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Title:
HIGH IMPACT COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING POLYCYANO NORBORNENES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1982/002718
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A blend of 100 parts by weight of a polycyano norbornene, such as poly (2-norbornene-5 nitrile); 5 to 15 parts of a halogenated polyolefin, such as chlorinated polyethylene; and 10 to 40 parts of an ABS polymer, such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin. This blend, when formed into a rigid structure, has an unexpectedly higher impact strength.

Inventors:
Dewitt, Elmer John
Application Number:
PCT/US1982/000059
Publication Date:
August 19, 1982
Filing Date:
January 18, 1982
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GOODRICH CO B F.
International Classes:
G01N27/327; A61K38/00; A61K39/395; C07K16/00; C07K16/46; C07K19/00; C08L23/28; C08L35/04; C08L45/00; C08L55/00; C08L55/02; C08L65/00; C12M1/34; C12M1/40; C12N15/02; C12P21/08; C12Q1/00; G01N27/30; G01N33/53; G01N33/531; G01N33/563; G01N33/577; C12R1/91; (IPC1-7): C08L23/28; C08L27/04; C08L45/00; C08L55/02
Foreign References:
US4132750A
Other References:
See also references of EP 0070874A1
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. Thermoplastic composition having both improved impact strength and melt flow comprising 2 to 30 parts by weight of a halogenated polyolefin, 5 to 100 parts by weight of an ABS resin, and 100 parts by weight of a polycyano norbornene.
2. Composition of claim 1 wherein the poly¬ cyano norbornene is a polymerization product of cyano norbornene monomers defined by the following structural formula: where W, X, Y and Z groups are selected from hydrogen, nitrile .group or substituents containing a nitrile group, alkyl radicals of 1 to 20 carbon atoms, alkenyl radicals of 2 to 20 carbon atoms, aryl radicals of 6 to 20 carbon atoms, and aralkyl radicals of 7 to 20 carbon atoms, provided that at least one of W, X, Yand Z groups is nitrile group or a substituent containing nitrile group; the ABS resin is a polymerization product o a vinyl aromatic compound, an acrylic nitrile, and a conjugated diene.
3. Composition of claim 2 where each W, X, Y and Z group in the formula for the cyano norbornene monomers is selected from hydrogen, nitrile group, radicals defined herein containing nitrile group, an alkyl radical of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, an alkenyl radical of 2 to 10 carbon atoms, phenyl radical, or a phenylalkyl radical of 7 to 12 carbon atoms, provided that at least one but not more than two of W, X, Y and Z groups are nitrile groups or radicals defined .herein containing nitrile group; the vinyl aromatic compound contains 8 to 12 carbon atoms; the acrylic nitrile is defined by the fo.rmula CH„COSN where R is selected from hydrogen* halogens, alkyl radicals of 1 to 8 carbon atoms, "and aryl radicals; and the diene is defined by the formula CH„=CC=CH, X X where each X is individually.selected from hydrogen •, halogens, alkyl radicals of 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and aryl radicals.
4. Composition of Claim 3 wherein the vinyl aromatic compound contains 8 to 9 carbon atoms; R in the formula for the acrylic nitrile is selected from hydrogen, chlorine, and alkyl radicals of l to 2 carbon atoms; and each X in the formula for the diene is selected from hydrogen, chlorine, and alkyl radicals of 1 to 3 carbon atoms; based on the three components in the ABS resin, amounts of each are 30 to 80 parts vinyl aromatic compound, 10 to 40 parts acrylic nitrile, and 10 to 60 parts of the diene.
5. Composition of claim 2 wherein the ABS resin is a polymerization product of the diene selected from butadiene, chloroprene, isoprene, and mixtures thereof; acrylic nitrile selected from acrylonitrile, chloroacrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, ethacrylonitrile, and mixtures thereof; and the vinyl aromatic compound selected from styrene and methyl styrene; and the halogenated polyolefin is prepared from olefins con¬ taining 2 to 5 carbon atoms.
6. Composition of claim 5 wherein the ABS resin is a graft copolymer of acrylonitrilebutadiene ' styrene in the proportion of about 40 to 90 parts by weight of combined acrylonitrile and styrene with about 60 to 100 parts by weight of the butadiene elastomer.
7. Composition of claim 6 wherein the ABS resin is prepared by polymerizing acrylonitrile and styrene in presence of polybutadiene.
8. Composition of claim 5 wherein the halo¬ genated polyole in is selected from chlorinated poly¬ ethylene and chlorinated polypropylene chlorinated .to the extent of about 30 to 40 weight percent; amount of the halogenated polyolefin is 5 to 15 parts and amount of the ABS resin is 10 to 40 parts.
9. Composition of claim 8 wherein the cyano norbornene monomers are selected from 5cyano bicyclo [2,2,l]heptene2, 5cyano5methyl bicyclo[2,2,1] heptene2, 5cyano5noctyl bicyclo[2,2,1]heptene—2, 5,5dicyano bicyclo[2,2,1]heptene2, 5,6dicγano bicyclo[2,2,1]heptene2, 5cyano6phenyl bicyclo[2,2,1] heptene2, 6n2octenyl bicyclo[2,2,l]heρtene2, 6npentyl bicyclσ[2,2,l]heptene2, and mixtures thereof.
10. Composition of claim 9 wherein the polycyano norbornene has molecular weight of less than 25,000, notched Izod impact strength of about 0.8 J/cm, heat distortion of about 110°C to 115°C, and glass transition temperature of about 135°C; and the halo¬ genated polyolefin is chlorinated polyethylene. OMPI.
Description:
HIGH IMPACT COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING POLYCYANO NOKBORNENES

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Polycyano norbomenes are amorphous thermo- plastics that have a glass transition tempiarature of abou * t 135 β C, outstanding oil resistance due to the high nitrile content, and a high heat distortion temperature of about 110°C. They have other desirable properties, such as resistance to hydrocarbon solvents (including aromatics) , an excellent barrier to carbon dioxide and oxygen, good tensile strength, and they process easily on roll mills and in injection molding machines.

The main drawbacks of these polymers are their low impact strength which is less than about 0.5J/σm. unlike the polyalkyl norbomenes, which can ' have their impact strength enhanced by the addition of calcium stearate or ethylene-vinylacetate cόpolymer, it was not possible to improve impact strength ' of polycyano norbomenes in such a manner. This is surprising in ' view of the structural similarity of polyalkyl norbor- nenes and polycyano norbomenes and in view of the fact that the two polymer classes can be prepared by the ring-opening polymerization technique.

It is, therefore, desirable to retain the beneficial properties of the polycyano norbo enes and to improve impact strength thereof.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to thermoplastic compositions which are blends of a polycyano norbornene, a chlorinated polyole in, and an ABS polymer that show an unexpected improvement in impact strength and melt flow properties. In a preferred embodiment, the compositions comprise 5 to 15 parts chlorinated polyolefin, and 10 to 40 parts ABS resin per 100 parts of a polycyano

norbornene, more precisely identified as poly 5-σyanonor- bomene-2) or 5-cyano bicyclo[2,2,l]-heptene-2.

DE AILE& DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Success of the compositions described herein in achieving both high impact strength and improved melt flow depends on the presence of three critical compo¬ nents: a polycyano norbornene, chlorinated polyolefin and an ABS resin. Absence of any one of these components from a blend will make it impossible to attain the desired properties * For instance, when a polycyano nor¬ bornene resin is melt blended with a chlorinated poly¬ olefin, only a s.light Izαd impact, improv-ement is real¬ ized. Similarly, when a polycyano norbornene resin is combined with an ABS resin, a relatively low Izod impact results. The synergistic effect of a chlorinated poly¬ ole in. and an ABS resin when combined with a polycyano norborneiiβ'resin is dramatic, as will be demonstrated hereina iie .

It should be noted that both the 'impact strength and melt flow properties of the compositions claimed herein are improved simultaneously. This is unexpected s.ince these two properties move in opposite directions.

On the basis of 100 parts by weight of a polycyano norbornene, amoxint of chlorinated polyolefin can vary from 2 to 30 parts, preferably 5 to 15 parts, and amount of an ABS polymer can vary from 5 to 100 parts, preferably 10 to 40 parts.

Suitable polycyano norbomenes have molecular weights below about 25,000, preferably in the range of 10,000 to 20,000. They are prepared from cyano nor¬ bornene monomers defined by the following structural formula:

OMPI

-3-

where , X, Y -and 2 groups can be hydrogen, nitrile group, substituents containing a nitrile group, alkyl radicals of 1 to 20 carbon atoms, alkenyl radicals of 2 to 20 carbon atoms, aryl radicals of 6 to 20 carbon atoms, -and aralkyl radicals of 7 to 20 carbon atoms, provided that at least one of W, X, Y and Z is a nitrile group or a substituent containing a nitrile group. In a preferred embodiment, the groups of W, X, Y and Z are selected from hydrogen, nitrile group, radicals defined here.in σσnt.aining nitrile group, alkyl radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkenyl radicals of 2 to 10 carbon atoms, phenyl radical or phenylalkyl radicals of 7 to 12 carbon atoms, provided that at least one but not more than two of W, X, Y and Z groups are nitrile groups or substituents containing the nitrile group. The substituents containing the nitrile group include cyano ethyl, σyanoethyl, cyanopropyl, cyano-n-butyl, cyanoisobutyl, -and omega-cyano-n-heptyl radicals. The hydrocarbon radicals preferably contain one to about 10 carbon atoms.

The monomers defined above can be prepared by reacting cyσlopentadiene with dienic compounds containing nitrile group by the Diels-Alder reaction. These monomers can also be obtained by reacting dicyclopenta- diene with olef.inic compounds containing the nitrile group. The olefinic compounds bearing the nitrile group which c-an be used in the a oresaid reaction include acr lonitrile, methacrylonitrile, α-n-octyl acrylonitrile, vinylidene cyanide, fumaronitrile, maleonitril , all lcyanide, σinnamonnitrile, and linolonitrile. Specific examples of the cyano norbor¬ nene monomers that can be obtained b e D e s-Alde

• reactions and olefinic reactants described herein include 5-cyano bicyclo[2,2,1]-heptene-2, 5-cyano-5- methyl bicyσlo[2,2,l]-heptene-2, 5-cyano-5-n-octyl bicyclo[2,2,1]-heptene-2, 5,5-dicyano bicyclo[2,2,1]- heρtene-2, 5,6-dicyano bicyclo[2,2,1]-heptene-2, 5- cyano-6-ρhenyl bicyclo[2,2,11-heρtene-2, 6-n-2-octenyl bicyclo[2,2,1]-heptene-2, β-n-pentyl bicyclo[2,2,1]- heptene-2, and mixtures thereof.

The nitrile group and a substituent containing nitrile group can take the endo or exo position.

Though the cyano substituted norbornene derivatives consist of two groups of isomers represented by the endo and the exo positions occupied by the groups or substituents, yet said different groups of isomers can be effectively separated from each other by distillation. The endo type of isomer, for example, 5—cy-ano-bicyclo [2,2,l]-heρtene-2 remains solid at room temperature and has a boiling point of 88°C in an atmosphere reduced to 12 mm Hg~ The exo type is a colorless liquid at room temperature, and has a boiling point of 80.5 β C .in an . atmosphere reduced to 12 mm Ξg. Said isomers can be used in a separated or nonseparated state in performing the ring-opening polymerization * It is possible to use a single or two or more types of the above-mentioned cyano substituted norbornene derivatives in preparing polymers thereof.

Polymers of the norbornene derivatives can be prepared by ring-opening polymerization of the various types of norbornene derivatives in the presence or absence of an inert organic solvent using a catalytic system consisting of a mixture of organic aluminum compounds and compounds of tungsten and/or those of molybdenum or a catalytic system consisting of said mixture to which there is added at least one compound selected from the group consisting of water, peroxides, epoxides, organic halides, acetal compounds, alcoholic compounds, phenolic compounds, orthoformic acid esters

-5- and or hocarbox lic acid esters.

The ring-opening polymerization is carried .out generally at a temperature ranging from -100°C to +200°C or prefer-ably -40°C to - L00°C. At a temperature below -100 β C, the reaction system does not display desirable polymerization activity with the resultant extremely slow progress of polymerization. In such a case, progress of the polymerization consumes a great deal of time sometimes causing a mixture of the inert org-anic solvent .and monomer to be solidified. Conversel a temperature above 200 a C fails to provide a good quality of polymer prepared by ring-opening polymeri¬ zation, and is practically undesirable.

It is pref rred to conduct ring-opening ' polymerization in an inert atmosphere such as argon and nitrogen. If oxygen and moisture are present in the reaction system, then the catalytic compounds, i.e., the organic aluminum compounds and the compounds of tungsten or molybdenum, will be substantially ineffective in promoting reproducible polymerization.

The polymers prepared by ring-opening polymer¬ ization of cyano-substituted norbornene derivatives include not only homopolymers of cy-ano-substituted norbornene derivatives obtained by the -above-mentioned process but also copolymers prepared by the ring- opening polymerization of a mixture of the cyano- substituted norbornene derivatives as a main component and other cycloolefinic compounds. Preparation of such polymers can be carried out in the same manner as in producing the homopolymers of said cyano-substituted norbornene derivatives.

When the above-mentioned copolymers of cyano- substituted norbornene derivatives are used in producing the* resin compositions of this invention, it is preferred that said copolymers be formed by ring-opening polymer¬ ization of a mixture containing up to one mol of other cycloolefinic compounds based on one mol of cyano-

-6- substituted norbornene derivatives. Where said other cycloolefinic compounds, such as cyclopentene and cyσlooctene, are used in excess of one mol, then the resulting resin composition will have a lower surface hardness and softening point.

U.S. patent 4,132,750 is hereby incorporated by reference for its description of and preparation of the polycyano norbomenes.

Halogenated polyolefins, such as chlorinated polyethylene -and chlorinated polypropylene, are well known in the art and their preparation is disclosed in many U.S. patents such as 2,183,556 and 2,890,213. This includes both high pressure and low pressure halogenated polyolefins which can contain 2 to 5 carbon atoms, in the preferred embodiment. The degree of halogenation of the polyolefins suitable for use in this invention c-an typically range from about 10% to about 50%, preferably 30% to 40%, depending on the number of structural units present in the polymer. Preferably, polyolefins to be chlorinated are essentially linear polymers containing at least 90 mole percent ethylene in the polymer molecule with ' the remainder being one or more ethylenically unsaturated comonomers. Examples of useful ethylenically unsaturated comonomers are the nonaromatic hydrocarbon olefins having 3 or more carbon atoms such as propylene, butene- 1, 1,7-octadiene; cycloaliphatic olefins such as cyclo¬ pentene and 1,5—cyclooctadiene; substituted olefins such as acrylic acid and its esters; conjugated diolefins such as butadiene; alkenyl aromatic compounds such as styrene; and other polymerizable monomers known in the art. The polymers are prepared under the influence of a catalyst system comprising admixtures of strong reducing agents such as triethyl aluminum, and compounds of groups IV-B, V-B and VI-B metals of the Periodic

System, such as titanium tetra-chloride, and the like. The chlorinated low pressure polyethylene,

-7- for instance, is produced by chlorinating fine-grained low pressure polyethylene which may have been thermally treated for 5 to 300 minutes at a temperature of from 100 β C to its crystalline melting point, in hydrochloric acid. Chlorination is commenced at 50 to 100 β C and terminated at 120 to 130°C. Chlorinated polyolefins can also be prepared by chlorinating a high density polyethylene, i.e., 0.93 to 0.98 g/cc, and an amount generally less than 10 mol percent of an α-olefin, such as propylene. or butene-1, in a solvent or an aqueous suspension. Such chlorinated polyethylene cotains 25 to 45% by weight chlorine.

The ABS resins are a class of resins which are prepared by polymerizing a vinyl aromatic compound,' such as styrene, or any suitable alkylated styrene, ' and an acrylic nitrile, such ' as acrylonitrile, in the " presence of a conjugated diene polymer, such as poly- butadiene. The ABS resins are generally a mixture of rubber .particles dispersed in styrene-acrylonitrile matrix * At least a part of the styrene and acrylo¬ nitrile is usually polymerized in the presence of the elastomeric polybutadiene backbone. These graft polymer are prepared- from mixtures of other acrylic nitriles, such as methacrylonitrile, chloroacrylonitrile, and ethacrylonitrile, and other vinyl -aromatic compounds, such as methyl styrene and vinyl toluene, with other diolefin polymers, such as polychloroprene, poly- isoprene, and elastomeric butadiene copolymers, examples of which are butadiene-styrene, butadiene-acrylonitrile, and butadiene- lkyl acrylates. Alkyl methacrylates, such as methyl methacrylate , can be used in addition to or in place of acrylonitrile and styrene, if desired. The vinyl aromatic compounc ca AJ . contain o * co 12 carbon atoms, but preferably 8 to 9. Acrylic nitrile is defined by the following formula:

-8-

CH 2 =C- S

where R is selected from hydrogen, halogens, alkyl radicals of 1 to 8 carbon atoms, and aryl radicals; preferably, ' R is selected from hydrogen, chlorine, and alkyl radicals of 1 to 2 carbon atoms. The conjugated diene monomer is defined by the formula

CH 2 =C-C- 3: CH 2

X X where X's are individually selected from hydrogen, halogens, alkyl radicals of 1 to 5 carbon ' atoms, and aryl radicals; preferably, X r s are individually selected from hydrogen, chlorine, and alkyl radicals of 1 to 3 carbon atoms. The conjugated diene monom-er can be . polymerized and then graft polymerized with the vinyl aromatic compound -and the acrylic nitrile-monomer to form the ABS resin, as already noted.

Proportions of monomers used to prepare ABS resins c-an vary from about 40 to 90 parts b ' weight of combined acrylic nitrile and vinyl aromatic compound with about 60 to 10 parts o the diene elastomer. On the basis of the three components, acrylic nitrile is present in amount of 10 to 40 parts, vinyl aromatic compound in amount of 30 to 80 parts, and diene in •amount of 10 to 60 parts.

Blends of a polycyano norbornene, a chlor- inated polyolefin and an ABS polymer are prepared by working the polycyano norbornene resin on a mill heated to about 380°F until it is melted. At this point, the ABS resin is slowly worked in and melted followed by the chlorinated polyolefin. This blending operation takes about 5 minutes for batches of about 0.2-0.5 pound size. These blends can also be melt-mixed in

-9- l-arger equipment, such as the Bsmbury mixers and extruders.

The blends disclosed herein have applications which exploit their high heat distortion temper ture 5 and high impact strength. In particular, these blends, in the form of h.ardened materials, can be used in computer, television and radio housings, and other sundry applications. __.

A number of examples are presented below to 10 demonstrate efficacy of the blends disclosed therein in comparison with the resins themselves and binary blends thereof. The test used to determine heat distortion temperature was ASTM D-648-56 and the notched Izod impact test was ASTM D-256-56. The melt flow test was 15 carried out in a 1/2-inch barrel by applying a weight of 500 pounds on a 4-gram sample and forcing it through a die with a diameter df 0.0459 inch a a length of 0.3260 inch. The sample temperature was 190°C and it was preheated for 6 minutes. 20 EXAMPLES 1 TO 5

Five samples were prepared to demonstrate synergism of the compositions disclosed herein with respect to impact strength. The samples were prepared by blending ingredients identified in Table I, below, 25. and then testing the s-amples for notched Izod impact strength, ΞDT and melt flow. The formulations in parts by weight and test results are given in the table below:

TABLE I

30 Samples

Ingredients 1 2 3 4 5

PN Resin 90 75 50 80 75

ABS Resin - 25 50 15 25

Chlorinated PΞ 10 - - 10 10

35 Lubricant B 2 2 2 2 2

HDT, °C @ 26 14 psi 101 ' 101 98 101

Samples '

Ingredients

Notched Izod , 1.2- 1.1 2.3 8.5 8.4 J/cm

Melt Flow, 45 30 20 61 57 g/10 min.

The PN resin in the table, above, is poly(2- norbornene-5-nitrile) which had DSV of 0.51 measur-ed in methylene chloride (O.lg/100 ml) , notched Izod of 0.81 J/σm, heat distortion temperature of 111 to 113 β C, and a glass transition temperature of 134 β C. This data was obtained on compression molded samples. The ABS resin is composed of 30% polybutadiene and 70%-styrene-acrylo- nitrile where the SAN is 68% styrene and 32% acrylo¬ nitrile. Chlorinated polyethylene rubber contained 36% chlorine and the lubricant is oxidized polyethylene homopolymer.

- The dramatic synergi.sm of the compositions described herein is cle.arly evident from the impact strength and melt flow results given in Table I, above. Sample 1 was prepared with 90 parts of the polycy-ano norbora-ene resin and 10 parts of chlorinated polyethylene but without the ABS resin. Bearing in mind that Izod .impact for the polycy-ano norbornene resin is only 0.81 J/cm, there was some improvement .in the impact strength of 1.2 for sample 1. Izod impact for sample 2 was 1.1 J/cm, " which was composed of the polycyano norbornene resin and the ABS resin but without chlorinated poly- ethylene. Sample 3 was similar to sample 2 but amount of the ABS resin was increased to 50 parts at the expense of the polycyano resin. Izod impact of sample 3 was 2.3 J/cm, or about double that for samples 1 and 2. Sample 4 had the combination of the three critical ingredients, i.e., the polycyano resin, the ABS resin, and the chlorinated polyethylene. Izod impact of samples 4 and 5 was an incredible 8.5 and 8.4 J/cm,

-Ir¬ respectively, which is several times that of samples 1, 2 and 3.

It is also important to note that melt flow for samples 4 and 5 was high compared to the other samples. The fact that impact strength increased with an increase in melt flow is unexpected in itself. Generally, improvement in these two properties is not in tandem, i.e., if one increases the other decreases. In this instance, it is surprising to see both impact strength and melt flow show improvement.

With HDT of about 100°C, it is apparent that blends of a polycyano norbornene, a chlorinated poly¬ olefin, and a nitrile polymer would make good engineerin thermoplastics. This is also surprising since the polycyano norbomenes are relatively brittle the.rmo- plastics.

EXAMPLES 6 TO 14 Additional samples were prepared by blending the ingredients noted in Table II, below, ,and then testing the samples for melt flow, heat distortion temperature, and notched impact strength. The ingre¬ dients are stated in parts by weight. Results of the tests are given in Table II, below:

Ingredients Sample No.

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

ABS-A ~ 15 50 25 - 25 - 15 15

*

5 ABS-B - - - 25 - - - -

PN Resin 90 ao 50 75 75 75 75 50 60

Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) - - - - 25 50 40

MBS - - - - - - 10

Chlorinated PE 10 10 - - - 10 10 10 . -

10 Lubricant A 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1

Lubricant B 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 380-

Mill Temp. , °P 380 380 340 360 360 360 360 360 360 I

Molding Temp. , °F 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 t

Melt Flow, g/10 in. 45 61 20 30 51 57 39 40 . 26

15 HDT, °C 101 101 98 101 97 100 95 85 81

Izod Impact, J/cm 1.2 8.5 2.3 1.1 0.7 8.4 0.9 1.2 1.6

-13- In the above table, ABS-A is a high impact Abson 89005-021 resin which is composed of 30% polybuta- diene and 70% styrene-acrylonitrile where the SAN is 68% styrene .and 32% acrylonitrile. ABS-B is another acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin similar to the Abson resin. The PN resin is poly(2- orbornene-5- nitrile) which has a molecular weight of less than 25,000, notched Izod impact strength of about 0.8 J/σm, heat distortion temperature of about 110 β C to 115 β C, and a glass transition temperature of 135 a . The data on the PN resin is based on injection molded samples. Poly(methyl methacr late) in the blends identified in the above table is an impact modified grade. Chlorinate polyethylene contains 36% chlorine by weight. Lubricant A is Microthene 512, a low molecular weight polyethylene whereas ' Lubricant B is oxidized polyethylene homopolymer

The results in Table II indicate synergism of the compositions with respect to Izod impact strength. It should be apparent that in terms of notched Izod impact strength, the combination of a polycyano nor¬ bornene, a chlorinated polyolefin, and a nitrile polymer can produce unexpected results.