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Title:
HEATING GLASS STRUCTURE WITH IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND EVEN HEAT DISTRIBUTION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/011610
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The subject of the invention relates to heating glass structure with improved performance and even heat distribution, especially for the space delimiting and space dividing surfaces of buildings designed for human occupation, for the independent, regulated heating of the building, and for improving the level and feeling of comfort within it, which heating glass structure with respect to its function is a simple infrared heating radiator or a unidirectionally radiating, transparent, heat-insulating heating glass with regulated temperature, in both cases it contains more than one plate glass pane layer. One of the glass pane layers is the primary heating glass pane (1), which has a thin metal coating applied to it, the metal coating (la) is connected to an electricity supply (14), the glass pane layers are combined with each other to form, for example, right angled parallelogram panels (15), the metal coating (la) is fixed to the primary heating glass pane (1) with a fixing film (4) and a second glass pane layer (5) protecting it, and the primary heating glass pane (1), the fixing film (4) and the second glass pane layer (5) are connected to each other without any air-gap between them. The invention's distinctive feature is that in the case of a simple infrared heating radiator (A) the primary heating glass pane (1) has low electrical resistance current distribution rails (3) serving surface evenness of the heating current input, between the current distribution rails (3) and the primary heating glass pane (1) there is a diffusor layer (2) also promoting surface evenness of the heating current, the panel (15) is supplied with a control unit (11) in connection with both the power supply (14) and the panel (15) suitable for regulating its own surface temperature, for preventing overheating and for the remote operation of these and with one or more heat sensors (10), and also suitable for harmonising the operation parameters, and in this way a simple infrared heating radiator (A) is realised, while in the case of a unidirectionally radiating, transparent heat-insulating heating glass pane (B) that has a regulated temperature, the above infrared heating radiator (A), besides the primary heating glass pane (1) and the combined second glass pane layer (5), is supplemented with a third glass pane layer (8) that has a heat mirror coating (8a) that reflects the radiating heat almost entirely - preferably about 98% of it - and so determining the direction of heat radiation, as well as with a fourth glass pane layer (9) facing the outside, in a given case also supplied with a metal coating (9a) on the internal side protecting against direct solar radiation, a first spacer piece (6) consisting of one or more parts is fitted between the second glass pane payer (5) and the third glass pane layer (8), and a second spacer piece (16) consisting of one or more parts is fitted between the third glass pane layer (8) and the fourth glass pane layer (9), preferably the first air-gap (7) complying with the size of the first spacer piece (6) and the second air-gap (17) complying with the size of the second spacer piece (16) used in a given case are filled with an inert gas, such as argon, and with the combination of the latter measures a unidirectionally radiating, heat-insulating heating glass pane structure (B) is realised.

Inventors:
RÁKOSY, Ferenc (Álmos vezér útja 55, 1141 Budapest, HU)
Application Number:
HU2016/000051
Publication Date:
January 18, 2018
Filing Date:
August 04, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
RÁKOSY, Ferenc (Álmos vezér útja 55, 1141 Budapest, HU)
International Classes:
H05B3/84; E06B3/67
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ADVOPATENT (Fő u. 19, 1011 Budapest, HU)
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Claims:
Claims

1. Heating glass structure with improved performance and even heat distribution, especially for the space delimiting and space dividing surfaces of buildings designed for human occupation, for the independent, regulated heating of the building, and for improving the level and feeling of comfort within it, which heating glass structure with respect to its function is a simple infrared heating radiator or a unidirectionally radiating, transparent, heat- insulating heating glass with regulated temperature, in both cases it contains more than one plate glass pane layer, one of the glass pane layers is the primary heating glass pane (1), which has a thin metal coating applied to it, the metal coating (la) is connected to an electricity supply (14), the glass pane layers are combined with each other to form, for example, right angled parallelogram panels (15), the metal coating (la) is fixed to the primary heating glass pane (1) with a fixing film (4) and a second glass pane layer (5) protecting it, and the primary heating glass pane (1), the fixing film (4) and the second glass pane layer (5) are connected to each other without any air-gap between them, characterised by that in the case of a simple infrared heating radiator (A) the primary heating glass pane (1) has low electrical resistance current distribution rails (3) serving surface evenness of the heating current input, between the current distribution rails (3) and the primary heating glass pane (1) there is a diffusor layer (2) also promoting surface evenness of the heating current, the panel (15) is supplied with a control unit (1 1) in connection with both the power supply (14) and the panel (15) suitable for regulating its own surface temperature, for preventing overheating and for the remote operation of these and with one or more heat sensors (10), and also suitable for harmonising the operation parameters, and in this way a simple infrared heating radiator (A) is realised, while in the case of a unidirectionally radiating, transparent heat-insulating heating glass pane (B) that has a regulated temperature, the above infrared heating radiator (A), besides the primary heating glass pane (1) and the combined second glass pane layer (5), is supplemented with a third glass pane layer (8) that has a heat mirror coating (8a) that reflects the radiating heat almost entirely - preferably about 98% of it - and so determining the direction of heat radiation, as well as with a fourth glass pane layer (9) facing the outside, in a given case also supplied with a metal coating (9a) on the internal side protecting against direct solar radiation, a first spacer piece (6) consisting of one or more parts is fitted between the second glass pane payer (5) and the third glass pane layer (8), and a second spacer piece (16) consisting of one or more parts is fitted between the third glass pane layer (8) and the fourth glass pane layer (9), preferably the first air-gap (7) complying with the size of the first spacer piece (6) and the second air-gap (17) complying with the size of the second spacer piece (16) used in a given case are filled with an inert gas, such as argon, and with the combination of the latter measures a unidirectionally radiating, heat-insulating heating glass pane structure (B) is realised..

2. The heating glass structure according to claim 1, characterised by that the current distribution rails (3) are connected to the power supply (14) via cable clips (18).

3. The heating glass structure according to claim 1 or 2, characterised by that the control unit (1 1) is connected to the one or more heat sensors (10), to the cable clips (18), and, in a given case, to a remote operated thermostat (12) and/ or with a control centre (13) suitable for the harmonised regulation of the same building's heating glass pane structures or of the cooling glass pane structures of building complexes.

Description:
Heating glass structure with improved performance and even heat distribution

The invention relates to a heating glass structure with improved performance and even heat distribution, especially for the space delimiting and space dividing surfaces of buildings designed for human occupation, for the independent, regulated heating of the building, and for improving the level and feeling of comfort within it, which heating glass structure with respect to its function is a simple infrared heating radiator or a unidirectionally radiating, transparent, heat-insulating heating glass with regulated temperature. In both cases it contains more than one plate glass pane layer. One of the glass pane layers is the primary heating glass pane, which has a thin metal coating applied to it. The metal coating is connected to an electricity supply. The glass pane layers are combined with each other to form, for example, right angled parallelogram panels. The metal coating is fixed to the primary heating glass pane with a fixing film and a second glass pane layer protecting it, and the primary heating glass pane, the fixing film and the second glass pane layer are connected to each other without any air- gap between them.

Humanity has known of glass for thousands of years. Initially it was only nature that provided transparent mineral material (selenite), later on newer and newer technologies were developed which made glass an essential everyday material in a wide range of areas of application. It is used in the most varied of industries, in transport, applied art, and even in fine art. Glass blowing, forming the basis of the development of the art, has been known of for a long time.

Archaeological finds prove that it was known of by various ancient peoples, for the purpose of producing jewellery, for example. It is also certain that it must have been a greatly esteemed, valuable material, just considering the fact that in order to produce it and work it a high temperature (melting) and heat-resistant tools were required. Today the construction industry uses it for a very wide range of purposes. Centuries ago only plate glass used for illuminating interiors was widely produced, and even that required a great deal of know-how. Not to mention mirrors in demand by interior design and crafted glass (e.g. Venetian) chandeliers.

The 20 th century architecture created the demand for space-delimiting and space-dividing walls, glass banisters, roofs, glass concrete construction elements and for numerous other structural elements, all the way until huge buildings, even skyscrapers were covered with glass, in a given case with hardened glass with reinforcing inserts.

However, glass is also suitable for making it possible to increase the level of comfort in the interiors of buildings, most frequently by heating the interiors. The simplest method of doing this is making use of the well-known greenhouse effect, which agriculture make wide use of. Because glass does not only permit light to pass through it, but heat radiation as well, and in this way it is possible to produces oranges, for example, even on the island of Iceland.

The use of glass in the construction industry has spread to an extraordinary extent in recent decades, and this is primarily a consequence of the material's multiple advantages. Before everything else it is aesthetical, has great strength and is environmentally friendly. Due to its elegance interior designers are using it increasingly in kitchens, bathrooms (drying devices) and even in the other rooms of a home, where it is primarily used for surfaces, space delimiting, for horizontal and vertical planar heating surfaces, for fireplaces, furnishings (shelves, anti-condensation devices, heated furniture, etc.).

An even more recent development is the increasingly wide use of solar collectors. In the case of structures destined for human occupation, these are not only able to provide backup heating for the interior, they are also capable of producing hot water.

Heatable glass surfaces - radiators - first stared to be used in order to satisfy aesthetic demands. More than sixty years ago patent specification registration number US 2,523 566 proposed electrically powered heating panels made from glass. The perimeter of the rectangular heat-resistant glass panel has an electrically conducting band, along the middle of which there are glass ribbons into which resistance wires are embedded powered from the frame. The neighbouring ribbons are separated from each other by strips that do not conduct electricity. Its disadvantage is that it is only able to radiate a small amount of heat and the surface of the panel is not smooth either.

Patent specification number CA 1 179000 presents an electrically heated glass panel. Its heating is provided by an electrically conducting thin film layer. The layer has a resistance of from 1 to 10 Ohms per square centimetre. The glass panel is contained within a ribbon-shaped, electrically conducting frame around tis perimeter, and this provides the thin film layer on the entire surface of the panel with a power supply. Nevertheless, its heating ability is limits.

Patent specification registration number EP 0 497 720 presents a glass, but now more developed single-layer heating panel, and is the first to propose the use of silver oxide - among other possibilities - for soldering together the electrically conducting parts serving as the heating resistance. One side of the glass panel is formed as a homogenous resistance, which, in a given case, has an insulation layer. Its disadvantage is that its field of application is extremely narrow, i.e. it is unsuitable for use in floor heating or for windows.

Patent specification registration number FR 2,908 261 describes a panel assembled from two panes. Of the two the front one is always made from glass and the rear one may be made from glass or plastic as well. There is a relatively large distance between the panel layers, and a water- and airtight connection runs around their perimeter. It advantage is that it may be reliably used in the case of bent glass surfaces and in very damp environments as as well. However, its heating ability is also limited.

A unique feature among the known solutions is that the heating surfaces have to be established by the party using them during installation in the knowledge of the conditions onsite. Apart from this, the level of transparency (pellucidity) is never perfect, and the heating ability of the heating surface is never even either.

A huge advance was achieved by the 21 st century solution presented by utility model specification registration number HU 4268. Its construction industry significance lies in that the illuminating panel transmitting the external light may be made into a full-value heating panel if the panel has a glass pane layer that forms a heat mirror. Through this a glass panel that originally had the function of a window may also fill the role of room radiator, but it may also serve as auxiliary heating in cases when other forms of heating are already available.

In spite of its indubitable advantages, this known solution does not make it possible to completely leave out modern building engineering devices, for example, satisfying requirements for dehumidification, nor does it provide protection against the heat radiated by the panel heating the walls of the building instead of heating the airspace to be heated with maximum efficiency. Besides its favourable heat parameters, it is still not able to emit heat completely evenly.

The aim of the invention is to achieve a step forward in terms of quality as compared to the most advanced heating glass structures known of today, i.e. a greater specific heating performance, per square metre, and fully even heat distribution. Within this its task is also to create a heating panel that is more efficient than any before it, that may be used for glazing of doors and windows and that does not detract from their aesthetic appearance.

The basis of the idea behind the invention is that if the metal coating of the primary heating glass pane is supplied with power from the building's electrical energy network through current distribution rails with low electrical resistance so that the current distribution rails are also combined with a surface diffusor layer, a heat mirror directing the heat radiation is built into the panel, and the electrical switching arrangement is provided with a heat sensor and control unit suitable for performing regulation, then the task may be solved.

In accordance with the set aim a heating glass structure with improved performance and even heat distribution according to the invention, especially for the space delimiting and space dividing surfaces of buildings designed for human occupation, for the independent, regulated heating of the building, and for improving the level and feeling of comfort within it, which heating glass structure with respect to its function is a simple infrared heating radiator or a unidirectionally radiating, transparent, heat-insulating heating glass with regulated temperature, in both cases it contains more than one plate glass pane layer, one of the glass pane layers is the primary heating glass pane (1), which has a thin metal coating applied to it, the metal coating (la) is connected to an electricity supply (14), the glass pane layers are combined with each other to form, for example, right angled parallelogram panels (15), the metal coating (la) is fixed to the primary heating glass pane (1) with a fixing film (4) and a second glass pane layer (5) protecting it, and the primary heating glass pane (1), the fixing film (4) and the second glass pane layer (5) are connected to each other without any air- gap between them, is set up in such a way that in the case of a simple infrared heating radiator (A) the primary heating glass pane (1) has low electrical resistance current distribution rails (3) serving surface evenness of the heating current input, between the current distribution rails (3) and the primary heating glass pane (1) there is a diffusor layer (2) also promoting surface evenness of the heating current, the panel (15) is supplied with a control unit (11) in connection with both the power supply (14) and the panel (15) suitable for regulating its own surface temperature, for preventing overheating and for the remote operation of these and with one or more heat sensors (10), and also suitable for harmonising the operation parameters, and in this way a simple infrared heating radiator (A) is realised, while in the case of a unidirectionally radiating, transparent heat-insulating heating glass pane (B) that has a regulated temperature, the above infrared heating radiator (A), besides the primary heating glass pane (1) and the combined second glass pane layer (5), is supplemented with a third glass pane layer (8) that has a heat mirror coating (8a) that reflects the radiating heat almost entirely - preferably about 98% of it - and so determining the direction of heat radiation, as well as with a fourth glass pane layer (9) facing the outside, in a given case also supplied with a metal coating (9a) on the internal side protecting against direct solar radiation, a first spacer piece (6) consisting of one or more parts is fitted between the second glass pane payer (5) and the third glass pane layer (8), and a second spacer piece (16) consisting of one or more parts is fitted between the third glass pane layer (8) and the fourth glass pane layer (9), preferably the first air-gap (7) complying with the size of the first spacer piece (6) and the second air-gap (17) complying with the size of the second spacer piece (16) used in a given case are filled with an inert gas, such as argon, and with the combination of the latter measures a unidirectionally radiating, heat-insulating heating glass pane structure (B) is realised.

A further feature of the heating glass pane according to the invention may be that the current distribution rails (3) are connected to the power supply (14) via cable clips (18). Also, the control unit (11) is connected to the one or more heat sensors (10), to the cable clips (18), and, in a given case, to a remote operated thermostat (12) and/ or with a control centre (13) suitable for the harmonised regulation of the same building's heating glass pane structures or of the cooling glass pane structures of building complexes. The developed heating glass pane with improved performance and even heat distribution - mainly used in the construction industry - has a whole series of advantageous features as opposed to the glass structures widely used and known of to date. One of the most important of these is that it adds solutions to building industry glass technology that were not available with other products to date. In addition to it being able to product significantly greater specific heating performance (heating performance as much as 1200 W/ m 2 ) than previous solutions, it has an aesthetic appearance, and in addition it can be shown to have even heat distribution and makes numerous additional features available, e.g. complete dehumidification, minimising the loss of the heat produced.

It is characteristic of the latter that as a consequence of the directed radiation, some 98% of the heat created is directed in the "good direction", and hardly 2% is lost. Experiments have shown that 70% of the energy input is utilised through radiation and 30% is utilised through convection. Due to this even temperature distribution is realised even in rooms with a high internal height.

From the point of view of the operation of buildings it is important to be able to stop the flow of heat out of the interior with the control unit, and less energy is required to keep the glass surfaces at a stable temperature, than if the amount of heat flowing out of a traditional window had to be replaced. Therefore buildings glazed with the glass structure according to the invention have an exceptionally favourable energy balance.

The invention is now described in detail on the basis of exemplary embodiments. In the following drawings

Figure 1 illustrates the outline structural arrangement of version "A" of the invention, and

Figure 2 illustrates the outline structural arrangement of the more advanced and efficient version "B" of the invention Figure 1 illustrates a panel 15 in the shape of a right-angled parallelogram, the primary function of which is the role of infrared heating radiator "A". In the interest of this the metal coating la may be electrically connected to the primary heating glass pane 1 with the cable clips 18.

The metal coating la of the primary heating glass pane 1 obtains its power supply from the current distribution rails 3 supplemented with a diffusor layer 2, which current distribution rails 3 ensure that the heating current is completely evenly distributed over the metal coating la and so over the surface of the panel 15. The fixing film 4 stabilises the metal coating on the surface of the primary heating glass pane 1, and the fixing film 4 protects the second glass pane layer 5. The heating glass pane 1, the fixing film 4 and the second glass pane layer 5 are laminated to each other so that there is no air-gap between them.

The control unit 1 1 can also be seen in figure 1 , this is inserted between the power supply 14 and the primary heating glass pane 1 , and is connected to the heat sensor 10 and the cable clips 18. The control unit 1 1 does not only sense, process and optimise the heating parameters, on the one hand, it is also suitable for continuously regulating the current heat output, and, on the other hand, maintain an information exchange connection with the control centre 13 allocated to the control units 1 1 of the other panels 15 of the building. The presence of the control centre 13 is not an essential part of the "A" type infrared radiator, just like the thermostat 12 that is able determine and harmonise the limit values of the temperature range of the primary heating glass pane(s) 1.

Figure 2 illustrates the theoretical arrangement of the embodiment "B". The drawing shows a corner of the panel 15 in very enlarged scale, and it is also depicted out of scale in order for it to be possible to depict the parts with a small thickness (coating, film, heat mirror, etc.). Here too the metal coating la of the primary heating glass pane 1 is connected to the power supply 14 via the control unit 11. The metal coating la gets power from the distribution rails 3 supplied with the diffusor layer 2.

The primary heating glass pane 1 , the fixing film 4 and the second glass pane layer 5 are also combined so that there is no air-gap between them. The heat-insulating glass panel forming embodiment "B", in other words where the panel 15 is able to set the direction of propagation of heat, is created by placing a spacer creating at least one air-gap is placed on the side of the second glass pane layer 5 facing the outside. In the case of the presented embodiment there are two: the first spacer 6 makes the first air- gap 7 possible, and the second spacer 16 makes the second air-gap 17 possible. Simultaneously, the direction of heat radiation is set by placing a third glass pane layer 8 with a heat mirror coating 8a on the outer side of the second glass pane layer 5 - at a distance from it equal to the size of the first air-gap 7 - then a fourth glass pane layer 9 with a metal film coating 9a protecting against solar radiation is placed on it at a distance from it equal to the size of the second air-gap 17.

According to experience, as a consequence of the heat mirror coating(s) by establishing the illuminating glass panels built into the external walls of the building as above heat-insulating glass structures that are no different to the traditional sight that radiate heat only into the internal spaces of the building with 98-99% efficiency, in other words the energy used is unable to escape without being utilised.

In addition to realising exceptionally economic heating, the glass structure according to the invention is significant in that when compared to all earlier solutions, it can be used in many more applications, as heating for spaces with extreme climatic conditions, for spaces with a high degree of humidity (pool, aquarium, sauna), as a heated floor, as heating for sterile rooms, but also for simple interior design purposes, and even as bulletproof space delimiting glass.