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Title:
A HYDRAULIC DEVICE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/198718
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A hydraulic device (1) comprises a housing (27), a shaft (2) which is mounted in the housing (27) and rotatable about a first axis of rotation (4), wherein the shaft (2) has a flange (8) extending transversely to the first axis (4), a plurality of pistons (9) which are fixed to the flange (8) at equiangular distance about the first axis of rotation (4), a plurality of cylindrical sleeves (10) including sleeve bottoms (12) and sleeve jackets (13), respectively, and cooperating with the pistons (9) to form respective compression chambers (11) of variable volume. The cylindrical sleeves (10) are rotatable about a second axis of rotation which intersects the first axis of rotation (4) by an acute angle such that upon rotating the shaft (2) the volumes of the compression chambers (11) change between bottom dead centre and top dead centre of the pistons (9) within the sleeves (10). Each piston (9) has a piston head (14) including a circumferential wall of which the outer side is ball-shaped, hence forming a sealing line within the cooperating sleeve jacket (13), and the inner side surrounds a cavity (21). Each sleeve jacket (13) has such a thin wall and/or is elastically movable with respect to the sleeve bottom (12) such that at a fixed pressure in the compression chamber (11) the radial deformation of the sleeve jacket (13) at the sealing line is substantially constant at piston positions ranging from bottom dead centre to a position where the distance between the sleeve bottom (12) and the sealing line is less than 50% of the distance between the sleeve bottom (12) and the sealing line at bottom dead centre.

Inventors:
ACHTEN, Peter Augustinus Johannes (Fazantlaan 3A, 5613 CA Eindhoven, 5613 CA, NL)
Application Number:
EP2017/061851
Publication Date:
November 23, 2017
Filing Date:
May 17, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INNAS BV (Nikkelstraat 15, 4823 AE Breda, 4823 AE, NL)
International Classes:
F04B1/20; F03C1/32; F04B53/16
Domestic Patent References:
WO2006083163A12006-08-10
Foreign References:
EP1855002A12007-11-14
US3948111A1976-04-06
Other References:
PETER A.J. ACHTEN: "Volumetric losses of a multi piston floating cup pump", PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FLUID POWER, pages 337 - 348
"Proceedings of the 50th National conference on fluid power", 2005, NATIONAL FLUID POWER ASSOCIATION
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DE VRIES & METMAN et al. (Overschiestraat 180, 1062 XK Amsterdam, 1062 XK, NL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A hydraulic device (1) comprising a housing (27), a shaft (2) which is mounted in the housing (27) and rotatable about a first axis of rotation (4), wherein the shaft (2) has a flange (8) extending transversely to the first axis (4), a plurality of pistons (9) which are fixed to the flange (8) at equiangular distance about the first axis of rotation (4), a plurality of cylindrical sleeves (10)

including sleeve bottoms (12) and sleeve jackets (13), respectively, and cooperating with the pistons (9) to form respective compression chambers (11) of variable volume, wherein the cylindrical sleeves (10) are rotatable about a second axis of rotation which intersects the first axis of rotation (4) by an acute angle such that upon rotating the shaft (2) the volumes of the compression chambers (11) change between bottom dead centre and top dead centre of the pistons (9) within the sleeves (10), wherein each piston (9) has a piston head (14) including a circumferential wall of which the outer side is ball-shaped, hence forming a sealing line within the cooperating sleeve jacket (13), and the inner side

surrounds a cavity (21), characterized in that each sleeve jacket (13) has such a thin wall and/or is elastically movable with respect to the sleeve bottom (12) such that at a fixed pressure in the compression chamber (11) the radial

deformation of the sleeve jacket (13) at the sealing line is substantially constant at piston positions ranging from bottom dead centre to a position where the distance between the sleeve bottom (12) and the sealing line is less than 50% of the distance between the sleeve bottom (12) and the sealing line at bottom dead centre.

2. A hydraulic device (1) according to claim 1, wherein the radial deformation is substantially constant to a position where the distance between the sleeve bottom (12) and the sealing line is less than 40% of the distance between the sleeve bottom (12) and the sealing line at bottom dead centre.

3. A hydraulic device (1) according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the distance between the sleeve bottom (12) and the sealing line at top dead centre is smaller than 30% of the distance between the sleeve bottom (12) and the sealing line at bottom dead centre.

4. A hydraulic device according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the sleeve (10) is made of steel and the wall thickness of the sleeve jacket (13) is smaller than 1.5 mm .

5. A hydraulic device (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the wall thickness of the sleeve jacket (13) is smaller than the maximum thickness of the circumferential wall of the piston head (14) .

6. A hydraulic device (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the thickness of the sleeve bottom (12) is smaller than 60% of the wall thickness of the sleeve j acket ( 13 ) .

7. A hydraulic device (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the sleeve bottom (12) has a central through-hole through which the compression chamber (11) communicates with a cooperating passages (19) in a barrel plate (15) which supports the sleeve (10), wherein the

diameter of the through-hole is larger than 70% of the inner diameter of the sleeve jacket (13) .

8. A hydraulic device (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the wall thickness of the sleeve jacket (16) is smaller than 13% of the outer diameter of the sleeve jacket (16) and/or smaller than 13% of the length of the sleeve jacket (16) .

9. A hydraulic device (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the sleeve (10) has a locally reduced wall thickness (22) at the transition between the sleeve- acket (13) and the sleeve bottom (12).

10. A hydraulic device (1) according to claim 9, wherein the locally reduced wall thickness (22) is located in the sleeve jacket (13) .

11. A hydraulic device (1) according to claim 10, wherein the locally reduced wall thickness (22) is formed by opposite circumferential recesses located at the inner side and outer side of the sleeve jacket (13) .

12. A hydraulic device (1) according to claim 9, wherein the locally reduced wall thickness (22) is located in the sleeve bottom (12) .

13. A hydraulic device (1) according to claim 12, wherein the locally reduced wall thickness (22) is formed by a circumferential recess located at the inner side of the sleeve (10) .

Description:
A hydraulic device

The present invention relates to a hydraulic device according to the preamble of claim 1.

Such a device is known from "Volumetric losses of a multi piston floating cup pump", Peter A.J. Achten;

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FLUID POWER; 337- 348; Proceedings of the 50th National conference on fluid power by National Fluid Power Association; 2005, NCFP 105- 10.2. This document discloses that the radial deformation of the sleeve jacket depends on the depth that the piston is inserted in the sleeve, but the radial expansion at the sealing line can almost be constant at different positions of the piston within the sleeve. Furthermore, the document discloses that due to the asymmetric hydrostatic load on the outer side of the piston head, the thin-walled piston head deforms to an oval shape during the compression phase, i.e. when the distance between the piston head and the sleeve bottom decreases. Under operating conditions the piston expansion more or less follows the piston sleeve expansion during the compression phase. Consequently, leakage flow between the piston head and the sleeve jacket at the sealing line is minimized.

Since the sleeve bottom causes increased stiffness of a portion of the sleeve jacket which is adjacent to the sleeve bottom, radial deformation of the sleeve jacket at the sealing line decreases when the distance between the sleeve bottom and the piston head becomes smaller. As a consequence, the piston and sleeve jacket may scratch each other near the sleeve bottom, i.e. when top dead centre lies close to the sleeve bottom. For this reason the dimensions of the pistons and cooperating sleeves are matched on the basis of the critical condition when the piston head and the sleeve bottom approach each other .

An object of the invention is to provide a hydraulic device with tight tolerances between the pistons and the cooperating sleeves whereas minimizing the risk of scratching between the piston heads and the sleeve jackets.

This object is accomplished with the hydraulic device according to the invention, which is characterized in that each sleeve jacket has such a thin wall and/or is elastically movable with respect to the sleeve bottom such that at a fixed pressure in the compression chamber the radial deformation of the sleeve jacket at the sealing line is substantially

constant at piston positions ranging from bottom dead centre to a position where the distance between the sleeve bottom and the sealing line is less than 50% of the distance between the sleeve bottom and the sealing line at bottom dead centre.

Due to a relatively thin wall of the sleeve jacket its stiffness is also relatively low such that the radial deformation at the sealing line remains substantially constant at a fixed pressure in the compression chamber at different positions of the piston in the direction from bottom dead centre to top dead centre over a relatively long distance. A similar effect is achieved when the sleeve jacket is

elastically movable in radial direction with respect to the sleeve bottom. This means that the risk of contact between the piston head and the sleeve jacket upon approaching the sleeve bottom is relatively low. Furthermore, the relatively small stiffness allows a relatively tight tolerance between the piston head and the sleeve jacket near top dead centre. Even if the piston head tends to contact the sleeve jacket, the sleeve jacket may be deformed and/or moved with respect to the sleeve bottom by the piston head at a relatively low force. In that case the piston may deform to a less oval shape and the sleeve jacket may deform to a more oval shape. It is noted that the radial deformation of the sleeve jacket between the sleeve bottom and the sealing line may be relatively large due to the small stiffness, but that is not relevant since it is the radial deformation at the sealing line which dictates leakage flow and not the radial deformation between the sleeve bottom and the sealing line. It is noted that the sleeve can be a single part.

An additional advantage of a relatively thin wall of the sleeve jacket is a relatively low weight of the sleeve. Particularly, for hydraulic devices which are operated at high rotational speed centrifugal forces on the sleeves are

minimized causing reduced tendency of the sleeves to tilt with respect to a barrel plate by which they are supported.

It is noted that the term substantially constant may be defined as varying between ± 10% or ± 5% of the average value .

The radial deformation may be substantially constant to a position where the distance between the sleeve bottom and the sealing line is less than 40% of the distance between the sleeve bottom and the sealing line at bottom dead centre.

The distance between the sleeve bottom and the sealing line at top dead centre may be smaller than 30% of the distance between the sleeve bottom and the sealing line at bottom dead centre. This means that the sealing line at top dead centre may lie close to the sleeve bottom. When using a sleeve jacket of a larger wall thickness the distance between the sleeve bottom and top dead centre might be increased to achieve a comparable constant radial deformation profile over a long distance from bottom dead centre, but this leads to a larger dead volume between the sleeve bottom and top dead centre. This would be disadvantageous in terms of efficiency and noise emission.

In practice the sleeve may be made of steel whereas the wall thickness of the sleeve jacket can be smaller than 1.5 mm. For example, the sleeve jacket may have a wall

thickness of 1.1 mm and an inner diameter of 11.8 mm, whereas the sleeve length may be 15 mm.

In more general terms, the wall thickness of the sleeve jacket may be smaller than 13% of the outer diameter of the sleeve jacket and/or smaller than 13% of the length of the sleeve jacket. For example, the wall thickness of the sleeve jacket lies within the range of 5-13% of the outer diameter of the sleeve jacket, or possibly within the range of 8-12% thereof.

The sleeve jacket can be elastically movable with respect to the sleeve bottom when the sleeve has a locally reduced wall thickness at the transition between the sleeve jacket and the sleeve bottom. In this case the sleeve jacket does not necessarily have an extremely thin wall. In fact, the locally reduced wall thickness functions as an elastic pivot between the sleeve jacket and the sleeve bottom.

The locally reduced wall thickness may be located in the sleeve jacket and may be formed, for example, by opposite circumferential recesses located at the inner side and outer side of the sleeve jacket.

Alternatively, the locally reduced wall thickness may be located in the sleeve bottom and may be formed, for

example, by a circumferential recess located at the inner side of the sleeve.

It is noted that the angle between the first axis of rotation and the second axis of rotation may have a maximum value of 8-15°.

The invention will hereafter be elucidated with reference to very schematic drawings showing embodiments of the invention by way of example.

Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a hydraulic device according to the invention. Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a part of the embodiment of Fig. 1 on a larger scale.

Fig. 3 is a diagram of a simulation result of radial deformation of a sleeve jacket at a fixed pressure.

Figs. 4 and 5 are cross-sectional views of alternative embodiments of sleeves.

Fig. 1 shows internal parts of a hydraulic device 1, such as a pump or hydromotor, which are fitted into a housing 27 in a known manner. The hydraulic device 1 is provided with a shaft 2 which is supported by bearings 3 at both sides of the housing 27 and it is rotatable about a first axis of rotation 4. The housing 27 is provided on the one side with an opening with a shaft seal 5 in a known manner, as a result of which the end of the shaft 2, which is provided with a toothed shaft end 6, protrudes from the housing 27. A motor can be coupled to the toothed shaft end 6 if the hydraulic device 1 is a pump, and a driven tool can be coupled thereto if the hydraulic device 1 is a motor.

The hydraulic device 1 comprises face plates 7 which are mounted inside the housing 27 at a distance from each other. The face plates 7 have a fixed position with respect to the housing 27 in rotational direction thereof. The shaft 2 extends through central through-holes in the face plates 7.

The shaft 2 is provided with a flange 8 which extends perpendicularly to the first axis of rotation 4. A plurality of pistons 9 are fixed at both sides of the flange 8 at equiangular distance about the first axis of rotation 4, in this case fourteen pistons 9 on either side. The pistons 9 have centre lines which extend parallel to the first axis of rotation 4. The planes of the face plates 7 are angled with respect to each other and with respect to the plane of the flange 8.

Each of the pistons 9 cooperates with a cylindrical sleeve 10 to form a compression chamber 11 of variable volume. The hydraulic device 1 as shown in Fig. 1 has 28 compression chambers 11. The cylindrical sleeve 10 comprises a sleeve bottom 12 and a sleeve jacket 13. Each piston 9 is sealed directly to the inner wall of the sleeve jacket 13 through a ball-shaped piston head 14. Fig. 2 shows one piston 9

including the piston head 14 and a sleeve 10 of the hydraulic device 1 on a larger scale.

The sleeve bottoms 12 of the respective cylindrical sleeves 10 are supported by respective barrel plates 15 which are fitted around the shaft 2 by means of respective ball hinges 16 and are coupled to the shaft 2 by means of keys 17. Consequently, the barrel plates 15 rotate together with the shaft 2 under operating conditions. The barrel plates 15 rotate about respective second axes which are angled with respect to the first axis of rotation 4. This means that the cylindrical sleeves 10 also rotate about the respective second axes of rotation. As a consequence, upon rotating the shaft 2 the volumes of the compression chambers 11 change. During rotation of the barrel plates 15 each cylindrical sleeve 10 makes a combined translating and swiveling motion around the cooperating piston 9. Therefore, the outer side of each piston head 14 is ball-shaped. The ball-shape creates a sealing line between the piston 9 and the sleeve jacket 13. Fig. 2 shows the location of the sealing line by means of a plane SL, which extends parallel to the sleeve bottom 12. The pistons 9 are conical and their diameters decrease towards the flange 8 in order to allow the relative motion of the cooperating

cylindrical sleeves 10 about the pistons 9.

The sides of the respective barrel plates 7 which are directed away from the flange 8 are supported by respective supporting surfaces of the face plates 7. Due to the inclined orientation of the supporting surfaces of the face plates 7 with respect to the flange 8 the barrel plates 15 pivot about the ball hinges 16 during rotation with the shaft 2. The angle between the first axis of rotation 4 and the respective second axes of rotation is approximately nine degrees in practice, but may be smaller or larger.

The barrel plates 7 are pressed against the respective face plates 7 by means of springs 18 which are mounted in holes in the shaft 2. The compression chambers 11 communicate via a central through-hole in the respective sleeve bottoms 12 with cooperating passages 19 in the barrel plates 15. The passages 19 in the barrel plates 15 communicate via passages in the face plates 7 with a high-pressure port and a low-pressure port (not shown) in the housing 27.

Fig. 2 shows that in this embodiment the piston 9 is fixed to the flange 8 by means of a piston pin 20 which is pressed into a flange hole. A slot-shaped cavity 21 is present between the piston pin 20 and the inner side of the

circumferential wall of the piston head 14. This means that under operating conditions hydraulic fluid can enter the cavity 21 and exert a force onto the circumferential wall of the piston head 14 in order to deform the piston head 14.

Since the hydraulic load on the outer side of the piston head 14 is not rotation symmetrical the piston head 14 has an oval shape during a compression phase.

Fig. 1 shows that the pistons 9 in the upper side of the drawing are in top dead centre and the pistons 9 in the lower side of the drawing are in bottom dead centre. Fig. 2 shows that the piston 9 is in top dead centre. It can be seen that due to the inclined orientation of the piston 9 within the sleeve 10, the sealing line is located at a distance from the sleeve bottom 12. In practice this distance is smaller than 30% of the distance between the sleeve bottom 12 and the sealing line at bottom dead centre in case of a hydraulic device having a fixed displacement. In case of a hydraulic device having a variable displacement the mentioned distance is applicable when the angle between the first axis of rotation 4 and the second axis of rotation is maximal. The largest angle may be 10° in practice. The distance between the sealing line at top dead centre and bottom dead centre is dictated by the orientation of the supporting surface of the face plate 7 with respect to the flange 8 and the distance between the piston 9 and the first axis of rotation 4.

In the embodiment as shown in Fig. 2 the sleeve jacket 13 has a very thin wall, for example thinner than 1.5 mm. This appears to have a surprisingly advantageous effect on the functioning of the hydraulic device 1, which is

illustrated by means of simulation results as depicted in Fig. 3. Calculations of radial deformation of the sleeve jacket 13 have been performed at different locations of the piston 9 within the sleeve 10 at a pressure of 500 bar, once for a sleeve jacket 13 having a wall thickness of 2.25 mm and once for a sleeve jacket 13 having a wall thickness of 1.10 mm. The inner diameters of both sleeve jackets 13 are 11.8 mm and the lengths of the sleeves 10 are 15 mm. The sleeve bottom 12 of the sleeve 10 having the thickest side wall has a thickness of 1.5 mm and its central through-hole has a diameter of 7.5 mm. The sleeve bottom 12 of the sleeve 10 having the thinnest side wall has a thickness of 0,5 mm and its central through-hole has a diameter of 9.5 mm. The radial deformation is

calculated at the sealing line. Fig. 3 shows that for both wall thicknesses the radial deformation as seen from bottom dead centre BDC to top dead centre TDC remains substantially constant before it decreases upon approaching TDC. The sleeve jacket 13 having a thinner wall shows a larger absolute deformation than the sleeve jacket 13 having a thicker wall. It is also clear that the radial deformation reduces when the piston 9 and the sleeve bottom 12 approach each other since the stiffness of the sleeve jacket 13 increases due to the presence of the sleeve bottom 12. An essential difference between the sleeve jackets 13 having different wall thicknesses is that the length along which the radial deformation remains substantially constant as measured from bottom dead centre is relatively long for the sleeve jacket 13 having the thinnest wall. The radial

deformation reaches its constant value at 8 mm from the sleeve bottom 12, whereas in case of the thin sleeve jacket the deformation reaches its constant value already at 5 mm from the sleeve bottom 12.

Due to the thin wall of the sleeve jacket 13 in the embodiment as shown in Fig. 2 deformation of the sleeve jacket 13 is in fact decoupled from the sleeve bottom 12 to a certain extent. A similar effect is achieved by alternative

embodiments of sleeves.

Figs. 4 and 5 show alternative embodiments of sleeves

10. Each of the sleeves 10 has a locally reduced wall

thickness 22 at the transition between the sleeve-j acket 13 and the sleeve bottom 12. In the embodiment of Fig. 4 the locally reduced wall thickness 22 is located in the sleeve jacket 13 and formed by opposite circumferential recesses or grooves located at the inner side and outer side of the sleeve jacket 13. In the embodiment of Fig. 5 the locally reduced wall thickness 22 is located in the sleeve bottom 12 and formed by a circumferential recess located at the inner side of the sleeve 10. Due to the presence of the locally reduced wall thicknesses 22 the sleeve jacket 13 is elastically movable with respect to the sleeve bottom 12.

From the foregoing it can be concluded that due to the thin wall of the sleeve jacket and/or elastically

movability of the sleeve jacket with respect to the sleeve bottom, the sleeve jacket deformation of the sleeve jacket is not affected by the sleeve bottom or affected by the sleeve bottom to a limited extent. The invention is not limited to the embodiment shown in the drawings and described hereinbefore, which may be varied in different manners within the scope of the claims and their technical equivalents.