the global economy to improve from the current state of slow growth which is in danger of becoming the new normal. The IMF in a recent report predicts a protracted period of slower growth in advanced and emerging economies. Many nations are experiencing almost stagnant growth rates for several years, with no less an economic powerhouse as Japan being in economic stagnation for two decades. Among many developed nations the unemployment rate, especially for young adults, has been critically high for nearly a decade. This is causing governments to incur enormous operational deficits and unsustainably high levels of debt, leading to the potential for global economic upheaval with financial and currency crises.

By developing a new industry for the production and distribution of renewable energy and biofuels, large scale employment of people in the new industry will develop the global economy. Highly technical personnel will be needed to conduct scientific research and development in technologies to improve on the new industry. Personnel will also be needed to establish and to implement new international regulations for the proper control of navigation in way of these marine solar energy farms, for monitoring ecological effectiveness of farm operations such as atmospheric carbon dioxide removal, ocean treatment for de-acidification or alkalinity enhancement, and ocean surface aeration. It will be necessary to develop robotics for efficient maintenance of the farms and production facilities; develop global positioning and computer-controlled systems that automatically operate the auxiliary vessels to control the positioning of the farms; develop transportation systems and vessels for farm operations, auxiliary vessels for specialized production facilities and vessels for transferring of products ashore; build

infrastructure such as mother-ships for laboratory and research facilities, training of personnel, rest and recreation, medical treatment, and staging hubs for regional transportation. Therefore the establishment of these marine solar energy farms will spawn whole new supporting industries. All these will result in new large scale employment and growth in global economic activity. Enable Fossil Fuel Industry to be More Gradually Supplanted

A fifteenth aspect of this invention is that it enables replacement of fossil fuel use without causing a severe dislocation to the global economy. As the establishment of these marine solar energy farms and the production of renewable energy gradually increase, the use of fossil fuels will eventually be replaced by these alternatives through economic pricing. According to the latest United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of 2014, in order to contain global warming to within 2°C above pre-industrial levels so as to avoid possible irreversible“tipping point” scenarios in global climate, adoption of RCP2.6 is necessary. However, the removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide by scrubbers as stated earlier will also allow more time for the fossil fuel industry to gradually scale down without the drastic reduction of fossil fuel use as dictated by RCP2.6. Thus the fossil fuel industry, being more gradually supplanted, will experience a softer landing with less disruption to the overall global economy. Enable Gradual Reduction of Global Dimming Effect

A sixteenth aspect of this invention involves the issue of global dimming. Present day use of large quantities of fossil fuels has continuously discharged soot and other particulates into the upper atmosphere to such an extent as to cause a dimming effect on our planet by the reflection of solar radiation away from the planetary surface by these particulates. Without this dimming effect, the planet will be yet much warmer. If these particulates were to be removed, solar irradiation onto the planet surface will increase. Scientists estimate this increase from the loss of the dimming effect to be about 3 degrees Celsius. This global temperature increase will also accentuate the effectiveness of the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and cause a yet further increase in global temperatures. While carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere and will exist as a greenhouse gas for several thousands of years, these dimming particulates are short-lived in the atmosphere. Therefore, the sudden cessation of fossil fuel use resulting in the quick removal of reflective particulates will cause yet further global warming as long as the accumulated carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere. Thus the world is faced with a quandary where on the one hand continued use of fossil fuel will cause global warming to increase through additional carbon dioxide concentration; while on the other hand, reducing fossil fuel use will also cause global warming to sharply increase through the decrease of the dimming effect. It is therefore necessary to coordinate the reduction of fossil fuel use with the gradual removal of excessive atmospheric carbon dioxide. The scrubbing of ambient air in this invention enables the reduction of fossil fuel use with the coordinated removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Rapid Deployment of Marine Solar Energy Farms

A seventeenth aspect of this invention is that the collection modules and other floating structures together with the extensive underlying flexible frame may be rapidly installed onto the ocean surface using factory vessels. Many of the necessary materials and parts may be manufactured on board these vessels, and the modules partially assembled prior to installation onto the ocean surface.

Compared with land-based installations, the transportation costs are much less since the structures are installed directly from the factory vessels onto the ocean surface. By this means, large marine solar energy farms can be rapidly deployed. Ocean Ecology Research

An eighteenth aspect of this invention is that it enables our collective

oceanographic knowledge to increase. From the vantage point of these marine solar energy farms, studies can be conducted to further investigate how the oceans function within the ecology of our planet, and how our human needs have to morally negotiate boundaries set by the oceanic ecology. Framework for International Cooperation

A nineteenth aspect of this invention is that it enables an opportunity to establish a framework for international cooperation. As an available solution to global warming, the urgency to implement it to avert an impending global crisis creates a rare and precious opportunity for nations to recognize the overwhelming advantage to cooperate for wider overall good than to strive for narrow nationalistic interests. A framework can be established for such and future cooperation. Obviates Desperate Geo-Engineering Risks

A twentieth aspect of the invention is to provide a viable alternative to geo- engineering methods such as those proposing to introduce vast amounts of soot and sulphur compounds into the upper atmosphere to reflect away solar radiation from our planet. These large scale methods to manipulate the environment are extremely risky for the delicate ecology of our planet. These are last resort alternatives and based on desperate scenarios. Such manipulation of our planet’s upper atmosphere may compound the global warming problem into a more severe ecological problem than the one it tries to solve. Implementing this invention obviates such desperate risks.

C Summary The invention is a solution to the urgent problem of global warming by using sodium from the oceans to remove excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Energy used for this process is harvested at the ocean surface.

Marine solar energy farms consisting of a plurality of floating modular structures covering over several million square kilometers of ocean surface collect solar- electrical energy, wind-electrical energy, freshwater precipitation, and grow biomass for bio-energy. The electrical energy is converted to chemical energy principally through electrolysis of seawater brine to generate hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydroxide, and subsequently converted into other chemicals such as ammonia and methanol. These conversions are performed in auxiliary vessels integrated with the oceanic farms. The sodium hydroxide is used to remove carbon dioxide from ambient air blown through scrubbing vessels, thus gradually reducing the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide and decreasing global warming. Ocean acidification is reduced by enhancing ocean surface alkalinity using sodium bicarbonate, a by-product of the scrubbing process. Deep ocean hypoxia is improved by enabling the ocean surface layer in the vicinity of the oceanic farms to be better aerated. The decrease in our planet’s albedo through loss of ice in the polar regions is partially offset by enabling the floating structures to reflect away solar radiant energy. Collected freshwater is distributed by tanker vessels to other global destinations to address the global water shortage.

An extensive underlying flexible frame (eufframe) enables the floating modular structures to be conglomerated for control of the farms’ positions and to withstand the forces of ocean current, wind and storms. The floating modules are

economically designed using lightweight plastic films.

This invention also discloses means to inform and convince the global community of the urgency to act by enabling them to access the opinions of scientists, world leaders, and spiritual leaders. References to scriptural literature are included for those who have a preference for such wisdom, as well as for those who have a fatalistic outlook. Because of the massive nature of this technological solution, it is essential that convincing the global community to act forms part of this solution. D List of Drawings Fig 1 shows an assembly of floating structures of a Marine Solar Energy Farm. Fig 2 shows a cross-section view of a floating catchment module.

Fig 3 shows an enclosed floating catchment module with a dam surrounding the cover.

Fig 4 shows an enclosed floating catchment module with a funneling hole in the cover.

Fig 5 shows a cluster of floating catchment modules.

Fig 6a shows the floating catchment modules secured within a honeycombed network of ropes.

Fig 6b shows the connecting strap handles of the floating catchment module. Fig 7 shows a cluster attached to the initial underlying layer.

Fig 8 shows the eufframe consisting of layers of reinforcing networks.

Fig 9a shows the initial underlying layer consisting of a dense net of fine cables. Fig 9b shows the second underlying layer consisting of a less dense net of coarse cables.

Fig 9c shows the final underlying layer consisting of a least dense net of coarsest cables.

Fig 10a shows the eufframe as a single compounded layer.

Fig 10b shows the eufframe as three layers of nets superimposed into a single compounded layer.

Fig 11 shows the Marine Energy Integrated Complex.

Fig 12 shows the catchment module cover incorporating a thin-film PV panel. Fig 13 shows a wind turbine installed onto a floating buoy.

Fig 14 shows a collection module functioning as a bioreactor for microalgae cultivation.

Fig 15 is a flow chart for the cultivation, harvesting and processing of microalgae. Fig 16 is a flow chart showing the chemicals produced following the electrolysis of seawater brine.

Fig 17 is a flow chart showing the procedure to remove carbon dioxide from ambient air to produce sodium bicarbonate. Fig 18 shows a shipboard wind scrubbing tunnel to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Fig 19 shows how a floating catchment module cover may be coated to reflect radiant solar energy back towards the sky.

Fig 20 shows a floating catchment module compensating for the loss of air diffusion through the air-water interface.

Fig 21 shows the different towing vessels and towing devices for positioning of the marine solar energy farm.

E Detailed Description The Marine Solar Energy Farm and Floating Catchment Module

Fig.1 shows a marine solar energy farm comprising a multitude of floating structures 101 on the ocean surface for the purpose of harvesting solar energy. The floating structures are attached together and support apparatus and devices to collect the various forms of ocean solar energy such as solar radiant energy, wind energy, bio-energy and rainwater. Auxiliary vessels are connected to the farm to process the collected energy and to provide integrated support services (described below). The floating structures may comprise floating platforms, rafts, vessels and other containers, buoys, and float rings. In this first embodiment as shown Fig 2, one of the floating structures is a float ring 201 that holds in place a flexible collection bag 203 for the purpose of collecting rainwater and other forms of freshwater precipitation 205.

The float ring illustrated is circular, but may be of any suitable polygonal shape. It is a toroidal ring made of water-impermeable material such as PVC or rubberized fabric. Other materials may be used including plastic coating wrapping a toroidal plastic foam core. In this first embodiment, it is a PVC membrane with an air inlet valve so that the float ring may be inflated, much like the inner tube of a car tire. The float ring may be of any suitable size, for example 5 m outer diameter with a 600 mm cross-sectional tube diameter.

The flexible collection bag, made of water-impermeable material such as PVC, is attached around the float ring which keeps the mouth of the bag open facing upwards. Attachment means could include plastic hot welding, sewing and using suitable adhesives and flexible ties such as ropes and straps. In this configuration, the float ring and flexible collection bag function as a floating catchment module. The bag may be of any suitable size, for example with a mouth diameter of 5 m and depth large enough to capture rainwater to a depth of 2 m. By this means, rainwater and other forms of freshwater precipitation can be collected. Freshwater, being less dense than seawater, will be substantially self-buoyant and will not rely significantly on the float ring for buoyancy. The Enclosed Floating Catchment Module

To prevent contamination of collected water, a cover made of water-impermeable material is attached over the catchment module to form an enclosed floating catchment module. The cover may be a flexible membrane, or made of a semi- rigid plastic material such as acrylic or polycarbonate formed into a convex shape. Collection using a Dam

In the first embodiment as shown in Fig.3, a flexible membrane cover 301 is used. The cover is attached over the float ring 201 by means similar to the attachment of the flexible bag. The air space 303 under the cover is kept at a constant air pressure slightly higher than atmospheric pressure by a pneumatic pump 305 and an electrically operated outlet selector valve 306. This underside pressure raises the cover and maintains it in the shape of a convex facing upwards. (If a semi-rigid convex shaped cover is used instead, then it is not necessary to keep the underside pressure raised.) The pneumatic pump 305 also functions to maintain the float ring at a suitably inflated pressure through the outlet selector valve 306. In order to collect rainwater and other forms of freshwater precipitation, a dam 307 of approximately 10 cm height is attached to the upper surface of the float ring and surrounds the cover. The dam may be made of any lightweight plastic material such as PVC. Outlet holes controlled by electrically operated valves 309 are installed through the dam. Some of the outlets are for freshwater, and they are interspersed with outlets for saltwater. The freshwater outlets 311 drain into an enclosed freshwater channel 317, while the saltwater outlets 313 drain into the sea. An electrically operated freshwater detection device 315, capable of distinguishing between freshwater and saltwater, is installed at the base of the dam within the surrounded area. Such detection devices are available commercially, and constitute freshwater detection means.

During normal operations when no freshwater is detected within the dam by the freshwater detection device, the freshwater outlet valves are closed and the saltwater outlet valves are open. Any saltwater falling onto the cover and collecting within the dam will be discharged through the saltwater outlets into the sea. During rainfall when freshwater is detected, the freshwater outlet valves are opened and the saltwater outlet valves are closed. The freshwater drains through to a freshwater collection channel 317 into the collection bag 203.

If pre-treatment of freshly collected water is required, the water from the collection channel may be pumped through a filtration and sterilization chamber before mixing with water in the collection bag. Alternatively, freshly collected water may be pumped through a water diversion pump 319 with electrically operated inlet and outlet selector valves 321 into tube conduits and conducted to auxiliary process vessels (see below) for pretreatment before returning to the collection bag.

By means of the electrically operated valves and the freshwater detection device, freshwater is automatically collected during rainfall into the floating catchment module or pumped to auxiliary process vessels for pre-treatment if necessary. Other methods to control entry of freshwater and to prevent contamination are also possible. Collection using a Funneling Hole

In this second embodiment shown in Fig 4, the cover is a flexible membrane 401 similar to the first embodiment. Instead of a dam, it has a funneling hole 403 in the center of the cover to enable rainwater to funnel through into the collection bag. Funneling holes at other positions are also feasible. A float valve 405, such as a lightweight spherical ball within a restraining chamber, is attached over the funneling hole to control entry of water through the hole.

An air bag 407, connected to an electrically operated pneumatic pump 409, is attached under the funneling cover directly below the funneling hole.

An electrically operated freshwater detection device 411 is attached to the upper face of the funneling cover near the funneling hole or at any position suitable for the detection of freshwater precipitation.

When no freshwater is detected, such as when it is not raining, the detection device maintains a signal to operate the pneumatic pump to inflate the air bag and to operate the selector valve 413 to close the air bag release valve to keep the air bag inflated at a suitable predetermined pressure. The inflated air bag rises and floats on the surface of the water 415 within the collection bag. In this position, it raises the center portion of the funneling cover such that the funneling hole is at the highest position of the convex shaped cover. The funneling hole is blocked by the float valve ball and prevents external contamination such as seawater spray from passing through the funneling hole. Any seawater spray falling onto the cover in this position will flow off the surface of the cover into the sea.

During rainfall, when the freshwater detection device detects freshwater falling onto the catchment module, the detection device maintains a signal to the electrically operated pneumatic pump to deflate the air bag, and a signal to open the air bag release valve. The air bag sinks, thus lowering the center portion of the funneling cover such that the funneling hole is at the lowest position of the concave shaped cover. Rainwater falling onto the cover then accumulates at the middle of the cover in the area of the funneling hole and the float valve. In this position, the float valve ball floats toward the top of the restraining chamber and uncovers the funneling hole. Rainwater then passes through the funneling hole into the collection bag 203, or pumped through a water diversion pump 419 with electrically operated inlet and outlet selector valves 421 into tube conduits and conducted to auxiliary process vessels (see below) for pretreatment before returning to the collection bag.

The freshwater detection device, the air bag, float valve, pneumatic pump and pneumatic valve constitute means to control the shape of the flexible funneling cover.

The pneumatic pump 409 also functions to maintain the float ring at a suitably inflated pressure. Electricity supply for the pneumatic pumps, the freshwater pumps, the electrically operated valves and controllers, and the freshwater detection device may be from an electric battery located on the catchment module or from other sources in the marine solar energy farm. Floating Clusters

Floating structures and catchment modules may be rafted together by attachment to their immediately adjacent modules to form a floating cluster as shown in Fig 5. Plastic welding, straps, ropes and nets may be used to attach the structures together. In the first embodiment, as shown in Fig 6a, the catchment modules are secured as a floating cluster within a hexagonal network of ropes 601 located on the sea surface such that each individual hexagon of the network holds a module. Within this cluster, other floating structures may be assembled. In this

embodiment, buoys 603 are assembled to provide additional buoyancy. The above described detection devices, water pumps, pneumatic pumps, and electric batteries may be located within these buoys as an alternative to being located directly within the catchment module. Other collection apparatus and devices such as solar cell panels and wind turbines (described below) may also be installed onto these buoys.

Connecting strap handles 605 are attached to the float rings 201 of each module, as shown in Fig 6b, and these are secured to the hexagonal network. This rafting together of catchment modules by the hexagonal network to form a cluster provides added stability to the modules during rough seas. The hexagonal network is not intended to be the main structure to control the position of the cluster; that function is accomplished by the extensive underlying flexible frame described below.

Every cluster is surrounded by water and separated from other clusters. This is to facilitate access to floating structures by maintenance vessels should repairs be necessary. The marine solar energy farm may consist of an assembly of multiple clusters. The Extensive Underlying Flexible Frame

In order for a large number of catchment modules to be controlled in position in the open seas in such a way as to prevent individual modules and clusters from being carried away by wind and current, they need to be grouped together and secured. To be economically feasible, the area of sea surface from which the solar energy is farmed has to be large enough to efficiently use the auxiliary vessels that process the collected energy and provide integrated support services such as processing of the collected energy and positioning control. For a farm covering an area of several square kilometers involving hundreds of thousands of floating structures, the means to secure the floating structures into a single conglomerate has to be strong enough to withstand the several tons of load from the forces of sea current and wind. This conglomerating means also has to be designed such that its weight can be fully supported by the floating structures. One such conglomerating means is described below using an extensive underlying flexible frame (eufframe). It is an extensive network of ropes and other flexible cables that form a flexible frame that underlies and secures the floating structures of the marine solar energy farm. It comprises several layers of reinforcing networks of cables. The position of the conglomerate is then controlled by towing vessels and other towing devices attached to the eufframe.

These layers of reinforcing networks are graduated by differing levels of strength using cables of differing load capacities. The individual floating structures and catchment modules together with the hexagonal network of ropes are attached to an initial underlying layer which is the one with the lowest level of strength while the towing vessels are attached to the final underlying layer which is the one with the highest level of strength.

In this first embodiment as shown in Fig 7, the floating buoys 603 assembled within the cluster 501 of catchment modules are also used to attach the cluster using securing ropes 701 to the initial underlying layer 703 that is able to withstand the towing load of the single cluster. When multiple clusters are assembled together as shown in Fig 8, the respective initial underlying layers 703 for the individual clusters are in turn attached to a second underlying layer 801 of reinforcing network of a higher level of strength that is able to withstand the towing load of that multiple clusters. Progressing on to a yet larger system comprising several multiple clusters, the second layers 801 of reinforcing network are in turn attached to a third underlying layer 802 of reinforcing network of the next higher level of strength that is able to withstand the towing load of several multiple clusters. As the size of the marine solar energy farm is enlarged, the number of layers of reinforcing network is increased as necessary.

To understand the eufframe in another way, consider the initial underlying layer 703 to be a dense net of fine cables (see Fig 9a), while the second underlying layer 801 is a less dense net of coarse (stronger) cables (see fig 9b). Progressively underlying layers are yet less dense nets of yet coarser cables. The final underlying layer 905 is the least dense net of the coarsest (strongest) cables (see fig 9c). The floating structures are secured to the initial underlying layer, which in turn is secured to the second layer, and progressively secured to further layers, and eventually to the final layer.

Thus the entire farm’s catchment modules are able to transfer their towing loads to the eufframe consisting of a hierarchy of layers of reinforcing network that is graduated by levels of strength starting with the initial layer of reinforcing network of the lowest level of strength to the final layer of reinforcing network of the highest level of strength.

While the above explains and illustrates the layers of reinforcing network of the eufframe as progressively underlying layers for the sake of clarity, it is also possible to merge these layers into fewer compounded layers, or even into a single compounded layer 1001 that underlies the entire floating system of catchment modules. (see Figs 10a and 10b). The Marine Energy Integrated Complex

The marine energy integrated complex, as shown in Fig 11, comprises the marine solar energy farm that collects ocean solar energy and additionally incorporates functions such as production and storage for its energy products, towing and other forms of positional control for the farm, accommodation and support services for personnel. It further incorporates services to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. These integrated functions are facilitated by auxiliary vessels 1101 attached to the eufframe with mooring lines and other flexible ties such as rods, ropes, cables, wires and chains in order to secure the vessels to the farm. The vessels are also connected to one another and to the catchment modules with electrical cables, hydraulic and pneumatic tubes and other control and

communication systems 1103 in order to conduct operations such as transferring materials and products of the marine energy integrated complex. This complex constitutes the first means to produce alternative supplies of renewable energy that does not substantially increase emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.

The auxiliary vessels include vessels such as storage tankers and barges, accommodation ships, process vessels and other special function vessels to process and to store the products from the various forms of energy collected by the farm. Products are transferred from storage vessels to visiting transport vessels for delivery to other global destinations. Electrical Energy from Solar Radiant Energy

For the collection of solar radiant energy, there are many types of photovoltaic (PV) panel equipment available commercially which convert the radiant energy into electrical energy. Solar cell panels may be mounted onto the top surface of floating structures, floating buoys and catchment modules. Recently developed thin-film solar cell panels are flexible and lightweight. Some of these thin-film panels are printed on flexible substrates such as plastic film. In the first embodiment, as shown in Fig 12, the means to collect and convert solar energy into electrical energy consist of lightweight thin film PV panels 1201 incorporated with the flexible cover 301 of the enclosed floating catchment module. The PV panels may be attached with adhesive or other means such as fusion welding onto the cover. Alternatively, the PV panel may be made integrally as the cover itself.

Commercially available thin PV panel films transparent to certain wavelengths of light suitable for biomass growth within the catchment modules may also be used. Electricity generated from solar cell panels is conducted through electrical cables to auxiliary processing vessels 1101 for further processing. Electrical Energy from Wind Energy

Wind turbines of the marine solar energy farm convert the plentiful supply of wind energy on the ocean surface into electrical energy. These turbines need to be small and light enough to be installed on top of the floating structures. While smaller wind turbines do not have the output power of those conventional large wind turbines on land, they have an economic advantage in that they may be mass produced at a greatly reduced cost.

In the first embodiment, as shown in Fig 13, these small scale wind turbines 1301 are installed onto the top of floating buoys 603 that are assembled within the clusters. They may be of the horizontal axis or vertical axis types. Electricity generated from wind turbines is conducted to auxiliary processing vessels 1101 for further processing. Fresh Water Collection

Rainwater and other forms of fresh water precipitation is collected into flexible collection bags of the floating catchment modules as shown in figs 2, 3 and 4. The water may be used in bioreactors (described below). Excess water is pumped into auxiliary vessels 1101 and processed into potable water and other qualities of freshwater suitable for industrial and agricultural uses. The water is then delivered ashore by water tankers. Cultivation of Biomass

The floating catchment modules containing water in the flexible collection bags may act as bioreactor containers to grow biomass such as microalgae, as shown in Fig 14. The cover 1401 is made from transparent material that permits sunlight to penetrate through into the culture medium 1403. Water and microalgae from the collection bags is continuously circulated into auxiliary vessels 1101 that process the biomass. A mixture of sterilized water, biomass growth stock and biomass nutrients are returned to the bags. Through the continuous circulation, algal biomass is grown in the floating catchment modules and harvested in the auxiliary processing vessels. Cultivation of Marine and Agricultural Products

Other suitable marine and agricultural products may be grown within the floating catchment modules, either in a closed or open environment as appropriate. Renewable Bio-energy

Algal biomass from the bioreactors is harvested in the processing vessels and converted following commercially available processes into biofuels such as bio- diesel and char, into foods, phytochemicals, pharmaceuticals, plant fertilizers and other chemicals. Fig 15 is a flow chart of the process. After removal of biomass the water is recirculated back into the bioreactors. Prior treatment such as filtration, sterilization and infusion with suitable nutrients may be necessary. Excess water is transferred to freshwater storage tanks for shipment ashore. Converting Electrical Energy to Renewable Chemical Energy

Fig 16 is a flow chart of the processes to convert electrical energy into various types of chemical energy.

- Hydrogen:

Electricity generated by the marine solar energy farm is conducted to auxiliary vessels 1101 where electrolysis of seawater brine is performed. Preferably, flash distillation under partial vacuum and pre-treatment of seawater may be done to remove calcium and magnesium hydroxides and other compounds and to concentrate brine prior to electrolysis. Well-known and established processes such as the chloralkali process and other commercially available procedures may be adopted. Hydrogen gas is produced. Accompanying by-products are chlorine and sodium hydroxide.

The hydrogen gas is then further processed as described below into other chemicals.

- Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride:

Chlorine gas is produced as a by-product through the above-stated electrolysis of seawater brine. It may be stored as liquefied chlorine, or combined with water to form hydrogen chloride solution.

- Sodium Hydroxide:

Sodium hydroxide solution is produced as a by-product through the above-stated electrolysis of seawater brine. It may be stored as a solution or as a solid after evaporation of water. It may also be subsequently used to capture carbon dioxide in carbon sequestration processes (described below).

- Ammonia:

Ammonia is produced in the auxiliary vessels by combining the hydrogen produced with nitrogen from the air through processes such as the Haber Bosch process. The ammonia produced may be stored as liquid ammonia, or further processed to form other chemicals of ammonia.

- Ammonium Hydroxide:

Ammonium hydroxide is produced by combining the ammonia with water. It may be further processed into other chemicals. - Ammonium Chloride:

Ammonium chloride, a valuable fertilizer, is produced in the auxiliary vessels by combining the above-stated products of ammonium hydroxide and hydrogen chloride.

- Ammonium Nitrate:

Ammonium nitrate, an explosive fuel and a valuable fertilizer, is produced in the auxiliary vessels using the above-stated ammonia in processes such as the

Ostwald process.

- Methanol, Ethanol and other Organic Chemicals:

Methane can be produced in the auxiliary vessels through the combination of hydrogen with carbon dioxide in the methanation process. In this process, carbon dioxide recovered from scrubbing vessels (described below) is combined with the hydrogen produced in the chloralkali process. In the presence of catalysts, fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol are produced. Commercially available proprietary technology using improved catalysts is available for this process. Other organic compounds may also be produced from the carbon dioxide using commercially available processes. Carbon Sequestration by using Sodium Bicarbonate

Air from the atmosphere is blown or drawn using electric blowers into tanks of auxiliary vessels for scrubbing treatment to remove carbon dioxide. The scrubbing tanks contain sodium hydroxide solution which is intermixed with the incoming air. Thus the tanks function as scrubbing chambers to remove carbon dioxide which react with sodium hydroxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Fig 17 is a flow chart of the scrubbing process and recovery of sodium hydroxide solution.

Alternatively, as shown schematically in Fig 18, ambient air blowing as wind on the sea surface may be channeled into open ended tunnels 1801 on board the auxiliary processing vessels 1101. The processing vessels are maneuvered such that the orientation of the tunnels enables the wind to blow through. Within the tunnels, a liquid solution of sodium hydroxide is sprayed to scrub the air that is blowing through. Many other designs of air scrubbers are commercially available. The treated air from the scrubbing tanks and tunnels is released back into the atmosphere. The sodium bicarbonate solution may be pumped into a carbon dioxide scrubber recovery tank where the solution is heated to release the captured carbon dioxide. The recovered solution of sodium hydroxide is then circulated back to the scrubbing tanks. Alternatively, the sodium bicarbonate solution may be used to reverse the process of ocean acidification (see below).

Thus the scrubbing process constitutes second means to reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. Carbon Dioxide

The recovered carbon dioxide gas is then delivered to the biomass processing vessels where it is added to the nutrient solution that is circulated back to the bioreactors for the cultivation of algae and other biomass.

The recovered carbon dioxide gas may also be used in the methanation process stated above. Mitigating Global Warming by Increasing Albedo at the Oceans

Since the marine solar energy farms may occupy significant areas of the ocean surface, possibly of the order of several million square kilometers in total, the albedo at the oceans can be significantly increased by coating parts of the floating structures including the catchment modules. Fig 19 shows the reflective coated portion 1901 of the covers with a suitable reflective substance in order to reflect solar radiant energy back towards the sky. The transparent portion 1903 allows sunlight to pass through into the catchment module if it is used as a bioreactor. Alternatively, semi-transparent coatings that permit certain wavelengths of light to pass through for biomass growth may be used. The degree of such reflective effect can be adjusted by the type of coating or reflective material used, and by the proportion of the floating structures and modules coated. Reducing Ocean Acidification

The alkaline sodium bicarbonate solution from the auxiliary scrubbing vessels is introduced into the upper surface layer of the ocean. In the first embodiment, the solution of sodium bicarbonate from the scrubbing of ambient air is discharged from the auxiliary vessels or pump-injected into the ocean in the vicinity of the marine energy integrated complex. In the course of time and through the flow of ocean currents, this method to enhance ocean alkalinity reduces ocean acidification.

Thus carbon dioxide is sequestered into the oceans and enhances ocean alkalinity. This constitutes third means to input alkaline solutions into the ocean to enhance ocean alkalinity. Ocean Surface Aeration

The presence of marine solar energy farms over significant areas of the ocean may result in a loss of air water interface on the ocean surface. Consequently, natural diffusion of air through this interface may be diminished. Hypoxia is also present in some areas of the oceans due to increased stratification of the ocean layers caused by global warming.

To compensate for this effect, as shown in Fig 20, air is introduced into the upper surface layer of the oceans in the vicinity of the marine solar energy farms. Air pumps 305 from the floating catchment modules pump streams of air through tubes 2001 beneath the ocean surface. The bubbles of air generated 2003 will increase the air water interface area at the farms. The extent of such compensation, or even an enhancement over natural diffusion, may be adjusted by controlling the amount of air used, and by the size of bubbles generated. Waste Heat Recovery

The operations of the marine energy integrated complex uses energy collected by the marine solar energy farm. A considerable amount of waste heat is produced by the operations, and recovery of some of this energy is possible by using heat recovery steam turbines, heat transfer systems and similar purpose equipment where appropriate. Waste heat may directly be used for some of the processes described above such as to produce concentrated solutions of brine from seawater for the chloralkali process. Although the amount of energy collected by the farm may be vast and sufficient for the integrated services to be economically feasible, improvement in energy efficiency will reduce the amount of waste heat released into the environment of the oceans and the atmosphere. Auxiliary Vessels

In addition to the auxiliary vessels identified above, other special function auxiliary vessels include:

- Vessels with propulsion means, such as towing vessels, boats, tugs, ships, submerged vessels that use propulsion engines and other towing devices, such as submerged sea anchors including drift anchors, drift socks and drogues, to control the position the farm within predetermined locations at sea. Fig 21 shows these vessels and towing devices attached to the extensive underlying flexible frame 1001. Use of submerged sea anchors may be advantageous when deep sea currents permit.

- Vessels with automated systems based on satellite global positioning technology can be used. These vessels will transmit the farm’s position to navigation control systems to facilitate passage of other sea-going vessels traversing the vicinity. - Other special function vessels will be required to provide housing and

accommodation for workers and other personnel, to facilitate support services such as personnel training, rest and recreation, hospital services, and to function as a transportation hub for the operations of the marine energy integrated complex. Locations for the Marine Solar Energy Farms

The preferred locations for the farms are at the equatorial belt of the oceans known as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zones (ITCZ), also known as the doldrums. Between latitudes 5 degrees north and south, the incidence of severe storms is low. In this zone, ocean currents and winds are lighter; making it possible for the farms to drift within the belt such that the equatorial currents and counter currents will keep the farms migrating to and fro annually following the northerly and southerly migration of the ITCZ without excessive use of towing vessels. In this region, solar radiation is adequate and rainfall is abundant.

Locating in other regions of the oceans further away from the equator with higher insolation is possible but may require the floating structures and the eufframe to be constructed of appropriate materials to withstand heavier seas and storms. As well, the size of the farms in such comparatively turbulent regions may need to be reduced to achieve this requirement.

Other than the oceans, it is also possible to locate marine solar energy farms in open bodies of water such as coastal seas and large lakes. Other Information

Other than the above technical information, persons skilled in the art may need additional information to motivate other concerned persons to participate in implementing the marine energy integrated complex. The capital investment for an integrated complex of an economically efficient size is large and may require the cooperation of governments together with organizations such as industrial corporations and citizen groups. The facts concerning global warming and its causes have been contentious for over several decades. Misinformation from special interest groups has confused many people. Corrective action through references to authoritative clarification is necessary. Through the Internet, details of the technical solution together with references to authoritative conclusions of internationally renowned scientific agencies, the messages and warnings from ancient scriptural literature, the teachings and warnings from current spiritual and religious leaders are made available as described in this patent specification and published by government patent offices worldwide and made freely available for study by these other concerned persons. This will enable entire populations to be convinced of the urgency to support their governments’ efforts to fund the investments. Fourth Means References

References below, constituting fourth means, inform those concerned persons that: - global warming is largely caused by anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide; - unmitigated global warming will likely cause severe climate change;

- severe climate change presents devastating effects to the global environment; - these effects will manifest within the next several decades. 1. U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report of 2014–“A Strong Scientific Consensus”.

(http://www.un.org/climatechange/the-science/)

2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency–“Climate Change: Basic Information”.

(http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/basics/)

3. European Commission–“2030 framework for climate and energy policies”.

(http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/2030/index_en.htm)

4. U.S. National Research Council–“Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change:

Anticipating Surprises”.

(http://nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices/other-reports-o n-climate- change/2013-2/abrupt-impacts-of-climate-change/) Fifth Means References

Further references below, constituting fifth means, provide additional information for those concerned persons who have a preferential appeal for the wisdom and knowledge as found in scriptural and religious literature that these globally devastating effects are forewarned in such literature, and the teachings and warnings from current spiritual and political leaders: 5. The Holy Bible: Book of Isaiah 24:3–“The earth will be completely laid

waste...” (NIV)

6. The Holy Bible: Book of Daniel 12:1–“… There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then.” (NIV)

7. The Holy Bible: Book of Luke 21:25–“On the earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea.” (NIV)

8. The Holy Bible: Book of Matthew 24:21—“For then there will be great

distress, unequaled from the beginning of the world until now and never to be equaled again.” (NIV)

9. The Holy Bible: Book of Matthew 24:36–“But about that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.” (NIV) 10. The Holy Bible: Book of Mark 13:19 --“… because those will be days of

distress unequaled from the beginning, when God created the world, until now—and never to be equaled again.” (NIV) 11. The Holy Bible: Book of Mark 13:32 --“But about that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. Be on guard! Be alert!” (NIV)

12. The Holy Bible: Book of Revelations 8:7–“The first angel sounded his

trumpet, and there came hail and fire mixed with blood, and it was hurled down on the earth. A third of the earth was burned up, a third of the trees were burned up, and all the green grass was burned up.” (NIV)

13. The Holy Bible: Book of Revelations 8:8–“The second angel sounded his trumpet, and something like a huge mountain, all ablaze, was thrown into the sea. A third of the sea turned into blood, a third of the living creatures in the sea died, and a third of the ships were destroyed.” (NIV)

14. The Holy Bible: Book of Jonah:

3:10–“When God saw what they did and how they turned from their evil ways, he relented and did not bring on them the destruction he had

threatened.” (NIV)

4:10,11–“… the Lord said,‘You have been concerned about this plant, though you did not tend it or make it grow. It sprang up overnight and died overnight. And should I not have concern for the great city of Nineveh, in which there are more than a hundred and twenty thousand people who cannot tell their right hand from their left– and also many animals?’” (NIV)

15. Excerpt from Parliamentary Earth Summit (UNCED) address 1992 by the 14 th Dalai Lama:

“I often joke that the moon and stars look beautiful but if any of us tried to live on them we would be miserable. This blue planet of ours is a delightful habitat. Its life is our life; its future our future. Indeed, the earth acts like a mother to us all. Like children, we are dependent on her. In the fact of such global problems as the greenhouse effect and depletion of the ozone layer, individual organizations and single nations are helpless. Unless we all work together; no solution can be found. Our mother earth is teaching us a lesson in universal responsibility.” 16. Excerpt from International Islamic Climate Change Symposium (2015):

“Leading climate scientists now believe that a rise of two degrees centigrade in global temperature, which is considered to be the“tipping point”, is now very unlikely to be avoided if we continue with business-as-usual; other leading climate scientists consider 1.5 degrees centigrade to be a more likely “tipping point”. This is the point considered to be the threshold for catastrophic climate change, which will expose yet more millions of people and countless other creatures to drought, hunger and flooding. The brunt of this will continue to be borne by the poor, as the Earth experiences a drastic increase in levels of carbon in the atmosphere brought on in the period since the onset of the industrial revolution.”

17. Excerpt from Rabbinical Letter on the Climate Crisis (October 29, 2015): “Yet in modern history, we realize that for about 200 years, the most powerful institutions and cultures of the human species have refused to let the Earth or human earthlings have time or space for rest. By overburning carbon dioxide and methane into our planet's air, we have disturbed the sacred balance in which we breathe in what the trees breathe out, and the trees breathe in what we breathe out. The upshot: global scorching, climate crisis.

The crisis is worsened by the spread of extreme extraction of fossil fuels that not only heats the planet as a whole but damages the regions directly affected.”

18. Encyclical Letter‘Laudato Si’ of His Holiness, Pope Francis:

“161. Doomsday predictions can no longer be met with irony or disdain. We may well be leaving to coming generations debris, desolation and filth. The pace of consumption, waste and environmental change has so stretched the planet’s capacity that our contemporary lifestyle, unsustainable as it is, can only precipitate catastrophes, such as those which even now periodically occur in different areas of the world. The effects of the present imbalance can only be reduced by our decisive action, here and now. We need to reflect on our accountability before those who will have to endure the dire

consequences.” 19. Excerpt from State of the Union address on 20 January 2015 by President Barack Obama:

“…no challenge -- no challenge -- poses a greater threat to future generations than climate change.”

“2014 was the planet’s warmest year on record. Now, one year doesn’t make a trend, but this does: 14 of the 15 warmest years on record have all fallen in the first 15 years of this century.”

20. Excerpt from speech by President Xi Jinping at the Paris Conference on Climate Change 2015:

“…The Paris agreement should help galvanize global efforts and encourage broad participation. The agreement should provide institutional arrangements that propel countries to make concerted efforts. Besides governments, it should also mobilize businesses, non-governmental organizations and all players in society to participate in international cooperation on climate change, thus raising public awareness of pooling resources on climate change.” Concerned persons should understand the urgency to undertake efforts to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. By heeding the predictions of scientists and the warnings in religious scripture, it is still possible to implement efforts to avoid further global warming and its consequences.

F Conclusions, Ramifications and Scope The potential catastrophic climate change events arising from global warming is an issue of time constraint. It is like this:

We are in a car speeding towards a cliff. We need to immediately decelerate, but instead, we continue to accelerate. Not only do we need to take our foot off the gas pedal (i.e. stop burning fossil fuels), we need to step on the brakes (i.e. remove the excess carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere). Simple though it seems, our car driver has great difficulty taking his foot off the gas pedal and stepping on the brakes.

If we are unable to reduce our combustion of fossil fuels within the estimated guideline of RCP2.6 as determined by the United Nations IPCC, our planet will likely exceed the 2°C temperature increase within the next few decades.

Exceeding that limit, our global climate will probably suffer irreversible changes caused by positive feedback events. The Paris COP 21 Conference of December 2015 has recommended a more stringent target of 1.5°C.

Not only do we need to reduce the use of fossil fuels, it is also critical that we remove the excess carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere that is causing the present rate of temperature rise.

Meantime, we have recently exceeded 1°C of warming, which means we have another 1°C or less to go. The steady rise in global temperatures began around 1960 till the present, a period of almost 60 years. It was a period of steady global economic growth and population increase facilitated by the plentiful supply of coal, oil and gas. Since the rate of carbon dioxide emissions today is many times more than in the 1960’s, it will take much less than another 60 years to emit a similar amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere if we continue with our present rates of global industrial and population growth.

However, for reasons of economic survival and social stability, it is impossible to halt or even decrease the present rates of industrial and population growth. (That is why our analogous car driver cannot take his foot of the gas pedal.) Within these constraints, we need to find a solution to global warming that caters to global economic activity, yet enabling us to avoid the next 1°C rise in global temperatures. Present efforts to produce alternative energy resources on land cannot be scaled up in time to achieve the deadlines. This invention provides a solution to rapidly achieve the massive production of renewable fuels from solar energy available at the ocean surface, and to use some of that energy to clean excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere using sodium from the oceans.

This proposed solution may enable us to avoid the next 1°C rise. However, successful implementation will require the cooperation of the global community. It is essential that they be convinced to act by informing them the solution allows for a more gradual reduction of fossil fuel use without sacrificing economic growth and social stability. Other uses can be found for the various elements of the invention described. The catchment modules, whether open or closed, may be used for breeding marine flora and fauna, for migratory birds to rest, and for many other ecological benefits. Instead of the catchment modules described, other floating structures may be used to support lightweight PV films. Inflated plastic sheets, much like inflatable mattresses, may be laid onto the sea surface. The extensive underlying flexible frame may be used to secure floating structures in general and not necessarily for catchment modules. Drawings provided are essentially schematic illustrations to enable an easy understanding of this complex and multi-faceted invention to solve the problem of global warming. Thus the scope of the embodiments should be determined by the appended claims rather than by the examples given.

G Epilogue Exhortation Poem by Author/Inventor Wan Yew Cheng - dedicated to:

My dear wife Margaret - Thank you for your encouragement and ardent support, and

May your concern for the underprivileged develop to be like the large shady tree where birds came and perched on its branches;

Our children and grandchildren - May you inherit a bountiful world full of peace and free of poverty,

But if not, then may you have the strength, the desire and goodwill to achieve it. Man, Turn Around We burn our coal, Our Mother cries, Why the trumpets, Our gas and oil, “Mankind, danger! If not to warn

Burn our forests Stop, turn around.” Humanity?

To till the soil. No see… No hear…

Why Rev’lations,

Pillage species, The air is hot, If not to warn

Plunder our Earth, We pant to breathe. Both you and me? Eat, drink, enjoy! Oceans turn sour,

Others endure. Rivers bitter. Come everyone,

Man, Woman, Child, We dump our wastes The trumpet sounds… Our Mother calls…

Just anywhere, Lands devastate,

Poisoning all One third is dead. She cries to us,

Land, sea and air. “Help me! Save me!”

Again it sounds… ____ ____ ____ ____ . Oceans turn red,

One third is dead.