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Title:
HIGHLY ACTIVE QUATERNARY METALLIC MATERIALS USING SHORT-CHAIN ALKYL QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/126191
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A highly active quaternary mixed transition metal oxide material has been developed. The material may be sulfided to generate metal sulfides which are used as a catalyst in a conversion process such as hydroprocessing. The hydroprocessing may include hydrodenitrification, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodemetallation, hydrodesilication, hydrodearomatization, hydroisomerization, hydrotreating, hydrofining, and hydrocracking.

Inventors:
OSMAN, Zara (UOP LLC, 25 East Algonquin RoadP.O. Box 501, Des Plaines Illinois, 60017-5017, US)
PAN, Wei (UOP LLC, 25 East Algonquin RoadP.O. Box 501, Des Plaines Illinois, 60017-5017, US)
Application Number:
US2018/066260
Publication Date:
June 27, 2019
Filing Date:
December 18, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UOP LLC (25 East Algonquin Road, P.O. Box 5017Des Plaines, Illinois, 60017-5017, US)
International Classes:
C01G49/02; B01J23/887; B01J27/047; B01J37/03; B01J37/20; C01G3/02; C01G9/02; C01G25/02; C01G37/02; C01G39/02; C01G41/02; C01G45/02; C01G45/08; C01G51/04; C01G53/04; C10G45/08; C10G45/50; C10G45/60; C10G47/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2004073859A12004-09-02
WO2000041811A12000-07-20
Foreign References:
CN101306374B2012-01-25
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BENINATI, John F. (HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC, Intellectual Property – Patent Services115 Tabor Road, M/S 4D3, P.O. Box 37, Morris Plains New Jersey, 07950, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS:

1. A mixed transition metal oxide material having the formula:

(Mia)m(Miib)n(Minc)o(Mivd)pOeq

where:

Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4);

Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10);

Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6);

Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm;

a, b, c, d, and e are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O;

m, n, o, p, and q are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, wherein (m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 £p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation:

a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0 the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 2Q of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum larger than 3° and at least one of:

one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 5° and 11.5° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.3°; and

one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 11.5° and 32° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.6°.

2. The mixed transition metal oxide material of claim 1 further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A: TABLE A

3. The mixed transition metal oxide material of claim 1 wherein the mixed transition metal oxide material is present in a mixture with at least one binder and wherein the mixture comprises up to 80 wt% binder.

4. The mixed transition metal oxide material of claim 3 wherein the binder is selected from silicas, aluminas, silica-aluminas, titanias, zirconias, natural clays, synthetic clays, and mixtures thereof.

5. The mixed transition metal oxide material of claim 1 wherein Mi is Si, Zr, Mn, Cu, Zn, or any mixture thereof.

6. The mixed transition metal oxide material of claim 1 wherein Mu is Fe, Co, Ni, or any mixture thereof.

7. The mixed transition metal oxide material of claim 1 wherein Mm is Cr, Mo, or W.

8. The mixed transition metal oxide material of claim 1 wherein Miv is Cr, Mo, or W and is different from Mm.

9. The mixed transition metal oxide material of claim 1 wherein the novel mixed transition metal oxide material is sulfided.

10. A method of making a mixed transition metal oxide material having the formula:

(Mia)m(Miib)n(Mmc)o(Mivd)pOeq

where:

Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4); Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10);

Mm is a metal selected from Group VI (IUPAC Group 6);

Miv is a metal selected from Group VI (IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm; a, b, c, d, and e are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O;

m, n, o, p, and q are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, wherein (m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 £p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation:

a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0 the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 2Q of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum larger than 3° and at least one of:

one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 5° and 11.5° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.3°; and

one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 11.5° and 32° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.6°;

the method comprising:

(a) forming a reaction mixture containing a protic solvent, sources of Mi, Mu, Mm, and Miv, a basic solution, and at least one short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide compound having the formula [Rl R2 R3 R4-N]X, where Rl, R2, R3 and R4 are alkyl radicals having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and Rl,

R2, R3 and R4 can be the same or different;

(b) mixing the reaction mixture;

(c) reacting the reaction mixture at a temperature from 25°C to 200°C for a period of time from 30 minutes to 200 hours to generate the mixed transition metal oxide material; and

(d) recovering the mixed transition metal oxide material.

11. The method of claim 10 wherein the recovering is by decantation, filtration or centrifugation.

12. The method of claimlO further comprising adding a binder to the reaction mixture or to the recovered mixed transition metal oxide material.

13. The method of claim 12 wherein the binder is selected from aluminas, silicas, alumina-silicas, titanias, zirconias, natural clays, synthetic clays, and mixtures thereof.

14. The method of claim 10 further comprising sulfiding at least a portion of the recovered mixed transition metal oxide material.

15. The method of claim 10 further comprising adjusting the pH of the reaction mixture using an acidic or a basic solution.

16. The method of claim 10 wherein the reacting is conducted under atmospheric pressure or autogenous pressure.

17. The method of claim 10 wherein the forming the reaction mixture and the mixing are at the same time.

18. The method of claim 10 further comprising mixing during the reacting.

19. The method of claim 10 further comprising intermittent mixing during the reacting.

20. The method of claim 10 wherein the temperature is varied during the reacting.

21. The method of claim 10 wherein the material is further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A:

TABLE A

22. A conversion process comprising contacting a material with a sulfiding agent to convert at least a portion of the material to at least one metal sulfide and contacting the metal sulfide with a feed at conversion conditions to generate at least one product, wherein the material comprises a mixed transition metal oxide material having the formula:

(Mia)m(Miib)n(Minc)o(Mivd)pOeq

where: Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4);

Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10);

Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6);

Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm;

a, b, c, d, and e are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O;

m, n, o, p, and q are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, wherein (m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 £p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation:

a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0 the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 20 of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum larger than 3° and at least one of:

one or more sharp peaks between 20 of 5° and 11.5° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.3°; and

one or more sharp peaks between 20 of 11.5° and 32° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.6°.

23. The process of claim 22 further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A:

TABLE A

24. The process of claim 22 wherein the conversion process is a hydrocarbon conversion process.

25. The process of claim 22 wherein the conversion process is hydroprocessing. 26. The process of claim 22 wherein the conversion process is selected from hydrodenitrification, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodemetallation, hydrodesilication, hydrodearomatization, hydroisomerization, hydrotreating, hydrofining, and hydrocracking.

27. The process of claim 22 wherein the mixed transition metal oxide material is present in a mixture with at least one binder and wherein the mixture comprises up to 80 wt% binder.

Description:
HIGHLY ACTIVE QUATERNARY METALLIC MATERIALS USING SHORT-CHAIN ALKYL QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This invention relates to a new catalyst or catalyst precursor. More particularly this invention relates to a novel mixed transition metal oxide and its use as a catalyst or catalyst precursor such as a hydrocarbon conversion catalyst or catalyst precursor or specifically a hydroprocessing catalyst or catalyst precursor. The hydroprocessing may include hydrodenitrification, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodemetallation, hydrodesilication, hydrodearomatization, hydroisomerization, hydrotreating, hydrofining, and hydrocracking.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Currently there are two main drivers for refiners to invest in hydroprocessing technology. The first being environmental regulations imposing more stringent specifications on fuels including gasoline, diesel, and even fuel oils. For example, permitted sulfur and nitrogen levels in fuels are significantly lower than one decade ago. A second driving force is the quality of crude oils. More refineries are facing crude oils containing higher

concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen compounds which are difficult to process or remove by conventional processes. Without new technology, refiners resort to increasing the severity of hydrotreating processes either by increasing the reactor temperatures or decreasing space velocity through the reactor. Increasing reactor temperature has the drawback of shortening catalyst lifetime. Decreasing space velocity, through increasing reactor size or decreasing feed flow rates, has the drawback of overhauling the reactors or significantly reducing production rates. Therefore, a highly active hydroprocessing catalyst is needed. A highly active hydroprocessing catalyst helps the refiners meet the stringent fuel sulfur and nitrogen limitations without significant investment in reactors and equipment and while maintaining production rates.

[0003] In the early 2000s, unsupported, also called“bulk”, hydrotreating catalysts were applied in commercial hydrotreating processes. These catalysts were claimed to have several times more activity than conventional supported NiMo or CoMo hydrotreating catalysts based on the same loading volumes. However, to achieve the high activity, the unsupported hydrotreating catalysts often contained significantly more metal content than the conventional supported hydrotreating catalysts. Increased metal content means the cost of the catalyst is also increased. Thus, there is a need in the industry for an unsupported catalyst with better intrinsic activity per mass. An unsupported catalyst with higher intrinsic activity per mass will require less metal loading to achieve the same activity as the unsupported catalyst with less intrinsic activity at the same loading volumes.

[0004] US 6156695 described a Ni-Mo-W mixed metal oxide material. The XRD pattern of this material was shown to be largely amorphous with only two crystalline peaks, the first at d=2.53 Angstroms and the second at d=l .70 Angstroms. US 6534437 described a process for preparing a catalyst comprising bulk catalyst particles having at least one Group VIII non noble metal and at least two Group VIB metals. The metal components were stated to be at least partly in the solid state during the material synthesis reaction with solubility of less than 0.05 mol/lOOml water at l8 ° C. US 7544632 showed a bulk multi-metallic catalyst composition containing quaternary ammonium, [CH3(CH2) d N(CH3)3], where d is an integer from 10 to 40. US7686943 described a bulk metal catalyst comprising metal oxidic particles containing niobium as a Group V metal, a single Group VIB metal, and a single Group VIII metal. US 7776205 described a bulk metal catalyst comprising a single Group VIB metal, a Group VB metal, and a Group VIII metal.

[0005] US 8173570 showed co-precipitation to form at least a metal compound in solution selected from Group VIII, at least two Group VIB metal compounds in solution, and at least one organic oxygen containing chelating ligand in solution. The organic oxygen containing ligand has an LD50 rate larger than 700 mg/kg. US 7803735 showed forming an unsupported catalyst precursor by co-precipitating at least one of a Group VIB metal compound, at least a metal compound selected from Group VIII, Group IIB, Group IIA, Group IV A, and combinations thereof, and at least one of an organic oxygen-containing ligand.

[0006] CN 101306374 described a catalyst of at least one Group VIII metal, at least two Group VIB metals and an organic additive. The organic additive is selected from organic ammonium compounds with the formula of C n H 2n+i N(Me) 3 X or (C n Th n+i ^NX where n=2-20 and X denotes Cl, Br, or OH. The XRD provided shows peaks at d= 11.30 ± 1.5 Angstroms, d=4. l5 ± 0.5 Angstroms, d=2.60 ± 0.5 Angstroms, and d= 1.53 ± 0.5 Angstroms.

[0007] Unsupported NiZnMoW materials have been discussed in Applied Catalysis A: General 474 (2014) page 60-77. The material was synthesized in two steps. The first step prepared layered NiZn hydroxides. The second step prepared the NiZnMoW material via the reaction of layered NiZn hydroxide and solution containing Mo0 4 2 and W0 4 2 .

[0008] Furthermore, it is often emphasized that unsupported or bulk hydrotreating materials must be essentially amorphous before any sulfiding step. For example, US

6,299,760 described unsupported NiMoW hydrotreating catalysts wherein the XRD of the catalysts is essentially amorphous and has crystalline peaks at d=2.53 Angstrom and d=l.7 Angstrom; US 7,544,285 described a material that has a XRD diffraction pattern in which above 20=15°, there is a local maximum having a characteristic full width at a half maximum above 2.5° at each of a 20 value in the range of from 25.5° to 28°; a 20 value in the range of from 33.6° to 34.6°; and a 20 value in the range of from 59.8° to 62.2°, and there is no reflection or local maximum having a characteristic full width at a half maximum of 2.5 degree or below; thus describing the material as having no long-range order, and the material can be amorphous or contain nanoparticles.

[0009] There is a need for new materials to meet increasing demands of conversion processes including the need for catalysts with higher intrinsic activity per mass. The material disclosed herein is unique and novel in structure and composition as compared to previous materials.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0010] A novel mixed transition metal oxide material has been produced and optionally sulfided, to yield an active catalyst such as a hydroprocessing catalyst. The novel mixed transition metal oxide material has the formula:

(Mi a ) m (Mii b ) n (Min c ) o (Miv d )pO e q

where: Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4); Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10); Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6); Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB

(IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm; a, b, c, d, and e, are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O; m, n, o, p, and q, are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, wherein (m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 <p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation: a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0 the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 2Q of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) larger than 3° and at least one of: one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 5° and 11.5° with FWHM less than 0.3° and one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 11.5° and 32° with FWHM less than 0.6°. The material may be further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A: TABLE A

[0011] Another embodiment involves a method of making a mixed transition metal oxide material having the formula:

(Mi a ) m (Mii b ) n (Min c ) o (Miv d )pO e q

where: Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13),

Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4); Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10); Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6); Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm; a, b, c, d, and e, are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O; m, n, o, p, and q, are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, wherein (m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 <p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation: a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0 the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 2Q of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) larger than 3° and at least one of: one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 5° and 11.5° with FWHM less than 0.3° and one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 11.5° and 32° with FWHM less than 0.6°; or the material may be further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A: TABLE A

wherein the method comprises: forming a reaction mixture containing a protic solvent, sources of

Mi, Mu, Mm, and Miv, a basic solution, and at least one short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide compound having the formula [Rl R2 R3 R4-N]X, where Rl, R2, R3 and R4 are alkyl radicals having 1 to 6 carbon atoms such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, and hexyl, and where Rl, R2, R3 and R4 can be the same or different from each other;

mixing the reaction mixture; reacting the reaction mixture at a temperature from 25°C to 200°C for a period of time from 30 minutes to 200 hours to generate the mixed transition metal oxide material; and recovering the mixed transition metal oxide material. The recovery may be by decanting, filtration or centrifugation, with or without washing of the recovered product with a protic solvent. A binder may be incorporated during the reaction or may be added to the recovered material. The binder is selected from aluminas, silicas, alumina- silicas, titanias, zirconias, natural clays, synthetic clays, and mixtures thereof. The recovered mixed transition metal oxide material may be sulfided. The pH of the reaction mixture may be adjusted using an acidic or basic solution. The reaction is conducted under atmospheric pressure or autogenous pressure. Forming the reaction mixture and the mixing may occur at the same time.

[0012] Yet another embodiment involves a conversion process comprising contacting a sulfiding agent with a material to generate at least one metal sulfide which is contacted with a feed at conversion conditions to generate at least one product, the material comprising a mixed transition metal oxide material having the formula:

(Mi a ) m (Mii b ) n (Min c ) o (Miv d )pO e q

where: Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4); Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10); Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6); Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB

(IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm; a, b, c, d, and e, are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O; m, n, o, p, and q, are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, wherein (m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 <p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation: a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0 the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 20 of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) larger than 3° and at least one of: one or more sharp peaks between 20 of 5° and 11.5° with FWHM less than 0.3° and one or more sharp peaks between 20 of 11.5° and 32° with FWHM less than 0.6°; or the material may be further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A: TABLE A

[0013] The conversion process may be a hydrocarbon conversion process. The conversion process may be hydroprocessing. The conversion process may be

hydrodenitrification, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodemetallation, hydrodesilication, hydrodearomatization, hydroisomerization, hydrotreating, hydrofining, or hydrocracking. The mixed transition metal oxide material may be present in a mixture with at least one binder and wherein the mixture comprises up to 80 wt% binder.

[0014] It is unexpected that the material disclosed herein has sharp peaks in its XRD pattern, and yet has the same or better intrinsic activity as materials without sharp peaks. The sharp peaks in the XRD pattern indicate the presence of structures with long-range order. Therefore, the material herein does not contain only amorphous materials or only

nanoparticles.

[0015] Additional features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description of the invention and claims provided herein. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0016] FIG. 1 is the X-ray diffraction pattern of a transition metal oxide material prepared hydrothermally as described in Example 1.

[0017] FIG. 2 is the X-ray diffraction pattern of a transition metal oxide material prepared hydrothermally as described in Example 2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0018] The present invention relates to a novel mixed transition metal oxide material, a process for preparing the material, and a process using the material. The material has an empirical formula:

(Mi a ) m (Mii b ) n (Min c ) o (Miv d )pO e q

where: Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4); Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10); Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6); Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB

(IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm; a, b, c, d, and e, are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O; m, n, o, p, and q, are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, or m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 0.75, or m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 0.5; wherein (m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, or between 2/10 and 10/2, or between 4/10 and 10/4; wherein o/p>0, and 0 <p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation:

a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0

the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 20 of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) larger than 3° and at least one of: one or more sharp peaks between 20 of 5° and 11.5° with FWHM less than 0.3° and one or more sharp peaks between 20 of 11.5° and 32° with FWHM less than 0.6°. The material may be further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A:

TABLE A

[0019] The materials of the invention are characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction

(XRD) pattern which comprises both sharp peaks and broad peaks. The sharp and broad peaks are distinguished by their full width at half maximum (FWHM) after background subtraction. The relative intensity of the featured peaks are indicated by the notations of vs, s, m, w, and vw, which represent very strong, strong, medium, weak, and very weak. The intensity of each peak was determined by the peak height after subtracting background. To prevent errors in peak deconvolution, the background is taken to be linear in the range delimiting the broad diffraction features between 2Q of 15° and 45°. I 0 is the intensity of the peak at 2Q of 34.5-36.5°. EI 0 is the ratio of the intensity of a peak to L. In terms of 100(EI o ), the above designations are defined as: vw=0-5, w=5-20, m=20-60, s=60-80, and vs=80-l00.

It is known to those skilled in the art, the noise/signal ratio in XRD depends on scan conditions. Sufficient scan time is required to minimize noise/signal ratio to measure peak intensities and FWHM.

[0020] Although Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC

Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4), in one embodiment, Mi may be selected from, Si, Zr, Mn, Cu, Zn, and any mixture thereof. Although Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10), in one embodiment Mu may be selected from Fe, Co, Ni, and any mixture thereof.

Although Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6) in one embodiment, Mm is selected from Cr, Mo, and W. Although Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm, in one embodiment Miv is selected from Cr, Mo, and W so long as Miv is different from Mm . [0021] The novel mixed transition metal oxide material can be prepared by co- precipitation by mixing, in a protic solvent, sources of the transition metals with basic solution and short chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide compounds. The term“metal” as used herein is meant to refer to the element and not meant to necessarily indicate a metallic form.

[0022] Sources of Mi include, but are not limited to, the respective halide, sulfide, acetate, nitrate, carbonate, sulfate, oxalate, thiols, hydroxide salts, and oxides of Mi. Specific examples of sources of Mi include, but are not limited to, manganese nitrate, manganese chloride, manganese bromide, manganese sulfate, manganese carbonate, manganese sulfide, manganese hydroxide, manganese oxide, zirconium nitrate, zirconium oxychloride, zirconium bromide, zirconium sulfate, zirconium basic carbonate, zirconium hydroxide, zirconium oxide, copper nitrate, copper chloride, copper bromide, copper sulfate, copper carbonate, copper acetate, copper oxalate, copper sulfide, copper hydroxide, copper oxide, zinc nitrate, zinc chloride, iron bromide, zinc sulfate, zinc carbonate, zinc acetate, zinc oxalate, zinc sulfide, zinc hydroxide, zinc oxide, and any mixture thereof.

[0023] Sources of Mu include, but are not limited to, the respective halide, sulfide, acetate, nitrate, carbonate, sulfate, oxalate, thiols, hydroxide salts, and oxides of Mu. Specific examples of sources of Mu include, but are not limited to, nickel chloride, nickel bromide, nickel nitrate, nickel acetate, nickel carbonate, nickel hydroxide, cobalt chloride, cobalt bromide, cobalt nitrate, cobalt acetate, cobalt carbonate, cobalt hydroxide, cobalt sulfide, nickel chloride, cobalt oxide, nickel bromide, nickel nitrate, nickel acetate, nickel carbonate, nickel hydroxide, nickel sulfide, nickel oxide, iron acetate, iron oxalate, iron nitrate, iron chloride, iron bromide, iron sulfate, iron carbonate, iron acetate, iron oxalate, iron sulfide, iron oxide, and any mixture thereof.

[0024] Sources of Mm include, but are not limited to, the respective oxides of Mm, sulfides of Mm, halides of Mm, molybdates, tungstates, thiolmolybdates, and thioltungstates. Specific examples of sources of Mm include, but are not limited to, molybdenum tri oxide, ammonium dimolybdate, ammonium thiomolybdate, ammonium heptamolybdate, sodium dimolybdate, sodium thiomolybdate, sodium heptamolybdate, potassium dimolybdate, potassium thiomolybdate, potassium heptamolybdate, molybdenum sulfide, tungsten trioxide, tungstic acid, tungsten oxytetrachloride, tungsten hexachloride, hydrogen tungstate, ammonium ditungstate, sodium ditungstate, ammonium metatungstate, ammonium

paratungstate, sodium metatungstate, sodium paratungstate, and any mixture thereof.

[0025] Sources of Miv include, but are not limited to, the respective oxides of Miv, sulfides of Miv, halides of Miv, molybdates, tungstates, thiolmolybdates, and thioltungstates. Specific examples of sources of Miv include, but are not limited to, molybdenum tri oxide, ammonium dimolybdate, ammonium thiomolybdate, ammonium heptamolybdate, sodium dimolybdate, sodium thiomolybdate, sodium heptamolybdate, potassium dimolybdate, potassium thiomolybdate, potassium heptamolybdate, molybdenum sulfide, tungsten trioxide, tungstic acid, tungsten oxytetrachloride, tungsten hexachloride, hydrogen tungstate, ammonium ditungstate, sodium ditungstate, ammonium metatungstate, ammonium

paratungstate, sodium metatungstate, sodium paratungstate, and any mixtures thereof.

[0026] Specific examples of basic solutions include, but are not limited to, ammonia- water (NH3.H20), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH),

tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH), tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide (TPAOH), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) and any mixtures thereof.

[0027] The short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide compound is selected from compounds having the formula [Rl R2 R3 R4-N]X, where Rl, R2, R3 and R4 are alkyl radicals having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, and hexyl, and Rl, R2, R3 and R4 can be the same or different from each other. In a specific embodiment, X is selected from F, Cl, Br, and I. Specific examples of short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide compounds include, but are not limited to, tetra methyl ammonium chloride, tetra methyl ammonium bromide, tetra ethyl ammonium chloride, tetra ethyl ammonium bromide, tetra propyl ammonium chloride, tetra propyl ammonium bromide, tetra butyl ammonium chloride, tetra butyl ammonium bromide, tetra pentyl ammonium chloride, tetra pentyl ammonium bromide, tri-butyl methyl ammonia chloride, tri butyl methyl ammonium bromide, tri-propyl methyl ammonium chloride, tri-propyl methyl ammonium bromide, tri-ethyl methyl ammonium chloride, tri-ethyl methyl ammonium bromide, di-propyl di-methyl ammonium chloride, di-propyl di-methyl ammonium bromide, butyl tri-methyl ammonium chloride, butyl tri-methyl ammonium bromide, and any mixture thereof.

[0028] The material of this invention can be prepared by co-precipitation by forming a reaction mixture in a protic solvent comprising the sources of transition metals, basic solution, and at least one short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide compound. Suitable protic solvents include water and alcohols such as ethanol, isopropanol, butanol, and glycol. Suitable basic solutions are discussed above. The reaction mixture may be formed by adding the components of the reaction mixture in any order and in any combination and as a variety of solutions. In one embodiment, the sources of Mi, Mu, Mm, and Mrv may be in one or more solutions prior to forming the reaction mixture. In one embodiment, sources or solutions of Mi, Mu, Mm, and Mrv may be mixed with protic solvent, basic solutions, a short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide solution, or any of the above prior to combination to form the reaction mixture. In another embodiment, the prepared Mi, Mu, Mm, and Miv solutions can be added into protic solution and basic solution and a short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide solution added to the protic solution to form the reaction mixture. In yet another embodiment, solutions of sources of Mi, Mu, Mm, and Mrv in protic solvent can be added simultaneously together with the basic solution and a short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide solution to form the reaction mixture.

[0029] Depending upon the metal sources selected, the pH of the reaction mixture may be adjusted to an acidic or a basic regime. The pH of the mixture may be adjusted through the addition of a base such as NH 4 OH, quaternary ammonium hydroxides, amines, and the like, or conversely through the addition of a mineral acid such as nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, or an organic acid such as citric acid or malic acid, depending upon reactive sources of metals. In one embodiment, the pH does not need to be adjusted.

[0030] During or after mixing the components including, the protic solvent, the basic solution, the short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide solution, and sources of Mi, Mu, Mm, and Mrv, the reaction mixture is reacted at temperature in the range of 25 ° C to 200 ° C, or from 60 ° C to l80 ° C, or from 80 ° C to l50 ° C in a sealed autoclave reactor or in a reactor open to ambient pressure. The sealed autoclave reactor or the reactor open to ambient pressure can be equipped with a stirring device to mix the reaction mixture. In another embodiment, the sealed autoclave or the reactor open to the ambient pressure does not have a stirring device and the reaction is conducted at a static state unless the temperature of the reaction mixture is higher than boiling point of the mixture, causing autonomous stirring by the boiling of the reaction mixture. In embodiment where a reactor open to ambient pressure is employed, a reflux device can be optionally attached to the reactor to avoid solvent loss when the reaction temperature is close to or above the boiling temperature of the reaction mixture. [0031] The reaction time may range from 0.5 to 200 h, or 0.5 h to 100 h, or from 1 h to 50 h, or from 2h to 24h. Optionally, the reaction mixture may be mixed continuously or intermittently during the reaction. In one embodiment, the reaction mixture is mixed every few hours. During reaction, the pH of the reaction mixture can vary autonomously due to the thermal decomposition of basic compounds at elevated reaction temperatures, or the pH of the reaction mixture may be adjusted manually by adding acidic or basic compounds into the reaction mixture, depending on the desired pH. The pH of the mixture may be adjusted through the addition of a base such as NH 4 OH, quaternary ammonium hydroxides, amines, and the like, or conversely though the addition of an acid such as a mineral acid such as nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, or an organic acid such as citric acid or malic acid. In one embodiment, the pH does not need to be adjusted. As the reaction progresses, a slurry is formed. At the end of the reaction time, the pH of the slurry may be from 6 to 9, or from 6 to 8.5, or from 6 to 7.5. The slurry may need to be adjusted by adding acidic or basic compounds into the slurry in order to obtain the desired final pH. The mixed transition metal oxide material is recovered from the slurry.

[0032] In a specific embodiment, the mixed transition metal oxide material may be present in a composition along with a binder, where the binder may be, for example, silicas, aluminas, silica-aluminas, titanias, zirconias, natural clays, synthetic clays, and mixtures thereof. The selection of binder includes but is not limited to, anionic and cationic clays such as hydrotal cites, pyroaurite-sjogrenite-hydrotal cites, montmorillonite and related clays, kaolin, sepiolites, silicas, aluminas such as (pseudo) boehomite, gibbsite, flash calcined gibbsite, eta-alumina, zicronica, titania, alumina coated titania, silica-alumina, silica coated alumina, alumina coated silicas and mixtures thereof, or other materials generally known as particle binders in order to maintain particle integrity. These binders may be applied with or without peptization. The binder may be added to the bulk mixed transition metal oxide material, or may be incorporated during synthesis. The amount of binder may range from 1 to 80 wt% of the finished composition, or from 1 to 30 wt% of the finished composition, or from 5 to 26 wt% of the finished composition. The binder may be chemically bound to the mixed transition metal oxide material, or may be present in a physical mixture with the novel mixed transition metal oxide material. The mixed transition metal oxide material maybe extruded or pelletized with or without a binder. [0033] At least a portion of the mixed transition metal oxide material, with or without a binder, or before or after inclusion of a binder, can be sulfided in situ in an application or pre- sulfided to form metal sulfides which in turn are used in an application. The sulfidation may be conducted under a variety of sulfidation conditions such as through contact of the mixed transition metal oxide material with a sulfur containing stream or feedstream as well as the use of a gaseous mixture of H 2 S / H 2. The sulfidation of the mixed transition metal oxide material is performed at elevated temperatures, typically ranging from 50 to 600°C, or from 150 to 500°C, or from 250 to 450°C. The sulfiding step can take place at a location remote from other synthesis steps, remote from the location of the application where the mixed transition metal oxide material will be used, or remote from both the location of synthesis and remote from location of use. The materials resulting from the sulfiding step are referred to as metal sulfides which can be used as catalysts in conversion processes.

[0034] As discussed, at least a portion of the mixed transition metal oxide material of this invention can be sulfided and the resulting metal sulfides used as catalysts in conversion processes such as hydrocarbon conversion processes. Hydroprocessing is one class of hydrocarbon conversion processes in which the mixed transition metal oxide material is useful as a catalyst. Examples of specific hydroprocessing processes are well known in the art and include hydrodenitrification, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodemetallation,

hydrodesilication, hydrodearomatization, hydroisomerization, hydrotreating, hydrofining, and hydrocracking. In one embodiment a conversion process comprises contacting the mixed transition metal oxide material with a sulfiding agent to generate metal sulfides which are contacted with a feed stream at conversion conditions to generate at least one product.

[0035] The operating conditions of the hydroprocessing processes listed above typically include reaction pressures from 2.5 MPa to 17.2 MPa, or in the range of 5.5 to 17.2 MPa, with reaction temperatures in the range of 245°C to 440°C, or in the range of 285°C to 425°C. Contact time for the feed and the active catalyst, referred to as liquid hourly space velocities (LHSV), should be in the range of 0.1 h 1 to 10 h 1 , or 2.0 h 1 to 8.0 h 1 . Specific subsets of these ranges may be employed depending upon the feedstock being used. For example, when hydrotreating a typical diesel feedstock, operating conditions may include from 3.5 MPa to 8.6 MPa, from 3 l5°C to 4l0°C, from 0.25/h to 5/h, and from 84 Nm 3 H 2 /m 3 to 850 Nm 3 H 2 /m 3 feed. Other feedstocks may include gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, gas oils, distillates, and reformate. [0036] Examples are provided below to describe the invention more completely. These examples are only by way of illustration and should not be interpreted as a limitation of the broad scope of the invention, which is set forth in the claims.

[0037] Patterns presented in the following examples were obtained using standard x-ray powder diffraction techniques. The radiation source was a high-intensity, x-ray tube operated at 45 kV and 35 mA. The diffraction pattern from the copper K-alpha radiation was obtained by appropriate computer based techniques. Powder samples were pressed flat into a plate and continuously scanned from 3° and 70° (2Q). Interplanar spacings (d) in Angstrom units were obtained from the position of the diffraction peaks expressed as Q, where Q is the Bragg angle as observed from digitized data.

[0038] The relative intensity of the featured peaks is indicated by the notations of vs, s, m, w, and vw, which represent very strong, strong, medium, weak, and very weak. The intensity of each peak was determined by the peak height after subtracting background. To prevent errors in peak deconvolution, the background is taken to be linear in the range delimiting the broad diffraction features between 2Q of 15° and 45°. I 0 is the intensity of the peak at 2Q of 34.5-36.5°. EI 0 is the ratio of the intensity of a peak to E. In terms of 100(EI o ), the above designations are defined as: vw=0-5, w=5-20, m=20-60, s=60-80, and vs=80-l00. It is known to those skilled in the art, the noise/signal ratio in XRD depends on scan conditions. Sufficient scan time is required to minimize noise/signal ratio to measure peak intensities and FWHM.

EXAMPLE 1

[0039] 1 99g Ammonium heptamolybdate was dissolved in 15g DI EhO and set to stir in a beaker. Then, 3.60g Ammonium metatungstate dissolved in 15g DI EhO was added, followed by the addition of 5.56g Ni(N0 3 ) 2 dissolved in 15g DI EhO to obtain a clear green solution. l . l9g of TBABr dissolved in lOg DI EhO was added and pale green slurry was obtained. The pH was adjusted to 8 using NH 4 OH. Then, l .42g Zn(N0 3 ) 2 dissolved in 1 l .25g DI H2O was added. The resulting slurry was then transferred to autoclaves and digested at l50°C for 9h. The product was then cooled, centrifuged and washed with hot DI H2O, and dried at 1 lO°C overnight. The resulting material was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the X-ray diffraction pattern is provided in FIG. 1. EXAMPLE 2

[0040] 1 99g Ammonium heptamolybdate was dissolved in 15g DI EhO and set to stir in a beaker. Then, 3.60g Ammonium metatungstate dissolved in 15g DI EhO was added, followed by the addition of 5.56g Ni(N0 3 ) 2 dissolved in 15g DI EhO to obtain a clear green solution. l . l9g of TBABr dissolved in lOg DI EhO was added and pale green slurry was obtained. The pH was adjusted to 8 using NH 4 OH. Then, l .42g Zn(N0 3 ) 2 dissolved in 1 l .25g DI H2O was added. The resulting slurry was then transferred to autoclaves and digested at l25°C for 2 days. The product was then cooled, centrifuged and washed with hot DI H2O, and dried at 1 l0°C overnight. The resulting material was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the X-ray diffraction pattern is provided in FIG. 2.

SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS

[0041] While the following is described in conjunction with specific embodiments, it will be understood that this description is intended to illustrate and not limit the scope of the preceding description and the appended claims.

[0042] A first embodiment of the invention is a mixed transition metal oxide material having the formula (Mi a ) m (Mii b ) n (Miii c ) 0 (Miv d )pO e q where Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IV A (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4); Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10); Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6); Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm; a, b, c, d, and e are the valence state of Mi, M ¾ Mm, Miv, and O; m, n, o, p, and q are the mole ratio of Mi, M U , Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, wherein

(m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 <p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0, the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 2Q of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum larger than 3° and at least one of one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 5° and 11.5° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.3°; and one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 11.5° and 32° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.6°. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the first embodiment in this paragraph further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A.

TABLE A

An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the first embodiment in this paragraph wherein the mixed transition metal oxide material is present in a mixture with at least one binder and wherein the mixture comprises up to 80 wt% binder. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the first embodiment in this paragraph wherein the binder is selected from silicas, aluminas, silica-aluminas, titanias, zirconias, natural clays, synthetic clays, and mixtures thereof. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the first embodiment in this paragraph wherein Mi is Si, Zr, Mn, Cu, Zn, or any mixture thereof. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the first embodiment in this paragraph wherein Mu is Fe, Co, Ni, or any mixture thereof. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the first embodiment in this paragraph wherein Mm is Cr, Mo, or W. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the first embodiment in this paragraph wherein Miv is Cr, Mo, or W and is different from Mm. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the first embodiment in this paragraph wherein the novel mixed transition metal oxide material is sulfided.

[0043] A second embodiment of the invention is a method of making a mixed transition metal oxide material having the formula (Mi a ) m (Mii b ) n (Miii c ) 0 (Miv d )pO e q where Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4); Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10); Mm is a metal selected from Group VI (IUPAC Group 6); Miv is a metal selected from Group VI (IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm; a, b, c, d, and e are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O; m, n, o, p, and q are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Miv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) <

I, wherein (m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 <p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation

a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0, the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 2Q of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum larger than 3° and at least one of one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of 5° and 11.5° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.3°; and one or more sharp peaks between 2Q of

I I.5° and 32° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.6°; the method comprising (a) forming a reaction mixture containing a protic solvent, sources of Mi, Mu, Mm, and Miv, a basic solution, and at least one short-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium halide compound having the formula [Rl R2 R3 R4-N]X, where Rl, R2, R3 and R4 are alkyl radicals having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and Rl, R2, R3 and R4 can be the same or different; (b) mixing the reaction mixture; (c) reacting the reaction mixture at a temperature from 25 °C to 200°C for a period of time from 30 minutes to 200 hours to generate the mixed transition metal oxide material; and (d) recovering the mixed transition metal oxide material. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph wherein the recovering is by decantation, filtration or centrifugation. The method of claim 10 further comprising adding a binder to the reaction mixture or to the recovered mixed transition metal oxide material. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph wherein the binder is selected from aluminas, silicas, alumina- silicas, titanias, zirconias, natural clays, synthetic clays, and mixtures thereof. An

embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph further comprising sulfiding at least a portion of the recovered mixed transition metal oxide material. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph further comprising adjusting the pH of the reaction mixture using an acidic or a basic solution. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph wherein the reacting is conducted under atmospheric pressure or autogenous pressure. An

embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph wherein the forming the reaction mixture and the mixing are at the same time. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph further comprising mixing during the reacting. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph further comprising intermittent mixing during the reacting. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph wherein the temperature is varied during the reacting. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the second embodiment in this paragraph wherein the material is further

characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A.

TABLE A

[0044] A third embodiment of the invention is a conversion process comprising contacting a material with a sulfiding agent to convert at least a portion of the material to at least one metal sulfide and contacting the metal sulfide with a feed at conversion conditions to generate at least one product, wherein the material comprises a mixed transition metal oxide material having the formula (Mi a ) m (Mii b ) n (Miii c ) 0 (Miv d )pO e q where Mi is a metal or mixture of metals selected from Group IB (IUPAC Group 11), Group IIB (IUPAC Group 12), Group VIIB (IUPAC Group 7), Group IIIA (IUPAC Group 13), Group IVA (IUPAC Group 14), and Group IVB (IUPAC Group 4); Mu is a metal or a mixture of metals selected from Group VIII (IUPAC Groups 8, 9, and 10); Mm is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6); Miv is a metal selected from Group VIB (IUPAC Group 6) which is different from Mm; a, b, c, d, and e are the valence state of Mi, Mu, Mm, Mrv, and O; m, n, o, p, and q are the mole ratio of Mi, Mu, Mm, Mrv, and O, wherein m/(m+n) > 0 and m/(m+n) < 1, wherein

(m+n)/(o+p) is from 1/10 to 10/1, wherein o/p>0, and 0 <p/o <100, wherein q is greater than 0, and a, b, c, d, e, m, n, o, p, and q satisfy the equation a*m+b*n+c*o+d*p+e*q=0, the material further characterized by an X-ray diffraction pattern comprising a broad peak between 20 of 55° and 58° with the full width at half maximum larger than 3° and at least one of one or more sharp peaks between 20 of 5° and 11.5° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.3°; and one or more sharp peaks between 20 of 11.5° and 32° with the full width at half maximum less than 0.6°. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the third embodiment in this paragraph further characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern comprising the peaks in Table A. TABLE A

An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the third embodiment in this paragraph wherein the conversion process is a hydrocarbon conversion process. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the third embodiment in this paragraph wherein the conversion process is hydroprocessing. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the third embodiment in this paragraph wherein the conversion process is selected from hydrodenitrification, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodemetallation, hydrodesilication, hydrodearomatization, hydroisomerization, hydrotreating, hydrofining, and hydrocracking. An embodiment of the invention is one, any or all of prior embodiments in this paragraph up through the third embodiment in this paragraph wherein the mixed transition metal oxide material is present in a mixture with at least one binder and wherein the mixture comprises up to 80 wt% binder.

[0045] Without further elaboration, it is believed that using the preceding description that one skilled in the art can utilize the present invention to its fullest extent and easily ascertain the essential characteristics of this invention, without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, to make various changes and modifications of the invention and to adapt it to various usages and conditions. The preceding preferred specific embodiments are, therefore, to be construed as merely illustrative, and not limiting the remainder of the disclosure in any way whatsoever, and that it is intended to cover various modifications and equivalent

arrangements included within the scope of the appended claims.

[0046] In the foregoing, all temperatures are set forth in degrees Celsius and, all parts and percentages are by weight, unless otherwise indicated.