1. Gypsum-board radiant panel (3) made of a board consisting of gypsum or gypsum mixtures, for example graphite, of the sandwich-type for false- ceilings, comprising a gypsum-board layer (4) and an associated insulating layer (5) made of a foam of synthetic material, and housing a thermal conditioning system (6) conveying a thermal carrier fluid with corresponding delivery and return manifolds (7, 8), characterized in that it further comprises:
- a plurality of pipes (12) for housing electric lines for forming an electric circuit for provided electric users, such as lighting points, sensors, and the like, or for the subsequent displacement and/or integration thereof, or for data transmission lines, information apparatus lines, radio/television system lines, and the like in the false-ceiling (2) made up of said radiant panels (3), and/or
- in the thermal conditioning system (6), one or more control components (9) for controlling said circuit (6), such as actuators associated to said manifolds (7; 8) and controllable by a dedicated electric circuit housed, for example, in said pipes (12), or by the wireless technology.
2. Radiant panel (3) according to claim 1, characterized by the fact that said pipes (12) for electric lines are incorporated in the panel (3) with an arrangement parallel to each other in the longitudinal or transversal direction in the thickness of the insulating material foam layer (5) or partially in said insulating material foam layer (5) and partially in the panel board made of gypsum or gypsum mixture (4).
3. Radiant panel (3) according to claim 1 , characterized by the fact that said pipes (12) are fixed, for example glued, on the upper side of said insulating material foam layer (5), with an arrangement parallel to each other in the longitudinal or transversal direction.
4. Radiant panel (3) according to claim 1, characterized by the fact that it has on the outer side of the insulating material foam layer (5) a plurality of grooves having an arrangement parallel to each other in the longitudinal or transversal direction and adapted to firmly house said pipes (12) inserted therein.
5. Radiant panel (3) according to claim 1, characterized by the fact that said manifolds (7, 8) are housed in a cavity (3a) made in the insulating layer (5) of the panel (3), for example in an angular area thereof, wherein said cavity (3a) is then closeable by a cover element (3b) or a foamed synthetic material.
6. Radiant panel (3) according to claim 1, characterized by the fact that the layer usually made as a gypsum-board consists of a gypsum mixture further containing graphite components, metal powders or fibres of synthetic material or reinforcing glass, possibly coloured, as such or as fabrics or interlaces, and adhesives.
7. False-ceiling formed by gypsum-board radiant panels supported in a suspended frame, fixed to the real ceiling of a room in a house, office or the like, characterized by the fact that it is at least partially made up of radiant panels made of a board consisting of gypsum or gypsum mixtures according to one or more of claims 1-6.
8. False-ceiling according to claim 7, characterized by the fact that in the longitudinal (13) and/or transversal (14) compensation room formed between the arrangement of the abuttingly associated panels (3) and the adjacent longitudinal and transversal sides of the room walls, is respectively housed a corresponding strip (18, 19) made of an insulating material foam, each strip housing a through pipe (15, 16), and also an electric connector box (17) in the joining corner between said insulating strips (18, 19), that is between said longitudinal (15) and transversal pipes (16).
Description of the invention
Field of the invention
The present invention refers to gypsum-board radiant panels for false- ceilings, as well as false-ceilings formed by said radiant panels according to the preambles of claims 1 and 7, wherein, according to the invention, the term "gypsum-board" comprises also gypsum mixtures with other components, as discussed in the following.
Background and state of the art
It is known, with respect to the conventional gypsum-board panels for false-ceilings generally used for completely or partially lowering ceilings and often housing lamps and spot lights, called "lighting points", that the gypsum-board radiant panels for false-ceilings have now found an even increasing use due to their advantageous basic characteristics, that is:
- an excellent thermoigrometric comfort,
- high heating yields and, particularly, if compared with the underfloor radiant systems, also high cooling yields,
- an optimal association to thermal energy production systems having an high efficiency or exploiting alternative energy sources, such as solar sources, due to the fact that the radiant systems require a heating temperatures of the thermal carrier fluid of about 35-45°C, temperature which can be easily obtained by solar plants and, cooling temperatures of about 14-16°C.
The radiant panels for false-ceilings can be classified in two classes, the radial metal panels, that is panels having a metal plate-shape support, and the insulating radiant panels having a civil finishing on the exposed side, that is with a gypsum-board plate-shape support, wherein both the panels can show, on the upper side facing the ceiling, a foam insulating synthetic material layer, for example, of polyurethanes, polymers, or other biocompatible materials and preferably adapted to be used in the bio- building. The metal radiant panels are generally used for forming radiant ceilings in offices, hospitals, and in the service industry. In the radiant ceilings with metal panels, it is important to have always the possibility of inspecting the thermal conditioning system and to easily open each panel supported by their supporting frame suspended from the room ceiling. Conversely, it is known that the use of gypsum-board panels prevent the inspection of the gypsum-board, such inspection can be only done through so-called "manholes", provided here and there in strategic locations of the formed false-ceiling.
Currently, there is a growing diffusion of the radiant ceilings also in the housing field, and more precisely, not just in expensive villas or anyway in independent residences, but also in large buildings comprising several apartments. Of course, in these instances, the provided "strategic positioning" of the manholes can only occur in locations in which there is provided an high number of different components of the hydraulic system distributing the thermal carrier fluid and of the electric circuit of the room, wherein however it is not possible to foresee future requirements of the each apartment customers which obviously are determined by their personal needs, which are sometimes unknown at the purchase, wherein moreover, as it is known, the apartments are generally completed before their sale, respectively purchase.
Consequently, the buyer often needs to integrate or move some electrical wirings from an area to another of the apartment rooms, wherein the most troublesome requirement is notoriously the arrangement of the lighting points forming nowadays a real arrangement design frequently created by interior architects according to the wishes and needs of the buyers as a function, for example, of the provided furniture. In these instances, the presence of a false-ceiling formed by conventional gypsum-board panels with its air chamber located under the real ceiling, called "technical compartment", usually provides a great freedom of planning to whom designs the lighting of each room, because it is possible to reach every location of the ceiling without forming before the known slots in the ceiling and adjacent walls.
The same holds true for the metal radiant panels, because inside their mentioned "technical compartment", it is possible to visually inspect the development of the thermal conditioning system. The metal radiant panels are known, for example, from documents EP 1 ,184,625 A2 and US 4,635,71 10 Al wherein the thermal carrier fluid circuit has a serpentine layout which is not incorporated in a sandwich panel.
This freedom lacks in the gypsum-board false-ceilings formed by gypsum-board radiant panels, which incorporate in the same panels, as a sandwich, the thermal hydraulic conditioning system and the associated incorporated pipes in the insulating layer, as shown for example in document WO 2004/038121 Al of the Applicant. Although it is provided the cited "technical compartment" in the sandwich gypsum-board radiant panels, the presence in the panels of their incorporated operative part, that is pipes, thermal diffusers, fittings, manifolds, etc., makes difficult and uncertain, for example, panel drilling operations for displacing, for example, a lighting point, because such drilling could unintentionally break an hydraulic component of the thermal conditioning incorporated system and, consequently, can seriously damage the system. Obviously, this is due to the impossibility of directly inspecting the thermal conditioning system which is incorporated in the sandwich panels and, therefore, shielded from the view.
The sandwich gypsum-board radiant panels incorporating the thermal conditioning hydraulic circuits of the prior art are illustrated, for example, in documents DE 41 37 753 Al of Koster Helmut, EP 0 501 470 Bl of Sandler Energietechnik GmbH & CO KG, EP 1 004 827 B l of Plan Holding GmbH, WO 2010/109428 A2 of Messana Roberto and IT 1 ,378,873 of Fugolo Andrea.
Document DE 41 37 753 Al discloses plate-shaped composite elements, such as heating and cooling panels, comprising a lower gypsum plate 10, 30, 50 receiving on its upper face, rectilinear capillary pipes 12-17, forming individual circuits, inserted in parallel grooves milled in the gypsum-board, and an upper sheet plate 1 1 acting as a thermal diffuser, wherein the ends of said rectilinear capillary pipes 12-17 project from said upper plate and are connected, at one side, to a delivery manifold pipe 32 and, at the other side, to a return manifold pipe 33, which are received on said gypsum lower plate 10, 30, 50 and form real manifolds. Obviously, the milling operation of the grooves generates large quantities of gypsum dust consequently determining an environment pollution and disposal problems, besides it reduces the mechanical strength of the plate itself. From document EP 0 5001 470 Bl it is known an heating arrangement having a mat 2 of small capillary parallel pipes 3, folded on themselves and connected to their ends respectively by a dispensing pipe 6 (delivery manifold) and a manifold pipe 7 (return manifold) adjacently arranged, such mat 2 is positioned on a support plate 1 with a groove 31 receiving said manifold pipes 6 and 7, wherein an interposed filling thermal conductive adhesive layer 15 and a covering plate 16 on said mat 2 complete the sandwich panel structure.
In document EP 1 004 827 Bl it is shown a self-sustaining prefabricated radiant panel P of the sandwich-type having at least one lower plate- shaped gypsum-board layer 1 and an upper layer 2 made of thermoinsulating material, wherein the gypsum-board plate 1 receives several continuous pipes 3 for a thermal carrier fluid, each of them is housed in serpentine extending cavities made in adjacent modular areas 6 of the panel and forms an independent hydraulic circuit, wherein, said areas 6 can be separated one from the other for forming panel modular parts of smaller size. The end parts 4 of the serpentine continuous pipes 3 laterally project from a side of the gypsum-board plate I and are alternatively connected respectively to a delivery manifold pipe 8 and to a return manifold pipe 8 located adjacent to said side of the panel with said projecting ends 4.
From document WO 2010/109428 A2, it is known a sandwich modular radiant panel which can be subdivided in smaller units. The panel comprises an inner thermoinsulating plate 1 having serpentine slots 2 (for example, four) receiving radiant pipes 4 for a thermal carrier fluid and slots 3 receiving a pair of delivery and return manifolds 5, such manifolds 5 are movable, cross the whole panel and project from two opposed sides of the panel, and wherein the panel further comprises an outer or front finishing exposed layer bonded to the inner plate 1.
Document IT 1 ,378,873 discloses gypsum-board radiant panels for walls, ceilings and floors, made of a surface layer 1 having suitable grooves receiving circuits 3 and an insulating layer 2, wherein the main aim of the invention is the introduction of dispensing manifolds 8 also housed in the insulating layer 2 and wherein, further, said circuits 3 are supplied by manifolds 8 by pipes 4 housed in the insulating layer 2 and connected to the outer network 7. Areas 12 without circuits 3 are provided in the panels and have varying sizes according to the requirements, for positioning inspecting manholes, grilles, flush-mounted lights, thermostats, electrical parts, etc., which can be also mounted during the panel manufacturing. Usually, the known sandwich panels incorporate the thermal carrier fluid hydraulic circuit with corresponding manifolds of the more suitable type for the considered hydraulic circuit.
Summary of the invention
Starting from this state of the art, the aim of the present invention is to provide gypsum-board radiant panels which enable to form radiant false- ceilings, which permit to obtain supplementary functions of the panels and/or a more flexible operation of the thermal conditioning system without impairing, in any way, the integrity of said thermal conditioning system incorporated in the panels.
This aim is met, according to the invention, by a gypsum-board radiant panel made of a board consisting of gypsum or gypsum mixtures, for false-ceilings and by false-ceilings at least partially made of said radiant panels, having the features of claims 1 and 7.
Further developments and advantageous embodiments will be better understood from the dependent claims.
According to a first aspect of the invention, the proposed radiant panels can house/support lighting points as it is known for suspended false- ceilings formed by conventional gypsum-board panels for reducing the height of housing rooms. These lighting points can be predetermined at the moment of the false-ceiling installation according to general requirements and then, according to the invention, can be modified/displaced according to a later different need because of, for example, a different arrangement of the furniture or a different change of use of a room, without damaging the thermal carrier fluid hydraulic circuit.
To this end, according to the invention, in the radiant panel it is incorporated a plurality of hollow pipes, provided for possibly housing, later on, electrical wires, cables for forming/modifying the original wiring of the false-ceiling and of its radiant panels.
By arranging accessible electrical lines in the radiant panel, the same can also house/support, besides the lighting points, other possible necessary electrical users, as known gas sensors/detectors, sprinklers and the like. Said hollow pipes can also receive information apparatus lines, data transmission lines, radio/television system lines, stereophonic systems for loudspeakers, etc.
In addition, and/or alternatively to such possibilities of introducing/changing the wirings according to a further aspect of the invention, it is further possible to change, on the whole surface of the panels or of the false-ceiling, or some areas of the surface, the cooling or heating thermal delivered power as a function, for example, of the arrangement of the furniture or a variation of it, or a change of use of the room, for example in dining areas, bathroom areas above the tub, above the sink/s or above the shower box, etc., wherein to this end, the thermal conditioning hydraulic circuit, according to the invention, is provided with corresponding control components, for example actuators associated to single hydraulic circuits, for example of the manifold-type, and controllable by electrical circuits provided or locatable in the cited hollow pipes or by the "wireless" technology, through remote controls, for example inserted in the control domotics of the corresponding room, house, or the like. The gypsum-board radiant panels, according to the invention, and the false-ceilings formed by the radiant panels, provide several and important advantages.
Firstly, the presence of hollow pipes for the wirings incorporated in the gypsum-board radiant panels enables to arrange electrical wires along paths, as desired, in the false-ceiling, so that it is possible to arrange/transfer to any desired positions in the false-ceiling, or in more desired positions of the same, users requiring an electrical power supply, for example lamps, smoke detectors, gas detectors and the like, without preliminarily doing any preparation works which can entail wall breakages or the arrangement of longer or shorter unattractive exposed portions of electrical circuits.
By preliminarily knowing the composition and arrangement of the thermal conditioning system incorporated in the panels, it is possible to drill without fail holes passing through the panel thickness without damaging the corresponding thermal conditioning system. The diagram of the thermal conditioning system can be for example printed on the panel side facing the room, or also on a removable film, acting as a "template" and inserted in the packaging. In this way, it is possible to drill the required holes in the desired positions of the panel without impairing the thermal conditioning system and without using expensive professional instruments (such as infrared cameras) or inaccurate instruments, such as heat sensitive strips, which are colored by the heat. In this case, in order to have the available heat, the radiant system must be turned on, in other words the false-ceiling must be installed and operating.
The hollow pipes for the wiring electrical lines can be housed both longitudinally and transversally in the panels and their number can be provided as desired depending on the panel size, wherein the latter could have a standard size, that is, for example, 1 ,200 x 2,000 mm for forming ceilings or, for example, 1,200 x 2,700 - 2,800 mm for forming walls, with a thickness of the gypsum-board for example of 10 mm and a thickness of the foam insulating layer for example of about 40 mm.
The hollow pipes for wiring electrical lines can be housed, at least partially, in the gypsum-board, in pre-printed grooves, or just received in the thickness of the insulating layer and could have any desired cross- section.
A further advantage is that the possibility of choosing or modifying, as desired, the positions of the lighting points and of other electrical users also after the ceiling assembly, according to the invention, is favorably considered and it is also instrumental in selling apartments under construction, that is, not already built or completed. The ceilings according to the invention make even more easy the intended variations of the lighting points and of other electrical users, particularly, in case of a change of use of rooms, for example when a housing apartment is transformed in an office, or vice versa. In addition, advantageously, for enabling from time to time the formation of the desired circuits or wirings, it is suitable to respectively provide a pipe for the electrical lines, also in the side and/or transversal compensation rooms of the ceiling, as well as, in the same rooms, one or more connector boxes.
The presence of the wiring hollow pipes, according to the invention, further enables to provide/integrate in the radiant panels an electrical connection for controlling the actuators associated to the control manifolds received in the radiant panels themselves.
The control of the actuators is actually very important because by the actuators it is possible to perform several operations, such as:
- implementing a secondary adjustment, by opening and closing the circuits as a function of the information about the thermal needs of the environment, by an outer controller,
- the possibility of an adjustment proportional to the environment thermal load, by opening on the panel itself one or more circuits, as a function of the information about the environment thermal requirements, by an outer controller,
- the possibility of an adjustment proportional to the environment thermal load, by using proportional mode actuators in the different circuits, as a function of the information about the environment thermal requirements, by an outer controller, - the use of a four-pipe adjustment, by opening the hot or cold circuits as a function of the information on the environment thermal requirements, by an outer controller,
- the use of a protection safety against overtemperatures and undertermperatures. When the adjusting system detects a too high water temperature, besides turning off the circulation pump, it turns off the actuators on the panels; moreover in the presence of a condensate risk during the cooling, it turns off just the actuators corresponding to the risk area.
Advantageously, the control of the actuators incorporated in the radiant panels can be delivered:
- by electrical cables to an environment controller,
- by electrical cables to a control unit receiving information from the different environment controllers,
- from a wireless adjustment consisting of environment controllers and control units which radio communicate to each other.
A further advantage of the radiant panels according to the invention is due to the fact that, besides being made of gypsum-board, they can be made as composite panels, that is with gypsum mixtures, exploiting the physical characteristics of the components which can be added to the gypsum, such as, graphite, metal powders or fibers made of synthetic materials or reinforcing glass, possibly colored, as such or as fabrics or interlaces, adhesives, etc. So it is possible to increase, among other things, the mechanical strength and to enable, with respect to the gypsum-board panels, a thickness reduction.
Panels only made of graphite incorporating the thermal conditioning system pipes are already used for operating metal panels. However, the graphite cannot form the outer finishing. The composite panels of gypsum-graphite, according to the invention, have the following advantages:
- a better thermal conductivity of the support base, and therefore an higher thermal yield (the yield is improved of about 20-30%),
- it is used a more rugged base panel, not weakened by millings, so it is less prone to breakages during the handling,
- a simpler and cleaner manufacturing cycle.
Indeed, the thermal carrier fluid pipes can be inserted in the graphite- gypsum-board sandwich by simply pressing them, without milling away any material with a consequent formation of dust,
- better fire resistance characteristics. The gypsum-board panels falls in the fire resistance euro class B, while the graphite use enables to have panels falling in the fire resistance euro class Al (class 0 according to the Italian standards), in other words the material does not contribute to the combustion and therefore it is perfect to be installed in environments such as hotel, hospital, school rooms, etc., - greater lightweight of the panel, this fact enables its handling and, for the same surface, requires a supporting structure adapted to a lower weight,
- the possibility of manufacturing panels with holes, which show an improvement of the false-ceiling acoustical behavior.
Brief description of the drawings
Further features, advantages and characteristics of the radiant panels made of gypsum-board or gypsum mixtures for false-ceilings and of the false- ceilings formed by such panels, according to the invention, will be better understood by the following description with reference to some embodiments of radiant panels and a false-ceiling formed by them, manufactured according to the invention, shown in the attached drawings, conveniently scaled down for a better comprehension of the illustration, and in which it is schematically shown:
Figure 1 is a plan view of the radiant false-ceiling according to the invention in a room, formed by gypsum-board radiant panels according to the invention,
Figure 2 is a plan view of a gypsum-board radiant panel as it is used in the radiant ceiling of Figure 1,
Figures 3 and 4 are respectively a perspective plan view of two panels according to the invention, which differ just for the longitudinal or transversal parallel arrangement of the hollow electrical wiring pipes according to the invention,
Figures 5 and 6 are respectively an enlarged scale vertical cross-section of the detail A of Figure 3 with two different arrangements of the incorporated wiring hollow pipes for the electrical lines, and
Figure 7 is an enlarged scale of the detail B of Figure 2.
Detailed description of preferred embodiments
With reference to the above mentioned figures, drawn in a convenient scale for a better comprehension, the same parts have been designated by same reference numbers.
First of all, reference will be made to Figure 1 , in which 1 designates the perimeter of the walls defining a room 1A, for example of housing, business apartments, or the like. The false-ceiling formed in this room is generally designated by 2 and it is formed by a plurality of gypsum-board radiant panels 3 having a sandwich arrangement, which are supported by a suspended supporting structure, not shown, fixed to the room 1A ceiling.
The gypsum-board radiant panels 3 can have a known construction, as for example shown in document WO 2004/038121 Al of the Applicant. Such panels substantially comprise a main lower gypsum-board panel 4 and an upper foam layer 5 made of an insulating synthetic material adhering to said gypsum-board panel 4, wherein this sandwich 4, 5 houses a thermal conditioning system schematically shown by 6 and which not specifically comprises, for example, as known, a plurality of strip-shaped radiant bodies having a large radiant surface and fittings connecting to each other the radiant bodies, as well as, delivery/return fittings for a fluid communication among adjacent panels. Alternatively, as shown in Figures 1 and 2, the thermal conditioning system 6 can be formed by one or more spiral arrangements coplanarly winded on themselves and formed by a pipe or capillary pipe for delivering the thermal carrier fluid, wherein in the shown example, the panels 3 have two serial spiral arrangements, the delivery and return ends of said spiral arrangements are designated by 6aE and 6bE and 6aU and 6bU respectively, Figures 2 and 7. In the shown example, in the gypsum-board radiant panels 3, according to the invention, the thermal conditioning system 6 comprises distributing manifolds 7 and 8, wherein the manifold 8 is implemented as a controllable manifold, that is, provided with associated actuators 9 controllable by electrical lines or by the wireless technology. In this way, it is possible to adjust on the entire false-ceiling 2, or only on portions thereof, the heat or cold generation through the panels 3.
As shown, the manifolds 7 and 8 with the actuators 9 are received at an angular portion 10 in a cavity 3a milled in the insulating layer 5 of the panels 3, wherein said cavity 3 a can be insulated, after the assembly of the thermal conditioning system 6, for example as shown in the cited document WO 2004/038121, or closed by an insulating cover 3b. In the Figures 3 and 4, M and R designate respectively the delivery and return pipes extending from the system of the heating boiler, not shown, and to be connected to the manifolds 7, 8.
Moreover, according to the invention, the gypsum-board radiant panels 3 receive a plurality of hollow pipes 12, for example of the corrugated type, as normally used in forming domestic and industrial electrical circuits concealed beneath the plaster. Their arrangement and number are chosen as desired. Advantageously, these pipes 12 have a rectilinear and parallel arrangement in the longitudinal (Figure 3) or transversal direction (Figure 4) between the facing sides of the panel 3, in order to enable the insertion of electrical wires or cables for forming from time to time the intended circuits. Such pipes 12 can be incorporated in the radiant panel 3 completely in the insulating foam layer 5 (Figure 5) or partially in said insulating foam layer 5 and partially in the gypsum-board panel 4 (Figure 6), wherein the latter will make faster the heating/cooling action from the false-ceiling 2 to the underlying room.
Referring to the sizing, the gypsum-board radiant panels 3, according to the invention, can have any desired size, advantageously, for example, the standard sizing is 1,200 x 2,000 mm, with a thickness of about 10 mm of the gypsum-board panel 4 and a thickness of about 40 mm of the insulating layer 5 made of foam synthetic material, for example, polyurethane, polymer or other biocompatible materials, preferably, suitable to be used in the bio-building. In practice, the false-ceilings made up of panels 3 abutting one to the other in the room 1A always form a residual empty room or the so-called longitudinal 13 and transversal 14 "compensation room", in these rooms, according to the invention, it is also arranged a hollow pipe for wiring electrical lines, as shown at 15 and 16 in Figure 1, respectively for a longitudinal pipe 15 and a transversal pipe 16. In the shown example, it is further provided a connector box 17 between said pipes 15 and 16, in such connector box enters the electrical supply line and exits the same in a longitudinal and transversal direction.
According to the invention, the pipes 15, 16 and the connector box 17 are incorporated in a corresponding strip 18, 19 made of an insulating material, insertable in said longitudinal 13 and transversal 14 compensation rooms.
From the above structural operative description, it is possible to easily understand that, by the teachings of the present invention, it is effectively solved the mentioned aim and are obtained the cited advantages.
Moreover, it should be noted that the pipes 12 arrangement on the gypsum-board panel 4 can be rapidly completed, for example, by adhesive spots applied to the panel 4, and then, the single pipes 12, preliminarily cut to size, are then adhered to said spots, wherein such operations can easily and rapidly occur automatically and wherein the foaming step of the insulating layer has been executed before, as it is known. In practice, the persons skilled in the art of the invention, can introduce other variations and modifications, for example they can provide the pipes 12 with a square cross-section, possibly with inner smooth walls, as well they can provide, as an alternative, on the upper side of said insulating layer 5, grooves, made during the insulating synthetic material foaming, which receive by pressure the pipes 12, so that said pipes 12 can be applied to the gypsum-board radiant panels, according to the invention, as a function of their use, in other words as required by the sellers, this fact enables, from one side, to stock off-the-shelf gypsum-board radiant panels, and from another side, to slightly increase the manufacturing costs just for the panels provided with said pipes 12. The latter can also be applied therefore directly by the installers according to the needs occurring from time to time.
These and other modifications and variants immediately comprehensible to a person skilled in the art of the invention fall in the scope of the invention as claimed.
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