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Title:
HEAT-ACTIVATED ADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/210379
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present description relates to an adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition, and method of use. In particular, the tack coat compositions comprise an asphalt binder material, a resin, an emulsifier, and a polymer, wherein the tack coat is non-adhesive at ambient temperatures and adhesive when heat is applied.

Inventors:
CREWS, Everett (1191 Fort Lamar Road, Charleston, SC, 29412, US)
CHATTERJEE, Roger, K. (1243 White Tail Path, Charleston, SC, 29414, US)
Application Number:
US2016/039435
Publication Date:
December 29, 2016
Filing Date:
June 24, 2016
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
INGEVITY SOUTH CAROLINA, LLC (5255 Virginia Avenue, North Charleston, SC, 29406, US)
International Classes:
C08L95/00; E01C7/18; E01C7/24; E01C7/26
Domestic Patent References:
WO2003097746A12003-11-27
WO2015040432A12015-03-26
Foreign References:
US8821064B12014-09-02
US20140356526A12014-12-04
US7276557B22007-10-02
US7918624B22011-04-05
CN103059584A2013-04-24
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ZERHUSEN, Bryan, D. et al. (Locke Lord LLP, P.O. Box 55874Boston, MA, 02205, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
In the claims:

1. An adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition comprising an asphalt binder, a resin, an emulsifier, and a latex polymer.

a. The tack coat composition of claim 1 where the binder content ranges between 30-75%wt;

b. The tack coat composition of claim 1 where the resin content ranges between about 1.0-6.0%wt;

c. The tack coat composition of claim 1 where the emulsifier content ranges between about 0.75 and 4.5%wt;

d. The tack coat composition of claim 1 where the latex polymer composition ranges between about 0.5-5.0%wt and has a glass transition temperature ranging from about 30-80°C.

2. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the tack coat is an aqueous emulsion.

3. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the principal binding material is bitumen or asphalt.

4. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 3, wherein the composition

comprises from about 30%wt to about 75%wt of bitumen or asphalt.

5. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the composition

comprises from about 45%wt to about 90wt% of principal binding material.

6. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the composition

comprises from about 1.0%wt to about 6.0wt% of resin.

7. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the composition

comprises from about 0.75%wt to about 4.5wt% of emulsifier.

8. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the composition

comprises from about 0.5 %wt to about 5.0wt% of the polymer.

9. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the resin includes phenol-formaldehyde hybrids of rosin-based esters, such as, but not limited to products like Jonrez RP-315, Jonrez RP-341, Jonrez IM-817, MWV Hydrogral P, Westrez 5140, Dermulsene DP 1124, and Dertophene T.

10. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the emulsifier includes anionic, nonionic, or cationic emulsifiers.

11. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 10, wherein the emulsifier

includes at least one of a potassium rosin acid salt, a sodium rosin acid salt, a sodium tall oil fatty acid salt, an ethoxylated alkyl phenol, a fatty acid amide, a polyalkylene polyamine, a quaternary ammonium compound, and an amphoteric emulsifier.

12. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the polymer includes a latex polymer or a latex co-polymer.

13. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 12, wherein the latex polymer or co-polymer has a glass transition temperature (Tg) in a range of about 10°C to about 80°C.

14. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 14, wherein the Tg of the latex polymer or co-polymer is in a range of about 10°C to about 80°C.

15. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 13, wherein the latex polymer or co-polymer includes styrene-acrylic.

16. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 16, wherein the styrene-acrylic has a glass transition temperature (Tg) in a range of 0°C to 80°C.

17. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 17, wherein the Tg of the styrene- acrylic is in a range of about 10°C to about 70°C.

18. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the composition

cures/non-adhesive in about 10-20 minutes at ambient conditions.

19. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 19, wherein ambient conditions of air temperature, wind speed, solar flux, relative humidity, and surface temperature.

20. The adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition of claim 1, wherein the tack coat is

spray able.

21. A method of making adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition comprising the steps of dispersing the resin into the bitumen, heating the resin-modified bitumen to about 120- 160°C, and emulsifying the bitumen in a solution of emulsifier and latex polymer in water using a conventional colloid mill to yield a storage stable emulsion having a residue of between about 45-90%.

22. The method of claim 12, wherein the adhesive asphalt or tack coat composition is applied to a substrate by spraying.

Description:
HEAT-ACTIVATED ADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS

BACKGROUND

[001] 1. FIELD OF THE ART

[002] The present disclosure relates to adhesive tack coats usable in particular in the paving industry, which comprises a principal binding material dispersed in aqueous phase, mixed with polymeric components, and further including a resin, a coalescing agent, and an emulsifier.

[003] 2. DESCRIPTION OF RELATED ART

[004] Pavement structures may comprise multiple layers applied to a foundation layer.

Multi-layer pavement structures are utilized in traffic bearing structures, such as roadways, airport taxiways and landing strips, and parking lots for vehicles. One or more layers of asphalt materials are applied to the foundation layer or base layer or to successive pavement layers. These asphaltic layers generally include a binder material, such as asphalt and tar, aggregate particles, such as rock or recycled pavement materials, as well as various additives and fillers.

[005] A tack coat is often required between asphaltic layers. The tack coat is an adhesive coat that provides adhesion or bonding between asphaltic layers, which may fuse the asphaltic layers together. Typical tack coats include liquid asphalt compositions, which are applied to a foundation layer or asphaltic layer. Typical tack coats are made chiefly of bitumen as the binding agent. Bitumen-based tack coats are liquefied for the purposes of spraying, for example, by emulsification with water, by heating above their melting temperature, or by addition of a solvent such as a petroleum distillate to cut-back or lower the viscosity of the bitumen.

[006] The purpose of the tack coat provides resistance for the asphaltic layers from slipping and sliding relative to each other. When properly utilized, tack coat binds the discrete asphalt layers to yield a monolithic structure, which exhibits higher resistance to the deleterious effects of the repeated stress and strain of traffic loads than do the individual layers. In addition to constructing a multi-layer pavement structure, tack coats may be required when a portion of a multi-asphaltic-layer pavement structure is repaired. During the repair, the traffic bearing layer is removed by, for example, grinding, milling, or other means. A tack coat is applied to the exposed structure, followed by application of a new asphalt payment layer. Alternatively, a tack coat may be applied to the existing multi-asphaltic-layer structure, and subsequently, a new pavement layer applied thereto.

[007] Once applied to a surface, tack or bond coats may be subjected to construction traffic or other vehicular traffic. As such, vehicles and other traffic may travel on the tack coated foundation before the application of the subsequent pavement layer. If the bond or tack coating sticks to tires and is removed partially or totally when traffic traverses the tack coated asphaltic layer, the quantity of residual tack coat may be insufficient to impart the adhesion required to bind the two asphalt layers. Insufficient adhesion between asphaltic layers can cause premature deterioration, including separation of the layers, shoving, and cracking during construction of the multi-layer pavement structure or during service. This deterioration can be costly to repair, can damage vehicles traveling on the pavement structure, and can create hazardous conditions which can lead to injuries for vehicle passengers and pedestrians, as well as property damage.

[008] Cutback asphalt tack coat is asphalt combined with solvents, volatile oils, or other similar products, such that the composition remains in a liquid, flowable condition. A solvent may include, for example, naphthas, white spirits, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and other petroleum distillates. The volatile solvents can damage the environment and present safety issues for storage and application. For these reasons, states may prohibit the use of cutback asphalt.

Typical cutback asphalts contain greater than 60% by weight asphalt residues. In contrast, typical asphalt emulsions contain about 25% to 70% by weight asphalt residues.

[009] Cutback asphalt and asphalt emulsion tack coats require relatively long cure times. As a result, portions of a typical tack coat can be transferred to, bonded to, or tracked from the applied bond coat to the construction equipment, personnel, and other materials that traverse the applied bond coat. Disturbances to an applied bond coat can interfere with the bond coats ability to properly bond and/or fuse pavement layers (including the foundation layer). Improper bonding and/or fusion of the pavement layers can result in slippage and sliding between the relative pavement layers, in water penetration of the pavement surface, and in a decrease in the expected service life of the overall pavement structure.

[0010] The standard grades of asphalt materials used within tack coats have different properties based on their viscosity, chemical composition, rheological properties, aggregate particle composition, etc. The standard grading measures include penetration ("pen") value and Ring and Ball Softening Point. [0011] Pen value is a relative hardness measurement for asphaltic compositions at a predetermined temperature, typically 25° C. More specifically, a standard loading is applied to a standard needle under known temperature and time conditions to determine the distance the standard needle penetrates (measured in dmm) the tested asphalt material. Example test methods include ASTM D5 (ASTM International) and AASHTO T49 (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). The needle penetrates soft bitumen to a greater depth than it penetrates hard bitumen. Thus, the higher the penetration value, the softer the bitumen. And, conversely, the lower the penetration value, the harder the bitumen.

[0012] The Ring and Ball Softening Point (ASTM E28-14) is a method that determines the temperature at which an asphaltic material becomes soft and flowable. In particular, a disk of material is held in a ring and loaded with a ball. The Ring and Ball Softening Point is the time at which the ball will flow through a defined distance when heated at a prescribed rate.

[0013] Asphalt compositions are generally defined as hard pen asphalt compositions (i.e. asphalt composition), medium pen asphalt compositions (i.e. mid or moderate pen asphalt composition), or soft asphalt compositions (i.e. high pen asphalt composition). These general categories, however, are not formally defined. For example, hard asphalt compositions have high melting points and typically have pen values of about 40 dmm or less and Softening Points greater than 60° C, moderate pen asphalts typically have pen values from about 40 dmm to about 100 dmm with a Softening Point of about 48° C to about 60° C, and high pen asphalt

compositions typically have pen values greater than 100 dmm with Softening Points below 48° C.

[0014] Bitumen suppliers often provide penetration and ring and ball softening point data for their various grades. Shell Bitumen and Engen of New Zealand are noteworthy examples. Their published data, if plotted, shows that the ring and ball softening point and penetration value of a bitumen are linked. Figure 1 shows these relationships in graphical form.

[0015] Bitumen used in asphalt emulsions typically have pen values greater than 40 dmm with softening points below 60° C. The soft or medium pen asphalt compositions provide an emulsion tack coat with a tacky surface under ambient temperatures pavement constructions conditions. This results in significant problems with portions of the tack coating volume being tracked from the applied location, as discussed above. In contrast, hard pen asphalt compositions have not been used as tack coats due to their high melting points, limited flowability and very low surface tackiness at ambient temperatures for pavement constructions. Additionally, hard pen asphalt compositions need to be heated to relatively high temperatures prior to

emulsification, which can be impractical and interfere with the emulsification process. For example, heating a hard pen asphalt composition to a temperature as high as 204° C may be undesirable for an emulsion with water, which has a boiling point of 100° C. Additionally, hard pen asphalt composition must be used shortly after preparation because they are often unstable during storage, and often include undesirable particulate contents.

[0016] For at least these reasons, tack coatings typically employ moderate to soft pen asphalt emulsions, cutback asphalts, and soft to moderate pen asphalts. However, current tack coatings suffer from the common problem that

[0017] However, current tack coat emulsion technologies suffer from a common problem, which is that although the material forms a spreadable liquid, the material dries too slowly or incompletely ambient construction temperatures. Consequently, a need exists for an improved tack coating composition, which is non-tacky and generally non-adhesive at ambient temperatures, can be applied using conventional equipment, and cures within a relatively short period of time.

SUMMARY

[0018] The present description relates to tack coat compositions and methods of using and applying the same. It was surprisingly and unexpectedly discovered that certain

combinations of resins, an emulsifier, and polymeric components added to a principal asphalt binding material, for example bitumen, provided an emulsion asphalt tack coat that is non- adhesive at ambient temperatures.

[0019] Thus in certain embodiments, the description provides an adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat comprising an asphalt binder, a resin, an emulsifier, and polymeric components, for example styrene— acrylic. In certain embodiments, the styrene- acrylic polymer selected has a glass transition temperature between about 30-80° C. In a preferred embodiment, the adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat is non-adhesive at ambient temperatures.

[0020] The tack coat described herein is configured for spray coating.

[0021] Tack and bond coats are applied using wand sprayers, distributor truck sprayers, and spray pavers at application rates typically ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 L/square-meter. [0022] In certain embodiments, the adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat comprises from about 35%wt to about 75%wt of an asphalt binder.

[0023] In certain embodiments, the adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat comprises from about 1%wt to about 6%wt of a resin.

[0024] In certain embodiments, the adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat comprises from about 0.75%wt to about 4.5%wt of an emulsifier.

[0025] In certain embodiments, the adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat comprises from about 0.5%wt to about 5%wt of a polymer, wherein the polymer has a glass transition of from about 10-80°C.

[0026] In certain embodiments, the emulsifier is selected from the group consisting of anionic, cationic, and non-ionic.

[0027] In any of the embodiments described herein, the polymer is a latex polymer or latex co-polymer.

[0028] The preceding general areas of utility are given by way of example only and are not intended to be limiting on the scope of the present disclosure and appended claims.

Additional objects and advantages associated with the compositions, methods, and processes of the present invention will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art in light of the instant claims, description, and examples. For example, the various aspects and embodiments of the invention may be utilized in numerous combinations, all of which are expressly contemplated by the present description. These additional advantages, objects and embodiments are expressly included within the scope of the present invention. The publications and other materials used herein to illuminate the background of the invention, and in particular cases, to provide additional details respecting the practice, are incorporated by reference.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0029] The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated into and form a part of the specification, illustrate several embodiments of the present invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention. The drawings are only for the purpose of illustrating an embodiment of the invention and are not to be construed as limiting the invention. Further objects, features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying figures showing illustrative embodiments of the invention, in which:

[0030] Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between softening point and penetration value of asphalt materials.

[0031] Figure 2 illustrates typical cure rate testing conditions for tack emulsions disclosed herein.

[0032] Figure 3 shows that the correlation between the time to develop non-tracking tack properties is linearly proportional to the Tg of the polymer used in the emulsion.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0033] The following is a detailed description provided to aid those skilled in the art in practicing the present invention. Those of ordinary skill in the art may make modifications and variations in the embodiments described herein without departing from the spirit or scope of the present disclosure. All publications, patent applications, patents, figures and other references mentioned herein are expressly incorporated by reference in their entirety. In particular, US 2014/0373750 Al, is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0034] Presently described are tack coating compositions and methods of using and applying the same that relate to the surprising and unexpected discovered that certain

combinations of a the principal binding material, resin, emulsifier, and polymer provide a tack coating that is non-adhesive at ambient temperatures and adhesive upon the application of heat.

[0035] Where a range of values is provided, it is understood that each intervening value, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit unless the context clearly dictates otherwise (such as in the case of a group containing a number of carbon atoms in which case each carbon atom number falling within the range is provided), between the upper and lower limit of that range and any other stated or intervening value in that stated range is encompassed within the invention. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges may independently be included in the smaller ranges is also encompassed within the invention, subject to any specifically excluded limit in the stated range. Where the stated range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either both of those included limits are also included in the invention.

[0036] The following terms are used to describe the present invention. Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. The terminology used in the description is for describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention.

[0037] The articles "a" and "an" as used herein and in the appended claims are used herein to refer to one or to more than one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. By way of example, "an element" means one element or more than one element.

[0038] The phrase "and/or," as used herein in the specification and in the claims, should be understood to mean "either or both" of the elements so conjoined, i.e., elements that are conjunctively present in some cases and disjunctively present in other cases. Multiple elements listed with "and/or" should be construed in the same fashion, i.e., "one or more" of the elements so conjoined. Other elements may optionally be present other than the elements specifically identified by the "and/or" clause, whether related or unrelated to those elements specifically identified. Thus, as a non-limiting example, a reference to "A and/or B", when used in conjunction with open-ended language such as "comprising" can refer, in one embodiment, to A only (optionally including elements other than B); in another embodiment, to B only (optionally including elements other than A); in yet another embodiment, to both A and B (optionally including other elements); etc.

[0039] As used herein in the specification and in the claims, "or" should be understood to have the same meaning as "and/or" as defined above. For example, when separating items in a list, "or" or "and/or" shall be interpreted as being inclusive, i.e., the inclusion of at least one, but also including more than one, of a number or list of elements, and, optionally, additional unlisted items. Only terms clearly indicated to the contrary, such as "only one of or "exactly one of," or, when used in the claims, "consisting of," will refer to the inclusion of exactly one element of a number or list of elements. In general, the term "or" as used herein shall only be interpreted as indicating exclusive alternatives (i.e., "one or the other but not both") when preceded by terms of exclusivity, such as "either," "one of," "only one of," or "exactly one of."

[0040] In the claims, as well as in the specification above, all transitional phrases such as

"comprising," "including," "carrying," "having," "containing," "involving," "holding,"

"composed of," and the like are to be understood to be open-ended, i.e., to mean including but not limited to. Only the transitional phrases "consisting of and "consisting essentially of shall be closed or semi-closed transitional phrases, respectively, as set forth in the United States Patent Office Manual of Patent Examining Procedures, Section 2111.03.

[0041] As used herein in the specification and in the claims, the phrase "at least one," in reference to a list of one or more elements, should be understood to mean at least one element selected from anyone or more of the elements in the list of elements, but not necessarily including at least one of each and every element specifically listed within the list of elements and not excluding any combinations of elements in the list of elements. This definition also allows that elements may optionally be present other than the elements specifically identified within the list of elements to which the phrase "at least one" refers, whether related or unrelated to those elements specifically identified. Thus, as a non-limiting example, "at least one of A and B" (or, equivalently, "at least one of A or B," or, equivalently "at least one of A and/or B") can refer, in one embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one, A, with no B present (and optionally including elements other than B); in another embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one, B, with no A present (and optionally including elements other than A); in yet another embodiment, to at least one, optionally including more than one, A, and at least one, optionally including more than one, B (and optionally including other elements); etc.

[0042] It should also be understood that, in certain methods described herein that include more than one step or act, the order of the steps or acts of the method is not necessarily limited to the order in which the steps or acts of the method are recited unless the context indicates otherwise.

[0043] The term "compound", as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to any specific chemical compound disclosed herein and includes tautomers, regioisomers, geometric isomers, and where applicable, stereoisomers, including optical isomers (enantiomers) and other steroisomers (diastereomers) thereof, as well as salts and derivatives thereof where applicable, in context. Within its use in context, the term compound generally refers to a single compound, but also may include other compounds such as stereoisomers, regioisomers and/or optical isomers (including racemic mixtures) as well as specific enantiomers or enantiomerically enriched mixtures of disclosed compounds. It is noted that in describing the present compounds, numerous substituents and variables associated with same, among others, are described. It is understood by those of ordinary skill that molecules which are described herein are stable compounds as generally described hereunder. [0044] "Bitumen" can refer to a mixture of viscous organic liquids or semi-solids from crude oil that is black, sticky, soluble in carbon disulfide, and composed primarily of condensed aromatic hydrocarbons. Alternatively, bitumen refers to a mixture of maltenes and asphaltenes. Bitumen may be any conventional type of bitumen known to the skilled person. The bitumen may be naturally occurring. It may be crude bitumen, or it may be refined bitumen obtained as the bottom residue from vacuum distillation of crude oil, thermal cracking, hydrocracking or obtained from reclaimed asphalt pavement. "Asphalt" is sometimes used interchangeably with bitumen. Generally, the term "asphalt concrete" is used to describe the binder plus the aggregate. Asphalt is commonly qualified for paving applications.

[0045] Tack Coating Compositions

[0046] In one aspect, the disclosure provides a tack coating composition comprising a principal binding material, a resin, an emulsifier, and a polymer, wherein the composition is non- adhesive at ambient temperatures and adhesive when heat is applied. In an embodiment, the tack coating is an aqueous emulsion. The tack coating may be an aqueous asphalt emulsion.

[0047] Thus in certain embodiments, the description provides an adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat comprising an asphalt binder, a resin, an emulsifier, and polymeric components, for example styrene— acrylic. In certain embodiments, the styrene- acrylic polymer selected has a glass transition temperature between about 1-80° C. In certain embodiments, the Tg is from about 2-80° C, 3-80° C, 4-80° C, 5-80° C, 6-80° C, 7-80° C, 8-80° C, 9-80° C, 10-80° C, 11-80° C, 12-80° C, 13-80° C, 14-80° C, 15-80° C, 16-80° C, 17-80° C, 18-80° C, 19-80° C, 20-80° C, 21-80° C, 22-80° C, 23-80° C, 24-80° C, 25-80° C, 26-80° C, 27-80° C, 28-80° C, 29- 80° C, 30-80° C, 31-80° C, 32-80° C, 33-80° C, 34-80° C, 35-80° C, 36-80° C, 37-80° C, 38-80° C, 39-80° C, 40-80° C, 45-80° C, 50-80° C, 55-80° C, 60-80° C, 65-80° C, 70-80° C, 75-80° C, 1-75° C, 1-70° C, 1-65° C, 1-60° C, 1-55° C, 1-50° C, 1-45° C, 1-40° C, 1-35° C, or 1-30° C. In a preferred embodiment, the adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat is non-adhesive at ambient temperatures.

[0048] In any of the aspects or embodiments described herein, the principal binding material can comprise any suitable bitumen or asphalt material that is generally known in the art or that becomes known. Those of skill in the art will recognize that certain types of bitumen or asphalt are particularly useful for tack coating applications, which are expressly contemplated herein. For example, in certain embodiments, the compositions comprise asphalt, such as, for example bitumen or asphalt types used for tack coating. In certain embodiments, the tack coating composition comprises from about 25%wt to about 90%wt of asphalt or bitumen based on the total weight of the tack coating composition.

[0049] The tack coating compositions as described herein are advantageous because they are non-adhesive at ambient temperatures and adhesive after the application of heat, which allows for tack coating to be applied to a substrate layer in advance of application of a second bonding layer of the tack coated substrate layer. The tack coats of this invention typically cure to a non-tacky condition both in the laboratory and in the field in approximately 10-20 minutes. As a result, the tack coating will not delaminate, transfer, bonding, track, or ghost to equipment (including vehicles), individuals, and other materials that traverse (i.e. come in contact with the cured tack coating).

[0050] In certain embodiments, the tack coating compositions as described herein are sprayable, i.e., configured for spray coating or spray sealing. The tack coat compositions can be used to spray coat or spray seal any type of surface, for example, parking, driving, or walking surfaces.

[0051] In any of the aspects or embodiments described herein, the composition can include a resin. In any of the embodiments described herein, the resin includes, but is not limited to rosin resins and hydrocarbon resins, polyesters of modified and unmodified rosin resins and hydrocarbon resins, and polyesters of phenol-formaldehyde condensates of modified and unmodified rosin resins and hydrocarbon resins. In any of the aspects or embodiments described herein, the resin may include in amounts ranging from about 0%wt to about 10%wt, including all ranges there between based on total weight of the tack coat composition. In certain embodiments, these materials may be included in amounts ranging from about 0%wt to about 10%wt based on the total weight of the tack coat composition. In any of the aspects or embodiments described herein, the composition can include an emulsifier. In certain

embodiments, the adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat comprises from about 0.25 %wt to about 5%wt of an emulsifier.

[0052] In certain embodiments, the emulsifier is selected from the group consisting of anionic, cationic, and nonionic. In a particular embodiment, the emulsifier is selected from the group consisting of a potassium rosin acid salt, a calcium acid rosin salt, a sodium rosin acid salt, a sodium tall oil fatty acid salt, an ethoxylated alkyl phenol, a fatty acid amide, a polyalkylene polyamine, a quaternary ammonium compound, and an amphoteric emulsifier.

[001] Examples of suitable emulsifiers include, but are not limited to: amidoamine emulsifiers; imidazolines; non-ionic emulsifiers; quaternary ammonium emulsifiers; triamines; tetra-amines; penta-amines; amidated tall oil derivatives, e.g., fatty acids or rosins, and others as well as their derivatives.

[002] Ionic emulsifiers which are suitable for use in the present disclosure include amphoteric emulsifiers, cationic emulsifiers, and combinations thereof.

[003] As used herein the term "amphoteric emulsifiers" includes both mono-amphoteric and polyamphoteric emulsifiers. In certain embodiments, the amphoteric emulsifier may be a betaine. As used herein, the term "betaine" includes a neutral compound that contains a cationic functional group, for example a quaternary ammonium, that bears no hydrogen atom and an anionic functional group, for example a carboxylate group. The cationic and anionic functional groups of the betaine may not be adjacent. Amphoteric emulsifiers which are suitable for use in the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, the following: C-12 to C-24 (preferably C- 16 to C-18) fatty acids, rosin acids, and combinations thereof modified with acrylic acid, maleic anhydride, fumaric acid, and/or other ene- and dieneophiles and further reacted with

polyethylene polyamines, lithium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide methyl carboxylate betaines, sodium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide methyl carboxylate betaines, potassium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide methyl carboxylate betaines, lithium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide phosphate betaines, sodium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide phosphate betaines, potassium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide phosphate betaines, lithium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide sulphate betaines, sodium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide sulphate betaines, potassium C-12 to C-24 alkyl amidopropyl halide sulphate betaines. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the term "amphoteric emulsifiers" includes the above-noted compounds and their derivatives.

[004] Useful anionic emulsifiers in the compositions described herein include but are not limited to petroleum sulfonates such as alpha-olefin sulfonates or sulfates, soap-type emulsifying agents, typically the alkali metal salts of higher (e.g., C6-C32) fatty acids, such as lauric, myristic, palimitic, oleic, ricinoleic and linoleic acids, or mixtures of acids available from animal or vegetable oils. Other examples of anionic emulsifiers are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,282,037, the description of which is incorporated herein by reference. Additional anionic surfactants that may be included in the compositions described herein, include, e.g., water- soluble potassium salts of saturated or unsaturated higher (C6-C32) fatty acids, a sodium salt of a sulfuric acid ester of a higher alcohol, a sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate, a sodium salt of a dialkyl succinate sulfonic acid and a sodium salt of an alkyldiphenylether sulfonic acid. Of these, preferred are sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate, sodium lauryl sulfate, a polyoxethylene alkyl (or alkylphenyl)ether sulfonate and the likeA preferred surfactant is an anionic emulsifier such as lignate- surfactant blend (Indulin SA-L, MWV, Charleston Heights, S.C.). Unless the context indicates otherwise, the term "anionic emulsifiers" includes the above-noted compounds and their derivatives.

[005] Cationic emulsifiers which are suitable for use in the compositions described herein include, but are not limited to, the following: fatty imidazolines derived from C-12 to C- 24 fatty acids, fatty imidoamines derived from C-12 to C-24 (preferably C-16 to C-18) fatty acids, rosin acids, and combinations thereof modified with maleic anhydride, fumaric acid, and/or other ene- and dieneophiles and further reacted with polyalkylenepolyamines; fatty amidoamines derived from C-12 to C-24 (preferably C-16 to C-18) fatty acids, rosin acids and combinations thereof modified with acrylic acid, maleic anhydride, fumaric acid, and/or other ene- and dieneophiles and further reacted with polyalkylenepolyamines; saturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl monoamines, unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl monoamines, saturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl polypropylenepolyamines; unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl polypropylenepolyamines; saturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl monoamines modified by reaction with ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide to give polyoxyethylene derivatives; unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl monoamines modified by reaction with ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide to give polyoxyethylene derivatives; saturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl polypropylenepolyamines modified by reaction with ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide to give polyoxyethylene derivatives; unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl polypropylenepolyamines modified by reaction with ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide to give polyoxyethylene derivatives; saturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl aryl monoamines, unsaturated C- 12 to C-24 alkyl aryl monoamines; saturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl aryl polypropylenepolyamines, unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl aryl polypropylenepolyamines; C-12 to C-24 quaternary amines; C-12 to C-24 alkyl ether amines; C-12 to C-24 alkylether polyamines; C-12 to C-24 alkyl polypropylene polyamine N-oxides; amine derivatives of tannins, amine derivatives of phenolic resins; amine derivatives of lignins, amine-modified polyacrylates; and combinations thereof. It is preferred that the cationic emulsifier be a member selected from the group consisting of saturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl monoamines, unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl monoamines, saturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl polypropylenepolyamines, unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl polypropylenepolyamines, and combinations thereof. It is further preferred that the cationic emulsifier be a blend of at least one member selected from the group consisting of saturated and unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl monoamines with at least one member selected from the group consisting of saturated and unsaturated C-12 to C-24 alkyl polypropylenepolyamines. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the term "cationic emulsifiers" includes the above-noted compounds and their derivatives.

[006] In certain embodiments, the emulsifiers not only convey the high-temperature shear-stability needed for mixing (and subsequent compacting) of the bituminous compositions, but also impart a high viscosity to the bitumen emulsion (so that no thickener is needed for emulsion stability or for increased film coating on the aggregate) to enhance bitumen wetting of the aggregate surface, and to lower interfacial tension between the bitumen film and aggregate (so that a strong adhesive bond is maintained and water damage to the pavement is prevented).

[007] Emulsifier formulations are further classified as rapid-setting (i.e., spray-grade), quick-setting, and slow-setting depending on the speed with which a given emulsion, using an economical dosage of emulsifier, will break upon contact with mineral aggregate. While rapid- setting, quick-setting, and slow-setting emulsifiers are suitable for use in the present disclosure, it is preferred to employ rapid-setting or quick-setting emulsifiers. It is further preferred to employ rapid-setting emulsifiers with dense-graded aggregate. This preference arises from the need to control such emulsion properties as the interfacial viscosity, Marangoni effect, and interfacial bitumen solubility at the elevated temperature of the present disclosure (i.e., about 50 C to about 120 C) and concurrently at low emulsifier dosages. Quick-setting and slow-setting emulsifiers require higher dosages and do not impart the target interfacial properties in the finished emulsion. Additionally, high emulsifier dosages are costly, contribute to low rates of

compressive strength development, and increase moisture sensitivity in the finished pavement.

[008] In any of the aspects or embodiments described herein, the composition can include a polymer. In any of the embodiments described herein, the polymer is a latex polymer or latex co-polymer, e.g., styrene-butadiene-rubber latex, polyisoprene latex, neoprene, and combinations thereof. The liquid latex portion of the composition may preferably comprise, in one example, a liquid latex-based polymer modifier (such as BASF NS 175, NX 1129, NS 198, or NX 1138 (the BASF Butonal product line); Ultrapave anionic latex products UP-70, UP-7289, or UP-2897; or Ultrapave cationic latex products UP-65K, UP- 1152, or UP- 1158). In certain embodiments, the adhesive asphalt composition or tack coat comprises from about 0.5%wt to about 5%wt of a polymer, wherein the polymer has a glass transition of from about 30-80° C.

[009] Examples of suitable liquid latex additives include, but are not limited to, various block polymers such as styrene-acrylic polymers, styrene-butadiene polymers, SBS, EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate), DuPont Evaloy, acrylic polymers, and silicones.

[0010] For example, the polymer can be an acrylate, styrene-acrylic, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), ethylene-acrylate, polyolefin, polybutene-1, amorphous polyolefin, polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, polyester-urethane, styrene block copolymers (SBC),

polycaprolactone, polycarbonates, fluoropolymers, silicone rubbers, polypyrrole (PPY), styrene- butadiene-styrene (SBS), styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS), styrene-ethylene/propylene (SEP), styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS), vinyl ethers, conjugated diene compound, vinyl-based aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogenated conjugated diene-based polymer, non-hydrogenated conjugated diene-based polymer, butyl rubber, natural rubber, ethylene-propylene copolymers or styrene copolymers, singly or in mixture, wherein the copolymers concern statistical, alternating, graft or block copolymers, and combinations thereof.

[0011] More specifically, the latex emulsion polymers employed in the asphalt composition can include aqueous vinyl polymers, which are the reaction products of one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers. Examples of the ethylenically unsaturated monomers include, but are not limited to, styrene, methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, ethyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, isobutyl acrylate, isobutyl methacrylate, ethylhexyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, isoprene, octyl acrylate, octyl methacrylate, iso- octyl acrylate, iso-octyl methacrylate, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, crotonic acid, a-methyl styrene, vinyl naphthalene, vinyl toluene, chloromethyl styrene, hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate, hydroxypropyl (meth)acrylate, acrylonitrile, glycidyl methacrylate, acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate, acetoacetoxy ethyl acrylate, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, vinyl acetate, butyl acrylamide, ethyl acrylamide, and the like. [0012] The latex polymer can be an addition polymer that may be formed via a free- radical addition polymerization. In such addition polymers, the propagating species may be a free radical, and the polymer is formed in a chain-growth fashion polymerization as understood in the art. If desired, the monomer solution may be emulsified in an aqueous solution, and under agitation reacted via a free-radical polymerization process as described herein, to form latex particles.

[0013] The amount of latex used in the tack coat composition can be from about

0.01%wt to about 6%wt, or preferably from 0.5-5%wt, or 0.5-3%wt of a polymer based on the total weight of the tack coat composition. Polymers suitable for use in the tack coat

compositions as described herein are readily available commercially from a variety sources.

[0014] As will be appreciated by those of skill in the art, the polymers listed above are not intended to be limiting on the scope of the invention with the caveat that that the glass- transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer should be relatively high. In certain embodiments, suitable Tg values for the latex polymer include from 10° C to 80° C or from 15° C to 80° C or from 10° C to 60° C or from 10° C to 55° C or from 10° C to 50° C or from 15° C to 75° C or from 20° C to 75° C or from or from 20° C to 70° C or from 25° C to 75° C or from 25° C to 70° C or from 25° C to 65° C or from 25° C to 60° C or from 30° C to 80° C or from 30° C to 75° C or from 30° C to 70° C or from 30° C to 65° C or from 35° C to 80° C or from 35° C to 75° C or from 35° C to 70° C or from 55° C to 65° C. The latex polymer should be selected that has a sufficiently high Tg for the tack coat composition to have the desired end use properties of quick setting to a tackless condition under light applied loads like the touch of a finger or the a man's walking weight and trackless condition under heavier loads like the rolling wheel of a construction vehicle. In certain aspects, the Tg of the polymer may be tailored to the penetration of the bitumen.

[0015] In certain embodiments, the adhesive formulation includes a copolymer selected from the group consisting of styrene block polymers, styrene, styrene -butadiene copolymers (e.g., SBS, SBR), styrene-isoprene copolymers (SIS), styrene-ethylene/butylene copolymers (SEBS), styrene-ethylene/propylene-styrene copolymers (SEPS) or styrene-isoprene-butylene copolymers (SIBS) and combinations thereof. Such products are known to the person skilled in the art and are commercially available. [0016] In any of the embodiments described herein, the tack coat composition can comprise one or more of water, additional additives or fillers, e.g., copolymer, rheology modifier, filler, particulate or other re-enforcing material, biocides, pigments, or other materials generally known in the art, and combinations thereof. In any of the aspects or embodiments described herein, these materials may independently be included in amounts ranging from about 0%wt to about 70%wt, including all ranges there between based on total weight of the mastic asphalt composition. In certain embodiments, these materials may independently be included in amounts ranging from about 0%wt to about 10%wt based on the total weight of the mastic asphalt composition.

[0017] In addition, the tack coat composition described herein preferably has the unique property that it is non-adhesive at ambient temperature, while adhesive after heat has been applied. The application of heat imparts thermal energy, which increases molecular motion (e.g. translational, conformational, and vibrational) of the components that make us the adhesive composition. As a result, the adhesive conforms to and bonds to the second applied material.

[0018] In a preferred embodiment, the description provides production of a storage stable bitumen emulsion comprising bitumen, latex, resin, emulsifier, and pH modifier and spray application of the stored emulsion having a solids residue of between 30-60% w/w emulsion at an application rate of between approximately 0.05 and 0.5 L/square-meter to yield a

homogenous, uniformly-thick emulsion film that sets and cures with about 10-20 minutes to such a degree that it can withstand the load of rolling construction vehicles without picking off, delaminating, sticking to the tires of vehicles, and after application of bituminous mixture overlay create a bond between the substrate and the bituminous mixture overlay that equals or exceeds the adhesive and cohesive strength of the substrate and overlay pavements.

[0019] In the application method of the present invention, the inventive coating composition can be applied using a conventional wand sprayer, a conventional sealer spray machine, a conventional chip seal sprayer, a conventional asphalt spray-paver, and other conventional equipment.

[0020] In another aspect, the description provides a method of making a tack coat composition as described herein comprising the steps of: (a) admixing a resinous material polymer into the bitumen; (b) emulsifying the resin-modified bitumen; (c) using a continuous phase solution for emulsification comprising emulsifier, latex modifier, and pH adjusting agent. Where desired, additional additives traditionally employed in the production of bitumen emulsions and/or tack coating may be incorporated into the tack coating.

[0021] In an additional aspect, the disclosure provides methods of producing the tack coating compositions as described herein. In certain embodiments, the method comprises admixing a bitumen emulsion, admixing a latex polymer, and admixing a resinous material including, but not limited to rosin resins and hydrocarbon resins, polyesters of modified and unmodified rosin resins and hydrocarbon resins, and polyesters of phenol-formaldehyde condensates of modified and unmodified rosin resins and hydrocarbon resins. In certain embodiments, the method comprises a method of producing a sprayable asphalt emulsion comprising the admixed materials above and additionally admixing a latex polymer.

[0022] In another aspect, the disclosure provides methods of using the compositions as described herein to coat a surface, e.g., parking, driving, walking, or similar surfaces. In certain embodiments, the method comprises the steps of, providing a tack coat composition as described herein and applying the tack coat at a sufficient amount to coat a substrate, wherein the tack coat is non-adhesive and non-tacky at ambient conditions of temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, solar flux level, and substrate temperature. The tack coat becomes less tack and non- tracking as the film loses water and coalesces. The tack coat becomes an adhesive layer between the substrate and overlaid bitumen paving composition when heat is applied, and applying a bitumen layer having a mixture temperature of approximately 60-160°C. In certain

embodiments, the method comprises the step of spraying the tack coat compositions as described herein.

[0023] The substrate upon which tack coats are applied can be a) fresh asphalt pavement which has not experienced traffic load beyond the light load associated with construction traffic; b) the surface of an aged road so that the substrate is a combination of aged bitumen and exposed aggregate surface having undisclosed levels of smoothness; c) a recently milled asphalt surface so that the substrate will consist largely of smoothly cut stones densely packed and bordered by thin layers (5-20 microns) of aged bitumen and may contain varying levels of mineral dust arising from the milling operation; d) a pavement preservation treatment such as but not limited to chip seals, slurry seals, micro-surfacing seals, sand seals, and crack sealer; and, e) a Portland cement concrete surface. [0024] The bituminous paving layer applied to the tack coat once it has cured on the surface of the substrate may be any of the typical paving mixture formulations common in the construction of load-bearing asphalt pavement layers, such as dense-graded or open-graded hot mixes and/or warm mixes comprising virgin aggregate, reclaimed asphalt pavement, recycled asphalt shingles, rubber, and polymer; b) emulsion-based or foamed load-bearing mixtures comprising typical paving grade virgin aggregate, reclaimed asphalt pavement, rubbers, and polymers, provided that the emulsion-based or foamed mixture has a temperature at the time of application exceeding approximately 60-95 °C; and c) emulsion-based pavement preservation treatments such as micro- surfacing containing similar formulations ingredients provide the temperature of these treatments exceeds approximately 60-95°C at the time of application to the cured tack coat.

[0025] The following examples are meant to illustrate, but in no way limit, the claimed invention.

[0026] Examples of typical formulations as described herein.

[0027] Table 1. Exemplary tack coat compositions as described herein are prepared according to the following formulation (comprising a range of emulsifiers, resins, and polymers with wide ranging Tg values (from SA280 with a Tg = 80°C to Plasticryl with a Tg = 20°C)) Tables:

Example 2.

The aqueous phase of an emulsion was prepared as described in the formulation Table 2.

TABLE 2.

The bitumen composition used to make the emulsion in this example comprised 96.5 parts of a PG 64-22 paving grade bitumen blended with 3.5 parts of the rosin-phenolic resin, Ingevity's RP-315. The aqueous solutions (also called "soap" solutions) of Table 2 were used to prepare asphalt emulsions with this bitumen composition. The final properties of the asphalt emulsions made with these formulations and using a Charlotte G-5 colloid mill are listed in Table 3.

Table 3.

The non-tracking tack performance of these emulsions was then tested outdoors. The emulsions can be cast onto test asphalt felt sheets by hand using draw-down bars or squares to control the film thickness. Or the emulsions can be sprayed onto felt using conventional a hand-held paint sprayer. In this example, the emulsions were drawn down with draw-down bars. Then, the time required to develop non-tracking properties (i.e., the time to transition from high-tracking to medium-tracking and to non-tracking properties) was recorded. These results are shown in Table 3.

TABLE 3.

Figure 3 shows that the correlation between the time to develop non-tracking tack properties is linearly proportional to the Tg of the Plasticryl polymer used in the emulsion formulations 2-4 listed in Table 2. [0028] All percent by weight values described herein, including Table 1, are expressed based on the total weight of the tack coat composition.

[0029] In any of the embodiments described herein, the composition comprises from

0.01%wt to about 10%wt of a latex polymer based on the total weight of the mastic asphalt composition.

[0030] In any of the embodiments described herein, the composition comprises from about 20%wt to about 50%wt of asphalt or bitumen based on the total weight of the tack coat composition. The bitumen tack coat is applied at between 0.05 L/square-meter to about 0.5 L/square-meter.

[0031] In any of the embodiments described herein, the tack coat emulsion cures to a trackless condition in about 10-25 minutes under both laboratory and field conditions, although field conditions such as wind velocity, relative humidity, solar flux, substrate temperature, air temperature, and tack coat emulsion temperature influence the time until the tack coat film becomes non-tracking.

[0032] In any of the embodiments described herein, the tack coat composition is spray able.

[0033] While preferred embodiments of the invention have been shown and described herein, it will be understood that such embodiments are provided by way of example only.

Numerous variations, changes and substitutions will occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. Accordingly, it is intended that the appended claims cover all such variations as fall within the spirit and scope of the invention.

[0034] The contents of all references, patents, pending patent applications and published patents, cited throughout this application are hereby expressly incorporated by reference.

[0035] Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims. It is understood that the detailed examples and embodiments described herein are given by way of example for illustrative purposes only, and are in no way considered to be limiting to the invention. Various modifications or changes in light thereof will be suggested to persons skilled in the art and are included within the spirit and purview of this application and are considered within the scope of the appended claims. For example, the relative quantities of the ingredients may be varied to optimize the desired effects, additional ingredients may be added, and/or similar ingredients may be substituted for one or more of the ingredients described. Additional advantageous features and functionalities associated with the systems, methods, and processes of the present invention will be apparent from the appended claims. Moreover, those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.