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Title:
IMMUNOGENIC TREHALOSE COMPOUNDS AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/169313
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed herein are immunogenic trehalose compounds and methods of use thereof, for example as vaccine adjuvants.

Inventors:
ABDELWAHAB WALID ABDELWAHAB MARZOUKY (US)
BURKHART DAVID (US)
EVANS JAY (US)
JOHNSON CRAIG (US)
RYTER KENDAL T (US)
SMITH ALYSON (US)
Application Number:
US2019/020373
Publication Date:
September 06, 2019
Filing Date:
March 01, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
THE UNIV OF MONTANA (US)
ABDELWAHAB WALID ABDELWAHAB MARZOUKY (US)
International Classes:
A61K39/09
Foreign References:
US8501478B22013-08-06
Other References:
SWARTS ET AL.: "Probing the Mycobacterial Trehalome with Bioorthogonal Chemistry", J. AM. CHEM. SOC., vol. 134, 2012, pages 16123 - 16126
THANNA ET AL.: "T argeting the trehalose utilization pathways of Mycobacterium tuberculosis", MED. CHEM. COMMUN., vol. 7, no. 1, 2016, pages 69 - 85
DATABASE PubChem 19 August 2012 (2012-08-19), Database accession no. 57689684
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LANGER, Michael R. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A compound of formula (I),

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

R1 is selected from azido, alkynyl, and a five-membered heteroaryl ring having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, wherein the heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted with one substituent R3;

R2 is selected from azido, alkynyl, and a five-membered heteroaryl ring having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, wherein the heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted with one substituent R4;

wherein at least one of R1 and R2 is heteroaryl;

R3 and R4 are each independently selected from Ar, alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, and heteroalkenyl;

Ar is selected from an aryl or heteroaryl unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, alkoxy, alkyl, and heteroalkyl; and

each alkyl or heteroalkyl is independently unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, amino, oxo, thioxo, halo, and haloalkyl.

2. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 and R2 are each independently selected from triazolyl, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, and thiazolyl.

3. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is selected from:

4. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R2 is selected from:

5. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

R1 is azido; and

R2 is:

6. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R3 and R4 are independently selected from a group of formula (i):

wherein:

p is selected from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12;

q is selected from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12;

X is selected from O, S, NH, and a bond;

Y is selected from H and CH3;

Ra is -(CH2) I .Z ' -(CH2)V I-Rc;

Rb is -(CH2)x2-Z2-(CH2)y2-Rd;

or Ra and Rb are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring;

xl, x2, yl, and y2 are each independently 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12;

Z1 and Z2 are each independently selected from O, S, NH, C=0, C=S, and a bond; and Rc and Rd are each independently selected from -H, -CH3, -OH, and -NH2.

7. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R3 and R4 are independently selected from a group of formula (ii):

xl is 1;

z s O;

yl is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8;

Rc is -CH3;

x2 is 1;

Z2 is O;

y2 is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8; and

Rd is selected from -H, -OH and -CH3;

or wherein Ra and Rb are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, and wherein the ring is unsubstituted or substituted with 1 or 2 methyl groups.

8. The compound of claim 7, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein yl is 4 and y2 is 4.

9. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R3 and R4 are independently selected from a group of formula (iii):

wherein:

Ra is -(CH2) l.Z'-(CH2)v l-Rc;

Rb is -(CH2)x2-Z2-(CH2)y2-Rd;

xl is 1;

z s O;

yl is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10;

Rc is selected from -H and -CH3;

x2 is 1;

Z2 is O;

y2 is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10; and

Rd is selected from -H, -OH, and -CH3;

or wherein Ra and Rb are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, and wherein the ring is unsubstituted or substituted with 1 or 2 methyl groups.

10. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R3 and R4 are independently selected from aryl or heteroaryl unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, alkoxy, alkyl, and heteroalkyl.

11. The compound of claim 10, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R3 and R4 are each phenyl substituted with one or more alkoxy substituents.

12. The compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 and R2 orR3 andR4 are independently selected such that an asymmetric molecule is formed and wherein the asymmetric molecule has enhanced physiochemical properties and/or packing parameters for optimized formulatability, pharmacokinetics and supramolecular structure- dependent immune modulation when compared to a symmetric molecule.

13. The compound of claim 1, selected from the group consisting of:

14. An adjuvant composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

15. A method for inducing an enhanced immune response in a subject, comprising administering to said subject an immunogenic composition comprising the adjuvant composition of claim 14.

16. A vaccine composition comprising: (a) an antigen; and (b) an adjuvant composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

17. A method for inducing or enhancing immunogenicity of an antigen in a subject, comprising administering to the subject a vaccine composition comprising the antigen and an adjuvant composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

18. An immunomodulatory composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

19. The immunomodulatory composition of claim 18, further comprising at least one additional adjuvant or immunostimulant.

20. A method of modulating an immune response in a subject, comprising administering to the subject the immunomodulatory composition of claim 18.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein the immunomodulatory composition is administered as a monotherapy.

22. The method of claim 20, wherein the immune response in the subject is increased.

23. The method of claim 20, wherein the subject is suffering from cancer, an autoimmune disorder, or an infectious disease.

Description:
IMMUNOGENIC TREHALOSE COMPOUNDS AND USES THEREOF

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/637,581, filed March 2, 2018, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST

[0002] This invention was made with government support under contract number

HHSN272201400050C awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in the invention.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0003] The present disclosure relates to immunogenic trehalose compounds and methods of use thereof, for example as vaccine adjuvants.

BACKGROUND

[0004] Globally, there are a number of disease-causing pathogens for which limited to no prophylaxis is available. Among these diseases, many fall into a class of bacterial and fungal pathogens for which Thl7 mediated immunity has been implicated in disease protection, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus , and others. While antigens are available for some of these pathogens, the development of Thl7-inducing adjuvants has lagged. Currently adjuvant systems available and approved for humans induce primarily either a Th2 (aluminum salts) or Thl (MPL) type response.

[0005] Currently, the only adjuvant available for human use that promotes a Thl7-mediated immune response is CAF01. This adjuvant is a cationic liposome that includes a synthetic Mincle receptor ligand (trehalose dibehenate) formulated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium. However, this adjuvant has not progressed beyond Phase I clinical trials.

[0006] Additional adjuvants with improved efficacy and safety attributes are needed to advance new vaccines and therapeutics in the areas of infectious disease, as well as

autoimmunity and cancer. SUMMARY

[0007] In one aspect, disclosed are compounds of formula (I):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

R 1 is selected from azido, alkynyl, and a five-membered heteroaryl ring having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, wherein the heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted with one substituent R 3 ;

R 2 is selected from azido, alkynyl, and a five-membered heteroaryl ring having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, wherein the heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted with one substituent R 4 ;

wherein at least one of R 1 and R 2 is heteroaryl;

R 3 and R 4 are each independently selected from Ar, alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, and heteroalkenyl;

Ar is selected from an aryl or heteroaryl unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, alkoxy, alkyl, and heteroalkyl; and

each alkyl or heteroalkyl is independently unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, amino, oxo, thioxo, halo, and haloalkyl.

[0008] Other aspects and embodiments of the disclosure will become apparent in light of the following description and drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0009] FIG. 1 A, FIG. 1B, FIG. 1C, FIG. 1D, FIG. 1E, and FIG. 1F show the cytokine response from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (FIG. 1 A, FIG. 1E and FIG. 1G) or murine Raw (mRaw) cells (FIG. 1B, FIG. 1C, and FIG. 1D) cultured in the presence of a selection of trehalose compounds at varying concentrations. TDE derivatives were delivered by drying to the bottom of the tissue culture plate after dissolving in ethanol (plate-coated compounds) or by diluting in media after dissolving in DMSO (aqueous compounds).

[0010] FIG. 2 shows representative structures of TDE compounds that are contemplated for formula (I).

[0011] FIG. 3 shows representative structures of TDE compounds that are contemplated for formula (I).

[0012] FIG. 4 shows representative structures of TDE compounds that are contemplated for formula (I).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0013] Described herein is a class of compounds that may act as Thl7 or THl7/Thl- inducing adjuvants, which may be useful for targeting diseases of significant medical burden for which no effective vaccine is available. The compounds may also be useful in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

[0014] The C-Type Lectin Receptor (CLR) family contains many diverse members that have different substrates, adaptor proteins, downstream signaling pathways, and cell type expression profiles. While some members of this family are purely phagocytic receptors, most are known to activate intracellular signaling networks that induce functional changes within the cell, such as modulation of transcription, endocytosis/phagocytosis, and/or cell adhesion and migration. One of the best characterized of these signaling cascade-inducing receptors is Mincle (CLEC4e).

[0015] Mincle must be coupled to an ITAM-containing adaptor molecule, FcRy, to initiate downstream signaling, and ligand binding is Ca 2+ -dependent. However, the ligands for the Mincle receptor are distinct from those for other CLR receptors such as Dectin-l and Dectin-2, and include the mycobacterial glycolipid trehalose-6, 6’-dimycolate (TDM), its synthetic analog trehalose dibehenate (TDB), and many a-mannose-containing lipids found in various fungi and Candida strains. These ligands can also be found in many pathogenic organisms including M. tuberculosis , S. mansoni, and T. rubrum. Additionally, the use of TDB and subsequent Mincle- induced signaling was shown to be necessary for the Thl/Thl7 adjuvanting properties in some pre-clinical vaccine models.

[0016] ETsing an approach described herein for the identification of novel Thl7-inducing CLR agonists as vaccine adjuvants, which can query single CLRs on the surface of myeloid cells using specifically designed molecules and follow their effects through signaling pathways and subsequent cytokine/biomarker induction downstream, new biologically active compounds have been identified that may serve as a basis for a new class of Thl7 or Thl 7/Th 1 -inducing adjuvants. Furthermore, mechanism of action (MO A) studies with lead CLR agonists/antagonists in combination with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) agonists can used to evaluate cross-talk between CLRs and TLRs through the evaluation of (1) intracellular signaling pathways, (2) biomarker upregulation, and (3) in vivo cytokine/biomarker induction.

[0017] Compounds described herein may represent a new class of Thl7 or Thl7/Thl- inducing adjuvants for vaccines targeting bacterial and fungal pathogens causing a significant burden of disease in humans, certain cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

1. Definitions

[0018] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. In case of conflict, the present document, including definitions, will control. Preferred methods and materials are described below, although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in practice or testing. All publications, patent applications, patents and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. The materials, methods, and examples disclosed herein are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.

[0019] The terms“comprise(s),”“include(s),”“having,”“has, ”“can,”“contain(s),” and variants thereof, as used herein, are intended to be open-ended transitional phrases, terms, or words that do not preclude the possibility of additional acts or structures. The singular forms“a,” “an” and“the” include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. The present disclosure also contemplates other embodiments“comprising,”“consisting of’ and “consisting essentially of,” the embodiments or elements presented herein, whether explicitly set forth or not.

[0020] The modifier“about” used in connection with a quantity is inclusive of the stated value and has the meaning dictated by the context (for example, it includes at least the degree of error associated with the measurement of the particular quantity). The modifier“about” should also be considered as disclosing the range defined by the absolute values of the two endpoints. For example, the expression“from about 2 to about 4” also discloses the range“from 2 to 4.”

The term“about” may refer to plus or minus 10% of the indicated number. For example,“about 10%” may indicate a range of 9% to 11%, and“about 1” may mean from 0.9-1.1. Other meanings of“about” may be apparent from the context, such as rounding off, so, for example “about 1” may also mean from 0.5 to 1.4.

[0021] The term "immune response" includes any response associated with immunity including, but not limited to, increases or decreases in cytokine expression, production or secretion (e.g., IL-l, IL-6, IL-17, TNFa expression, production or secretion), cytotoxicity, immune cell migration, antibody production and/or immune cellular responses.

[0022] The term“monotherapy,” as used herein, means that only a single drug or therapeutic agent is administered.

[0023] The phrase "modulating an immune response" or "modulation of an immune response" or "modulate an immune response" includes upregulation, potentiating, stimulating, enhancing or increasing an immune response, as defined herein.

[0024] Definitions of specific functional groups and chemical terms are described in more detail below. For purposes of this disclosure, the chemical elements are identified in accordance with the Periodic Table of the Elements, CAS version, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 75 th Ed., inside cover, and specific functional groups are generally defined as described therein. Additionally, general principles of organic chemistry, as well as specific functional moieties and reactivity, are described in Organic Chemistry , Thomas Sorrell, ETniversity Science Books, Sausalito, 1999; Smith and March March's Advanced Organic Chemistry , 5 th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2001; Larock, Comprehensive Organic Transformations , VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, 1989; Carruthers, Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis , 3 rd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987; the entire contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[0025] The term“alkoxy,” as used herein, refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an oxygen atom. Representative examples of alkoxy include, but are not limited to, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, 2-propoxy, butoxy and tert- butoxy.

[0026] The term“alkyl,” as used herein, means a straight or branched, saturated hydrocarbon chain containing from 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The term“lower alkyl” or“Ci.Ce-alkyl” means a straight or branched chain hydrocarbon containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms. The term“C 1 -C 3 - alkyl” means a straight or branched chain hydrocarbon containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms. Representative examples of alkyl include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, «-propyl, iso propyl, «-butyl, sec-butyl, iso-butyl, ieri-butyl, «-pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, «-hexyl, 3- methylhexyl, 2,2-dimethylpentyl, 2,3-dimethylpentyl, 4,4-dimethylpentan-2-yl, «-heptyl, «-octyl, «-nonyl, and «-decyl.

[0027] The term“alkenyl,” as used herein, means a straight or branched, hydrocarbon chain containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond and from 1 to 10 carbon atoms.

[0028] The term“alkoxyalkyl,” as used herein, refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein.

[0029] The term“alkoxyfluoroalkyl,” as used herein, refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through a fluoroalkyl group, as defined herein.

[0030] The term“alkylene,” as used herein, refers to a divalent group derived from a straight or branched chain hydrocarbon of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, for example, of 2 to 5 carbon atoms. Representative examples of alkylene include, but are not limited to, -CH2CH2-, -CH2CH2CH2-, - CH 2 CH(CH 3 )CH 2 -, -CH2CH2CH2CH2-, -CH 2 CH(CH3)CH 2 CH2-, and -CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2-.

[0031] The term“alkylamino,” as used herein, means at least one alkyl group, as defined herein, is appended to the parent molecular moiety through an amino group, as defined herein.

[0032] The term“amide,” as used herein, means -C(0)NR- or -NRC(O)-, wherein R may be hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycle, alkenyl, or heteroalkyl.

[0033] The term“aminoalkyl,” as used herein, means at least one amino group, as defined herein, is appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkylene group, as defined herein.

[0034] The term“amino,” as used herein, means -NR x R y , wherein R x and R y may be hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycle, alkenyl, or heteroalkyl. In the case of an aminoalkyl group or any other moiety where amino appends together two other moieties, amino may be -NR X- , wherein R x may be hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycle, alkenyl, or heteroalkyl.

[0035] The term“aryl,” as used herein, refers to a phenyl group, or a bicyclic or tricyclic fused ring system. Bicyclic fused ring systems are exemplified by a phenyl group appended to the parent molecular moiety and fused to a phenyl group, a cycloalkyl group as defined herein, a heteroaryl group as defined herein, or a heterocycle as defined herein. Tricyclic fused ring systems are exemplified by a phenyl group appended to the parent molecular moiety and fused to a bicyclic fused ring system as described herein. Representative examples of aryl include, but are not limited to, phenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl, indolyl (e.g., lif-indol-4-yl, lif-indol-5-yl, 1 H- indol-6-yl, and lif-indol-7-yl), benzodioxolyl (e.g., benzo[ < i][l,3]dioxol-4-yl and

benzo[i/][l,3]dioxol-5-yl), chromanyl (e.g., chroman-5-yl, chroman-6-yl, chroman-7-yl, and chroman-8-yl), and tetrahydroquinolinyl (e.g., l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-5-yl, 1, 2,3,4- tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl, l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-7-yl, and l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-8-yl).

[0036] The term“azido,” as used herein, means the N 3 group.

[0037] The term“cyanoalkyl,” as used herein, means at least one -CN group, is appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkylene group, as defined herein.

[0038] The term“cyanofluoroalkyl,” as used herein, means at least one -CN group, is appended to the parent molecular moiety through a fluoroalkyl group, as defined herein.

[0039] The term“cycloalkoxy,” as used herein, refers to a cycloalkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an oxygen atom.

[0040] The term“cycloalkyl,” as used herein, refers to a carbocyclic ring system containing three to ten carbon atoms, zero heteroatoms and zero double bonds. The cycloalkyl may be monocyclic, bicyclic, bridged, fused, or spirocyclic. Representative examples of cycloalkyl include, but are not limited to, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, cyclononyl, cyclodecyl, adamantyl, and bicyclo[l.l. l]pentanyl.“Cycloalkyl” also includes carbocyclic ring systems in which a cycloalkyl group is appended to the parent molecular moiety and is fused to an aryl group as defined herein (e.g., a phenyl group), a heteroaryl group as defined herein, or a heterocycle as defined herein. Representative examples of such cycloalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, 2,3-dihydro-lif-indenyl (e.g., 2,3- dihydro- lif-inden-l-yl and 2,3 -dihydro- lif-inden-2-yl), 6,7-dihydro-5if-cyclopenta[Z>]pyridinyl (e.g., 6,7-dihydro-5if-cyclopenta[£]pyridin-6-yl), oxaspiro[3.3]heptanyl (e.g., 2- oxaspiro[3.3]heptan-6-yl), and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolinyl (e.g., 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-5- yi).

[0041] The term“cycloalkenyl,” as used herein, means a non-aromatic monocyclic or multicyclic ring system containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond and preferably having from 5-10 carbon atoms per ring. The cycloalkenyl may be monocyclic, bicyclic, bridged, fused, or spirocyclic. Exemplary monocyclic cycloalkenyl rings include cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl, cycloheptenyl, and bicyclo[2.2.l]heptenyl. [0042] The term“fluoroalkyl,” as used herein, means an alkyl group, as defined herein, in which one, two, three, four, five, six, seven or eight hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine. Representative examples of fluoroalkyl include, but are not limited to, 2-fluoroethyl, 2,2,2- trifluoroethyl, trifluoromethyl, difluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl, and trifluoropropyl such as 3,3,3 -trifluoropropyl .

[0043] The term“fluoroalkoxy,” as used herein, means at least one fluoroalkyl group, as defined herein, is appended to the parent molecular moiety through an oxygen atom.

Representative examples of fluoroalkoxy include, but are not limited to, difluoromethoxy, trifluoromethoxy and 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy.

[0044] The term“halogen” or“halo,” as used herein, means Cl, Br, I, or F.

[0045] The term“haloalkyl,” as used herein, means an alkyl group, as defined herein, in which one, two, three, four, five, six, seven or eight hydrogen atoms are replaced by a halogen.

[0046] The term“haloalkoxy,” as used herein, means at least one haloalkyl group, as defined herein, is appended to the parent molecular moiety through an oxygen atom.

[0047] The term“halocycloalkyl,” as used herein, means a cycloalkyl group, as defined herein, in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by a halogen.

[0048] The term“heteroalkyl,” as used herein, means an alkyl group, as defined herein, in which one or more of the carbon atoms has been replaced by a heteroatom selected from S, O, P and N. Representative examples of heteroalkyls include, but are not limited to, alkyl ethers, secondary and tertiary alkyl amines, amides, and alkyl sulfides.

[0049] The term“heteroaryl,” as used herein, refers to an aromatic monocyclic ring or an aromatic bicyclic ring system. The aromatic monocyclic rings are five or six membered rings containing at least one heteroatom independently selected from the group consisting of N, O and S (e.g. 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms independently selected from O, S, and N). The five membered aromatic monocyclic rings have two double bonds and the six membered six membered aromatic monocyclic rings have three double bonds. The bicyclic heteroaryl groups are exemplified by a monocyclic heteroaryl ring appended to the parent molecular moiety and fused to a monocyclic cycloalkyl group, as defined herein, a monocyclic aryl group, as defined herein, a monocyclic heteroaryl group, as defined herein, or a monocyclic heterocycle, as defined herein.

Representative examples of heteroaryl include, but are not limited to, indolyl, pyridinyl

(including pyri din-2 -yl, pyridin-3-yl, pyridin-4-yl), pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrrolyl, benzopyrazolyl, l,2,3-triazolyl, l,3,4-thiadiazolyl, l,2,4-thiadiazolyl, 1,3,4- oxadiazolyl, l,2,4-oxadiazolyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, thienyl, benzimidazolyl, benzothiazolyl, benzoxazolyl, benzoxadiazolyl, benzothienyl, benzofuranyl, isobenzofuranyl, furanyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, purinyl, isoindolyl, quinoxalinyl, indazolyl, quinazolinyl, 1,2,4- triazinyl, l,3,5-triazinyl, isoquinolinyl, quinolinyl, 6,7-dihydro-l,3-benzothiazolyl, imidazo[l,2- ajpyridinyl, naphthyridinyl, pyridoimidazolyl, thiazolo[5,4-£]pyridin-2-yl, thiazolo[5,4- ]pyrimidin-2-yl.

[0050] The term“heterocycle” or“heterocyclic,” as used herein, means a monocyclic heterocycle, a bicyclic heterocycle, or a tricyclic heterocycle. The monocyclic heterocycle is a three-, four-, five-, six-, seven-, or eight-membered ring containing at least one heteroatom independently selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S. The three- or four-membered ring contains zero or one double bond, and one heteroatom selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S. The five-membered ring contains zero or one double bond and one, two or three heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of O, N and S. The six-membered ring contains zero, one or two double bonds and one, two, or three heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S. The seven- and eight-membered rings contains zero, one, two, or three double bonds and one, two, or three heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S. Representative examples of monocyclic heterocycles include, but are not limited to, azetidinyl, azepanyl, aziridinyl, diazepanyl, l,3-dioxanyl, l,3-dioxolanyl, l,3-dithiolanyl, 1,3- dithianyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolidinyl, isothiazolinyl, isothiazolidinyl, isoxazolinyl,

isoxazolidinyl, morpholinyl, 2-oxo-3-piperidinyl, 2-oxoazepan-3-yl, oxadiazolinyl,

oxadiazolidinyl, oxazolinyl, oxazolidinyl, oxetanyl, oxepanyl, oxocanyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, pyranyl, pyrazolinyl, pyrazolidinyl, pyrrolinyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl,

tetrahydropyranyl, tetrahydropyridinyl, tetrahydrothienyl, thiadiazolinyl, thiadiazolidinyl, 1,2- thiazinanyl, l,3-thiazinanyl, thiazolinyl, thiazolidinyl, thiomorpholinyl, 1,1- dioxidothiomorpholinyl (thiomorpholine sulfone), thiopyranyl, and trithianyl. The bicyclic heterocycle is a monocyclic heterocycle fused to a phenyl group, or a monocyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic cycloalkyl, or a monocyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic

cycloalkenyl, or a monocyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic heterocycle, or a spiro heterocycle group, or a bridged monocyclic heterocycle ring system in which two non-adjacent atoms of the ring are linked by an alkylene bridge of 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon atoms, or an alkenylene bridge of two, three, or four carbon atoms. Representative examples of bicyclic heterocycles include, but are not limited to, benzopyranyl, benzothiopyranyl, chromanyl, 2,3- dihydrobenzofuranyl, 2,3-dihydrobenzothienyl, 2,3-dihydroisoquinoline, 2-azaspiro[3.3]heptan- 2-yl, 2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptan-6-yl, azabicyclo[2.2. l]heptyl (including 2- azabicyclo[2.2. l]hept-2-yl), oxabicyclo[2.2.l]heptanyl (including 7-oxabicyclo[2.2. l]heptan-3- yl), azabicyclo[3. l.0]hexanyl (including 3-azabicyclo[3.l.0]hexan-3-yl), 2,3 -dihydro- liT-indolyl, isoindolinyl, octahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrolyl, octahydropyrrolopyridinyl, and

tetrahydroisoquinolinyl. Tricyclic heterocycles are exemplified by a bicyclic heterocycle fused to a phenyl group, or a bicyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic cycloalkyl, or a bicyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic cycloalkenyl, or a bicyclic heterocycle fused to a monocyclic heterocycle, or a bicyclic heterocycle in which two non-adjacent atoms of the bicyclic ring are linked by an alkylene bridge of 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbon atoms, or an alkenylene bridge of two, three, or four carbon atoms. Examples of tricyclic heterocycles include, but are not limited to, octahydro-2,5-epoxypentalene, hexahydro-2//-2,5-methanocyclopenta[/>]furan, hexahydro- 1 //- l,4-methanocyclopenta[c]furan, aza-adamantane (l-azatricyclo[3.3. l.l3,7]decane), and oxa- adamantane (2-oxatricyclo[3.3.l. l3,7]decane). The monocyclic, bicyclic, and tricyclic heterocycles are connected to the parent molecular moiety through any carbon atom or any nitrogen atom contained within the rings, and can be unsubstituted or substituted.

[0051] The term“hydroxyl” or“hydroxy,” as used herein, means an -OH group.

[0052] The term“hydroxyalkyl,” as used herein, means at least one -OH group, is appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkylene group, as defined herein.

[0053] The term“hydroxyfluoroalkyl,” as used herein, means at least one -OH group, is appended to the parent molecular moiety through a fluoroalkyl group, as defined herein.

[0054] In some instances, the number of carbon atoms in a hydrocarbyl substituent (e.g., alkyl or cycloalkyl) is indicated by the prefix“C x -C y -”, wherein x is the minimum and y is the maximum number of carbon atoms in the substituent. Thus, for example,“Ci-C 3 -alkyl” refers to an alkyl substituent containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms.

[0055] The term“sulfonamide,” as used herein, means -S(0) 2 NR d - or -NR d S(0)-, wherein R d may be hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycle, alkenyl, or heteroalkyl.

[0056] The term“substituents” refers to a group“substituted” on an aryl, heteroaryl, phenyl or pyridinyl group at any atom of that group. Any atom can be substituted. [0057] The term“substituted” refers to a group that may be further substituted with one or more non-hydrogen substituent groups. Substituent groups include, but are not limited to, halogen, =0 (oxo), =S (thioxo), cyano, nitro, fluoroalkyl, alkoxyfluoroalkyl, fluoroalkoxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycle, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl, arylalkyl, hydroxy, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxy, alkoxyalkyl, alkylene, aryloxy, phenoxy, benzyloxy, amino, alkylamino, acylamino, aminoalkyl, arylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfmylamino, sulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, sulfmyl, -COOH, ketone, amide, carbamate, and acyl. For example, if a group is described as being“optionally substituted” (such as an alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycle or other group such as an R group), it may have 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 substituents independently selected from halogen, =0 (oxo), =S (thioxo), cyano, nitro, fluoroalkyl, alkoxyfluoroalkyl, fluoroalkoxy, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycle, cycloalkylalkyl,

heteroarylalkyl, arylalkyl, hydroxy, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxy, alkoxyalkyl, alkylene, aryloxy, phenoxy, benzyloxy, amino, alkylamino, acylamino, aminoalkyl, arylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfmylamino, sulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, sulfmyl, -COOH, ketone, amide, carbamate, and acyl.

[0058] The term“—“ designates a single bond (— ) or a double bond (= ).

[0059] For compounds described herein, groups and substituents thereof may be selected in accordance with permitted valence of the atoms and the substituents, such that the selections and substitutions result in a stable compound, e.g., which does not spontaneously undergo transformation such as by rearrangement, cyclization, elimination, etc.

[0060] When substituent groups are specified by their conventional chemical formulae, written from left to right, such a formula also encompasses the same substituent that would result from writing the structure from right to left. For example, -CH 2 NH- is also intended to encompass -NHCH 2 -.

[0061] For the recitation of numeric ranges herein, each intervening number there between with the same degree of precision is explicitly contemplated. For example, for the range of 6-9, the numbers 7 and 8 are contemplated in addition to 6 and 9, and for the range 6.0-7.0, the number 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, and 7.0 are explicitly contemplated. 2. Compounds

[0062] In one aspect, disclosed is a compound of formula (I):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

R 1 is selected from azido, alkynyl, and a five-membered heteroaryl ring having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, wherein the heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted with one substituent R 3 ;

R 2 is selected from azido, alkynyl, and a five-membered heteroaryl ring having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, wherein the heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted with one substituent R 4 ;

wherein at least one of R 1 and R 2 is heteroaryl;

R 3 and R 4 are each independently selected from Ar, alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, and heteroalkenyl;

Ar is selected from an aryl or heteroaryl unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, alkoxy, alkyl, and heteroalkyl; and

each alkyl or heteroalkyl is independently unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, amino, oxo, thioxo, halo, and haloalkyl.

[0063] In some embodiments, R 1 and R 2 are each independently selected from triazolyl, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, and thiazolyl.

[0064] In some embodiments, R 1 is selected from:

[0065] In some embodiments, R 2 is selected from: [0066] In some embodiments, R 1 is azido and R 2 is:

[0067] In one aspect, R 3 and R 4 are independently selected from a group of formula (i):

[0068] In some embodiments, p is selected from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12.

[0069] In some embodiments, q is selected from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12.

[0070] In some embodiments, X is selected from O, S, NH, and a bond.

[0071] In some embodiments, Y is selected from H and CH 3.

[0072] In some embodiments, R a is -(CH2) xi- Z 1 -(CH2) yi -R c .

[0073] In some embodiments, R b is -(CH2) X 2.Z 2 -(CH2) y 2-R d

[0074] In some embodiments, R a and R b are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring.

[0075] In some embodiments, xl, x2, yl, and y2 are each independently 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12.

[0076] In some embodiments, Z 1 and Z 2 are each independently selected from O, S, NH, C=0, C=S, and a bond.

[0077] In some embodiments, R c and R d are each independently selected from -H, -CH 3 , - OH, and -NH 2

[0078] In another aspect, R 3 and R 4 are independently selected from a group of formula (ii):

(ii).

[0079] In some embodiments, R a is -(CH2) xi- Z 1 -(CH 2 ) yi -R c .

[0080] In some embodiments, R b is -(CH2) X 2-Z 2 -(CH 2 ) y 2-R d .

[0081] In some embodiments, xl is 1.

[0082] In some embodiments, Z 1 is O.

[0083] In some embodiments, yl is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8. [0084] In some embodiments, R c is -CH 3.

[0085] In some embodiments, x2 is 1.

[0086] In some embodiments, Z 2 is O.

[0087] In some embodiments, y2 is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8.

[0088] In some embodiments, R d is selected from -H, -OH and -CH 3.

[0089] In some embodiments, R a and R b are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, and wherein the ring is unsubstituted or substituted with 1 or 2 methyl groups.

[0090] In some embodiments, yl is 4 and y2 is 4.

[0091] In another aspect, R3 and R4 are independently selected from a group of formula

(iii):

(iii).

[0092] In some embodiments, R a is -(CH2) xi- Z 1 -(CH2) yi -R c .

[0093] In some embodiments, R b is -(CH2) x 2-Z 2 -(CH 2 ) y 2-R d .

[0094] In some embodiments, xl is 1.

[0095] In some embodiments, Z 1 is O.

[0096] In some embodiments, yl is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10.

[0097] In some embodiments, R c is selected from -H and -CH 3.

[0098] In some embodiments, x2 is 1.

[0099] In some embodiments, Z 2 is O.

[00100] In some embodiments, y2 is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10.

[00101] In some embodiments, R d is selected from -H, -OH, and -CH 3.

[00102] In some embodiments, R a and R b are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, and wherein the ring is unsubstituted or substituted with 1 or 2 methyl groups.

[00103] In some embodiments, R 3 and R 4 are independently selected from aryl or heteroaryl unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, alkoxy, alkyl, and heteroalkyl. [00104] In some embodiments, R 3 and R 4 are each phenyl substituted with one or more alkoxy substituents.

[00105] In some embodiments, the molecule is symmetric. In a symmetric molecule, R 1 and R 2 are the same. In some embodiments the molecule is asymmetric. An asymmetric molecule may be formed when R 1 and R 2 are not the same or when R 3 and R 4 are not the same. In some embodiments, the asymmetric molecule has enhanced physiochemical properties and/or packing parameters for optimized formulatability, pharmacokinetics and supramolecular structure- dependent immune modulation when compared to a symmetric molecule. The compounds may form cubosomal or liquid crystal structures that confer improved bioavailabilty and formulation stability. The asymmetric molecules may have increased immune response (for example, as shown by an increase cytokine induction), lower hydrophobicity, better solubility, and better packing parameters when compared to a comparable symmetric molecule.

[00106] In another aspect, disclosed is a compound selected from the group consisting of:

[00107] The compound may exist as a stereoisomer wherein asymmetric or chiral centers are present. The stereoisomer is“i?” or“5” depending on the configuration of substituents around the chiral carbon atom. The terms“i?” and“5” used herein are configurations as defined in IUPAC 1974 Recommendations for Section E, Fundamental Stereochemistry, in Pure Appl. Chem ., 1976, 45: 13-30. The disclosure contemplates various stereoisomers and mixtures thereof and these are specifically included within the scope of this disclosure. Stereoisomers include enantiomers and diastereomers, and mixtures of enantiomers or diastereomers. Individual stereoisomers of the compounds may be prepared synthetically from commercially available starting materials, which contain asymmetric or chiral centers or by preparation of racemic mixtures followed by methods of resolution well-known to those of ordinary skill in the art. These methods of resolution are exemplified by (1) attachment of a mixture of enantiomers to a chiral auxiliary, separation of the resulting mixture of diastereomers by recrystallization or chromatography and optional liberation of the optically pure product from the auxiliary as described in Furniss, Hannaford, Smith, and Tatchell,“Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry,” 5th edition (1989), Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex CM20 2JE, England (or more recent versions thereof), or (2) direct separation of the mixture of optical enantiomers on chiral chromatographic columns, or (3) fractional recrystallization methods.

[00108] It should be understood that the compound may possess tautomeric forms, as well as geometric isomers, and that these also constitute embodiments of the disclosure.

[00109] The present disclosure also includes an isotopically-labeled compound, which is identical to those recited in formula (I), but for the fact that one or more atoms are replaced by an atom having an atomic mass or mass number different from the atomic mass or mass number usually found in nature. Examples of isotopes suitable for inclusion in the compounds of the disclosure are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine, such as, but not limited to 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 15 N, 18 0, 17 0, 31 P, 32 P, 35 S, 18 F, and 36 Cl, respectively. Substitution with heavier isotopes such as deuterium, i.e. 2 H, can afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability, for example increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements and, hence, may be preferred in some circumstances. The compound may incorporate positron-emitting isotopes for medical imaging and positron-emitting tomography (PET) studies for determining the distribution of receptors. Suitable positron- emitting isotopes that can be incorporated in compounds of formula (I) are C, N, O, and F. Isotopically-labeled compounds of formula (I) can generally be prepared by conventional techniques known to those skilled in the art or by processes analogous to those described in the accompanying Examples using appropriate isotopically-labeled reagent in place of non- isotopically-labeled reagent.

a. Pharmaceutically Acceptable Salts

[00110] The disclosed compounds may exist as pharmaceutically acceptable salts. The term “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” refers to salts or zwitterions of the compounds which are water or oil-soluble or dispersible, suitable for treatment of disorders without undue toxicity, irritation, and allergic response, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio and effective for their intended use. The salts may be prepared during the final isolation and purification of the compounds or separately by reacting an amino group of the compounds with a suitable acid. For example, a compound may be dissolved in a suitable solvent, such as but not limited to methanol and water and treated with at least one equivalent of an acid, like hydrochloric acid. The resulting salt may precipitate out and be isolated by filtration and dried under reduced pressure. Alternatively, the solvent and excess acid may be removed under reduced pressure to provide a salt. Representative salts include acetate, adipate, alginate, citrate, aspartate, benzoate, benzenesulfonate, bisulfate, butyrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, digluconate,

glycerophosphate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, formate, isethionate, fumarate, lactate, maleate, methanesulfonate, naphthylenesulfonate, nicotinate, oxalate, pamoate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, picrate, oxalate, maleate, pivalate, propionate, succinate, tartrate, trichloroacetate, trifluoroacetate, glutamate, para-toluenesulfonate, undecanoate, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, phosphoric and the like. The amino groups of the compounds may also be quaternized with alkyl chlorides, bromides and iodides such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, lauryl, myristyl, stearyl and the like.

[00111] Basic addition salts may be prepared during the final isolation and purification of the disclosed compounds by reaction of a carboxyl group with a suitable base such as the hydroxide, carbonate, or bicarbonate of a metal cation such as lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, or aluminum, or an organic primary, secondary, or tertiary amine. Quaternary amine salts can be prepared, such as those derived from methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, tributylamine, pyridine, N, A -di methyl ani 1 i ne, N- methylpiperidine, A-methyl morpholine, dicyclohexylamine, procaine, dibenzylamine, NN- dibenzylphenethylamine, l-ephenamine and A.A’-dibenzylethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, diethanolamine, piperidine, piperazine, and the like

b. General Synthesis

[00112] Compounds of formula (I) may be prepared by synthetic processes or by metabolic processes. Preparation of the compounds by metabolic processes includes those occurring in the human or animal body (in vivo) or processes occurring in vitro.

[00113] Abbreviations used in the Schemes and descriptions that follow include the following: AcOH is acetic acid; PTC is phase transfer catalyst; and RBr is bromoalkane.

[00114] Compounds of formula (I) may be synthesized as shown in Scheme 1. Scheme 1

1. acetone, H

[00115] As shown in Scheme 1, l,l,l-(trihydroxymethyl)ethane 1 can be used to synthesize and prepare the trehalose compounds. Triol 1 was converted to a series of propargyl functionalized ether lipids 2 and 3 through selective protection and phase transfer catalyzed (PTC) alkylation. Alternatively, 2-(chloromethyl)oxirane 3 can also be used to prepare the propargyl functionalized ether lipids. Copper catalyzed cyclization of the ether lipids with trehalose azide 7 resulted in trehalose compounds 8-11.

[00116] Reaction conditions and reaction times for each individual step can vary depending on the particular reactants employed and substituents present in the reactants used. Specific procedures are provided in the Examples section. Reactions can be worked up in the conventional manner, e.g. by eliminating the solvent from the residue and further purified according to methodologies generally known in the art such as, but not limited to, crystallization, distillation, extraction, trituration and chromatography. Unless otherwise described, the starting materials and reagents are either commercially available or can be prepared by one skilled in the art from commercially available materials using methods described in the chemical literature. Starting materials, if not commercially available, can be prepared by procedures selected from standard organic chemical techniques, techniques that are analogous to the synthesis of known, structurally similar compounds, or techniques that are analogous to the above described schemes or the procedures described in the synthetic examples section.

[00117] Routine experimentations, including appropriate manipulation of the reaction conditions, reagents and sequence of the synthetic route, protection of any chemical functionality that cannot be compatible with the reaction conditions, and deprotection at a suitable point in the reaction sequence of the method are included in the scope of the disclosure. Suitable protecting groups and the methods for protecting and deprotecting different substituents using such suitable protecting groups are well known to those skilled in the art; examples of which can be found in PGM Wuts and TW Greene, in Greene’s book titled Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis (4 th ed.), John Wiley & Sons, NY (2006), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Synthesis of the compounds of the disclosure can be accomplished by methods analogous to those described in the synthetic schemes described hereinabove and in specific examples.

[00118] When an optically active form of a disclosed compound is required, it can be obtained by carrying out one of the procedures described herein using an optically active starting material (prepared, for example, by asymmetric induction of a suitable reaction step), or by resolution of a mixture of the stereoisomers of the compound or intermediates using a standard procedure (such as chromatographic separation, recrystallization or enzymatic resolution).

[00119] Similarly, when a pure geometric isomer of a compound is required, it can be obtained by carrying out one of the above procedures using a pure geometric isomer as a starting material, or by resolution of a mixture of the geometric isomers of the compound or

intermediates using a standard procedure such as chromatographic separation.

[00120] It can be appreciated that the synthetic schemes and specific examples as described are illustrative and are not to be read as limiting the scope of the disclosure as it is defined in the appended claims. All alternatives, modifications, and equivalents of the synthetic methods and specific examples are included within the scope of the claims. c. Biological Activity

[00121] The compounds disclosed herein, including compounds of formula (I) may have biological activity that makes them useful as immunologic adjuvants or immunomodulators. For example, the compounds may stimulate the immune system’s response to a co-administered antigen. In some embodiments, the compounds may modulate the immune response when administered as a monotherapy. In other embodiments the compositions may further include at least one additional adjuvant or immunostimulant. In some embodiments, the compounds may have activity as Th-l7 stimulating adjuvants.

[00122] In some embodiments, the compounds may simulate the production of cytokines in a sample or when administered to a subject. The compounds may stimulate the production of Thl7-type cytokines. Exemplary cytokines include IL-6, IL- 1 b, IL-23, and TNFa. Such activity may be tested according to established methods. For example, the levels of such cytokines may be measured in samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after exposure to the compounds.

[00123] The compounds disclosed herein, including compounds of formula (I) may also have biological activity that makes them useful as cytotoxic compounds, for example for treatment of cancer. In some embodiments, the compounds may inhibit or reduce the growth or proliferation of cancer cells. Such activity can be determined according to established methods.

3. Compositions

[00124] The disclosed compounds may be incorporated into pharmaceutical compositions, adjuvant compositions, and vaccine compositions that may be suitable for administration to a subject (such as a patient, which may be a human or non-human).

a. Pharmaceutical Compositions

[00125] The disclosed compounds may be incorporated into pharmaceutical compositions.

The pharmaceutical compositions may include a“therapeutically effective amount” or a “prophylactically effective amount” of the agent. A“therapeutically effective amount” refers to an amount effective, at dosages and for periods of time necessary, to achieve the desired therapeutic result. A therapeutically effective amount of the composition may be determined by a person skilled in the art and may vary according to factors such as the disease state, age, sex, and weight of the individual, and the ability of the composition to elicit a desired response in the individual. A therapeutically effective amount is also one in which any toxic or detrimental effects of a compound of the invention (e.g., a compound of formula (I)) are outweighed by the therapeutically beneficial effects. A“prophylactically effective amount” refers to an amount effective, at dosages and for periods of time necessary, to achieve the desired prophylactic result. Typically, since a prophylactic dose is used in subjects prior to or at an earlier stage of disease, the prophylactically effective amount will be less than the therapeutically effective amount.

[00126] For example, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I), may be about may be about 0.001 mg/kg to about 1000 mg/kg, 0.01 mg/kg to about 1000 mg/kg, 0.1 mg/kg to about 1000 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg to about 1000 mg/kg, about 5 mg/kg to about 950 mg/kg, about 10 mg/kg to about 900 mg/kg, about 15 mg/kg to about 850 mg/kg, about 20 mg/kg to about 800 mg/kg, about 25 mg/kg to about 750 mg/kg, about 30 mg/kg to about 700 mg/kg, about 35 mg/kg to about 650 mg/kg, about 40 mg/kg to about 600 mg/kg, about 45 mg/kg to about 550 mg/kg, about 50 mg/kg to about 500 mg/kg, about 55 mg/kg to about 450 mg/kg, about 60 mg/kg to about 400 mg/kg, about 65 mg/kg to about 350 mg/kg, about 70 mg/kg to about 300 mg/kg, about 75 mg/kg to about 250 mg/kg, about 80 mg/kg to about 200 mg/kg, about 85 mg/kg to about 150 mg/kg, and about 90 mg/kg to about 100 mg/kg.

[00127] The pharmaceutical compositions and formulations may also comprise additional adjuvants or immunostimulants. Suitable adjuvants are commercially available as, for example, Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant and Complete Adjuvant (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.); Merck Adjuvant 65 (Merck and Company, Inc., Rahway, N.J.); AS-2 (SmithKline Beecham); mineral salts (for example, aluminum, silica, kaolin, and carbon); aluminum salts such as aluminum hydroxide gel (alum), AlK(S0 4 ) 2 , AlNa(S0 4 ) 2 , AlNH 4 (S0 4 ), and Al(OH) 3 ; salts of calcium (e.g, Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 ), iron or zinc; an insoluble suspension of acylated tyrosine; acylated sugars; cationically or anionically derivatized polysaccharides; polynucleotides (for example, poly IC and poly AU acids); polyphosphazenes; cyanoacrylates; polymerase-(DL-lactide-co- glycoside); biodegradable microspheres; liposomes; lipid A and its derivatives; monophosphoryl lipid A; wax D from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as substances found in

Corynebacterium parvum, Bordetella pertussis, and members of the genus Brucella); bovine serum albumin; diphtheria toxoid; tetanus toxoid; edestin; keyhole-limpet hemocyanin;

Pseudomonal Toxin A; choleragenoid; cholera toxin; pertussis toxin; viral proteins; and Quil A. Aminoalkyl glucosamine phosphate compounds can also be used (see, e.g., WO 98/50399, U.S. Pat. No. 6,113,918 (which issued from U.S. Ser. No. 08/853,826), and U.S. Ser. No. 09/074,720). In addition, adjuvants such as cytokines (e.g., GM-CSF or interleukin-2, -7, or -12), interferons, or tumor necrosis factor, may also be used as adjuvants. Protein and polypeptide adjuvants may be obtained from natural or recombinant sources according to methods well known to those skilled in the art. When obtained from recombinant sources, the adjuvant may comprise a protein fragment comprising at least the immunostimulatory portion of the molecule. Other known immunostimulatory macromolecules which can be used include, but are not limited to, polysaccharides, tRNA, non-metabolizable synthetic polymers such as polyvinylamine, polymethacrylic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, mixed polycondensates (with relatively high molecular weight) of 4',4-diaminodiphenylmethane-3,3'-dicarboxylic acid and 4-nitro-2- aminobenzoic acid (See, Sela, M., Science 166: 1365-1374 (1969)) or glycolipids, lipids or carbohydrates.

[00128] The term“immunostimulant,” as used herein, means compounds that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components.

[00129] The pharmaceutical compositions and formulations may include pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The term“pharmaceutically acceptable carrier,” as used herein, means a non toxic, inert solid, semi-solid or liquid filler, diluent, encapsulating material or formulation auxiliary of any type. Some examples of materials which can serve as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are sugars such as, but not limited to, lactose, glucose and sucrose; starches such as, but not limited to, com starch and potato starch; cellulose and its derivatives such as, but not limited to, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate; powdered tragacanth; malt; gelatin; talc; excipients such as, but not limited to, cocoa butter and suppository waxes; oils such as, but not limited to, peanut oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil; glycols; such as propylene glycol; esters such as, but not limited to, ethyl oleate and ethyl laurate; agar; buffering agents such as, but not limited to, magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide; alginic acid; pyrogen-free water; isotonic saline; Ringer's solution; ethyl alcohol, and phosphate buffer solutions, as well as other non-toxic compatible lubricants such as, but not limited to, sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate, as well as coloring agents, releasing agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring and perfuming agents, preservatives and antioxidants can also be present in the composition, according to the judgment of the formulator. [00130] Thus, the compounds and their physiologically acceptable salts may be formulated for administration by, for example, solid dosing, eye drop, in a topical oil-based formulation, injection, inhalation (either through the mouth or the nose), implants, or oral, buccal, sublingual, parenteral, or rectal administration. Techniques and formulations may generally be found in “Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences,” (Meade Publishing Co., Easton, Pa.). Therapeutic compositions must typically be sterile and stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage.

[00131] The route by which the disclosed compounds are administered and the form of the composition will dictate the type of carrier to be used. The composition may be in a variety of forms, suitable, for example, for systemic administration (e.g., oral, rectal, nasal, sublingual, buccal, implants, or parenteral) or topical administration (e.g., dermal, pulmonary, nasal, aural, ocular, liposome delivery systems, or iontophoresis).

[00132] Carriers for systemic administration typically include at least one of diluents, lubricants, binders, disintegrants, colorants, flavors, sweeteners, antioxidants, preservatives, glidants, solvents, suspending agents, wetting agents, surfactants, combinations thereof, and others. All carriers are optional in the compositions.

[00133] Suitable diluents include sugars such as glucose, lactose, dextrose, and sucrose; diols such as propylene glycol; calcium carbonate; sodium carbonate; sugar alcohols, such as glycerin; mannitol; and sorbitol. The amount of diluent(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 50 to about 90%.

[00134] Suitable lubricants include silica, talc, stearic acid and its magnesium salts and calcium salts, calcium sulfate; and liquid lubricants such as polyethylene glycol and vegetable oils such as peanut oil, cottonseed oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and oil of theobroma. The amount of lubricant(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 5 to about 10%.

[00135] Suitable binders include polyvinyl pyrrolidone; magnesium aluminum silicate;

starches such as corn starch and potato starch; gelatin; tragacanth; and cellulose and its derivatives, such as sodium carboxymethylcellulose, ethyl cellulose, methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The amount of binder(s) in a systemic composition is typically about 5 to about 50%.

[00136] Suitable disintegrants include agar, alginic acid and the sodium salt thereof, effervescent mixtures, croscarmellose, crospovidone, sodium carboxymethyl starch, sodium starch glycolate, clays, and ion exchange resins. The amount of disintegrant(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 0.1 to about 10%.

[00137] Suitable colorants include a colorant such as an FD&C dye. When used, the amount of colorant in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 0.005 to about 0.1%.

[00138] Suitable flavors include menthol, peppermint, and fruit flavors. The amount of flavor(s), when used, in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 0.1 to about 1.0%.

[00139] Suitable sweeteners include aspartame and saccharin. The amount of sweetener(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 0.001 to about 1%.

[00140] Suitable antioxidants include butylated hydroxyanisole (“BHA”), butylated hydroxytoluene (“BHT”), and vitamin E. The amount of antioxidant(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 0.1 to about 5%.

[00141] Suitable preservatives include benzalkonium chloride, methyl paraben and sodium benzoate. The amount of preservative(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 0.01 to about 5%.

[00142] Suitable glidants include silicon dioxide. The amount of glidant(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 1 to about 5%.

[00143] Suitable solvents include water, isotonic saline, ethyl oleate, glycerine, hydroxylated castor oils, alcohols such as ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone,

dimethylacetamide and phosphate (or other suitable buffer). The amount of solvent(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically from about 0 to about 100%.

[00144] Suitable suspending agents include AVICEL RC-591 (from FMC Corporation of Philadelphia, PA) and sodium alginate. The amount of suspending agent(s) in a systemic or topical composition is typically about 1 to about 8%.

[00145] Suitable surfactants include lecithin, Polysorbate 80, and sodium lauryl sulfate, and the TWEENS from Atlas Powder Company of Wilmington, Delaware. Suitable surfactants include those disclosed in the C.T.F.A. Cosmetic Ingredient Handbook, 1992, pp.587-592; Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15th Ed. 1975, pp. 335-337; and McCutcheon's Volume 1, Emulsifiers & Detergents, 1994, North American Edition, pp. 236-239. The amount of surfactant(s) in the systemic or topical composition is typically about 0.1% to about 5%.

[00146] Although the amounts of components in the systemic compositions may vary depending on the type of systemic composition prepared, in general, systemic compositions include 0.01% to 50% of an active compound (e.g., a compound of formula (I)) and 50% to 99.99% of one or more carriers. Compositions for parenteral administration typically include 0.1% to 10% of actives and 90% to 99.9% of a carrier including a diluent and a solvent.

[00147] Compositions for oral administration can have various dosage forms. For example, solid forms include tablets, capsules, granules, and bulk powders. These oral dosage forms include a safe and effective amount, usually at least about 5%, and more particularly from about 25% to about 50% of actives. The oral dosage compositions include about 50% to about 95% of carriers, and more particularly, from about 50% to about 75%.

[00148] Tablets can be compressed, tablet triturates, enteric-coated, sugar-coated, film-coated, or multiple-compressed. Tablets typically include an active component, and a carrier comprising ingredients selected from diluents, lubricants, binders, disintegrants, colorants, flavors, sweeteners, glidants, and combinations thereof. Specific diluents include calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, mannitol, lactose and cellulose. Specific binders include starch, gelatin, and sucrose. Specific disintegrants include alginic acid and croscarmellose. Specific lubricants include magnesium stearate, stearic acid, and talc. Specific colorants are the FD&C dyes, which can be added for appearance. Chewable tablets preferably contain sweeteners such as aspartame and saccharin, or flavors such as menthol, peppermint, fruit flavors, or a combination thereof.

[00149] Capsules (including implants, time release and sustained release formulations) typically include an active compound (e.g., a compound of formula (I)), and a carrier including one or more diluents disclosed above in a capsule comprising gelatin. Granules typically comprise a disclosed compound, and preferably glidants such as silicon dioxide to improve flow characteristics. Implants can be of the biodegradable or the non-biodegradable type.

[00150] The selection of ingredients in the carrier for oral compositions depends on secondary considerations like taste, cost, and shelf stability, which are not critical for the purposes of this invention.

[00151] Solid compositions may be coated by conventional methods, typically with pH or time-dependent coatings, such that a disclosed compound is released in the gastrointestinal tract in the vicinity of the desired application, or at various points and times to extend the desired action. The coatings typically include one or more components selected from the group consisting of cellulose acetate phthalate, polyvinyl acetate phthalate, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate, ethyl cellulose, EUDRAGIT® coatings (available from Evonik Industries of Essen, Germany), waxes and shellac.

[00152] Compositions for oral administration can have liquid forms. For example, suitable liquid forms include aqueous solutions, emulsions, suspensions, solutions reconstituted from non-effervescent granules, suspensions reconstituted from non-effervescent granules, effervescent preparations reconstituted from effervescent granules, elixirs, tinctures, syrups, and the like. Liquid orally administered compositions typically include a disclosed compound and a carrier, namely, a carrier selected from diluents, colorants, flavors, sweeteners, preservatives, solvents, suspending agents, and surfactants. Peroral liquid compositions preferably include one or more ingredients selected from colorants, flavors, and sweeteners.

[00153] Other compositions useful for attaining systemic delivery of the subject compounds include sublingual, buccal and nasal dosage forms. Such compositions typically include one or more of soluble filler substances such as diluents including sucrose, sorbitol and mannitol; and binders such as acacia, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Such compositions may further include lubricants, colorants, flavors, sweeteners, antioxidants, and glidants.

[00154] The disclosed compounds can be topically administered. Topical compositions that can be applied locally to the skin may be in any form including solids, solutions, oils, creams, ointments, gels, lotions, shampoos, leave-on and rinse-out hair conditioners, milks, cleansers, moisturizers, sprays, skin patches, and the like. Topical compositions include: a disclosed compound (e.g., a compound of formula (I)), and a carrier. The carrier of the topical composition preferably aids penetration of the compounds into the skin. The carrier may further include one or more optional components.

[00155] The amount of the carrier employed in conjunction with a disclosed compound is sufficient to provide a practical quantity of composition for administration per unit dose of the compound. Techniques and compositions for making dosage forms useful in the methods of this invention are described in the following references: Modem Pharmaceutics, Chapters 9 and 10, Banker & Rhodes, eds. (1979); Lieberman et al ., Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets (1981); and Ansel, Introduction to Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, 2nd Ed., (1976).

[00156] A carrier may include a single ingredient or a combination of two or more ingredients. In the topical compositions, the carrier includes a topical carrier. Suitable topical carriers include one or more ingredients selected from phosphate buffered saline, isotonic water, deionized water, monofunctional alcohols, symmetrical alcohols, aloe vera gel, allantoin, glycerin, vitamin A and E oils, mineral oil, propylene glycol, PPG-2 myristyl propionate, dimethyl isosorbide, castor oil, combinations thereof, and the like. More particularly, carriers for skin applications include propylene glycol, dimethyl isosorbide, and water, and even more particularly, phosphate buffered saline, isotonic water, deionized water, monofunctional alcohols, and symmetrical alcohols.

[00157] The carrier of a topical composition may further include one or more ingredients selected from emollients, propellants, solvents, humectants, thickeners, powders, fragrances, pigments, and preservatives, all of which are optional.

[00158] Suitable emollients include stearyl alcohol, glyceryl monoricinoleate, glyceryl monostearate, propane- l,2-diol, butane- 1, 3 -diol, mink oil, cetyl alcohol, isopropyl isostearate, stearic acid, isobutyl palmitate, isocetyl stearate, oleyl alcohol, isopropyl laurate, hexyl laurate, decyl oleate, octadecan-2-ol, isocetyl alcohol, cetyl palmitate, di-n-butyl sebacate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl stearate, butyl stearate, polyethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, lanolin, sesame oil, coconut oil, arachis oil, castor oil, acetylated lanolin alcohols, petroleum, mineral oil, butyl myristate, isostearic acid, palmitic acid, isopropyl linoleate, lauryl lactate, myristyl lactate, decyl oleate, myristyl myristate, and combinations thereof. Specific emollients for skin include stearyl alcohol and polydimethylsiloxane. The amount of emollient(s) in a skin-based topical composition is typically about 5% to about 95%.

[00159] Suitable propellants include propane, butane, isobutane, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and combinations thereof. The amount of propellant(s) in a topical composition is typically about 0% to about 95%.

[00160] Suitable solvents include water, ethyl alcohol, methylene chloride, isopropanol, castor oil, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, diethylene glycol monobutyl ether, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, dimethylsulfoxide, dimethyl formamide, tetrahydrofuran, and combinations thereof. Specific solvents include ethyl alcohol and homotopic alcohols. The amount of solvent(s) in a topical composition is typically about 0% to about 95%.

[00161] Suitable humectants include glycerin, sorbitol, sodium 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylate, soluble collagen, dibutyl phthalate, gelatin, and combinations thereof. Specific humectants include glycerin. The amount of humectant(s) in a topical composition is typically 0% to 95%. [00162] The amount of thickener(s) in a topical composition is typically about 0% to about 95%.

[00163] Suitable powders include beta-cyclodextrins, hydroxypropyl cyclodextrins, chalk, talc, fullers earth, kaolin, starch, gums, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium polyacrylate, tetra alkyl ammonium smectites, trialkyl aryl ammonium smectites, chemically-modified magnesium aluminum silicate, organically-modified montmorillonite clay, hydrated aluminum silicate, fumed silica, carboxyvinyl polymer, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethylene glycol monostearate, and combinations thereof. The amount of powder(s) in a topical composition is typically 0% to 95%.

[00164] The amount of fragrance in a topical composition is typically about 0% to about 0.5%, particularly, about 0.001% to about 0.1%.

[00165] Suitable pH adjusting additives include HC1 or NaOH in amounts sufficient to adjust the pH of a topical pharmaceutical composition.

b. Adjuvant Compositions and Vaccine Compositions

[00166] The compounds may also be incorporated in to adjuvant compositions and vaccine compositions. The vaccine compositions may further include an antigen. Suitable antigens include microbial pathogens, bacteria, viruses, proteins, glycoproteins lipoproteins, peptides, glycopeptides, lipopeptides, toxoids, carbohydrates, and tumor-specific antigens. Mixtures of two or more antigens may be employed.

[00167] The adjuvant and vaccine compositions may include an“effective amount” of the disclosed compound. In the context of an adjuvant or vaccine composition, an“effective amount” refers to an amount effective, at dosages and for periods of time necessary, to achieve the desired result (e.g., to potentiate an immune response to one or more antigens). The immune response can be measured, for example, by measuring antibody titers against an antigen, assessing the ability of a vaccine containing the compound to immunize a host in response to a disease or antigen challenge, etc. For example, administering an“effective amount” of a compound or composition to a subject increases one or more antibody titers by 10% or more over a nonimmune control, by 20% or more over a nonimmune control, by 30% or more over a nonimmune control, by 40% or more over a nonimmune control, by 50% or more over a nonimmune control, by 50% or more over a nonimmune control, by 70% or more over a nonimmune control, by 80% or more over a nonimmune control, by 90% or more over a nonimmune control, or by 100% or more over a nonimmune control.

[00168] Vaccine preparation is a well-developed art and general guidance in the preparation and formulation of vaccines is readily available from any of a variety of sources. One such example is New Trends and Developments in Vaccines, edited by Voller et al ., University Park Press, Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. 1978.

[00169] The vaccine compositions of the present disclosure may also contain other compounds, which may be biologically active or inactive. For example, one or more

immunogenic portions of other tumor antigens may be present, either incorporated into a fusion polypeptide or as a separate compound, within the vaccine composition. Polypeptides may, but need not, be conjugated to other macromolecules as described, for example, within U.S. Pat.

Nos. 4,372,945 and 4,474,757. Vaccine compositions may generally be used for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes.

[00170] In one embodiment, the antigen in a vaccine composition is a peptide, polypeptide, or immunogenic portion thereof. An“immunogenic portion,” as used herein is a portion of a protein that is recognized (i.e., specifically bound) by a B cell and/or T cell surface antigen receptor.

Such immunogenic portions generally comprise at least 5 amino acid residues, more preferably at least 10, and still more preferably at least 20 amino acid residues of an antigenic protein or a variant thereof.

[00171] Immunogenic portions of antigen polypeptides may generally be identified using well known techniques, such as those summarized in Paul, Fundamental Immunology , 3rd ed., 243- 247 (Raven Press, 1993) and references cited therein. Such techniques include screening polypeptides for the ability to react with antigen-specific antibodies, antisera and/or T cell lines or clones. As used herein, antisera and antibodies are“antigen-specific” if they specifically bind to an antigen (i.e., they react with the protein in an ELISA or other immunoassay, and do not react detectably with unrelated proteins). Such antisera and antibodies may be prepared as described herein, and using well known techniques. An immunogenic portion of a protein is a portion that reacts with such antisera and/or T cells at a level that is not substantially less than the reactivity of the full length polypeptide (e.g., in an ELISA and/or T cell reactivity assay). Such immunogenic portions may react within such assays at a level that is similar to or greater than the reactivity of the full length polypeptide. Such screens may generally be performed using methods well known to those of ordinary skill in the art, such as those described in Harlow and Lane, Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1988. For example, a polypeptide may be immobilized on a solid support and contacted with patient sera to allow binding of antibodies within the sera to the immobilized polypeptide. Unbound sera may then be removed and bound antibodies detected using, for example, 125 I-labeled Protein A.

[00172] Peptide and polypeptide antigens may be prepared using any of a variety of well- known techniques. Recombinant polypeptides encoded by DNA sequences may be readily prepared from isolated DNA sequences using any of a variety of expression vectors known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Expression may be achieved in any appropriate host cell that has been transformed or transfected with an expression vector containing a DNA molecule that encodes a recombinant polypeptide. Suitable host cells include prokaryotes, yeast, and higher eukaryotic cells, such as mammalian cells and plant cells. Preferably, the host cells employed are E. coli , yeast or a mammalian cell line such as COS or CHO.

[00173] Portions and other variants of a protein antigen having less than about 100 amino acids, and generally less than about 50 amino acids, may also be generated by synthetic means, using techniques well known to those of ordinary skill in the art. For example, such polypeptides may be synthesized using any of the commercially available solid-phase techniques, such as the Merrifield solid-phase synthesis method, where amino acids are sequentially added to a growing amino acid chain. See, Merrifield, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85:2149-2146, 1963. Equipment for automated synthesis of polypeptides is commercially available from suppliers such as Perkin Elmer/ Applied BioSystems Division (Foster City, Calif.), and may be operated according to the manufacturer's instructions.

[00174] Fusion proteins may generally be prepared using standard techniques, including chemical conjugation. Preferably, a fusion protein is expressed as a recombinant protein, allowing the production of increased levels, relative to a non-fused protein, in an expression system. Briefly, DNA sequences encoding the polypeptide components may be assembled separately, and ligated into an appropriate expression vector. The 3' end of the DNA sequence encoding one polypeptide component is ligated, with or without a peptide linker, to the 5' end of a DNA sequence encoding the second polypeptide component so that the reading frames of the sequences are in phase. This permits translation into a single fusion protein that retains the biological activity of both component polypeptides. [00175] A peptide linker sequence may be employed to separate the first and second polypeptide components by a distance sufficient to ensure that each polypeptide folds into its secondary and tertiary structures. Such a peptide linker sequence is incorporated into the fusion protein using standard techniques well known in the art. Suitable peptide linker sequences may be chosen based on the following factors: (1) their ability to adopt a flexible extended

conformation; (2) their inability to adopt a secondary structure that could interact with functional epitopes on the first and second polypeptides; and (3) the lack of hydrophobic or charged residues that might react with the polypeptide functional epitopes. Preferred peptide linker sequences contain Gly, Asn and Ser residues. Other near neutral amino acids, such as Thr and Ala may also be used in the linker sequence. Amino acid sequences which may be usefully employed as linkers include those disclosed in Maratea et al ., Gene 40:39-46, 1985; Murphy et al. , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:8258-8262, 1986; U.S. Pat. No. 4,935,233 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,751,180. The linker sequence may generally be from 1 to about 50 amino acids in length.

Linker sequences are not required when the first and second polypeptides have non-essential N- terminal amino acid regions that can be used to separate the functional domains and prevent steric interference.

[00176] In another embodiment, a compound or adjuvant composition described herein may be used in the preparation of DNA-based vaccine compositions. Illustrative vaccines of this type contain DNA encoding one or more polypeptide antigens, such that the antigen is generated in situ. The DNA may be present within any of a variety of delivery systems known to those of ordinary skill in the art, including nucleic acid expression systems, bacterial and viral expression systems. Numerous gene delivery techniques are well known in the art, such as those described by Rolland, Crit. Rev. Therap. Drug Carrier Systems 15: 143-198, 1998, and references cited therein. Appropriate nucleic acid expression systems contain the necessary DNA sequences for expression in the patient (such as a suitable promoter and terminating signal). Bacterial delivery systems involve the administration of a bacterium (such as Bacillus-Calmette-Guerrin) that expresses an immunogenic portion of the polypeptide on its cell surface or secretes such an epitope. In one preferred embodiment, the DNA is introduced using a viral expression system (e.g., vaccinia or other pox virus, retrovirus, or adenovirus), which typically involves the use of a non-pathogenic (defective), replication competent virus. Illustrative systems are disclosed, for example, in Fisher-Hoch et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:317-321, 1989; Flexner et al., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 569:86-103, 1989; Flexner et al., Vaccine 8: 17-21, 1990; U.S. Pat. Nos.

4,603,112, 4,769,330, and 5,017,487; WO 89/01973; U.S. Pat. No. 4,' 777,127; GB 2,200,651; EP

O,345,242; WO 91/02805; Berkner, Biotechniques 6:616-627, 1988; Rosenfeld et al., Science 252:431-434, 1991; Rolls et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 :215-219, 1994; Kass-Eisler et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 11498-11502, 1993; Guzman et al., Circulation 88:2838-2848, 1993; and Guzman et al., Cir. Res. 73: 1202-1207, 1993. Techniques for incorporating DNA into such expression systems are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art.

[00177] Alternatively, the DNA may be“naked,” as described, for example, in Ulmer et al., Science 259: 1745-1749, 1993 and reviewed by Cohen, Science 259: 1691-1692, 1993. The uptake of naked DNA may be increased by coating the DNA onto biodegradable beads that are efficiently transported into the cells. It will be apparent that a vaccine may comprise both a polynucleotide and a polypeptide component if desired.

[00178] Moreover, it will be apparent that a vaccine may contain pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the desired polynucleotide, polypeptide and/or carbohydrate antigens. For example, such salts may be prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic bases, including organic bases (e.g., salts of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and basic amino acids) and inorganic bases (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium, ammonium, calcium and magnesium salts).

[00179] The adjuvant system may exhibit strong adjuvant effects when administered over a wide range of dosages and a wide range of ratios.

[00180] The amount of antigen in each vaccine dose is generally selected as an amount which induces an immunoprotective response without significant adverse side effects in typical vaccines. Such amount will vary depending upon which specific immunogen is employed and how it is presented. Generally, it is expected that each dose will comprise about 1-1000 pg of protein, most typically about 2-100 pg, preferably about 5-50 pg. Of course, the dosage administered may be dependent upon the age, weight, kind of concurrent treatment, if any, and nature of the antigen administered.

[00181] The immunogenic activity of a given amount of a vaccine composition can be readily determined, for example by monitoring the increase in titer of antibody against the antigen used in the vaccine composition (Dalsgaard, K. Acta Veterinia Scandinavica 69: 1-40 (1978)). Another common method involves injecting CD-l mice intradermally with various amounts of a vaccine composition, later harvesting sera from the mice and testing for anti -immunogen antibody, e.g., by ELISA. These and other similar approaches will be apparent to the skilled artisan.

[00182] The antigen can be derived and/or isolated from essentially any desired source depending on the infectious disease, autoimmune disease, condition, cancer, pathogen, or a disease that is to be treated with a given vaccine composition. By way of illustration, the antigens can be derived from viral sources, such as influenza virus, feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Human HIV-l, HIV-2, Herpes Simplex virus type 2, Human cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis A, B, C or E, Respiratory Syncytial virus, human papilloma virus rabies, measles, or hoof and mouth disease viruses. Illustrative antigens can also be derived from bacterial sources, such as anthrax, diphtheria, Lyme disease, malaria, tuberculosis,

Leishmaniasis , T. cruzi , Ehrlichia, Candida, etc., or from protozoans such as Babeosis bovis or Plasmodium. The antigen(s) will typically be comprised of natural or synthetic amino acids, e.g., in the form of peptides, polypeptides, or proteins, can be comprised of polysaccharides, or can be mixtures thereof. Illustrative antigens can be isolated from natural sources, synthesized by means of solid phase synthesis, or can be obtained by way of recombinant DNA techniques.

[00183] In another embodiment, tumor antigens may be used in the vaccine compositions for the prophylaxis and/or therapy of cancer. Tumor antigens are surface molecules that are differentially expressed in tumor cells relative to non-tumor tissues. Tumor antigens make tumor cells immunologically distinct from normal cells and provide diagnostic and therapeutic targets for human cancers. Tumor antigens have been characterized either as membrane proteins or as altered carbohydrate molecules of glycoproteins or glycolipids on the cell surface. Cancer cells often have distinctive tumor antigens on their surfaces, such as truncated epidermal growth factor, folate binding protein, epithelial mucins, melanoferrin, carcinoembryonic antigen, prostate-specific membrane antigen, HER 2 -neu, which are candidates for use in therapeutic cancer vaccines. Because tumor antigens are normal or related to normal components of the body, the immune system often fails to mount an effective immune response against those antigens to destroy the tumor cells. To achieve such a response, the adjuvant systems described herein can be utilized. As a result, exogenous proteins can enter the pathway for processing endogenous antigens, leading to the production of cytolytic or cytotoxic T cells (CTL). This adjuvant effect facilitates the production of antigen specific CTLs which seek and destroy those tumor cells carrying on their surface the tumor antigen(s) used for immunization. Illustrative cancer types for which this approach can be used include prostate, colon, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, brain, head and neck, melanoma, leukemia, lymphoma, etc.

[00184] In one embodiment, the antigen present in the vaccine composition is not a foreign antigen, but a self-antigen, i.e., the vaccine composition is directed toward an autoimmune disease. Examples of autoimmune diseases include type 1 diabetes, conventional organ specific autoimmunity, neurological disease, rheumatic diseases/connective tissue disease, autoimmune cytopenias, and related autoimmune diseases. Such conventional organ specific autoimmunity may include thyroiditis (Graves+Hashimoto's), gastritis, adrenalitis (Addison's), ovaritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, myasthenia gravis, gonadal failure, hypoparathyroidism, alopecia,

malabsorption syndrome, pernicious anemia, hepatitis, anti-receptor antibody diseases and vitiligo. Such neurological diseases may include schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, depression, hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, sicca syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Such rheumatic diseases/connective tissue diseases may include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus

erythematous (SLE) or Lupus, scleroderma, polymyositis, inflammatory bowel disease, dermatomyositis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, vasculitis, psoriatic arthritis, exfoliative psoriatic dermatitis, pemphigus vulgaris, Sjogren's syndrome. Other autoimmune related diseases may include autoimmune uvoretinitis, glomerulonephritis, post myocardial infarction cardiotomy syndrome, pulmonary hemosiderosis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, aphthous stomatitis, and other immune related diseases, as presented herein and known in the related arts.

[00185] In one embodiment, the antigen may be covalently bonded to an adjuvant such as the compound of formula I to produce a discrete molecule which may exhibit an enhanced adjuvanting effect on the antigen, which may be greater than the adjuvanting effect attainable in the absence of such covalent bonding, as in a mixture of components (i.e., the antigen and a compound of formula (I)). The covalent bonding can be achieved by reaction through functional groups; for example in the case of the compound of formula I through a carboxylic acid group, a hydroxyl group or an aldehyde functionality. A further enhanced adjuvanting effect may be attained for such covalently-bonded antigen by incorporating a mineral salt adjuvant with such compounds. The mineral salt adjuvant preferably comprises aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate, although other known mineral salt adjuvants, such as calcium phosphate, zinc hydroxide or calcium hydroxide, may be used. [00186] The adjuvant may include other polynucleotides and/or polypeptides. It will be apparent that a vaccine may contain pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the polynucleotides and polypeptides provided herein. Such salts may be prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non toxic bases, including organic bases (e.g., salts of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and basic amino acids) and inorganic bases (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium, ammonium, calcium and magnesium salts).

[00187] The vaccine compositions may be formulated for any appropriate manner of administration, and thus administered, including for example, topical, oral, nasal, intravenous, intravaginal, epicutaneous, sublingual, intracranial, intradermal, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intramuscular administration, or via inhalation. For parenteral administration, such as

subcutaneous injection, the carrier preferably comprises water, saline, alcohol, a fat, a wax or a buffer. For oral administration, any of the above carriers or a solid carrier, such as mannitol, lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharine, talcum, cellulose, glucose, sucrose, and magnesium carbonate, may be employed.

[00188] In one illustrative embodiment, the vaccine formulations are administered to the mucosae, in particular to the oral cavity, and preferably to a sublingual site, for eliciting an immune response. Oral cavity administration may be preferred in many instances over traditional parenteral delivery due to the ease and convenience offered by noninvasive administration techniques. Moreover, this approach further provides a means for eliciting mucosal immunity, which can often be difficult to achieve with traditional parenteral delivery, and which can provide protection from airborne pathogens and/or allergens. An additional advantage of oral cavity administration is that patient compliance may be improved with sublingual vaccine delivery, especially for pediatric applications, or for applications traditionally requiring numerous injections over a prolonged period of time, such as with allergy desensitization therapies.

[00189] The vaccine compositions may also comprise buffers (e.g., neutral buffered saline or phosphate buffered saline), carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, mannose, sucrose or dextrans), mannitol, proteins, polypeptides or amino acids such as glycine, antioxidants, bacteriostats, chelating agents such as EDTA or glutathione, adjuvants (e.g., aluminum hydroxide), solutes that render the formulation isotonic, hypotonic or weakly hypertonic with the blood of a recipient, suspending agents, thickening agents and/or preservatives. Alternatively, vaccine compositions may be formulated as a lyophilisate. Compounds may also be encapsulated within liposomes using well known technology.

[00190] The vaccine compositions may also comprise other adjuvants or immunoeffectors. Suitable adjuvants are commercially available as, for example, Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant and Complete Adjuvant (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.); Merck Adjuvant 65 (Merck and Company, Inc., Rahway, N.J.); AS-2 (SmithKline Beecham); mineral salts (for example, aluminum, silica, kaolin, and carbon); aluminum salts such as aluminum hydroxide gel (alum), AlK(S0 4 ) 2 , AlNa(S0 4 ) 2 , AlNH 4 (S0 4 ), and Al(OH) 3 ; salts of calcium (e.g, Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 ), iron or zinc; an insoluble suspension of acylated tyrosine; acylated sugars; cationically or anionically derivatized polysaccharides; polynucleotides (for example, poly IC and poly AU acids);

polyphosphazenes; cyanoacrylates; polymerase-(DL-lactide-co-glycoside); biodegradable microspheres; liposomes; lipid A and its derivatives; monophosphoryl lipid A; wax D from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as substances found in Corynebacterium parvum, Bordetella pertussis, and members of the genus Brucella); bovine serum albumin; diphtheria toxoid; tetanus toxoid; edestin; keyhole-limpet hemocyanin; Pseudomonal Toxin A;

choleragenoid; cholera toxin; pertussis toxin; viral proteins; and Quil A. Aminoalkyl glucosamine phosphate compounds can also be used (see, e.g., WO 98/50399, U.S. Pat. No. 6,113,918 (which issued from U.S. Ser. No. 08/853,826), and U.S. Ser. No. 09/074,720). In addition, adjuvants such as cytokines (e.g., GM-CSF or interleukin-2, -7, or -12), interferons, or tumor necrosis factor, may also be used as adjuvants. Protein and polypeptide adjuvants may be obtained from natural or recombinant sources according to methods well known to those skilled in the art. When obtained from recombinant sources, the adjuvant may comprise a protein fragment comprising at least the immunostimulatory portion of the molecule. Other known immunostimulatory macromolecules which can be used include, but are not limited to, polysaccharides, tRNA, non-metabolizable synthetic polymers such as polyvinylamine, polymethacrylic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, mixed polycondensates (with relatively high molecular weight) of 4',4-diaminodiphenylmethane-3,3'-dicarboxylic acid and 4-nitro-2- aminobenzoic acid (See, Sela, M., Science 166: 1365-1374 (1969)) or glycolipids, lipids or carbohydrates.

[00191] Within the vaccine compositions provided herein, the adjuvant composition is preferably designed to induce an immune response predominantly of the Thl7 type. High levels of Thl7-type cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-lp, IL-23, and TNFa) may favor the induction of cell mediated immune responses to an administered antigen. Following administration of a vaccine as provided herein, a patient may support an immune response that includes Thl7-type responses.

In some embodiments, in which a response is predominantly Thl7-type, the level of Thl7-type cytokines will increase to a greater extent than the level other cytokines. The levels of these cytokines may be readily assessed using standard assays. For a review of the families of cytokines, see, Mosmann and Coffman, Ann. Rev. Immunol. 1989, 7: 145-173.

[00192] The compositions described herein may be administered as part of a sustained release formulation (i.e., a formulation such as a capsule, sponge or gel (composed of polysaccharides, for example) that effects a slow release of compound following administration). Such

formulations may generally be prepared using well known technology (see, e.g., Coombes et al ., Vaccine 14: 1429-1438, 1996) and administered by, for example, oral, rectal or subcutaneous implantation, or by implantation at the desired target site. Sustained-release formulations may contain a polypeptide, polynucleotide or antibody dispersed in a carrier matrix and/or contained within a reservoir surrounded by a rate controlling membrane. Carriers for use within such formulations are biocompatible, and may also be biodegradable; preferably the formulation provides a relatively constant level of active component release. Such carriers include microparticles of poly(lactide-co-glycolide), polyacrylate, latex, starch, cellulose, dextran and the like. Other delayed-release carriers include supramolecular biovectors, which comprise a non liquid hydrophilic core (e.g., a cross-linked polysaccharide or oligosaccharide) and, optionally, an external layer comprising an amphiphilic compound, such as a phospholipid (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,151,254 and PCT applications WO 94/20078, WO/94/23701 and WO 96/06638). The amount of active compound contained within a sustained release formulation will vary depending upon the site of implantation, the rate and expected duration of release and the nature of the condition to be treated or prevented.

[00193] Any of a variety of known delivery vehicles may be employed within pharmaceutical compositions and vaccines to facilitate production of an antigen-specific immune response that targets cells. Delivery vehicles include antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells, monocytes and other cells that may be engineered to be efficient APCs. Such cells may, but need not, be genetically modified to increase the capacity for presenting the antigen, to improve activation and/or maintenance of the T cell response, to have anti-target effects per se and/or to be immunologically compatible with the receiver (i.e., matched HLA haplotype). APCs may generally be isolated from any of a variety of biological fluids and organs, including tumor and peritumoral tissues, and may be autologous, allogeneic, syngeneic or xenogeneic cells.

[00194] Certain embodiments may use dendritic cells or progenitors thereof as antigen- presenting cells. Dendritic cells are highly potent APCs (Banchereau and Steinman, Nature 392:245-251, 1998) and have been shown to be effective as a physiological adjuvant for eliciting prophylactic or therapeutic antitumor immunity (see, Timmerman and Levy, Ann. Rev. Med. 50:507-529, 1999). In general, dendritic cells may be identified based on their typical shape (stellate in situ , with marked cytoplasmic processes (dendrites) visible in vitro ), their ability to take up, process and present antigens with high efficiency and their ability to activate naive T cell responses. Dendritic cells may, of course, be engineered to express specific cell-surface receptors or ligands that are not commonly found on dendritic cells in vivo or ex vivo , and such modified dendritic cells are contemplated. As an alternative to dendritic cells, secreted vesicles antigen-loaded dendritic cells (called exosomes) may be used within a vaccine (see, Zitvogel et al., Nature Med. 4:594-600, 1998).

[00195] Dendritic cells and progenitors may be obtained from peripheral blood, bone marrow, tumor-infiltrating cells, peritumoral tissues-infiltrating cells, lymph nodes, spleen, skin, umbilical cord blood or any other suitable tissue or fluid. For example, dendritic cells may be differentiated ex vivo by adding a combination of cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-13 and/or TNFa to cultures of monocytes harvested from peripheral blood. Alternatively, CD34 positive cells harvested from peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood or bone marrow may be differentiated into dendritic cells by adding to the culture medium combinations of GM-CSF, IL-3, TNFa, CD40 ligand, LPS, flt3 ligand and/or other compound(s) that induce differentiation, maturation and proliferation of dendritic cells.

[00196] Dendritic cells are conveniently categorized as“immature” and“mature” cells, which allows a simple way to discriminate between two well characterized phenotypes. However, this nomenclature should not be construed to exclude all possible intermediate stages of

differentiation. Immature dendritic cells are characterized as APC with a high capacity for antigen uptake and processing, which correlates with the high expression of Fey receptor and mannose receptor. The mature phenotype is typically characterized by a lower expression of these markers, but a high expression of cell surface molecules responsible for T cell activation such as class I and class II MHC, adhesion molecules (e.g., CD54 and CD11) and costimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40, CD80, CD86 and 4-1BB).

[00197] APCs may generally be transfected with a polynucleotide encoding an antigen polypeptide (or portion or other variant thereof) such that the antigen polypeptide, or an immunogenic portion thereof, is expressed on the cell surface. Such transfection may take place ex vivo, and a composition or vaccine comprising such transfected cells, and the adjuvants described herein, may then be used for therapeutic purposes. Alternatively, a gene delivery vehicle that targets a dendritic or other antigen presenting cell may be administered to a patient, resulting in transfection that occurs in vivo. In vivo and ex vivo transfection of dendritic cells, for example, may generally be performed using any methods known in the art, such as those described in WO 97/24447, or the gene gun approach described by Mahvi et al., Immunology and Cell Biology 75:456-460, 1997. Antigen loading of dendritic cells may be achieved by incubating dendritic cells or progenitor cells with the antigen polypeptide, DNA (naked or within a plasmid vector) or RNA; or with antigen-expressing recombinant bacterium or viruses (e.g., vaccinia, fowlpox, adenovirus or lentivirus vectors). Prior to loading, the polypeptide may be covalently conjugated to an immunological partner that provides T cell help (e.g., a carrier molecule). Alternatively, a dendritic cell may be pulsed with a non-conjugated immunological partner, separately or in the presence of the polypeptide.

[00198] In one embodiment, the vaccine composition may comprise a liposome vesicle comprising the compound of formula I. Liposomes are generally produced from phospholipids or other lipid substances. Procedures for the preparation of liposomes are well known to those of skill in the art. Any lipid capable of forming vesicles that comprises the compound of formula I can be employed. For clinical application, it is desirable that the lipid be non-toxic,

physiologically acceptable, and metabolizable. Common bilayer forming lipids having clinical potential are phospholipids, fatty acids, sphingolipids, glycosphingolipids, and steroids. Glycerol containing phospholipids are the most commonly used component of liposome formulations having clinical utility. One commonly used example is phosphatidylcholine or lecithin. The steroid cholesterol and its derivatives are often included as components of liposomal membranes. The tendency of liposomes to aggregate and fuse can be controlled by the inclusion of small amounts of acidic or basic lipids in the formulation. The properties of liposomes containing phospholipids are determined by the chemistry of the phospholipid. Important considerations are the hydrocarbon chain length, degree of unsaturation of the hydrocarbon chain, degree of branching of the hydrocarbon chain, and temperature of the system.

[00199] Multilamellar liposomes can be created by depositing a mixture of lipids as a thin film by evaporation under reduced pressure followed by dispersion with an excess volume of aqueous buffer containing the antigen with or without organic solvents. Another method is to mix the aqueous phase containing the antigen with small unilamellar liposomes followed by lyophilization. The multilamellar liposomes are formed when the lyophilized product is rehydrated, usually with a small amount of distilled water. The small unilamellar liposomes to be used in this process are produced by dispersing the lipids in an aqueous medium followed by a mechanical means of dispersion such as sonication, use of a high pressure device, or a solvent injection method. Large and intermediate sized unilamellar liposomes can also be produced by conventional techniques including detergent dialysis, extrusion through small pore size membranes under high pressure, freeze thawing followed by slow swelling, dehydration followed by rehydration and dilution, or dialysis of lipids in the presence of chaotropic ions. The size of the liposomes can be made more uniform by fractionation procedures such as

centrifugation or size exclusion chromatography, homogenization, or capillary pore membrane extrusion.

4. Methods of Use

[00200] The disclosed compounds and compositions may be used in various methods, including methods for modulating an immune response in a subject, methods of inducing or enhancing immunogenicity of an antigen in a subject, and related methods. The disclosed compounds and compositions may also be used in methods of treating cancer and related methods. The disclosed compounds and compositions may also be used in methods of treatment and prevention of an autoimmune disorder or an infectious disease

a. Modulating Immune Response

[00201] The disclosed compounds and compositions may be used in methods of modulating the immune response in a subject, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound described herein, an adjuvant composition described herein, or an

immunomodulatory composition described herein. [00202] In some embodiments, disclosed compounds and compositions may be used in a method of inducing an enhanced immune response in a subject. In some embodiments, the enhanced immune response is an immune response of a Thl7-type or a Thl7/Thl-tpe. In some embodiments, administration of the compound or composition may induce a Thl7-type immune response and not a Thl-type or Th2-type immune response.

[00203] The enhanced immune response may be induced by co-administering the compound or composition with an antigen. Suitable antigens include microbial pathogens, bacteria, viruses, proteins, glycoproteins lipoproteins, peptides, glycopeptides, lipopeptides, toxoids,

carbohydrates, and tumor-specific antigens. Mixtures of two or more antigens may be employed.

[00204] In some embodiments, the disclosed compounds and compositions may be administered as a monotherapy. In other embodiments, the disclosed compositions may futher contain at least one additional adjuvant or immunostimulant.

b. Inducing or Enhancing Immunogenicity of an Antigen

[00205] The disclosed compounds and compositions may be used in methods of inducing or enhancing immunogenicity of an antigen in a subject, comprising administering to the subject a vaccine composition comprising the antigen and an adjuvant composition comprising an effective amount of a compound or composition described herein.

[00206] Suitable antigens include microbial pathogens, bacteria, viruses, proteins,

glycoproteins lipoproteins, peptides, glycopeptides, lipopeptides, toxoids, carbohydrates, and tumor-specific antigens. Mixtures of two or more antigens may be employed.

c. Treatment of Cancer and Related Methods

[00207] The disclosed compounds and compositions may be used in methods of treating cancer, or in methods of reducing or inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells, the methods comprising administering to a subject in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or a composition described herein.

[00208] The methods can be used with any cancer cell or in a subject having any type of cancer, for example those described by the National Cancer Institute. Exemplary cancers may include the following:

[00209] digestive/gastrointestinal cancers such as anal cancer; bile duct cancer; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; appendix cancer; carcinoid tumor, gastrointestinal cancer; colon cancer;

colorectal cancer including childhood colorectal cancer; esophageal cancer including childhood esophageal cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric (stomach) cancer including childhood gastric (stomach) cancer; hepatocellular (liver) cancer including adult (primary) hepatocellular (liver) cancer and childhood (primary) hepatocellular (liver) cancer; pancreatic cancer including childhood pancreatic cancer; sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma; islet cell pancreatic cancer; rectal cancer; and small intestine cancer;

[00210] endocrine cancers such as islet cell carcinoma (endocrine pancreas); adrenocortical carcinoma including childhood adrenocortical carcinoma; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor; parathyroid cancer; pheochromocytoma; pituitary tumor; thyroid cancer including childhood thyroid cancer; childhood multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome; and childhood carcinoid tumor;

[00211] eye cancers such as intraocular melanoma; and retinoblastoma;

[00212] musculoskeletal cancers such as Ewing's family of tumors; osteosarcoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone; childhood rhabdomyosarcoma; soft tissue sarcoma including adult and childhood soft tissue sarcoma; clear cell sarcoma of tendon sheaths; and uterine sarcoma;

[00213] breast cancer such as breast cancer including childhood and male breast cancer and breast cancer in pregnancy;

[00214] neurologic cancers such as childhood brain stem glioma; brain tumor; childhood cerebellar astrocytoma; childhood cerebral astrocytoma/malignant glioma; childhood ependymoma; childhood medulloblastoma; childhood pineal and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors; childhood visual pathway and hypothalamic glioma; other childhood brain cancers; adrenocortical carcinoma; central nervous system lymphoma, primary; childhood cerebellar astrocytoma; neuroblastoma; craniopharyngioma; spinal cord tumors; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; central nervous system embryonal tumors; and childhood supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pituitary tumor;

[00215] genitourinary cancers such as bladder cancer including childhood bladder cancer; renal cell (kidney) cancer; ovarian cancer including childhood ovarian cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian low malignant potential tumor; penile cancer; prostate cancer; renal cell cancer including childhood renal cell cancer; renal pelvis and ureter, transitional cell cancer; testicular cancer; urethral cancer; vaginal cancer; vulvar cancer; cervical cancer; Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors; endometrial cancer; and gestational trophoblastic tumor; Germ cell cancers such as childhood extracranial germ cell tumor; extragonadal germ cell tumor; ovarian germ cell tumor;

[00216] head and neck cancers such as lip and oral cavity cancer; oral cancer including childhood oral cancer; hypopharyngeal cancer; laryngeal cancer including childhood laryngeal cancer; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; mouth cancer; nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer including childhood nasopharyngeal cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; parathyroid cancer; pharyngeal cancer; salivary gland cancer including childhood salivary gland cancer; throat cancer; and thyroid cancer;

[00217] hematologic/blood cell cancers such as a leukemia (e.g., acute lymphoblastic leukemia including adult and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloid leukemia including adult and childhood acute myeloid leukemia; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; and hairy cell leukemia); a lymphoma (e.g., AIDS-related lymphoma; cutaneous T cell lymphoma; Hodgkin's lymphoma including adult and childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma during pregnancy; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma including adult and childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma during pregnancy; mycosis fungoides; Sezary syndrome; Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia; and primary central nervous system lymphoma); and other hematologic cancers (e.g., chronic myeloproliferative disorders; multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm; myelodysplastic syndromes; and

my el ody spl asti c/ my el oproliferati ve di sorder s) ;

[00218] lung cancer such as non-small cell lung cancer; and small cell lung cancer;

[00219] respiratory cancers such as adult malignant mesothelioma; childhood malignant mesothelioma; malignant thymoma; childhood thymoma; thymic carcinoma; bronchial adenomas/carcinoids including childhood bronchial adenomas/carcinoids; pleuropulmonary blastoma; non-small cell lung cancer; and small cell lung cancer;

[00220] skin cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; melanoma; and childhood skin cancer;

[00221] AIDS-related malignancies;

[00222] other childhood cancers, unusual cancers of childhood and cancers of unknown primary site; and

[00223] metastases of the aforementioned cancers. 5. Kits

[00224] In one aspect, the disclosure provides kits comprising at least one disclosed compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a composition comprising the compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and one or more of:

(a) at least one antigen; and

(b) instructions for administering the compound or composition.

[00225] In some embodiments, the at least one disclosed compound and the at least one antigen are co-formulated. In some embodiments, the at least one disclosed compound and the at least one antigen are co-packaged. The kits can also comprise compounds and/or products co- packaged, co-formulated, and/or co-delivered with other components. For example, a drug manufacturer, a drug reseller, a physician, a compounding shop, or a pharmacist can provide a kit comprising a disclosed compound and/or product and another component for delivery to a patient.

[00226] The disclosed kits can be employed in connection with disclosed methods of use.

[00227] The kits may further include information, instructions, or both that use of the kit will provide increased immunity against certain pathogens in mammals (particularly humans). The information and instructions may be in the form of words, pictures, or both, and the like. In addition or in the alternative, the kit may include the compound, a composition, or both; and information, instructions, or both, regarding methods of administration of compound, or of the composition, preferably with the benefit of treating or preventing medical conditions in mammals (e.g., humans).

[00228] The compounds and processes of the disclosure may be better understood by reference to the following examples, which are intended as an illustration of and not a limitation upon the scope of the disclosure.

6. Examples

[00229] Abbreviations used in the Schemes and descriptions that follow include the following: AcOH is acetic acid; PTC is phase transfer catalyst; and RBr is bromoalkane.

Example 1. Exemplary Synthesis for Compounds 7 and 8 1. acetone, H

[00230] Compound 1 was suspended in acetone (300 ml, 0.5M) and treated with

camphorsulphonic acid (19.3 g, 0.083 mol). The reaction was stirred for 3 days and quenched with saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. Chromatography on silica gel using a heptane ethyl acetate gradient afforded 7.03 g of (2,2,5-trimethyl-l,3-dioxan-5-yl)-methanol (7.03 g, 0.044mol). This material was dissolved in toluene (100 ml, 0.4M) and treated with propargyl bromide (7.8 ml, 0.088 mol), tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (2.44g, 0.0088 mol) and potassium hydroxide (25 g, 0.44 mol). The reaction was stirred >15h at which time it was diluted with ethyl acetate and filtered. The organic filtrate was washed successively with 1N hydrochloric acid, saturated sodium

bicarbonate, and saturated aqueous sodium chloride. The organic solution was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Chromatography on silica gel using a heptane, ethyl acetate gradient afforded 6.29 g of 2,2,5-trimethyl-5-((prop-2-yn-l- yloxy)methyl)-l,3-dioxane that was treated with acetic acid (90% aq, 50 ml) and stirred for lh at 50 °C. The acetic acid was azeotroped with toluene to afford 4.307g (17%) of 2-methyl-2-((prop- 2-yn- 1 -xyloxy)methyl)propane- 1 ,3 -diol. [00231] Compound 2 (n=8) was prepared with a combination of 2-methyl-2-((prop-2-yn-l- yloxy)methyl)propane-l,3-diol (500 mg, 0.003 mol) and alkyl bromide (0.0126 mol) in THF (30 ml, 0.1 M). Potassium hydroxide (0.03 mol) and tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (0.0006 mol) were added and the reaction was stirred for several days. Chromatography on silica gel using a heptane, ethyl acetate gradient afforded l.064g (82%) of 1 -(2 -methyl-3 -(nonyloxy)-2-((prop-2- yn- 1 -yloxy)methyl)propoxy)nonane.

[00232] Alkyl alcohol (2.5 equivalents) was added to a flask containing water, tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (0.2 equivalents) and potassium hydroxide (3 equivalents) followed by dropwise addition of epichlorohydrin. The reaction was heated to 65 °C for approximately 15 hr. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and poured into 3 Normal hydrochloric acid, extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, concentrated and purified by flash chromatography.

[00233] Synthesis of compound 8 started with a solution of Compound 7 (0.2 mmol), as prepared according to Jiang, Y. L.; Li, S. X.; Liu, Y. J.; Ge, L. P.; Han, X. Z.; Liu, Z. P., Chem Biol Drug Des 2015, 86 ( 5), 1017-29, and l-(2-methyl-3-(nonyloxy)-2-((prop-2-yn-l- yloxy)methyl)propoxy)nonane (0.47 mmol) in dimethylformamide (0.04 M was treated with copper iodide (Cul, 0.1 mmol). The reaction was heated to 65 °C until determined complete by thin layer chromatography. The products were isolated by chromatography on silica gel using a heptane, ethyl acetate gradient. The intermediate was subsequently dissolved in methanol (0.01 M) and treated with sodium methoxide (0.3 mmol, 1 M solution in methanol). The reaction was stirred and monitored by thin layer chromatography. Upon complete conversion the reaction was neutralized with dilute hydrochloric acid (1 M) and extracted with chloroform. The organic extract was concentrated and the product was isolated by chromatography on silica gel using a chloroform, methanol gradient, providing the desired compound 8 (n=8). The mono-substituted products of compound 9, were produced in an analogous manner.

Example 2. Exemplary Synthesis for Compounds 10 and 11

[00234] Compound 5 was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran with propargyl bromide (2.5x) and treated with potassium hydroxide (lOx) and tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (0.2x). The reaction was stirred and monitored by thin layer chromatography. Upon completion the reaction was poured into a separatory funnel, diluted with ethyl acetate, washed with 1N HC1, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated and compound 6 was purified by flash chromatography.

[00235] Compounds 10 and 11 were then prepared using compound 7 in an analogous manner as described in Example 1 for compounds 8 and 9.

Example 3. Biological Activity

A. Cytokine response of hPBMCs and mRaw cells stimulated with TDE derivatives

[00236] IL-6 and TNFa responses were measured in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or murine Raw (mRaw) cells after exposure to various

concentrations of the TDE derivatives synthesized as shown above. Initial studies focused on two different methods of delivery of the TDE derivatives to cultures. In the first delivery method, the indicated derivative compound was dissolved in 100% ethanol, serially diluted, and then dried to the bottom of a tissue culture plate (FIG. 1 A-1B, left“plate-coated compounds” panels). In the second method, TDE derivatives were dissolved in DMSO and serially diluted into tissue culture media (FIG. 1 A-1B, right“DMSO compounds” panels). Primary human PBMCs with 5% autologous plasma (FIG. 1 A) or murine Raw cells in complete media (FIG. 1B) were added to the plates and cultured with the compounds for 24 hours. Supernatants were analyzed for the presence of IL-6 or TNFa cytokine production.

[00237] Compound UM-1032 was very potent at IL-6/TNFa production in both formulations and species. Two other compounds, UM-1036 and UM-1035, demonstrated good universal activity. Generally, very similar activities were seen between species with the plate-coated delivery method. However, two compounds did not follow this trend, UM-1037 was more potent in mice and UM-1026 was selectively active in humans.

[00238] Good agreement in activities was seen in the human response to either delivery method, plate-coated or DMSO formulations (FIG. 1 A). UM-1037 was an outlier and was much more active in DMSO formulations. Conversely, UM-1033 was very active when plate-coated but was inactive in DMSO formulations. Greater variance in compound activity associated with either delivery method was found with the responses in murine Raw cells (FIG. 1B) where plate- coated compounds were much more potent than the DMSO formulated counterparts Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) and IL-6 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured after exposure to various concentrations of the trehalose compounds synthesized as shown above. Initial studies focused on two different methods of delivery of the trehalose compounds to PBMC cultures. In the first delivery method, the indicated derivative compound was dissolved in isopropanol, serially diluted, and then dried to the bottom of a tissue culture plate. In the second delivery method, the indicated derivative compound was dissolved in DMSO and serially diluted into tissue culture media. In each method, PBMCs were added to the compounds and incubated at 37°C. TNFa (FIG. 1A) and IL-6 (FIG. 1B) were measured after 18- 24 hours after treatment by ELISA assay.

[00239] In FIG. 1D, the asymmetric molecules 1127, 1128, 1129, 1130 in aqueous formulations induced higher mTNF cytokine induction than the symmetric molecules with the advantage of having lower hydrophobicity, better solubility, and better packing parameters which allow them to be formulated in a pharmaceutically acceptable way. The lower retention time of 1127 in comparison with 1072 as shown by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) using a Cl 8 column and a gradient elution mode indicates the lower hydrophobicity and the higher polarity and aqueous solubility for the asymmetric molecule, 1127 (Table 1). Table 1: RP-HPLC analysis data for 1127 and 1072 using a Symmetry Cl 8 column and a gradient method.

[00240] For reasons of completeness, various aspects of the invention are set out in the following numbered clauses:

[00241] Clause 1. A compound of formula (I),

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

R 1 is selected from azido, alkynyl, and a five-membered heteroaryl ring having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, wherein the heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted with one substituent R 3 ;

R 2 is selected from azido, alkynyl, and a five-membered heteroaryl ring having 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, wherein the heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted with one substituent R 4 ;

wherein at least one of R 1 and R 2 is heteroaryl;

R 3 and R 4 are each independently selected from Ar, alkyl, heteroalkyl, alkenyl, and heteroalkenyl;

Ar is selected from an aryl or heteroaryl unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, alkoxy, alkyl, and heteroalkyl; and

each alkyl or heteroalkyl is independently unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, amino, oxo, thioxo, halo, and haloalkyl.

[00242] Clause 2. The compound of clause 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 1 and R 2 are each independently selected from triazolyl, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, and thiazolyl.

[00243] Clause 3. The compound of clause 1 or clause 2, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 1 is selected from:

[00244] Clause 4. The compound of any one of clauses 1-3, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 2 is selected from:

[00245] Clause 5. The compound of clause 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

R 1 is azido; and

R 2 is:

[00246] Clause 6. The compound of any one of clauses 1-5, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 3 and R 4 are independently selected from a group of formula (i):

wherein:

p is selected from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12;

q is selected from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12;

X is selected from O, S, NH, and a bond;

Y is selected from H and CH 3 ;

R a is -(CH 2 ) I .Z ' -(CH 2 ) V I -R c ;

R b is -(CH 2 ) x2- Z 2 -(CH 2 ) y2 -R d ;

or R a and R b are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring;

xl, x2, yl, and y2 are each independently 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12;

Z 1 and Z 2 are each independently selected from O, S, NH, C=0, C=S, and a bond; and R c and R d are each independently selected from -H, -CH 3 , -OH, and -NH 2. [00247] Clause 7. The compound of any one of clauses 1-6, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 3 and R 4 are independently selected from a group of formula (ii):

xl is 1;

z s O;

yl is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8;

R c is -CH 3 ;

x2 is 1;

Z 2 is O;

y2 is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8; and

R d is selected from -H, -OH and -CH 3 ;

or wherein R a and R b are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, and wherein the ring is unsubstituted or substituted with 1 or 2 methyl groups.

[00248] Clause 8. The compound of clause 7, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein yl is 4 and y2 is 4.

[00249] Clause 9. The compound of any one of clauses 1-6, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 3 and R 4 are independently selected from a group of formula (iii):

xl is 1;

z s O;

yl is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10;

R c is selected from -H and -CH 3 ;

x2 is 1;

Z 2 is O;

y2 is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10; and

R d is selected from -H, -OH, and -CH 3 ;

or wherein R a and R b are taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form a 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, and wherein the ring is unsubstituted or substituted with 1 or 2 methyl groups.

[00250] Clause 10. The compound of clauses 1-5, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 3 and R 4 are independently selected from aryl or heteroaryl unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from hydroxy, alkoxy, alkyl, and heteroalkyl.

[00251] Clause 11. The compound of clause 10, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 3 and R 4 are each phenyl substituted with one or more alkoxy substituents.

[00252] Clause 12. The compound of any of clauses 1-11, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 1 andR 2 orR 3 andR 4 are independently selected such that an asymmetric molecule is formed and wherein the asymmetric molecule has enhanced physiochemical properties and/or packing parameters for optimized formulatability, pharmacokinetics and supramolecular structure-dependent immune modulation when compared to a symmetric molecule.

[00253] Clause 13. The compound of clause 1, selected from the group consisting of:

[00254] Clause 14. An adjuvant composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of any one of clauses 1-13, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[00255] Clause 15. A method for inducing an enhanced immune response in a subject, comprising administering to said subject an immunogenic composition comprising the adjuvant composition of clause 14.

[00256] Clause 16. A vaccine composition comprising: (a) an antigen; and (b) an adjuvant composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of any one of clauses 1-13, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[00257] Clause 17. A method for inducing or enhancing immunogenicity of an antigen in a subject, comprising administering to the subject a vaccine composition comprising the antigen and an adjuvant composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of any one of clauses 1-13, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[00258] Clause 18. An immunomodulatory composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of any one of clauses 1-13, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[00259] Clause 19. The immunomodulatory composition of clause 18, further comprising at least one additional adjuvant or immunostimulant.

[00260] Clause 20. A method of modulating an immune response in a subject, comprising administering to the subject the immunomodulatory composition of clause 18 or clausel9.

[00261] Clause 21. The method of clause 20, wherein the immunomodulatory composition is administered as a monotherapy.

[00262] Clause 22. The method of clause 20 or clause 21, wherein the immune response in the subject is increased.

[00263] Clause 23. The method of any one of clauses 20-22, wherein the subject is suffering from cancer, an autoimmune disorder, or an infectious disease.