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Title:
HYDRAULIC TOOLS, DRILLING SYSTEMS INCLUDING HYDRAULIC TOOLS, AND METHODS OF USING HYDRAULIC TOOLS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/069618
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A hydraulic tool includes a rotor rotatably disposed within a stator. At least an inner portion of the stator and/or at least an outer portion of the rotor is configured to be installed in a drill string in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the hydraulic tool. The rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two orientations. A method includes disposing a rotor within a cavity defined by a stator, passing a fluid through the stator to rotate the rotor, and reversing the stator or the rotor. A drilling system includes a fluid source, a hydraulic tool, a drive shaft operatively associated with the rotor of the hydraulic tool, and a drill bit operatively associated with the drive shaft.

Inventors:
HOHL, Carsten (Wilhelm-Kaune-Weg 18, Sehnde, Sehnde, DE)
VOSS, Carsten (Allmerstrasse 10, Hannover, Hannover, DE)
Application Number:
US2014/063807
Publication Date:
May 14, 2015
Filing Date:
November 04, 2014
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED (P.O. Box 4740, Houston, TX, 77210-4740, US)
International Classes:
E21B4/02; F04D13/10
Domestic Patent References:
2013-06-06
Foreign References:
US5171138A1992-12-15
US20040258548A12004-12-23
US20110116959A12011-05-19
US4144001A1979-03-13
Other References:
See also references of EP 3066287A4
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CARSON, Matt, W. et al. (Managing IP Counsel, Drilling Systems And Formation Evaluation2001 Rankin Roa, Houston TX, 77073, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is: 1. A hydraulic tool, comprising:

a stator; and

a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator;

wherein at least one of at least an inner portion of the stator and at least an outer portion of the rotor is configured to be installed in a drill string in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the hydraulic tool; and

wherein the rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two inverted

orientations.

2. The hydraulic tool of claim 1 , wherein the at least one of at least an inner portion of the stator and the at least an outer portion of the rotor comprises a resilient material.

3. The hydraulic tool of claim 2, wherein the resilient material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of fluorosilicone rubber, nitrile butadiene rubber, fluoroelastomers, hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber, fluorinated ethylene propylene, vinyl methyl polysiloxane, carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber, polyacrylate acrylic rubber, perfluoroelastomers, ethylene propylene rubber, ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber, and acrylic ethylene copolymer.

4. The hydraulic tool of claim 2, wherein the at least an inner portion of the stator comprises an insert comprising the resilient material within a cartridge.

5. The hydraulic tool of claim 2, wherein the at least an outer portion of the rotor comprises a cover comprising the resilient material. 6. The hydraulic tool of claim 5, wherein the cover is configured to be disposed over the rotor in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the rotor.

7. The hydraulic tool of any of claims 1 through 6, wherein at least one of the stator and the rotor comprises:

a first set of threads at a first end thereof; and

a second set of threads at a second end thereof opposite the first end;

wherein the first set of threads and the second set of threads are each configured to be secured to adapters having corresponding fittings.

8. The hydraulic tool of claim 7, wherein the first set of threads has a pitch, thread density, and thread profile identical to a pitch, thread density, and thread profile of the second set of threads.

9. The hydraulic tool of claim 7, wherein the first set of threads and the second set of threads are either both male or both female. 10. The hydraulic tool of any of claims 1 through 6, further comprising at least one adapter secured to at least one end of the stator.

11. The hydraulic tool of any of claims 1 through 6, wherein the stator comprises an outer casing and a removable cartridge within the outer casing.

12. The hydraulic tool of claim 11, wherein the removable cartridge comprises a metal sheath and a liner comprising a resilient material.

13. The hydraulic tool of claim 12, wherein the metal sheath is interlocked to the outer casing.

14. The hydraulic tool of any of claims 1 through 6, further comprising a hardfacing material disposed on at least one of an outer surface of the rotor and an inner surface of the stator, wherein the hardfacing material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of chrome, nickel, cobalt, tungsten carbide, diamond, diamond-like-carbon, boron carbide, cubic boron nitride, nitrides, carbides, oxides, borides, and alloys hardened by nitriding, boriding, or carbonizing.

15. A method of using a hydraulic tool, comprising:

disposing a rotor within a cavity defined by a stator, the stator having a plurality of lobes having a first end disposed proximate an upper end of the hydraulic tool and a second end longitudinally opposite the first end disposed proximate a lower end of the hydraulic tool, the rotor having at least one lobe having a first end and a second end longitudinally opposite the first end, wherein the first end of the at least one lobe of the rotor is disposed proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool, and wherein the second end of the at least one lobe of the rotor is disposed proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool;

passing a fluid through the cavity defined by the stator to rotate the rotor;

at least one of removing the rotor from the cavity defined by the stator and removing the stator from the hydraulic tool; and

at least one of:

disposing the rotor into the cavity defined by the stator such the first end of the rotor is disposed proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool and the second end of the rotor is disposed proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool; and securing the stator to the hydraulic tool such that the first end of the stator is proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool and the second end of the stator is proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool.

16. The method of claim 15, further comprising:

separating a cartridge comprising the plurality of lobes from an outer casing of the stator; reversing a longitudinal orientation of the cartridge with respect to the outer casing; and inserting the cartridge into the outer casing in the reversed longitudinal orientation.

17. The method of claim 15, further comprising securing an adapter to at least one end of the stator.

18. The method of claim 15, further comprising attaching the rotor to a drive shaft configured to rotate a drill bit.

19. The method of claim 15, wherein disposing the rotor into the cavity defined by the stator such the first end of the rotor is disposed proximate the second end of the stator and the second end of the rotor is disposed proximate the first end of the stator comprises reversing a direction of the stator in a drill string.

20. A drilling system comprising the hydraulic tool of any of claims 1 through 6, and further comprising:

a fluid source;

a drive shaft operatively associated with the rotor of the hydraulic tool; and

a drill bit operatively associated with the drive shaft.

Description:
HYDRAULIC TOOLS, DRILLING SYSTEMS INCLUDING HYDRAULIC TOOLS, AND METHODS OF USING HYDRAULIC TOOLS

PRIORITY CLAIM

This application claims the benefit of the filing date of United States Patent

Application Serial No. 14/071,876, filed November 5, 2013, for "HYDRAULIC TOOLS, DRILLING SYSTEMS INCLUDING HYDRAULIC TOOLS, AND METHODS OF USING HYDRAULIC TOOLS." TECHNICAL FIELD

Embodiments of the present disclosure relate generally to hydraulic tools, such as drilling motors and pumps, to drilling systems that include hydraulic tools, and to methods of forming and using such tools and systems. BACKGROUND

To obtain hydrocarbons such as oil and gas from subterranean formations, wellbores are drilled into the formations by rotating a drill bit attached to an end of a drill string. A substantial portion of current drilling activity involves what is referred to in the art as "directional" drilling. Directional drilling involves drilling deviated and/or horizontal wellbores (as opposed to straight, vertical wellbores). Modern directional drilling systems generally employ a bottom hole assembly (BHA) at the end of the drill string that includes a drill bit and a hydraulically actuated motor to drive rotation of the drill bit. The drill bit is coupled to a drive shaft of the motor, typically through an assembly configured for steering the path of the drill bit, and drilling fluid pumped through the motor (and to the drill bit) from the surface drives rotation of the drive shaft to which the drill bit is attached. Such hydraulic motors are commonly referred to in the drilling industry as "mud motors," "drilling motors," and "Moineau motors." Such motors are referred to hereinafter as "hydraulic drilling motors."

Hydraulic drilling motors include a power section that contains a stator and a rotor disposed in the stator. The stator may include a metal housing that is lined inside with a helically contoured or lobed elastomeric material. The rotor is usually made from a suitable metal, such as steel, and has an outer lobed surface. Pressurized drilling fluid (commonly referred to as "drilling mud"), is pumped into a progressive cavity formed between the rotor and the stator lobes. The force of the pressurized fluid pumped into and through the cavity causes the rotor to turn in a planetary-type motion. A suitable shaft connected to the rotor via a flexible coupling compensates for eccentric movement of the rotor. The shaft is coupled to a bearing assembly having a drive shaft (also referred to as a "drive sub"), which in turn rotates the drill bit through the aforementioned steering assembly.

As drilling fluid flows through the progressive cavity between the rotor and the stator, forces on the rotor and the stator, as well as abrasives in the drilling fluid, can damage parts of the motor. The motor may include a resilient portion (e.g., an elastomeric or rubber portion), typically as part of the stator, which is designed to wear. The elastomeric portion may be replaced after a certain amount of use, or when a selected amount of wear or damage is detected.

DISCLOSURE

In some embodiments, a hydraulic tool includes a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. At least one of at least an inner portion of the stator and at least an outer portion of the rotor is configured to be installed in a drill string in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the hydraulic tool. The rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two orientations of the stator.

In certain embodiments, a method of using a hydraulic tool includes disposing a rotor within a cavity defined by a stator. The stator has a plurality of lobes having a first end disposed proximate an upper end of the hydraulic tool and a second end longitudinally opposite the first end disposed proximate a lower end of the hydraulic tool. The rotor has at least one lobe having a first end and a second end longitudinally opposite the first end. The first end of the at least one lobe of the rotor is disposed proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool, and the second end of the at least one lobe of the rotor is disposed proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool. The methods further include passing a fluid through the cavity defined by the stator to rotate the rotor and at least one of removing the rotor from the cavity defined by the stator and removing the stator from the hydraulic tool. The methods include at least one of disposing the rotor into the cavity defined by the stator such that the first end of the rotor is disposed proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool and the second end of the rotor is disposed proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool and securing the stator to the hydraulic tool such that the first end of the stator is proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool and the second end of the stator is proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool.

In some embodiments, a drilling system includes a fluid source, a hydraulic tool, a drive shaft operatively associated with the rotor of the hydraulic tool, and a drill bit operatively associated with the drive shaft. The hydraulic drilling motor includes a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. At least one of at least an inner portion of the stator and at least an outer portion of the rotor is configured to be installed in a drill string in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the hydraulic tool. The rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two orientations of the stator when fluid is provided to the hydraulic tool from the fluid source.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

While the specification concludes with claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming what are regarded as embodiments of the present disclosure, various features and advantages of embodiments of the disclosure may be more readily ascertained from the following description of example embodiments of the disclosure when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGS. 1A and IB are simplified cross-sectional side views illustrating an embodiment of a hydraulic tool according to the present disclosure;

FIG. 2A is a simplified transverse cross-sectional view of a portion of the hydraulic tool shown in FIGS. 1A and IB taken along section line A-A therein;

FIG. 2B is a simplified transverse cross-sectional view of the rotor 1 1 of the hydraulic tool taken at section line A-A of FIG. 1A;

FIG. 3 is a simplified transverse cross-sectional view of a portion of the hydraulic tool shown in FIGS. 1A and IB after the stator has been reversed;

FIG. 4 a simplified transverse cross-sectional view of the rotor 1 1 of the hydraulic tool shown in FIGS. 1 A and IB after the rotor has been reversed;

FIG. 5 is an additional simplified cross-sectional side view of the stator of the hydraulic tool shown in FIGS. 1 A and IB, and including adapters to connect the stator to other components;

FIG. 6 is a simplified cross-sectional side view of the stator shown in FIG. 4 after the stator has been reversed; FIG. 7 is a simplified transverse cross-sectional view of a portion of a hydraulic tool having a pre-contoured stator;

FIG. 8 is a simplified cross-sectional view of a stator having a reversible cartridge, according to the present disclosure;

FIG. 9 is a simplified transverse cross-sectional view of a portion of a rotor having a core with a cylindrical cross section; and

FIG. 10 is a simplified cross-sectional view of a rotor having a reversible cartridge, according to the present disclosure. MODE(S) FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

The illustrations presented herein are not actual views of any particular hydraulic tool, rotor, stator, hydraulic drilling motor, hydraulic pump, or drilling system, but are merely idealized representations that are employed to describe example embodiments of the present disclosure. Additionally, elements common between figures may retain the same numerical designation.

The present disclosure includes hydraulic tools (e.g., drilling motors, progressive cavity pumps, etc.) each having a stator and a rotor. At least a portion of the stator and/or the rotor is configured to be used in either of two orientations. The stator or rotor may be inverted, which may also be characterized as directionally reversed, after a first use to move fatigued or stressed portions of the stator or rotor to positions in which lower stresses are expected to be encountered and to move less-fatigued portions of the stator or rotor to higher- stress positions. Thus, the motor may have a longer useful life than a conventional motor having a stator and rotor each configured to be used in a single orientation.

Referring to FIGS. 1 A and IB, a hydraulic drilling motor 10 includes a power section 1 and a bearing assembly 2. The power section 1 includes an elongated metal housing 4, having a resilient material 5 therein that has a helically lobed inner surface 8. The resilient material 5 is secured inside the metal housing 4, for example, by adhesively bonding the resilient material 5 within the interior of the metal housing 4. The resilient material 5 is a material that is able to return to its original shape after being pulled, stretched, or pressed. The resilient material 5 may include, for example, a polymer such as a fluorosilicone rubber (FVMQ, e.g., a copolymer of fluorovinyl and methyl siloxane) , nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), a fluoroelastomer (FKM, e.g., a fluorocarbon copolymer, terpolymer, pentamer, etc.), hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), vinyl methyl polysiloxane (VMQ), carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR), polyacrylate acrylic rubber (ACM), a perfluoroelastomer (FFKM), ethylene propylene rubber (EPM), ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM), or acrylic ethylene copolymer (AEM). The resilient material 5 and the metal housing 4 together form a stator 6, which may be configured to be reversible along a longitudinal axis thereof. In other words, the hydraulic drilling motor 10 may be operable with at least a portion of the stator 6 in either of two longitudinally inverted orientations (i.e., two orientations longitudinally inverted from one another).

A rotor 11 is rotatably disposed within the stator 6 and configured to rotate therein responsive to the flow of drilling fluid (e.g., a liquid or a suspension of solid particulate matter in a liquid) through the hydraulic drilling motor 10. The rotor 1 1 may include an elongated metal core 13 having a resilient material 14 thereon that has a helically lobed outer surface 12 configured to engage with the helically lobed inner surface 8 of the stator 6. The resilient material 14 may be secured over the metal core 13, for example, by adhesively bonding the resilient material 14 over the exterior of the metal core 13. The resilient material 14 may be the same material as the resilient material 5 of the stator 6, or the resilient materials 5, 14 may be different materials. In some embodiments, a hardfacing material may be formed on a portion of the outer surface 12 of the rotor 11. For example, the hardfacing material may include chrome, nickel, cobalt, tungsten carbide, diamond, diamond-like-carbon, boron carbide, cubic boron nitride, nitrides, carbides, oxides, borides and alloys hardened by nitriding, boriding, carbonizing or any combination of these materials. Hardfacing may be applied pure or as a composite in a binder matrix. Hardfacing materials on rotors are described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2012/0018227, published January 26, 2012, and titled "Components and motors for downhole tools and methods of applying hardfacing to surfaces thereof." In some embodiments, hardfacing materials may be disposed on surfaces of the stator 6.

The rotor 1 1 may be configured to be reversible along a longitudinal axis thereof. In other words, the hydraulic drilling motor 10 may be operable with at least a portion of the rotor 1 1 in either of two longitudinally inverted orientations (i.e., two orientations longitudinally inverted from one another). The inversion of the rotor 1 1 may be independent of the inversion of the stator 6. That is, the rotor 1 1 , the stator 6, or both may be inverted.

The outer surface 12 of the rotor 1 1 and the inner surface 8 of the stator 6 may have similar, but slightly different profiles. For example, the outer surface 12 of the rotor 1 1 may have one fewer lobe than the inner surface 8 of the stator 6. The outer surface 12 of the rotor 11 and the inner surface 8 of the stator 6 may be configured so that seals are established directly between the rotor 1 1 and the stator 6 at discrete intervals along and circumferentially around the interface therebetween, resulting in the creation of fluid chambers or cavities 26 between the outer surface 12 of the rotor 1 1 and the inner surface 8 of the stator 6. The cavities 26 may be filled with a pressurized drilling fluid 40.

As the pressurized drilling fluid 40 flows from a top 30 to a bottom 32 of the power section 1, as shown by flow arrow 34, the pressurized drilling fluid 40 causes the rotor 1 1 to rotate within the stator 6. The number of lobes and the geometries of the outer surface 12 of the rotor 1 1 and inner surface 8 of the stator 6 may be modified to achieve desired input and output requirements and to accommodate different drilling operations. The rotor 11 may be coupled to a flexible shaft 50, and the flexible shaft 50 may be connected to a drive shaft 52 in the bearing assembly 2. As previously mentioned, a drill bit may be attached to the drive shaft 52. For example, the drive shaft 52 may include a threaded box 54, and a drill bit may be provided with a threaded pin that may be engaged with the threaded box 54 of the drive shaft 52.

FIG. 2A is a cross-sectional view of the stator 6 and the rotor 1 1 of the hydraulic drilling motor 10 taken at section A-A of FIG. 1 A. FIG. 2B is a cross-sectional view of the rotor 1 1 of the hydraulic drilling motor 10 taken at section line A-A of FIG. 1A. As shown in FIG. 2A, the inner surface of the metal housing 4 and the outer surface of the resilient material 5 may each be approximately cylindrical or tubular. The inner surface 8 of the stator 6 shown in FIG. 2A includes lobes 42a-42f, which may be configured to interface with lobes 48a-48e of the rotor 1 1. As the rotor 1 1 rotates in the direction indicated by arrow 15, the lobes 48a-48e of the rotor 11 move into and out of the spaces between the lobes 42a-42f of the stator 6. As the rotor 1 1 rotates, portions of the stator 6 and/or the rotor 1 1 experience stresses. If the stator 6 includes a resilient material 5, the resilient material 5 may be designed to partially deform as the rotor 1 1 rotates. Similarly, if the rotor 1 1 includes a resilient material 14, the resilient material 14 may be designed to partially deform as the rotor 1 1 rotates. Thus, the resilient materials 5, 14 may sustain a finite amount of damage (e.g., fatigue) for each rotation of the rotor 1 1. Any damage to the resilient materials 5, 14 may be concentrated at portions of the resilient materials 5, 14 subjected to highest loads, which damage may be aggravated by solids in the drilling fluid. For example, when the rotor 1 1 rotates in the direction indicated by arrow 15, forces on the resilient material 5 may be concentrated on surfaces 44a-44f of the lobes 42a-42f. The surfaces 46a-46f on opposite sides of the lobes 42a-42f from the surfaces 44a-44f may be exposed to relatively lower stress. Thus, the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 44a-44f may sustain more damage than the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 46a-46f.

Furthermore, when the rotor 1 1 rotates in the direction indicated by arrow 15, forces on the resilient material 14 may be concentrated on surfaces 49a-49e (FIG. 2B) of the lobes 48a-48e. The surfaces 47a-47e on opposite sides of the lobes 48a-48e from the surfaces 49a-49e may be exposed to relatively lower stress. Thus, the portions of the lobes 48a-48e nearest the surfaces 49a-49e may sustain more damage than the portions of the lobes 48a-48e nearest the surfaces 47a-47e.

After the hydraulic drilling motor 10 has been used in a drilling operation, the stator 6 may be reversed (e.g., inverted by flipping end-to-end). For example, FIG. 3 is a cross- sectional view of the stator 6 of the hydraulic drilling motor 10 taken at section line A-A of FIG. 1 A after the stator 6 has been reversed from the orientation shown in FIG. 2 A. As the rotor 11 rotates in the direction indicated by arrow 15 (which is the same rotational direction indicated in FIG. 2A), the lobes 48a-48e of the rotor 1 1 move into and out of the spaces between the lobes 42a-42f of the stator 6 in the opposite order from the order corresponding to the orientation shown in FIG. 2A. Thus, as the rotor 1 1 rotates, different portions of the stator 6 experience relatively higher stresses in comparison to the portions of stator 6 experiencing relatively higher stresses in the orientation shown in FIG. 2A. For example, when the rotor 1 1 rotates in the direction indicated by arrow 15, forces on the resilient material 5 may be concentrated on the surfaces 46a-46f of the lobes 42a-42f. The

surfaces 44a-44f on the opposite sides of the lobes 42a-42f from the surfaces 46a-46f may be exposed to relatively lower stresses in this configuration. Thus, the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 46a-46f may sustain more damage than the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 44a-44f. Before the stator 6 has been used, the

lobes 42a-42f may be symmetric, such that when the stator 6 is inverted, the lobes 42a-42f of the stator 6 engage with the lobes 48a-48e of the rotor 1 1 in the same manner as in the original non-inverted orientation. Thus, before the stator 6 has been subjected to wear, each of the surfaces 44a-44f and the surfaces 46a-46f may have identical profiles.

After the hydraulic drilling motor 10 has been used in a drilling operation, the rotor 1 1 may be reversed (e.g., inverted by flipping end-to-end). FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the rotor 1 1 of the hydraulic drilling motor 10 taken at section line A-A of FIG. 1 A after the rotor 11 has been reversed from the orientation shown in FIG. 2B. The reversal may be independent of the reversal of the stator 6 depicted by the orientation shown in FIG. 3. When the rotor 11 rotates in the direction indicated by arrow 15, forces on the resilient material 14 may be concentrated on surfaces 47a-47e of the lobes 48a-48e. The surfaces 49a-49e on opposite sides of the lobes 48a-48e from the surfaces 47a-47e may be exposed to relatively lower stress. Thus, the portions of the lobes 48a-48e nearest the surfaces 47a-47e may sustain more damage than the portions of the lobes 48a-48e nearest the surfaces 49a-49e. Before the rotor 11 has been used, the lobes 48a-48e may be symmetric, such that when the rotor 11 is inverted, the lobes 48a-48e of the stator 6 engage with the lobes 42a-42f of the stator 6 in the same manner as in the original non-inverted orientation. Thus, before the rotor 11 has been subjected to wear, each of the surfaces 47a-47e and the surfaces 49a-49e may have identical profiles. To enable reversal of the rotor 1 1, the rotor 11 may have identical fittings at both ends. In some embodiments, one or more adapters may be used to connect the rotor 1 1 to other parts of the hydraulic drilling motor 10.

In a drilling operation in which the orientation of the stator 6 and/or the rotor 1 1 has been reversed, the more-worn or more-damaged portions of the resilient materials 5, 14 may be placed in positions where they are likely to be exposed to relatively lower stress, and the less-worn or less-damaged portions of the resilient materials 5, 14 may be placed in positions where they are likely to be exposed to relatively higher stress. The stator 6 and/or the rotor 11 may exhibit a longer useful life, and the stator 6 and/or the rotor 1 1 may wear more evenly than conventional stators and rotors. In some embodiments, the stator 6 and/or the rotor 1 1 may exhibit approximately the same useful life in its second (reversed) orientation as in its first orientation. In such embodiments, the total life of the stator 6 and/or the rotor 1 1 may be approximately double the life of a conventional stator or rotor having similar materials and dimensions.

FIG. 5 is another cross-sectional view illustrating the stator 6 of the hydraulic drilling motor 10. The stator 6 may include a first fitting 60 at one end of the stator 6 and a second fitting 62 at the opposite end of the stator 6. The first fitting 60 and the second fitting 62 may have identical threads (e.g., the same pitch, thread density, and thread profile, both male or both female, etc.), such that either the first fitting 60 or the second fitting 62 may be attached to top 30 or the bottom 32 of the power section 1 of the hydraulic drilling motor 10 (see FIG. 1 A). In some embodiments, the first fitting 60 and/or the second fitting 62 may include one or more adapters 64 to connect the stator 6 to the top 30 or the bottom 32 of the power section 1. In such embodiments, the first fitting 60 and the second fitting 62 need not have identical threads, although they may have identical threads, but the adapter(s) 64 may include appropriate threads to allow attachment to the top 30 or the bottom 32 of the power section 1. For example and not by way of limitation, the adapter(s) 64 may, respectively, include an industry-standard box connection or pin connection.

Lobes 42 near the bottom 32 of the power section 1 are likely to be exposed to more stress than lobes 42 near the top 30 of the power section 1. Thus, after use in a drilling operation, the stator 6 may include a more-worn region 66 near the lower end of the stator 6 and a less-worn region 68 near the upper end of the stator 6.

In a subsequent drilling operation, the stator 6 may be reversed, such that the first fitting 60 is connected to the bottom 32 of the power section 1, and the second fitting 62 is connected to the top 30 of the power section 1. In this orientation, as shown in FIG. 6, the more-worn region 66 is near the upper end of the stator 6 and a less-worn region 68 is near the lower end of the stator 6. The less-worn region 68 may be exposed to relatively more stress than the more-worn region 66 when the stator 6 is operated in this orientation. After the subsequent drilling operation, both regions 66, 68 may have similar amounts of wear or damage.

In some embodiments, the stator 6 and/or the rotor 1 1 may be free of the resilient materials 5, 14. If both the stator 6 and the rotor are free of the resilient materials 5, 14, the hydraulic drilling motor 10 may be referred to as a "metal-to-metal motor" because metal of the stator 6 contacts metal of the rotor 1 1 when the hydraulic drilling motor 10 is in operation. Metal-to-metal motors may be beneficial in some applications, such as when the hydraulic drilling motor 10 operates at temperatures above which the resilient materials 5, 14 are stable. The stators 6 and rotors 11 disclosed herein may be used in metal-to-metal motors to increase the useful life of such motors.

FIG. 7 illustrates a cross-sectional view of another stator 6'. The stator 6' includes a metal housing 4' and a resilient material 5'. As shown in FIG. 7, the inner surface of the metal housing 4 and the outer surface of the resilient material 5 may each be shaped to

approximately correspond to the shape of the inner surface 8 of the stator 6', which may be the same shape as the inner surface 8 of the stator 6 shown in FIG. 2A. That is, the thickness of the resilient material 5' may be approximately uniform, and the shape of the inner surface 8 may be based on the shape of the inner surface of the metal housing 4'. The stator 6' may be referred to as "pre-contoured" because the shape of the inner surface 8 of the stator 6' is defined before application of the resilient material 5'. The stator 6' may be used in either direction in a hydraulic drilling motor 10 (FIG. 1A), as described above with respect to the stator 6 in reference to FIGS. 2A and 3. That is, when the rotor 11 rotates in the direction indicated by arrow 15, forces on the resilient material 5' may be concentrated on

surfaces 44a-44f of the lobes 42a-42f. The surfaces 46a-46f opposite the surfaces 44a-44f may be exposed to relatively little stress. Thus, the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 44a-44f may sustain more damage than the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 46a-46f. Depending on the properties of the resilient material 5' and the thickness thereof, the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 46a-46f may sustain little to no significant damage when the stator 6' is used in the orientation of FIG. 7.

After the hydraulic drilling motor 10 has been used in a drilling operation, the stator 6' may be reversed {e.g., inverted by flipping end-to-end). As the rotor 1 1 rotates, different portions of the stator 6' experience relatively higher stresses from the portions experiencing relatively higher stresses in the orientation shown in FIG. 7. For example, forces on the resilient material 5' may be concentrated on surfaces 46a-46f of the lobes 42a-42f. The surfaces 44a-44f opposite the surfaces 46a-46f may be exposed to relatively lower stress at this time. Thus, the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 46a-46f may sustain more damage than the portions of the lobes 42a-42f nearest the surfaces 44a-44f. After similar use in both orientations (e.g., similar time and loading conditions), the wear on the resilient material 5' may be approximately the same near the surfaces 44a-44f and the surfaces 46a-46f. Reversal of the stator 6' may enable the stator 6' to have a longer useful life. The stator 6', when configured as described, may have lower risk of failure in service, such as by cracking and separation of the resilient material 5' while the stator 6' is downhole. Thus, the stator 6' may be reversibly used to limit non-productive time and tool damage.

FIG. 8 illustrates a cross-sectional view of another stator 6". The stator 6" includes a metal housing 4" and a cartridge 80. The cartridge 80 includes a metal shell 82 and a resilient material 5" secured to the metal shell 82. The resilient material 5" may be bonded to the metal shell 82 by physical or chemical means. For example, an adhesive may be disposed between the resilient material 5" and the metal shell 82. In some embodiments, the resilient material 5" may be structured and shaped such that the resilient material 5" stays in place within the metal shell 82.

The cartridge 80 may include a mechanism for attachment in the metal housing 4", such as one or more tabs 84. The tabs 84 may protrude from the metal shell 82, and, when the cartridge 80 is placed within the metal housing 4", may be disposed within one or more corresponding slots 86 in the metal housing 4". Thus, when the cartridge 80 is within the metal housing 4", rotation of the cartridge 80 within the metal housing 4" may be restricted by the interference of the tabs 84 with the metal housing 4".

The cartridge 80 may be removable from the metal housing 4" so that the cartridge 80 may be operated in either of two opposing orientations, as previously described herein. The cartridge 80 may be configured to slide into and out of the metal housing 4" when the stator 6" is at least partially disconnected from a drill string. For example, when the stator 6" is separated from a bearing assembly 2 (FIG. IB), the cartridge 80 may slide out of the metal housing 4" around the rotor 11. The cartridge 80 may include pins or other fastening means to lock the cartridge 80 inside the metal housing 4".

A stator 6" having a cartridge 80 need not have the same connection hardware (e.g., threads, adapters, etc.) at both ends thereof because the cartridge 80 itself can be reversed within the metal housing 4". Thus, a stator 6" having a cartridge 80 may be fitted to existing drill strings with little modification, and without adapters.

FIG. 9 illustrates a cross-sectional view of another rotor 1 1 '. The rotor 11 ' includes a metal core 13' and a resilient material 14'. As shown in FIG. 9, the outer surface of the metal core 13' may be circular, and the outer surface of the resilient material 14' may have lobes 48a-48e. The thickness of the resilient material 14' may be nonuniform. The rotor 1 Γ may be used in either direction in a hydraulic drilling motor 10 (FIG. 1A), as described above with respect to the rotor 11 in reference to FIGS. 2B and 4.

FIG. 10 illustrates a cross-sectional view of another rotor 11 ". The rotor 1 1 " includes a metal core 13" and a cartridge 90 over the metal core 13". The cartridge 90 includes a metal shell 92 and a resilient material 14" secured to the metal shell 92. The resilient material 14" may be bonded to the metal shell 92 by physical or chemical means. For example, an adhesive may be disposed between the resilient material 14" and the metal shell 92. In some embodiments, the resilient material 14" may be structured and shaped such that the resilient material 14" stays in place over the metal shell 92.

The cartridge 90 may include a mechanism for attachment to the metal core 13", such as one or more tabs 94. The tabs 94 may protrude from a surface of the metal shell 92, and, when the cartridge 90 is placed over the metal core 13", may be disposed within one or more corresponding slots 96 in the metal core 13". Thus, when the cartridge 90 is over the metal core 13", rotation of the cartridge 90 with respect to the metal core 13" may be restricted by the interference of the tabs 94 with the metal core 13".

The cartridge 90 may be removable from the metal core 13" so that the cartridge 90 may be operated in either of two opposing orientations, as previously described herein. The cartridge 90 may be configured to slide onto and off of the metal core 13" when the rotor 1 1" is at least partially disconnected from a drill string. For example, when the rotor 1 1 " is separated from a stator 6 (FIG. 1A), the cartridge 90 may slide off of the metal core 13". The cartridge 90 may include pins or other fastening means to lock the cartridge 90 to the metal core 13".

A rotor 11 " having a cartridge 90 need not have the same connection hardware (e.g., threads, adapters, etc.) at both ends thereof because the cartridge 90 itself can be reversed over the metal core 13". Thus, a rotor 1 1 " having a cartridge 90 may be fitted to existing drill strings with little modification, and without adapters.

Although the present disclosure has been described in terms of hydraulic drilling motors, it is understood that similar devices may operate as hydraulic pumps by driving rotation of the drive shaft to pump hydraulic fluid through the body of the pump. Thus, embodiments of the disclosure may also apply to such hydraulic pumps, and to systems and devices including such hydraulic pumps.

Additional non-limiting example embodiments of the disclosure are described below. Embodiment 1 : A hydraulic tool, comprising a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. At least one of at least an inner portion of the stator and at least an outer portion of the rotor is configured to be installed in a drill string in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the hydraulic tool. The rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two inverted orientations.

Embodiment 2: The hydraulic tool of Embodiment 1 , wherein the at least one of at least an inner portion of the stator and the at least one of an outer portion of the rotor comprises a resilient material.

Embodiment 3: The hydraulic tool of Embodiment 2, wherein the resilient material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of fluorosilicone rubber, nitrile butadiene rubber, fluoroelastomers, hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber, fluorinated ethylene propylene, vinyl methyl polysiloxane, carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber, polyacrylate acrylic rubber, perfluoroelastomers, ethylene propylene rubber, ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber, and acrylic ethylene copolymer. Embodiment 4: The hydraulic tool of Embodiment 2 or Embodiment 3, wherein the at least an inner portion of the stator comprises an insert comprising the resilient material within a cartridge.

Embodiment 5: The hydraulic tool of any of Embodiments 1 through 4, wherein the at least an outer portion of the rotor comprises a cover comprising the resilient material.

Embodiment 6: The hydraulic tool of Embodiment 5, wherein the cover is configured to be disposed over the rotor in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the rotor.

Embodiment 7: The hydraulic tool of any of Embodiments 1 through 6, wherein at least one of the stator and the rotor comprises a first set of threads at a first end thereof and a second set of threads at a second end thereof opposite the first end. The first set of threads and the second set of threads are each configured to be secured to adapters having corresponding fittings.

Embodiment 8: The hydraulic tool of Embodiment 7, wherein the first set of threads has a pitch, thread density, and thread profile identical to a pitch, thread density, and thread profile of the second set of threads.

Embodiment 9: The hydraulic tool of Embodiment 7 or Embodiment 8, wherein the first set of threads and the second set of threads are either both male or both female.

Embodiment 10: The hydraulic tool of any of Embodiments 1 through 9, further comprising at least one adapter secured to at least one end of the stator.

Embodiment 11 : The hydraulic tool of any of Embodiments 1 through 10, wherein the stator comprises an outer casing and a removable cartridge within the outer casing.

Embodiment 12: The hydraulic tool of Embodiment 1 1, wherein the removable cartridge comprises a metal sheath and a liner comprising a resilient material.

Embodiment 13: The hydraulic tool of Embodiment 12, wherein the metal sheath is interlocked to the outer casing.

Embodiment 14: The hydraulic tool of any of Embodiments 1 through 13, wherein at least one surface of the rotor and at least one surface of the stator together define a plurality of movable discrete sealed cavities configured to move generally longitudinally as the rotor rotates.

Embodiment 15: The hydraulic drilling motor of any of Embodiments 1 through 14, further comprising a hardfacing material disposed on at least one of an outer surface of the rotor and an inner surface of the stator. Embodiment 16: The hydraulic drilling motor of Embodiment 15, wherein the hardfacing material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of chrome, nickel, cobalt, tungsten carbide, diamond, diamond-like-carbon, boron carbide, cubic boron nitride, nitrides, carbides, oxides, borides, and alloys hardened by nitriding, boriding, or carbonizing.

Embodiment 17: A method of using a hydraulic tool includes disposing a rotor within a cavity defined by a stator. The stator has a plurality of lobes having a first end disposed proximate an upper end of the hydraulic tool and a second end longitudinally opposite the first end disposed proximate a lower end of the hydraulic tool. The rotor has at least one lobe having a first end and a second end longitudinally opposite the first end. The first end of the at least one lobe of the rotor is disposed proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool, and the second end of the at least one lobe of the rotor is disposed proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool. The methods further include passing a fluid through the cavity defined by the stator to rotate the rotor and at least one of removing the rotor from the cavity defined by the stator and removing the stator from the hydraulic tool. The methods include at least one of disposing the rotor into the cavity defined by the stator such that the first end of the rotor is disposed proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool and the second end of the rotor is disposed proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool and securing the stator to the hydraulic tool such that the first end of the stator is proximate the lower end of the hydraulic tool and the second end of the stator is proximate the upper end of the hydraulic tool.

Embodiment 18: The method of Embodiment 17, wherein passing a fluid through the cavity defined by the stator comprises forming a plurality of movable discrete sealed cavities, the discrete sealed cavities defined by an exterior surface of the at least one lobe of the rotor and an interior surface of the plurality of lobes of the stator.

Embodiment 19: The method of Embodiment 17 or Embodiment 18, further comprising separating a cartridge comprising the plurality of lobes from an outer casing of the stator, reversing a longitudinal orientation of the cartridge with respect to the outer casing, and inserting the cartridge into the outer casing in the reversed longitudinal orientation.

Embodiment 20: The method of any of Embodiments 17 through 19, further comprising securing an adapter to at least one end of the stator.

Embodiment 21 : The method of any of Embodiments 17 through 20, further comprising attaching the rotor to a drive shaft configured to rotate a drill bit.

Embodiment 22: The method of any of Embodiments 17 through 21 , wherein disposing the rotor into the cavity defined by the stator such the first end of the rotor is disposed proximate the second end of the stator and the second end of the rotor is disposed proximate the first end of the stator comprises reversing a direction of the stator in a drill string.

Embodiment 23: A drilling system comprising a fluid source, a hydraulic tool, a drive shaft operatively associated with the rotor of the hydraulic tool, and a drill bit operatively associated with the drive shaft. The hydraulic tool includes a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. At least one of at least an inner portion of the stator and at least an outer portion of the rotor is configured to be installed in a drill string in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the hydraulic tool. The rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two orientations of the stator when fluid is provided to the hydraulic drilling motor from the fluid source.

Embodiment 24: A progressive cavity pump, comprising a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator such that the rotor and the stator together define at least one movable fluid cavity. At least an outer portion of the rotor is configured to be installed in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of at least an inner portion of the stator. The rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two inverted orientations.

Embodiment 25: A hydraulic drilling motor, comprising a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. At least an inner portion of the stator is configured to be installed in a drill string in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the hydraulic drilling motor. The rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two orientations of the stator.

Embodiment 26: A drilling system, comprising a fluid source, a hydraulic drilling motor, a drive shaft operatively associated with the rotor of the hydraulic drilling motor, and a drill bit operatively associated with the drive shaft. The hydraulic drilling motor includes a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. At least an inner portion of the stator is configured to be installed in a drill string in either of two inverted orientations along a longitudinal axis of the hydraulic drilling motor. The rotor is configured to rotate within the stator in either of the two orientations of the stator when fluid is provided to the hydraulic drilling motor from the fluid source.

While the present invention has been described herein with respect to certain illustrated embodiments, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize and appreciate that it is not so limited. Rather, many additions, deletions, and modifications to the illustrated embodiments may be made without departing from the scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed, including legal equivalents thereof. In addition, features from one embodiment may be combined with features of another embodiment while still being encompassed within the scope of the invention as contemplated by the inventors. Further, embodiments of the disclosure have utility with different and various bit profiles as well as cutting element types and configurations.