Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
GLYCOLS AS PATHOGEN INACTIVATING AGENTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/090067
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The disclosure relates to uses, methods and compositions for the inactivation of pathogens in biological compositions, using a glycol as a pathogen inactivating agent.

Inventors:
CHTOUROU, Sami (20 Avenue Du Chateau, Elancourt, F-78990, FR)
Application Number:
IB2011/003271
Publication Date:
July 05, 2012
Filing Date:
December 23, 2011
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
LFB BIOTECHNOLOGIES (3 Avenue Des Tropiques, B.p 305, Les Ulis, F-91942, FR)
CHTOUROU, Sami (20 Avenue Du Chateau, Elancourt, F-78990, FR)
International Classes:
A61L2/18; A61L2/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2002058747A12002-08-01
WO1995002393A11995-01-26
Foreign References:
EP0819968A11998-01-21
Other References:
KARBER, G., ARCH. J. EXPER. PATH. U. PHARMAKOL., vol. 162, 1931, pages 480
SPEARMAN, BRIT. J. PSYCHOL., vol. 2, 1908, pages 227 - 242
"Virology Labfax", 1993, BIOS PUBLISHERS (PLUS ACADEMIC PRESS (US), OR BLACKWELL NON-US
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CHAJMOWICZ, Marion (Cabinet Becker & Associés, 25 rue Louis Le Grand, Paris, F-75002, FR)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Use of a glycol as a pathogen inactivating agent.

2. Use of claim 1, wherein said glycol is propylene glycol.

3. A method for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, said method comprising contacting said biological composition with a glycol.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein said glycol is propylene glycol.

5. The method of claim 3 or 4, wherein said biological composition is a blood composition or a milk composition.

6. The method of any one of claims 3-5, wherein said pathogen is selected from the group consisting of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites, and prions.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein said virus is selected from the group consisting of X-MuLV, PRV, BVDV and TGEV virus.

8. The method of any one of claims 3-7, wherein said method results in a pathogen elimination equal or greater than 4Log1oTCID (Tissue Culture Infective Dose), wherein the TCID is according to the methods of Karber and/or Spearman- Karber.

9. The method of any one of claims 3-8, wherein the concentration of glycol after the contacting step is between 40 and 50% (v/v) of the biological composition. 10. The method of any one of claims 3-9, wherein said method is performed at a temperature between 15 and 25 °C.

11. The method of any one of claims 3-10, wherein said method is performed at a pH between 7.0 and 8.0.

12. A biological composition comprising glycol obtained by any of the methods of claims 3-11.

13. The biological composition of claim 12, wherein said glycol is at a concentration between 40 and 50% (v/v).

14. The biological composition of claim 12 or claim 13, wherein said glycol is propylene glycol.

Description:
GLYCOLS AS PATHOGEN INACTIVATING AGENTS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present disclosure relates to uses, methods and compositions for the inactivation of pathogens in biological compositions.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Use of biological compositions is important for developing and producing therapeutics (e.g., the production of recombinant proteins). Biological compositions, such as blood compositions, save many lives by blood transfusion for instance, for patients having a blood disease, a haemorrhage, or undergoing a surgical procedure. However, the presence of pathogens in biological compositions presents a significant health risk.

Methods to inactivate pathogens in biological compositions have been developed. Classical pathogen inactivation methods include approaches based on heat treatment, solvent and/or detergent treatment, gamma irradiation, UV treatment, and leukodepletion. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of said methods , varies because of the different sensitivities of pathogens and incompatibility of some methods with specific biological compositions.

There is a need for new pathogen inactivation methods and agents. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present disclosure relates to uses, methods, agents and compositions for the inactivation of pathogens in biological compositions.

In one aspect the disclosure relates to the use of a glycol as a pathogen inactivating agent. In some embodiments the glycol is propylene glycol.

In one aspect the disclosure relates to methods for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, said method comprising contacting said biological composition with a glycol. In some embodiments for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, the glycol is propylene glycol. In some embodiments for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, said biological composition is a blood composition or a milk composition. In some embodiments for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, said pathogen is selected from the group consisting of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites, and prions. In some embodiments said virus is selected from the group consisting of X-MuLV, PRV, BVDV and TGEV virus. In some embodiments for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, said method results in a pathogen elimination equal or greater than 4LogioTCID (Tissue Culture Infective Dose) according to the methods of Karber and/or Spearman-Karber. In some embodiments for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, the concentration of glycol after the contacting step is between 40 and 50% (w/w) of the biological composition. In some embodiments for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, the concentration of glycol after the contacting step is between 40 and 50% (v/v) of the biological composition. In some embodiments for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, said method is performed at a temperature between 15 and 25°C. In some embodiments for inactivating a pathogen in a biological composition, said method is performed at a pH between 7.0 and 8.0.

In one aspect the disclosure relates to a biological composition comprising a glycol, wherein said biological composition is obtained by any of the methods described herein In some embodiments said glycol is at a concentration between 40 and 50%. In some embodiments said glycol is propylene glycol. In some embodiments the biological composition is a milk composition or a blood composition.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The drawings form part of the present specification and are included to further demonstrate certain aspects of the present disclosure. The disclosure may be better understood by reference to one or more of these drawings in combination with the detailed description of specific embodiments presented herein. The figures are illustrative only and are not required for enablement of the disclosure. Figure 1 shows TEGV inactivation in an affinity chromatography eluate containing 45% of propylene glycol.

Figure 2 shows BVDV inactivation in an affinity chromatography eluate containing 45% propylene glycol.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In one aspect the disclosure relates to the use of a glycol as a pathogen inactivating agent. In one aspect the disclosure relates to methods for inactivating pathogens in a biological composition, said method comprising contacting said biological composition with a glycol. In one aspect the disclosure relates to a biological composition comprising glycol. In some embodiments said biological composition comprising glycol is obtained by any of the methods described herein.

In some embodiments of the uses, methods and compositions described herein, the glycol is vicinal glycol. In some embodiments the vicinal glycol is propylene glycol or ethylene glycol.

The term "glycol" (or "diol") refers to a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH). The term "vicinal glycol" refers to a glycol with two hydroxyl groups attached to adjacent atoms (e.g., in vicinal position).

In some embodiments the glycol used in the methods and compositions described herein is a vicinal glycol comprising between two and six carbons and having a chemical formula RiR 2 -(C-OH)2-R.3R4, wherein Ri, R 2 , R3 and R4 may be identical or different and are each either a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group, wherein the combination of Rj , R 2 , R 3 and R4 contains at most two carbon atoms. Examples of vicinal glycols are propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-butanediol and 1 ,2- pentanediol.

In some embodiments of the uses, methods and compositions described herein, the glycol is propylene glycol or ethylene glycol.

The term "propylene glycol", also called "1,2-dihydroxypropane" or "methyl glycol", refers to propane- 1 ,2-diol and has the structural formula (I) represented below. The term "ethylene glycol", also called "1 ,2-dihydroxyethane", refers to ethane- 1 ,2-diol and has the structural formula (II) represented below.

Propylene Glycol Ethylene Glycol

In some embodiments of the uses, methods and compositions described herein, the glycol is a geminal glycol. Geminal glycols have two hydroxyl groups attached to the same carbon atom and include 1 ,2-methane diol, 1 ,2-ethane diol and 1 ,2- propanediol. In some embodiments of the uses, methods and compositions described herein, the glycol is a diol wherein the hydroxyl groups are not on the same or adjacent carbon atoms. Examples of such glycols are 1 ,3-butanediols, 1 ,4-pentanediols, and 1 ,3- benzenediol.

In one aspect the disclosure relates to pathogen inactivating agents, compositions that comprise such agents and uses thereof.

The term "pathogen" refers to any biological agent {e.g., any nucleic acid containing agent or proteinaceous infectious particle such as a prion) that can cause disease in a mammal, such as a human. The term pathogen includes unicellular and multicellular microorganisms, with DNA or RNA as genetic material, in single-stranded or double-stranded form. The term particularly includes viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and prions. Examples of bacteria include, but are not limited to, Streptococcus, Escherichia and Bacillus species; examples of viruses include, but are not limited to, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and other retroviruses, the herpesviruses, the paramyxoviruses, the poxviruses, the togaviruses, the cytomegaloviruses and the hepatitis viruses (HAV, HBV, HCV); examples of parasites include, but are not limited to, malaria parasites {Plasmodium species) and trypanosomal parasites.

In some embodiments of the disclosure, said pathogen to be inactivated is selected from the group consisting of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites and prions. In some embodiments said pathogen is a virus.

In some embodiments said virus is an enveloped virus or a non-enveloped virus. Enveloped viruses are viruses that have a host-cell-like "envelope" and include for example, but are not limited to, mammalian or avian Leukemia viruses, Herpes viruses, Pox viruses, Hepadnaviruses, Flaviviruses, Togaviruses, Coronaviruses, Hepatitis viruses, Retroviruses, Orthomyxoviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Rhadoviruses, Bunyaviruses, Filoviruses and Reoviruses. Non-enveloped viruses, also called naked viruses, are well known in the art and include, but are not limited to, adenoviruses, norovirus, rotavirus and human pappillomavirus.

In a some embodiments the virus is X-MuLV, PRV, TGEV or BVDV. The term

"X-MuLV" for "Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus" refers to a gammaretrovirus. The term "PRV" refers to a pseudorabies virus. The term "TGEV" for "Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus" refers to a species of animal virus belonging to the family of Coronaviruses. The term "BVDV" for "Bovine viral diarrhea virus" is a pestivirus from the family of flaviviruses.

* In one aspect the disclosure relates to methods for inactivating pathogens in a biological composition, said method comprising contacting said biological composition with a glycol.

As used herein, the term "contacting" refers to a process of bringing into contact at least two distinct compositions or components such that they can interact.

The term "biological composition" refers to a composition (or a material) originating from a biological organism, including mammals. Examples of biological compositions include, but are not limited to, blood compositions, milk (such as milk from transgenic mammals), clinical samples such as urine, sweat, sputum, feces and spinal fluid, cellular and tissue extracts, cell culture medium, etc. As used herein, biological compositions also include synthetic compositions that can function as biological compositions, such as blood substitutes, and compositions that have undergone one or more purification or separation steps.

According to the disclosure a blood composition includes, but is not limited to, whole blood and blood products. The term "blood product" refers to one or more components that may be separated from whole blood, and encompasses cellular blood component (such as erythrocytes or red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes and concentrates thereof), blood proteins (such as blood clotting factors, enzymes, albumin, plasminogen, immunoglobulins) and blood fluid components (such as plasma, fractions of blood plasma and serum). In some embodiments the blood composition is leukodepleted (e.g., depleted in leukocytes).

In some embodiments the blood composition to be treated is selected from the group consisting of whole blood, erythrocytes concentrates, platelets concentrates, plasma and fractions of blood plasma.

In some embodiments the biological composition is a milk composition. In some embodiments the milk composition to be treated is derived from milk of a transgenic animal that produces a protein of interest secreted in said milk.

In some embodiments the method is performed on an eluate in a process of purification, such as by affinity chromatography, of a biological composition, such as a milk composition.

The terms "pathogen inactivation" or "inactivating pathogens", as used herein, refer to the suppression or inhibition of the replication (or reproduction) of said pathogens, and/or their destruction or elimination. Typically, a pathogen inactivating agent severely or at least substantially hampers the ability of the pathogen to replicate or reproduce under appropriate conditions.

Methods for determining if a particular method results in the suppression or inhibition of replication of pathogens are well known in the art. Typically such methods include the steps of determining the number of (active) pathogens prior to treatment with a pathogen inactivating agent and determining the number of (active) pathogens after treatment. The particular method for determining the number of active pathogens will depend on the nature of the pathogen and includes colony forming assays (for determining the number of active bacteria) and infective assays (for determining the number of "active" viruses). One measure of the number of active viruses is the Tissues Culture Effective Dose (TCID), which can be determined for instance by the Karber and/or Spearman-Karber methods. (See e.g., Karber, G. (1931). Arch. J. Exper. Path. u. pharmakol., 162, 480; Spearman ( 1908). Brit. J. Psychol. , 2:227-242) In some embodiments the methods of the disclosure result in pathogen elimination higher or equal to 4 LogioTCH). The pathogen elimination may be calculated according to the methods of Karber and/or Spearman-Karber as explained in the examples.

In some embodiments the biological composition, after the contacting step, will contain an amount of glycol sufficient to inactivate, eliminate or lower the amount of pathogen, for example, below a desired level. In some embodiments the glycol concentration in the biological composition after the contacting step is between 10% and 75% (w/w), between 15% and 70% (w/w), between 20% and 65% (w/w), between 25% and 60% (w/w), between 30% and 60% (w/w), between 35% and 55% (w/w), or between 40% and 50% (w/w) of the composition. In some embodiments the glycol concentration in the biological composition after the contacting step is between 10% and 75% (v/v), between 15% and 70% (v/v), between 20% and 65% (v/v), between 25% and 60% (v/v), between 30% and 60% (v/v), between 35% and 55% (v/v), or between 40% and 50% (v/v) of the composition.

While not required, generally, it is expected that the pathogen inactivation increases with the length of exposure of the biological composition comprising the pathogen to the glycol. In some embodiments the biological composition is contacted with the glycol for a duration that permits pathogen elimination greater than or equal to 4Log TCID (Tissue Culture Infective Dose)

In some embodiments the biological composition is contacted with the glycol for at least 10 minutes, at least 20 minutes, at least 30 minutes, at least 40 minutes, at least 50 minutes, at least 60 minutes, at least 70 minutes, at least 80 minutes, at least 90 minutes, at least 1200 minutes, at least 150 minutes, at least 180 minutes, at least 210 minutes, at least 240 minutes, at least 300 minutes, at least 360 minutes, at least 2500 minutes, at least 1000 minutes, or more. In some embodiments the biological composition is contacted with the glycol for a duration between 15 and 360 minutes, between 60 and 240 minutes, or between 90 and 180 minutes. In some embodiments the glycol is removed from the biological composition after a specific amount of pathogen inactivation has been achieved. In some embodiments the glycol remains present in the biological composition after the inactivation of the pathogen. In some embodiments of the methods described herein are performed at a temperature between 10 and 30°C, between 12 and 28°C, or between 15 and 25°C.

In some embodiments the methods described herein are performed at a pH between 4 and 1 1, between 5 and 10, between 6 and 9, between 6.5 and 8.5, or between 7 and 8. In some embodiments the methods described herein are performed at a pH of around 7.5. In some embodiments the methods described herein are performed at a pH of 7.5. A person of ordinary skill in the art can rely on the literature to determine which pH range is acceptable for a particular biological composition.

In some embodiments the methods comprise a further step of viral elimination such as nanofiltration.

In some embodiments the methods are performed during an elution phase in a process of purification, such as affinity chromatography, of a biological composition. In some embodiments the glycol is added to an affinity elution buffer. In some embodiments an affinity elution buffer comprises 50 mM tris, 45% (w/w/) propylene glycol and 1.5M NaCl and has a pH of 7.5. In some embodiments an affinity elution buffer comprises 50 mM tris, 45% (v/v/) propylene glycol and 1.5M NaCl and has a pH of 7.5.

In some embodiments the methods described herein do not comprise a step of contacting the biological composition with cruciferous oil or with arginine in a significant amount.

A significant amount of arginine, as used herein, corresponds to an arginine concentration of at least 0.2M, at least 0.0 IM, or at least 0.00 IM, after the contacting step.

A significant amount of cruciferous oil, as used herein, corresponds to a concentration of at least 0.1 % of said cruciferous oil, at least 0.01 %, or at least 0:001%, after the contacting step.

In one aspect the disclosure relates to a biological composition comprising glycol for inactivating pathogens, wherein said biological composition is obtained by contacting a biological composition with a glycol, such as by any of the methods described herein.

In some embodiments said glycol is propylene glycol or ethylene glycol. In some embodiments the glycol concentration in the biological composition is between 10% and 75% (w/w), between 15% and 70% (w/w), between 20% and 65% (w/w), between 25% and 60% (w/w), between 30% and 60% (w/w), between 35% and 55% (w/w), or between 40% and 50% (w/w) of the composition. In some embodiments the glycol concentration in the biological composition is -between 10% and 75% (v/v), between 15% and 70% (v/v), between 20% and 65% (v/v), between 25% and 60% (v/v), between 30% and 60% (v/v), between 35% and 55% (v/v), or between 40% and 50% (v/v) of the composition.

In some embodiments the biological composition also comprises a detergent such as TWEEN 20 or TWEEN 80. In some embodiments the biological composition also comprises a solvent such as TNBP (Tri-N-butyl Phosphate). In some embodiments the biological composition comprised a detergent prior to contacting with glycol. In some embodiments the biological composition is contacted with a detergent prior to contacting with glycol. In some embodiments the biological composition is contacted with a detergent simultaneously with contacting with glycol. In some embodiments the biological composition is contacted with a detergent after contacting with glycol.

In some embodiments the biological composition does not comprise arginine in a significant amount.

In some embodiments the biological composition does not comprise cruciferous oil in a significant amount.

In some embodiments the biological composition does not comprise either arginine or cruciferous oil in a significant amount.

EXAMPLES The following examples describe some embodiments of making and practicing the methods and compositions of the disclosure. However, it should be understood that the examples are for illustrative purposes only and are not meant to limit the scope of the disclosure. The entire contents of all of the references (including literature references, issued patents, published patent applications, and co-pending patent applications) cited throughout this application are hereby expressly incorporated by reference. Material and Methods

The inactivation of two enveloped viruses (TGEV and BVDV) by propylene glycol (PG) present at 45% (v/v) in an affinity chromatography eluate was evaluated. The eluate was generated during the production of a transgenic protein of interest (in a milk composition derived from a transgenic animal producing said protein, which is secreted in its milk).

Cytotoxicity, viral interference and quenching.

The cytotoxicity, viral interference and quenching parameters of the starting material (the eluate) were determined prior to the incubation assay in presence of PG. The assays to determine the cytotoxicity, viral interference and quenching were done on the eluate sample of an affinity chromatography.

Cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity parameters of the starting material were evaluated using the conditions in Table I:

Table I. samples for evaluation of the cytotoxicity and tested dilutions.

The non cytotoxic concentration of the sample matrix is defined as the first dilution of the sample matrix that does not involve any destruction of the cell coat of cells incubated into the matrix.

The cytotoxicity parameters obtained at Day +3 in this assay were used to determine the viral interference conditions and were confirmed at Day +6. Viral interference control and sample quenching. The viral interference and the sample quenching parameters were determined simultaneously.

The viral interference parameters of a sample for the titration system were evaluated. The assay consists of a dilution titration of the viruses BVDV and TGEC in a sample matrix (first dilution point : non-cytotoxic matrix, as determined above) compared with a titration in a culture medium. Before determining the appropriate dilutions of the viruses, a 30 minutes incubation period at 4°C was performed in order to mimic the assay environment, as the actual assay has latency times of 15-30 minutes prior to the titration of fractions at TO, T5 and T15.

The potential interference of the matrix with both titration systems (ST and

MDBK cells) was evaluated according to the operating conditions shown in Table II.

Table II: operating conditions of interference.

The viral interference/quenching by the matrix was determined to be significant if a difference > 1 ,0 logio TCIDso/mL was observed between the titration in sample matrix (the eluate) and the titration in culture medium. Process

Operating conditions. The kinetics of the inactivation of the enveloped viruses (TGEV and BVDV) by the propylene glycol (PG) was evaluated by contacting the viruses for six hours at 20°C (±5°C) with the eluate of the affinity chromatography containing 45% (v/v) PG as obtained during the purification process of the transgenic protein. The virus was added to the sample at a concentration of 5% (v/v). For each virus, the assay was performed in duplicate.

Material. The starting material was an affinity chromatography eluate. The starting material was spiked with virus at 5% (v/v).

The conditions of the viral suspensions of TGEV and BVDV used in this assay are described in Table III (TEGV) and Table IV (BVDV).

Table III. TGEV spikes.

Respective cell Culture media (for ST and MDBK cells) were used during the neutralization step. This neutralization was performed at concentrations determined in the assays on the cytotoxicity, the viral interference and the matrix quenching. Assay.

A beaker was placed in a heating device at 20°C±5°C. The beaker was placed on a magnetic stirrer and maintained at 20°C±5°C before treatment.

For each assay, an aliquot of starting material (20mL) was thawed in a water bath at 20°C ±5°C. After thawing, the temperature was checked.

Each aliquot (>lmL) of viral suspension was thawed at ambient temperature. An aliquot of about O. lmL was stored at a temperature lower than -65°C. The viral suspension was used to create a sample of the starting material containing 5% of virus.

The treatment consist of spiking ImL (5%) of viral suspension in 19mL of matrix containing 45% of PG (obtained from the eluate of the affinity chromatography).

After a rapid homogenization and a check of the temperature of the mixture, a sample aliquot (ImL) was taken and quenched with culture medium (ST cell culture medium or MDBK cell culture medium, depending on the cell line used). The added volume of cell culture medium depended on the data obtained in the cytotoxicity, interference and viral quenching study. This sample constituted the "TO".

The virus-spiked material (containing PG at 45% (v/v) was incubated for six hours at 20°C±5°C in the same manner as for the "TO" sample, sample aliquots of ImL were taken (and immediately diluted) after incubation periods of: T= 5min, T= 15min, T= 60min, T= 180min, T= 360min.

The samples collected during the different incubation assays of the eluate matrix "FVII Select" (that contain PG at 45%) are summarized in the Table V.

Table V: Designation of the collected samples during assays.

The samples, after titration, were stored at a temperature below -65°C. In addition, controls were generated with low, average and high viral load, by spiking of the matrix diluted in a non-cytotoxic and non-interfering concentration with the TGEV and BVDV viruses.

The incubation assays of the matrix containing 45% PG were considered successful if the following conditions were satisfied:

• a temperature of 20°C±5°C and a incubation period of 6 hours, · taking of the sample aliquots as planned.

Titration of the samples of process.

The titration of the samples generated during the above-described assays was done on the same day.

Titration protocol. The titration of viruses of the samples shown in Table III was performed according to the study L-50 for TGEV and L-319 for BVDV.

The titration was done in three steps: seeding of the 96-wells plates, infection of said plates in standard titration or LVP (Large Volume Plating) and determination of the titer.

Seeding conditions of the 96-wells plates for the titration of each of the viruses are described in Table VI. Table VI. seeding conditions of the 96-wells plates for the titration of BVDV and TGEV.

For each virus:

• samples obtained by the first run (Table V) were first titrated by the standard protocol,

• fractions obtained by the first run for which no virus was detected with the standard protocol were analyzed in Large Volume Plating (LPV) similar to samples obtained by the second run,

• if no virus was detected in the standard protocol, the first sample and the last sample (sample collected after 6 hours of incubation) were minimally titrated using LVP.

The titrations were performed immediately after the treatment assays; without freezing the samples.

Standard titration. The culture supernatant was removed and replaced by 20μΙ_ of the sample to be titrated.

After a one-hour incubation at 37 °C, 130μΙ. of culture medium was added to each well. Viral propagation resulted in a total or partial destruction of the cell coat.

For each dilution, 12 infection replicates were performed in order to permit a statistic analysis according to the Karber and/or Spearman-Karber methods, (See e.g., Chapter 5 of "Virology Labfax", Bios Publishers (plus Academic Press (US), or Blackwell non-US, 1993 ; Karber, G. (1931). Arch. J. Exper. Path. u. pharmakol., 162, 480; Spearman (1908). Brit. J. Psychol., 2:227-242).

LVP titration. The viral titration method "Large Volume Plating" in "n" replicates allows for an increase in tested sample volume and thus an increase in the detection limit. The protocol is identical to the standard titration, except that the analysis was done using only one sample dilution, placed in all the wells of one or more 96-wells plate(s). The statistic analysis was done according to the method of Spearman- Karber.

Controls. In parallel with the sample titration, the following controls were performed:

• a negative control was used for each titration series. This control consists of a titration of the culture medium (used in the titration series) with the conditions used in the sample titration.

• A positive control was also used for each titration series. In this study, BVDB and TGEV were used as a positive control. The titer of these positive controls was 6,08 logio TdD 50 /mL and 6,41 logio TCIDso/mL + 0,5 log ! o TCIDso/mL.

Validity of a titration assay. A titration assay was considered valid if:

• No destruction of the cell coat was observed with the negative control.

• The sample titration shows a rate of positive wells between 0 and 100% for at least three successive dilutions.

• For at least the last dilution of the sample, a positive well rate equal to 0% is recognized.

Calculation of titers, charges and Reduction factor. After an incubation period of six days (for each of the viruses), for each well of each of the dilutions, the number of cells that had a total or partial destruction of the cell coat were quantified (with a microscope at size x40 and/or xlOO). The virus titer in each well was determined according to the Karber formula, expressed in TCID 50 /mL (in logio). The titer of viral suspension was calculated according to the Karber method. The titration of a virus was given with an uncertainty of ±0,5 logio TCIDso/mL and was calculated with the formula:

∑ (p,xq. )

IC ( a=5%) = 1 -96 x

(n - l)

wherein : /?,· is the rate of positive wells at dilution i.

q, is the rate of negative wells at dilution i.

However, if the virus was only observed at the first tested dilution of the sample, and its infection rate was lower than 100%, the logarithmic concentration of virus in TCIDso/mL was calculated according to the formula of the method of Spearman Karber:

wherein C is the virus concentration in TCIDso/mL,

v is the inoculum volume per well

n is the number of inoculated wells for each dilution

r is the number or infected wells.

With the titers and viral loads expressed here in decimal value, the total viral load in a sample was calculated with the titer and the sample volume according to this formula:

Total viral load = titer x sample volume (mL).

The reduction factor (RF) was calculated compared to the viral load in the « TO » sample.

RF = (total viral load in "T0")/(total viral load in sample taken at a later time). Results

TGEV study on the affinity chromatography eluate (in presence of 45 %

PG).

The results are described in Table VIII and illustrated in Figure 1.

Table VIII.

TGEV - Run 1

T=360 20 <0.8 9 <3.06 >4.32 >4.39 Standard

TGEV - Run 2 toe

T=360 20 <-0.12 9 <2.14 >5.40 >5.48 1 LVP (96 wells)

B VDV study on the affinity chromatography eluate (in presence of 45 %

PG).

The results are described in Table IX and illustrated in Figure 2. Table IX.

BVDV - Run 1

T=360 20 0.8 27 3.53 > 4.32 2.75 Standard

BVDV - Run 2

T=360 20 < -0.12 27 < 2.61 > 3.15 > 3.59 1 LVP

X-MuLV and PRV studies on the affinity chromatography eluate (in presence of 45% PG).

A similar study was done on a affinity chromatography eluted with 45% PG using the X-MulV and PRV viruses and including the determination of standard deviations.

Results are described in Tables X and XI.

Table X. X-MuLV study.

Table XI. PRV study.

The foregoing written specification is considered to be sufficient to enable one in the art to practice the invention. The present invention is not to be limited in scope by examples provided, since the examples are intended as a single illustration of one aspect of the invention and other functionally equivalent embodiments are within the scope of the invention. Various modifications of the invention in addition to those shown and described herein will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description and fall within the scope of the appended claims. The advantages and objects of the invention are not necessarily encompassed by each embodiment of the invention.

What is claimed is: