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Title:
IMPROVED CITY SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/197226
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An ecological city system is provided including a core structure and a set of circularly arranged structures having various functions surrounding the core. A plurality of radially arranged transportation structures provide transportation between the circularly arranged structures and the core structure. The ecological city system sustains inhabitant life via a closed loop system for maximizing ecological sustainability, ecological harmony, inhabitant safety, and economic performance and efficiency.

Inventors:
DANIELS, Robert Leonard (750 N.E. 61st Street, Suite 201Miami, Florida, 33137, US)
Application Number:
US2017/032343
Publication Date:
November 16, 2017
Filing Date:
May 12, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
DANIELS, Robert Leonard (750 N.E. 61st Street, Suite 201Miami, Florida, 33137, US)
International Classes:
E01C1/00
Foreign References:
US4679363A1987-07-14
RU2496937C12013-10-27
CN103106630A2013-05-15
CN104099840A2014-10-15
CN103306509A2013-09-18
Other References:
ANONYMOUS: "Tunnel", WIKIPEDIA, THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA, 30 January 2016 (2016-01-30), XP055439513, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170908]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
RIZVI, John (11575 Heron Bay Blvd, Suite 106Coral, Florida, 33076, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. An ecological, sustainable, and high performance city system, the system comprising: at least one micro-city ring surrounding a central core building arrangement, the ring including a plurality of micro-cities; at least one radial transportation corridor radially configured for providing transportation between at least one micro-city of the micro-city ring and the central core building arrangement; and at least one non-radial transportation corridor configured for providing transportation between at least one micro-city of the micro-city ring and another micro-city of the micro- city ring.

2. The city system of claim 1, where at least one of the transportation corridors is configured for two-way transportation.

3. The city system of claim 1, where the micro-city ring is concentrically arranged to surround the central core building arrangement such that the micro-city ring is radially separated from the central core building arrangement.

4. The city system of claim 1, where the system further comprises at least one factory ring and at least one farm ring.

5. The city system of claim 1, where the system further comprises at least one factory ring and at least one farm ring, where the factory ring includes at least a freight loading area and a train system for transporting freight through the factory ring, where the farm ring includes at least multiple levels and is configured to collect rainwater, grow plants, process and package food, receive and anaerobically digest organic waste, extract methane from the organic waste, aerobically digest the waste via applying enzymes, dry and grind the waste, sanitize the waste via applying heat and ultraviolet light to the waste to form dry matter, and at least one of provide the dry matter as feed for animal production and disperse the dry matter on landscape as mulch; and where the radial transportation corridor is configured to move waste to the farm ring.

6. The city system of claim 1, where the system further comprises at least one specialty building ring, the specialty building ring including at least one of a government building, graduate university, undergraduate university, senior care center, recreation structure, shopping galleria, hotel, performing arts center, and museum.

7. The city system of claim 1, where the central core building arrangement includes residence and office buildings.

8. The city system of claim 1, where at least one of the transportation corridors includes a roadway layer configured to allow transportation via autonomous vehicles, a mass transit layer, a pedestrian and human powered vehicle layer, a crawl space for allowing wildlife to laterally pass through the at least one transportation corridor, an underground pedestrian tunnel, and a subway.

9. An ecological, sustainable, and high performance city system, the system being configured to improve economic efficiency and performance, comprising: a plurality of concentric micro-city rings arranged for concentrated human living and surrounding a central core building arrangement, each ring including a plurality of micro- cities; wherein the concentric micro-city rings are configured to: allow transportation of goods and people at high speeds without cross-traffic inteiTuptions of single level intersections; allow increased traffic flow while maintaining a same relative velocity by reducing intermodal space of low speed traffic, the low speed traffic being pedestrian traffic or human powered vehicle traffic; allow transporting small containers of goods intra and intercity autonomously in a particular autonomous transportation level; allow human powered movement within each micro-city and between micro-cities due to short distances and time durations between j ourneys; allow a higher volume and activity of vertical people movement relative to horizontal people movement; allow over half of all transport activities which are short distance for school, food and/or entertainment without leaving a micro-city, while longer inter-city to work are executed via rapid transit and autonomous vehicles in shortened time durations; and allow a higher density of human occupancy that creates more human interaction allowing for more business and social contact frequency; wherein the system includes a building arrangement, the building arrangement having building elements, where the building elements have a modular configuration allowing for system interchangeabiiity, and the building elements have: a varying height, shape volume, and human density; varying locations of office and residential buildings; and varying locations of food and factory rings; wherein the micro-cities provide improved security via a nodal configuration, the nodal configuration providing space between adjacent micro-cities, the improved security facilitated by: physical security structures configured to isolate crime within a small and localized population to reduce crime incidence; cyber-security systems localized and protected via isolated control of operation that is configured to be off a grid; wherein the central core building arrangement is predominated with very high density office and residential populations to stimulate greater human activity and connectedness; wherein the city system is configured to provide a building environment configured to protect inhabitants from pollution; wherein the city system includes air purification and recycling systems within each micro- city to keep occupants healthy by keeping the occupants from breathing harmful impurities and harmful biological agents of outside air, wherein the air purification and recycling system is supplemented with extra oxygen; wherein each micro-city provides occupants with purified and recycled water for reducing ingested harmful contaminants found in groundwater sources, the water being provided via a constant water supply regardless of how scarce external water resources are; at least one radial transportation corridor radially configured for providing transportation between the micro-city rings and the central core building arrangement, the transportation corridor having environmental enhancements to allow comfortable movement on pedestrian and human powered levels to counter undesirable outside conditions; and at least one non-radial transportation corridor ring configured for providing transportation between micro-cities in each micro-city ring wherein a micro-city includes a system for providing clean and non-polluting locally produced energy via the implementation of: micro-grids to eliminate power loss in long-distance transmission; base-load power supplied by small modular nuclear reactors; high-temperature generating systems for industrial production of steel, aluminum, glass, and cement; and using renewable resources such as wind and solar for peak energy demands wherein the city system is configured for providing ecological harmony such that: ecological balance is achieved within city limits; land is returned back to nature such that unused land is returned to native growth and wild animal populations, such that high density micro-cities use approximately 10% of land compared to current low-rise sprawling cities, such that a layered transportation corridor uses 1% of land compared to current surface road systems having equivalent traffic volume that use over 30% land space; heat islands are reduced by eliminating road and parking lot surfaces to return land for growing foliage which converts heat into plant material, and by reducing building surfaces exposed to sunlight by incorporating trees onto buildings using roof gardens, and by increasing building height to surface area ratios, thus reducing constant roof surface exposure, such that air flow is increased via implementing less overall surface area to smaller tali buildings, such that there is much more open space between large tall buildings allowing more horizontal air flow movement to reduce trapped heat, such that building presence is only approximately 10% of total area of a cluster city; lakes, ponds, and streams are created to act as heat buffers allowing more surface air flow; solid and liquid waste recycling is achieved by chemically reversing existing landfill processes through heat and biochemical interaction; packaging of food is changed to support ecological harmony by altering food production and retailing systems: external land used for supply requirements is reduced; farmland is returned to nature, with use of ecological restoration techniques, where plant production with harmful chemicals and saline water introduction is stopped or reduced and feedlot contamination for animal production is reduced or halted; forest reduction is slowed via greater replanting, reducing or eliminating forest tree products and reducing or eliminating using trees as building materials; surface and ground water is allowed to return to a natural balance; less mining is done and tailings are returned into tunnels; atmosphere is renewed by reducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas production; land, rivers, and lakes receive much less discarded pollutants such that water systems are prevented from being contaminated; an ecological footprint of a city is reduced to approximately 0.4 hectares per person compared to traditional cities having 6.0 hectares per person for a same population.

10. The city system of claim 9, where at least one of the transportation corridors is configured for two-way transportation.

11. The city system of claim 9, where the micro-city rings are concentrically arranged to surround the central core building arrangement such that the micro-city rings are radially separated from one another and the central core building arrangement.

12. The city system of claim 9, where the system further comprises at least one factory ring and at least one farm ring, where the factory ring allows for commercial production and distribution of goods within a concentric micro-city via: non-interrupted two-way concentric rail tracks; one or more continuous entrances and exits for self-motive train cars that merge goods into a parade for loading and unloading goods along main tracks; and one or more manufacturing plants that are configured to receive raw materials and produce value-added labor and expel goods in a routing system for further completion or end-use distribution.

13. The city system of claim 9, where the system further comprises at least one factory- ring and at least one farm ring, where the factor}' ring includes at least a freight loading area and a train system for transporting freight through the factory ring, connecting at least one city to at least one external city, and where the farm ring includes at least multiple levels and is configured to collect rainwater, grow plants, process and package food, receive and anaerobically digest organic waste, extract methane from the organic waste, aerobically digest the waste via applying enzymes, dry and grind the waste, sanitize the waste via applying heat and ultraviolet light to the waste to form dry matter, and at least one of provide the dry matter as feed for animal production and disperse the dry matter on landscape as mulch; wherein the farm ring produces locally grown indoor hydroponic and aeroponic food that is free of harmful chemicals that are typically used to defeat insects and disease, the food being free of the harmful chemicals to maximize worker output; wherein the farm ring provides a constant supply of fresh food grown 365 days a year without being affected by aberrant climate variables, insects, disease or pollution; and wherein the farm ring implements energy efficient food production techniques and food varieties for obtaining proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins as needed for human health and well being.

14. The city system of claim 9, where the system further comprises at least one specialty building ring, the specialty building ring including at least one of a government building, graduate university, undergraduate university, senior care center, recreation structure, shopping galleria, hotel, performing arts center, and museum.

15. The city system of claim 9, where the central core building arrangement includes residence and office buildings, and a central transportation hub.

16. The city system of claim 9, where at least one of the transportation corridors includes a roadway layer configured to allow transportation via autonomous vehicles, a mass transit layer, a pedestrian and human powered vehicle layer, a space for allowing wildlife to laterally pass through the at least one transportation corridor, an underground pedestrian tunnel, and a subway.

17. A process for sustaining an ecological, sustainable, and high performance city system, the method comprising: receiving air through a filter; sterilizing the air via ultraviolet sterilization to form sterilized air; passing the sterilized air through a building for human consumption; receiving carbon dioxide from the building; providing the carbon dioxide to a farm; receiving waste from the building; converting the waste to energy via anaerobic digestion; grinding, composting, and drying remaining waste and providing the remaining waste to the farm as mulch; at the farm, receiving and filtering rain via reverse osmosis to form filtered water, and providing the filtered water to the building for human use; receiving at the building, organic food matter from the farm; and producing electricity for the building.

18. The process of claim 17, where the process further comprises: receiving oxygen from the farm; subsequent to anaerobic digestion of the waste, processing the waste via bio-remediation, plasma incineration, and accelerated decomposition; subsequent to the decomposition, extracting water from the waste via filtration; at the farm, recycling water and water vapor within the farm; and receiving greywater from the building and applying filtration to the greywater.

19. The process of claim 17, where the electricity is produced via at least one of solar, wind, and nuclear power generators,

20. The process of claim 17, where converting the waste to energy includes extracting methane from the waste.

Description:
IMPROVED CITY SYSTEM

[0001] This application claims the benefit of co-pending United States Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 62/334, 102, filed May 12, 2016, which is incorporated herein in its entirety.

Technical Field

[0002] The present invention relates to the field of urban planning, and more particularly to an improved city system for facilitating ecological harmony, inhabitant safety, and economic performance and efficiency.

[0003] The arrangement of human settlement goes back over 8,000 years. It not only involves the arrangement of buildings with connective means (roads), but also to the concept of individual land ownership. In the earliest of time, before the invention of money, large parcels of land were used as payment for favors bestowed upon associates of the ruler of the society. Those parcels were then sub-divided into smaller units again given to others in return to do some favorable action. Based upon location of the parcels and sub- parcels, houses were built and pathways (later roads) created to facilitate movement of the early village settlement. Most of these earliest sub-divisions of land occurred along meandering paths, but were later refined into square or rectangular intersections with 90 degree corners. In areas were land was not fiat, but rather hilly; pathways and roads developed in level contours that facilitated movement back and forth. It must be understood that these earliest settlements were never created with an ecological understanding of the effects of human settlement concentration upon the land or flora and fauna.

[0004] The earliest settlements were small, but as human populations grew with the advent of farming, cities began to form. There was very little understanding of the function of a city. The first municipal activity was to improve the supply of water to the village. Later, the protection of a clean water supply was developed, that was not contaminated, so as to not make people sick. Eventually, it was understood that a means to eliminate human waste (urine and excrement) was necessary. Eventually the construction of durable roads was added to the assemblage that formed the design of cities. Concurrently to the development of early infrastructure was the development of building engineering to make bigger and better structures.

[0005] Design and formation of cities has not changed much for 2,000 years since the times of the Roman Empire. Many of the shapes of larger buildings and individual houses bear resemblance to those of Rome, while still maintaining city organization patterns dating back 2,500 years prior in Mehenjo-Daro in current day Pakistan.

[0006] The Twentieth Century saw the most significant changes to city development due to the common integration of new electrical energy systems powered mainly by fossil fuels, new agricultural technology spawned by oil and natural gas by-products, new transportation systems, again created from oil derivatives, and the advent of lighting and elevator technology which changed our abilities to venture vertically instead of horizontally. Yet, perhaps the greatest change to civilization and cities is the advent of the computer which drew a milestone in Mankind's ability to design new and improved structures. Further, in the last one hundred years power and communication systems were added to an increasingly complex infrastructure system that now has over 16 different sectors in the U.S. Most of these systems were never designed for increased systems loads added by a continuous population growth or the longevity requirements placed on a finitely aging system. For example, an existing sprawling city sources all food, water and fossil- fuel derived energy from outside the existing sprawling city, which are used only once and then disposed as unecological waste, causing landfill problems, solid waste issues and black water contamination of land, ground water, and lakes. Most native habitat is eliminated and destroyed with existing spawling cities. It requires 6 times as much land with respect to an area occupied by an existing sprawling city to generate such external inputs (food, water, energy) to meet the demands of such an existing sprawling city. Being low-density, an existing sprawling city of 2 million will need about 300 square miles of land for its citizens. This city is depicted as having a physically large and ecologically unsustainable ecological footprint of about 6.0 global hectares (gha).

[0007] Development potential of existing city systems is being thwarted by archaic Sand ownership constraints and a very conservative approach to urban design.

[0008] Population pressures and the desire for the benefits of city life are causing the largest migration in history, of billions of people leaving the countryside and moving into the city. In the high population countries of Asia, the need for a new paradigm in urban design must occur. It is paramount to stop forcing high-density living desires into an incompatible low density infrastructure model. Rapid city-migration is in the beginning stages with over 3 billion people moving into cities during next 30 years. However, this migration will not work with the current design of newly built cities due to the present operational patterns of energy production, transportation, water and waste requirements, food availability, and clean-air requirements. An important over-looked and prevalent problem is health, sanitation and controlling the spread of contagious diseases that can sweep through a high-density city in a matter of days.

[0009] Cities are the driving force of the world economy and also the major disruptor of the Earth's environmental stability. Urban development has been focused on arranging buildings to suit the needs of people and business with little thought as to what is happening to the environment. When the human population was small, and cities were in their infancy, ecological balance was not necessary. Yet, since 1989, human consumption of Earth's extracted materials has exceeded the Earth's bio-capacity of 1.0 and climbed to 1.32. This means the Earth's capability to re-generate extracted materials is less than what humans are consuming. Humankind is increasing consumption within a finite and decreasing supply of resources.

[0010] As such, humanity is building its civilization upon a ground work of cities that is dysfunctional and flawed when confronted with the higher populations of the last 100 years. This process failure is compounded with continued dependence on primitive energy sources that are disrupting the environment and the use of transportation that was never designed to work for high-density cities. [001 1] Cities now contain over 50% of the human population and they are projected to rise to over 70% in the next 35 years. They consume 85% of all materials while occupying only 3.1% of the Earth's surface (Grimm N., Faeth S., Golubiewski N., (2008), "Global Change and the Ecology of Cities", Science, V.319, 756-760). The current system rewards the single use of materials for convenience while creating a huge waste flow that is ultimately returned back to Nature in a most economically expeditious manner. This huge imbalance of consumption and waste is stressing the environment beyond healthy limits. Without improving city-systems, a very dramatic and quick demise will occur. At a tipping point (i.e. known as Abrupt Climate Change according to the Committee of Abrupt Climate Change) the Earth's ecosystems may quickly cascade to an extreme, irreversible and disastrous situation, threatening ail iifeforms as they are known.

[0012] Groundwater, clean drinking water existing in underground aquifers under the surface of the Earth for hundreds of thousands of years, is one of the Earth's most precious assets. It is squandered most flagrantly by those that have it and desired most fervently by those who need it.

[0013] As we destroy the oceans and cut down forests, the generators of oxygen (blue- green algae) are decimated as well. Within a matter of one hundred years oxygen levels may drop from 20% to 10% with resultant anoxia similar to what has occurred during other great extinction events. This will all occur if humanity continues to release Greenhouse Gas into the atmosphere, destroy more natural habitat and pollute the oceans (Warner M., Fu F., Zhang Y., (2007), "Effects of Increased Temperature & C02 on Photosynthesis, Growth & Elemental Ratios in Marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus (Cyanabacteria)", J.Phycology, V.43, 485-496).

[0014] Climate change is a word used to generally describe the cumulative effects of the disruptive forces of mankind. However, one of the main causes of the Earth's destabilization or ecosystem disruption is the destaiction of the natural habitat of billions of creatures who were di splaced by farms and cities. The farms have depleted the soils of natural nutrients and now use excessive amounts of fertilizers and pesticides in order to grow crops. They use excessive amounts of water (due to irrigation inefficiency) to produce the crops with over 50 gallons to produce a pound of edible cereal grain. The meat, dairy and poultry industries produce food through an even more inefficient process of taking feed grown elsewhere and giving it to the animals. It takes over 1,847 gallons of water to produce one pound of beef and 582 gallons of water to produce a pound of chicken. The chemicals used in animal production are flushed into the groundwater at feediots where the animals are raised. Urine and manure waste travels through the ground, into ground water, rivers, lakes and end up meeting the ocean at estuaries. There, nitrogenous contaminants react with algae causing blooms that de-oxygenate the water, killing sea life. While 74% of the planet is covered with water, only 1.5% of this water is usable as uncontaminated drinking water. Yet in many countries, we flush our toilets, wash our clothes and water our lawns with quality water that is being wasted.

[0015] Climate change is chiefly caused by the burning of fossil fuels that produce C02, CH4, S02, N02, arsenic, and mercury. The largest perpetrator of pollutants are coal fired electric plants, as the coal used is not pure and contains many contaminants that are combusted during the heating process. Coal powered electrical generation accounts for 50% of ail C02 generation; with 75% of that used in electric and heat generation, as well as 25% used in manufacturing. Refined oil (gasoline) accounts for another 25% of C02, and fuel oil for heating another 5% of C02 generation. Natural gas releases about 15% of all C02, used for electric generation and heating in houses. A secondary effect of C02 generation is the interaction of atmospheric C02 with the surface of the oceans. There is a chemical reaction that occurs causing C02 to be converted in H2C03 carbonic acid. This is causing great damage to the oceans resulting in ocean acidification that is decalcifying much of the marine life, including severe damage to coral around the world. As such, climate change and imbalances caused by human activity is permanently affecting wildlife diversity and animal and human welfare.

[0016] Another action that accentuates climate change (global warming) is the way humans are currently building their cities with continuous hard, heat absorbing surfaces (asphalt roads and concrete buildings) resulting in a phenomenon called "Heat Islands". This can increase heat by 4-5 degrees C in the center of the city. These structures absorb heat rather than reflecting it or converting solar energy into organic matter from photosynthesis. [[00001177]] MMoosstt ooff tthhee cclliimmaattee cchhaannggee iissssuueess tthhaatt aarree aarriissiinngg hhaavvee ooccccuurrrreedd wwiitthhiinn tthhee llaasstt 6600 yyeeaarrss.. OOuurr aawwaarreenneessss ooff tthheessee iissssuueess hhaass oonnllyy ccoommee ttoo ffuullll ffrmuiittiioonn wwiitthhiinn tthhee llaasstt 4400 yyeeaarrss.. UUnnffoortrtuunnaatteellyy,, bbootthh uurrbbaann ppllaannnneerrss aanndd aarrcchhiitteeccttss hhaavvee yyeett ttoo iinntteeggrraattee uurrbbaann eeccoollooggyy iinnttoo tthheeiirr rreeaallmmss ttoo ccrreeaattee aa vviiaabbllee ssoolluuttiioonn tthhaatt wwoorrkkss wwiitthh nnaattuurree aass wweellll aass ppeeooppllee..

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[0021] Disclosed is an ecological city system, comprising, central core structures, a plurality of circularly arranged stmctures surrounding the core, the stmctures including a set micro-cities, a factory structure, a farm structure, and a transportation structure, a plurality of radial transportation stmctures configured to provide transportation between the circularly arranged stmctures; and the circularly arranged stmctures being configured to function as a closed loop system for maximizing ecological sustainability, ecological harmony, inhabitant safety, and economic performance and efficiency. [0022] In another aspect, the transportation structure is a corridor including multiple levels of bi-directional traffic, each level being dedicated to a mode of transport.

[0023] In another aspect, the transportation structure includes a pedestrian level, a rail level, an autonomous car level, and a pedestrian powered vehicle level,

[0024] In another aspect, the transportation structure is both above and below ground.

[0025] In another aspect, the farm structure produces and processes food for being delivered to a micro-city of the set of micro-cities.

[0026] In another aspect, the farm stmcture includes waste processing equipment for processing waste.

[0027] In another aspect, the waste processing equipment is configured to process the waste via anaerobic digestion.

[0028] In another aspect, the factor}' structure includes a freight loading area for loading freight to be transported.

[0029] As another embodiment, disclosed is an ecological city system, the system comprising, at least one micro-city ring surrounding a central core building arrangement, the ring including a plurality of micro-cities, at least one radial transportation corridor radially configured for providing transportation between at least one micro-city of the micro-city ring and the central core building arrangement, and at least one non-radial transportation corridor configured for providing transportation between at least one micro- city of the micro-city ring and another micro-city of the micro-city ring.

[0030] In another aspect, at least one of the transportation corridors is configured for two-way transpoitation.

[0031] In another aspect, the micro-city ring is concentrically arranged to surround the central core building arrangement such that the micro-city ring is radially separated from the central core building arrangement.

[0032] In another aspect, the system further comprises at least one factory ring and at least one farm rin

[0033] In another aspect, the system further comprises at least one factory ring and at least one farm ring, where the factory ring includes at least a freight loading area and a train system for transporting freight through the factor}' ring, and where the farm ring includes at least multiple levels and is configured to collect rainwater, grow plants, process and package food, receive and anaerobically digest organic waste, extract methane from the organic waste, aerobically digest the waste via applying enzymes, dry and grind the waste, sanitize the waste via applying heat and ultraviolet light to the waste to form dry matter, and at least one of provide the dry matter as feed for animal production and disperse the dry matter on landscape as mulch.

[0034] In another aspect, the system further comprises at least one specialty building ring, the specialty building ring including at least one of a government building, graduate university, undergraduate university, senior care center, recreation structure, shopping galleria, hotel, performing arts center, and museums.

[0035] In another aspect, the central core buildings arrangement includes residence and office buildings and a central transportation hub.

[0036] In another aspect, at least one of the transportation corridors includes a roadway layer configured to allow transportation via autonomous vehicles, a mass transit layer, a pedestrian and human powered vehicle layer, a crawl space for allowing wildlife to laterally pass through the at least one transportation corridor, an underground pedestrian tunnel, and a subway.

[0037] A process for sustaining an ecological city system, the method comprising, receiving air at a filter, sterilizing the air via ultraviolet sterilization to form sterilized air, passing the sterilized air through a building for human consumption, receiving carbon dioxide from the building, providing the carbon dioxide to a farm, receiving waste from the building, converting the waste to energy via anaerobic digestion, grinding, composting, and drying remaining waste and providing the remaining waste to the farm as mulch, at the farm, receiving and filtering rain via reverse osmosis to form filtered water, and providing the filtered water to the building for human use, receiving at the building, organic food mmaatttteerr ffrroomm tthhee ffaarrmm,, aanndd pprroodduucciinngg eelleeccttrriicciittyy ffoorr tthhee bbuuiillddiinngg..

[[00003388]] I Inn aannootthheerr aassppeecctt,, tthhee pprroocceessss ffuurrtthheerr ccoommpprriisseess,, rreecceeiivviinngg ooxxyyggeenn ffrroomm tthhee ffaarrmm,, ssuubbsseeqquueenntt ttoo aannaaeerroobbiicc ddiiggeessttiioonn ooff tthhee wwaassttee,, pprroocceessssiinngg tthhee wwaassttee vviiaa bbiioo-- rreemmeeddiiaattiioonn,, ppllaassmmaa iinncciinneerraattiioonn,, aanndd aacccceelleerraatteedd ddeeccoommppoossiittiioonn,, ssuubbsseeqquueenntt ttoo tthhee ddeeccoommppoossiittiioonn,, eexxttrraaccttiinngg wwaatteerr ffrroomm tthhee wwaassttee vviiaa fifillttrraattiioonn,, aatt tthhee ffaarrmm,, rreeccyycclliinngg wwaatteerr aanndd wwaatteerr vvaappoorr wwiitthhiinn tthhee ffaarrmm,, aanndd rreecceeiivviinngg ggrreeyywwaatteerr ffrroomm tthhee bbuuiillddiinngg aanndd aappppllyyiinngg fifillttrraattiioonn ttoo tthhee ggrreeyywwaatteerr,.

[[00003399]] IInn aannootthheerr aassppeecctt,, tthhee eelleeccttrriicciittyy iiss pprroodduucceedd vviiaa aatt lleeaasstt oonnee ooff ssoollaarr,, wwiinndd,, aanndd nnuucclleeaarr ppoowweerr ggeenneerraattoorrss..

[[00004400]] IInn aannootthheerr aassppeecctt,, ccoonnvveertrtiinngg tthhee wwaassttee ttoo eenneerrggyy iinncclluuddeess eexxttrraaccttiinngg mmeetthhaannee ffrroomm tthhee wwaassttee..

[[00004411]] TThheessee aanndd ootthheerr oobbjjeeccttss,, ffeeaattuurreess,, aanndd aaddvvaannttaaggeess ooff tthhee pprreesseenntt iinnvveennttiioonn wwiillll bbeeccoommee mmoorree rreeaaddiillyy aappppaarreenntt ffrroomm tthhee aattttaacchheedd ddrraawwiinnggss aanndd tthhee ddeettaaiilleedd ddeessccririppttiioonn ooff tthhee pprreeffeerrrreedd eemmbbooddiimmeennttss,, wwhhiicchh ffoollllooww..

[0042] The preferred embodiments of the invention will hereinafter be described in conjunction with the appended drawings provided to illustrate and not to limit the invention, where like designations denote like elements, and in which:

[0043] FIG. I shows a typical mixed-use, modular city with a work force divided by office, factory and agriculture sectors, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0044] FIG. 2 shows a plan view of a factory city including two factory rings, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0045] FIG. 3 shows a plan view of a professional city, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0046] FIG. 4 shows a plan view of a smaller city of about 500,000 people with subsequent expansion, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0047] FIG. 4A shows a plan view of a typical small farming village of about 5,000 people or more, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0048] FIG. 4B shows a plan view of a mining town of about 20,000-100,000 people, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0049] FIG. 4C shows a plan view of a larger farming town of 30,000-100,000 people, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0050] FIG. 5 shows a plan view of a transportation plan for a typical cluster city, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0051] FIG. 6 shows a plan view of a regional mega-city development plan for over 25 million people, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0052] FIG. 7 shows a plan, side, and perspective view of a central city core of an ultra-high rise office tower complex, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0053] FIG. 8 shows a plan, side, and perspective view of a specialty building, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0054] FIG. 9 shows a plan, side, and perspective view of a large modular Micro-City, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0055] FIG. 10 shows a plan, side, and perspective view of a small modular Micro- City, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0056] FIG. 11 shows a plan, side, and perspective view of an economy small micro city, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0057] FIG. 12 shows a sectional view of a layered transportation corridor, the section taken along sectional line 12-12 of FIG 2, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0058] FIG. 13 shows a sectional view of a vertical farm and a waste recycling center, the section taken along sectional line 13-13 of FIG. 2, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0059] FIG. 14 shows a sectional view of a factory ring, the section taken along sectional line 14-14 of FIG. 2, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0060] FIG. 14 A shows a perspective view of a factory ring, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0061] FIG. 15 shows a chart describing an integrated tripartite city, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0062] FIG. 16 shows a flow chart of a roaster process plan for a cluster city, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0063] FIG. 17 shows a closed-loop recycling plan, in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0064] FIG. 18 shows a plan view of natural wildlife territory, in accordance with the present disclosure; and

[0065] FIG. 19 shows a chart presenting the reduction of an ecological footprint, in accordance with the present disclosure.

[0066] Like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the several views of the drawings.

[0067] The following detailed description is merely exemplary in nature and is not intended to limit the described embodiments or the application and uses of the described embodiments. As used herein, the word "exemplary" or "illustrative" means "serving as an example, instance, or illustration." Any implementation described herein as "exemplary" or "illustrative" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other implementations. All of the implementations described below are exemplary implementations provided to enable persons skilled in the art to make or use the embodiments of the disclosure and are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure, which is defined by the claims. For purposes of description herein, the terms "upper", "lower", "left", "rear", "right", "front", "vertical", "horizontal", and derivatives thereof shall relate to the invention as oriented in FIG. 1. Furthermore, there is no intention to be bound by any expressed or implied theory presented in the preceding technical field, background, brief summary or the following detailed description. It is also to be understood that the specific devices and processes illustrated in the attached drawings, and described in the following specification, are simply exemplar}' embodiments of the inventive concepts defined in the appended claims. Hence, specific dimensions and other physical characteristics relating to the embodiments disclosed herein are not to be considered as limiting, unless the claims expressly state otherwise.

[0068] The illustration of FIG. 1 shows a plan view of a typical mixed-use, modular city with a work force divided by office, factory and agriculture sectors. Its final population is between 1.0 - 2,5 million people. The disclosed series of Micro-Cities are each semi self-contained such that there is sufficient mixed-use activities within each Micro-City, and such that each Micro-City could be defined as a district or town. The Micro-Cities may be built on a flat plain or hill that has some or no significant changes in elevation. The Cluster City 100 depicted in FIG. 1 is an entire assemblage of structures (Micro-Cities, Factory Rings, Vertical Farm Rings, Transportation Corridors, Specialty Buildings) that may vary in ground elevation, and that includes Central Core office buildings 101 and Central Core residence towers 102 both located within a circular pattern or arrangement, shown in FIG. 1 including 8 units but could include any quantity. There is a circular row (arrangement) of staictures outside the residence towers (on an opposite side relative to the core, the circularly arranged row being between the core and the residence towers) that is a series of Specialty Buildings, a government building 103, a Graduate University 104, an Undergraduate University 105, a Senior Care Center 106, a complete Surgical Hospital 107, a Recreation/Amusement structure 108 (e.g. an arena), a shopping galleria or 5-star hotel 109, a Performing Arts Center and musuem 110. Further out is a circularly arranged two-way transportation corridor 111 that stops at each Micro-City 112. Outside this circularly arranged pattern is a low-rise cylindrical Factory Ring 1 13 (arrangement) where all manufacturing and industry occurs. There is a full heavy duty two- way freight train system in the middle of the Factory Ring 1 13 extending along the factory ring 1 13. This structure will employ over 50% of the workforce, all within walking distance of other important (e.g. life sustaining) structures such as residential units/towers. Outside the Factory Ring (arrangement) is a circular row (arrangement) of either large or small Micro-Cities 115, connected by another two-way transportation corridor 114 (circular arrangement). Further outside of this row of Micro-Cities is a large cylindrical structure (circular arrangement) containing a Vertical Farm 1 16 and a waste conversion operation. In the center of this structure is a two-way conveyance system 1 17, carrying food materials radially to other parts of the City. Further outside of the Farm Ring is another series of circularly placed (ring, or circular arrangement) small Micro-Cities 119, with an adjacent (outer) circularly arranged two-way transportation corridor 118 adjacent the circularly arranged ring of Micro-Cities 119. In addition to the circularly arranged transportation system is a series of radial two-way transportation corridors 120, forming spokes that will bring citizens from the inner areas to the outer areas. For example, the transportation spokes may run between various rings or circularly arranged cities or structures (e.g. the spokes may transport citizens between and to any structure or ring of structures, the ring of structures disposed between a core of a circularly arranged Cluster City and a distal (outer) point on a circumference or perimeter of the Cluster-City. It is to be understood that the term "outer" or "outside" refers to regions disposed in a radial direction away from a reference point (e.g. a point on a ring) to a distal point of a circularly arranged Cluster-City. Similarly "outward" refers to a direction radially away from a core or center of a ring. For example, an outer area of circularly arranged Micro-Cities is an area disposed radially outside the ring and away from the core. For example, the circularly arranged Vertical Farm 116 is outside of the circularly arranged row or ring of Micro- Cities 1 15 as shown in FIG. 1 . The term "inward" has an opposite meaning to "outward" as used herein. For example, "inside" means being directed radially toward the core or center, and outside may mean being directed radially away from the core or center. Further, it is to be understood that the herein disclosed rings may be described as having a non-radial arrangement. For example, the rings may extend laterally with respect to a longitudinal, radial element such as the herein disclosed radial transportation corridors.

[0069] The illustration of FIG. 2 shows a plan view of a Factory City 200 with two circularly arranged Factory Rings, instead of one. This allows more workers to reside within walking distance of the factories. This circularly arranged factory city is capable of holding over 2,000,000 people. The Central City Core (in the center of the factory city 200), includes a series of ultra-high-rise office towers 201, with a circularly arranged row of high-rise residential towers 202 just outside them. There is a circularly arranged row outside the Residences that is a series of Specialty Buildings, a government building 203 A, a Graduate University 203B, an Undergraduate University 203 C, a Senior Care Center 203D, a complete Surgical Hospital 203E, a Recreation/Amusement structure 203 F (e.g. an arena), a shopping galleria or 5-star hotel 203G, a Performing Arts Center and meeting rooms 203H. Just outside the ring of circularly arranged specialty buildings is a row of circularly arranged large Micro-Cities 204. Just outside the ring of circularly arranged Micro-Cities 205 is a first of two circularly arranged Factory Rings 205. Just outside the factoty ring is another ring of micro cities 206. Just outside the ring of micro cities 206 is a two-way transportation corridor 207 (ring). Outside of this is another row of circularly arranged small Micro-Cities 208. Beyond (outside) this row (ring) 208 is a second Factory Ring 209. Outside of this Factory Ring is another circularly arranged row of circularly arranged small Micro-Cities 210. Just outside the row of micro cities 210 is another circularly arranged two-way transportation corridor 21 1. Just outside the circularly arranged two-way transportation corridor 211 is another circularly arranged row of small Micro-Cities 212. Lastly, is the circularly arranged Vertical Farm Building 213 (ring) with the last row of small Micro-Cities 214 outside of the Vertical Farm and the last two-way Transportation Corridor 215 servicing this outer row 214. To complement the circularly arranged transportation corridors are a series of radial Spoke Transportation Corridors 216 that traverse to the center between outer distal points of the cluster factory city 200.

[0070] The illustration of FIG. 3 shows a plan view of an office/fmancial/government/eapital professional city 300 that includes no factories and factor}' ring. If repairs are needed, small workshops within the circularly arranged Micro- Cities will be able to effect those repairs. This City includes an enlarged Central City Core with two circularly arranged rows of Office Buildings to increase the quantity of available office space in this Cluster City. The Central City Core 301 is made up of a center cluster of ultra-high rise office buildings and an outer circularly arranged row of high-rise residential towers. Further out is a circularly arranged row of Specialty Buildings 302, such as government buildings, universities, hospitals, senior care facilities, amusement and recreation facilities, and a galleria shopping center with a hotel. Outside of this is the second circularly arranged row of office towers 303. Just outside the office towers is a two- way Transportation Corridor 304. Further out is a circularly arranged row of Small Micro- Cities 305, then another row of Small Micro-Cities 306 then another two-way Transportation Corridor 307, the row of small Micro-Cities 306 being just outside row 305, and the two-way Transportation Corridor 307 being just outside row 306. Outside the Transportation Corridor is a circularly arranged row of Large Micro-Cities 308, followed by another row of small Micro-Cities 309. Just outside the small micro cities 309 (ring) is a cylindrical ring Vertical Farm 310. Just outside the Vertical Farm row 310 is another row of Micro-Cities 311 and outside the row of Micro-Cities 311 is a most outer Transportation Corridor 312 (ring).

[0071] The illustration of FIG. 4 shows a smaller city of about 500,000 people 400. The largest area of migratory growth in most of the Developing World will be to cities of 300,000 to 600,000 people. We have designed such a city with limited quantity of Micro- Cities. There is even space designed for expansion of the outer row. The Central City Core 401 is comprised of individual office and residential towers in close circularly arranged formation. Outside of this are 4 - Specialty Buildings 402 that house government buildings, hospitals, university facilities, recreation/amusement facilities and galleria shopping centers with a major hotel. Next (outside) is a ring of 4 - Small Micro-Cities 403, a two- way Transportation Corridor 404 (ring) then a circularly arranged row of Large Micro- Cities 405 outside of this ring 404. A single Factory Ring 406 occurs outside the ring 404, followed by another two-way Transportation Corridor 407 (ring) followed by (outside) another row of large Micro-Cities 408. Lastly is the cylindrical Vertical Farm 409 ring as an outer ring. There is an expansion area to the outside of the Vertical Farm ring where an additional row of Micro-Cities 411 can be built and connected to radial extensions of the two-way Transportation Corridor 412 also with the capability to create another circularly arranged two-way Transportation Corridor 410 (shown in dashed line).

[0072] The illustration of FIG. 4A shows a suggested plan view of a typical small Farming Village 413 of 15,000 people or more, mixed-use, modular city with a small Micro-City 414 in the center with work force divided by office, limited factory and mostly agriculture sectors. A small diameter Cylindrical Vertical Farm 415 supplies food all year for inhabitants. Other buildings include a small equipment repair factory 417 and a food processing plant 416 that is next to a connecting rail line 41 8 that transports food and people back to larger populated regional areas. Covered Walkways 416 connect the central city to the other buildings.

[0073] The illustration of FIG. 4B shows a suggested plan view of Mining Town 420 of about 30,000 - 100,000 people living in an isolated area. The town includes 2 - Micro- Cities 421 with Covered Walkways 422 connecting the central cities to the ovular shaped Vertical Farm 423 and the ore processing plant 424 located in the middle next to a main rail line 425 that carries ore and people to regional centers.

[0074] The illustration of FIG 4C shows a suggested plan for a larger farming town 430 of 30,000 - 100,000 people with 2 - central Micro-Cities 431, with connecting Covered Walkways 432 radiating outward to both the cylindrical Vertical Farm 433 and the Equipment Repair Facility 434, the connecting rail line 435 and the food processing plant 436.

[0075] The illustration of FIG. 5 shows a transportation plan 500 for a typical Cluster City with a Central City Core 501 that contains the Central Transportation Hub, including a Mag-Lev train 511 stop that would connect this Cluster City to adjacent Cluster Cities that are a part of Regional Mega-City (see FIG. 6). Outside the Central City Core are the Specialty Buildings 502 that are radially located along Radial-Spoked Transportation Corridors 507 that transport people from the center of the City to the extreme outer ring of Micro-Cities 505. There are three (3) - circularly arranged Transportation Corridors depicted in this City that includes the Inner Transportation Corridor 506 connecting inner row of Micro-Cities 503, the middle row of Micro-Cities 504, Middle circularly arranged Transportation Corridor 509 and the Outer Transportation Corridor 510. The Factory Ring 508 includes a heavy-duty freight train rail in the middle of the building. This freight line 512 is two-way and ultimately exits the city and connects to the Regional Freight System at 513.

[0076] The illustration of FIG. 6 shows a Regional Mega-City Development Plan 600 that includes multiple Cluster Cities 601A through 601K of varying sizes and functions. This Regional City can reach populations of over 25 million people. The boundary of each Cluster City 602 defines their limits of growth. Through the middle of the Regional Mega- City runs a high-speed train 603, with a Central Transportation Hub 606. Subway trains

608 connect the Central Transportation Hub 606 to the Mag-Lev Train 605. Subway train

609 connects the hub to the Regional Airport 607. The Regional Freight Line 604 connects to the Factory Ring Freight lines in each Cluster City for transporting freight.

[0077] The illustration of FIG. 7 shows an example of the Central City Core 700 which is comprised of multiple Ultra High-Rise Towers 701 that will create an extremely high- density corporate work environment. The concentration of professional workers in close proximity has great value according to experts in Urban Economics. The buildings may be of equal or different height. The buildings may be of duplicate shape for uniformity or may be different shapes and create an asymmetric pattern. The structure occurs below ground as well as above.

[0078] The illustration of FIG. 8 shows an example of a Specialty Building Complex 800. Each complex is comprised of a large volume high-rise central core 801 that may specialize in any one of the following themes, but not limited to this list: government, hospitals (healthcare), university (education), senior care (e.g. a center or facility), sports & recreation (e.g. with an arena), amusement & performing arts (e.g. a facility or center), shopping (e.g. a galleria with hotels); and museums. On the periphery would be located a number of residential towers 802, either attached or free-standing. The structure occurs below ground as well as above.

[0079] The illustration of FIG. 9 shows an example of a Large Modular Micro City 900. This complex is a mega-structure building with a large central high-rise tower 901, with smaller towers 902 surrounding this either attached or separate. This building complex includes a mixed-use feature that allows for work, residence, commercial and recreational activities. The structure occurs below ground as well as above. This complex is designed to have 35,000 to 50,000 residents.

[0080] The illustration of FIG. 10 shows an example of a Small Modular Micro City 1000. This complex is a mega-structure building with a large central high-rise tower 1001, with smaller towers 1002 surrounding this either attached or separate. This building complex includes a mixed-use feature that allows for work, residence, commercial and recreational activities. The structure occurs below ground as well as above. This complex is designed to have 20,000 to 35,000 residents.

[0081] The illustration of FIG. 11 shows an example of an Economy Small Modular Micro City 1100. This complex is a mega-structure building with a stepped conical shape 1102 and 1103 (steps) with a geodesic dome in the center 1101 that may have separate structures surrounding this either attached or separate. This building complex includes a mixed-use feature that allows for work, residence, commercial and recreational activities. The structure occurs below ground as well as above. This complex is designed to have 15,000 to 25,000 residents.

[0082] The illustration of FIG. 12 shows an example of a two-way, Layered Transportation Corridor 1200. It is comprised of multiple levels of bi-directional traffic. The uppermost layer is a roadway for zero-emission computer-controlled autonomous vehicles 1201 (driver-less taxis) that allow high-speed, non-stop transportation from origin to destination. Below is a mass transit to transit system 1202 that moves a large quantity of riders from ever}' transit station in the Cluster City. Below this is an enclosed corridor that allows for both pedestrian and human-powered transportation 1203 to move short to medium distances within a controlled environment (HVAC & oxygen enhanced). The next level down 1204, is an open-air version of the enclosed corridor above. This allows for greater participation with the Wildness and adjacent landscaped areas. A very unique feature is the 4' high crawl space 1205 that allows wildlife to freely move through (laterally) and past this corridor. Hence, the corridor does not interrupt or impede free movement into Wildness zones 1219.

[0083] Underground is a pedestrian tunnel 1206 for two-way movement of people between Micro-Cities. There is another adjacent tunnel that moves food and other goods 1207 by conveyor along the tunnel. At the lowest level are two directions of heavy duty subway 1208 and 1209 that connects all the Micro-Cities to each other in "transit to transit" style. In addition, there is a large water transfer pipe 1210, piping for C02 enriched air 121 1 for the Vertical Farm, black-water sewage waste pipe 1213, a tunnel vault 1212 for electrical cables and fiber optic communication signals and a return air pipe 1214 for 02 enriched air from the herein disclosed Vertical Farm, all running along or beside a longitudinal (or circular) path of 1200. [0084] The Two-way Layered Transportation Corridor 1217 has been designed to incorporate all roadways into one small surface footprint to reduce the space to a minimum as required for different pathways and hence return more Sand back to landscape 1216 and 1218 and wildness 1215 and 1219.

[0085] The illustration of FIG. 13 shows a typical section of the Vertical Farm 1300. It is a very large structure that is circular shaped (circularly arranged), forming a very wide cylinder where most of all food consumed within the Cluster City is grown. It is to be understood that the various layers and floors shown in FIG. 13 am along the Vertical Farm structure (e.g. circularly or longitudinally, or intermittently or continuously). On the roof is a layer or floor including a large rainwater collection system with a drain 1329. Also above the roof are a series of solar panels 1328 disposed at the top of the Vertical Farm for receiving sunlight and generating solar-powered energy. Below the roof is layer or floor including a cistern 1301 that covers areas directly under the roof, except the elevator penthouse 1310. There are specialized plant growing areas on each floor or layer such as grape vineyards 1302, berry vines 1303, algae 1304, dwarf tree crops 1305, chickens 1306, milk cows 1307, steers 1308, aeroponics 1309, hydroponics 1311, vegetable crops 1312, soybeans 1313, corn 1314, wheat 1315, rice 1316, aquaponics 1317, sheep 1318 and pigs 1319. Separated from the food production floors is a packaging warehouse 1323 inside. The outside facade will have offices 1320, restaurants 1321 and fresh food markets 1322. In the middle of the building is freight elevators 1327 moving bulk food from each floor to food processing rooms 1324. Below processing is the packaging storage 1325 and shipping department 1326. Next to the shipping department are the underground conveyor systems 1332 that carry food to the Micro-Cities. There is also a circular conveyance system 1344 to moves food laterally from one area of the building complex to another. Included in the Vertical Farm System is C02 enhanced air 1330 from the Micro-City buildings that is fed to the plants and oxygen enriched air 1331 that returns to the buildings.

[0086] Below the Vertical Farm footprint is the waste processing equipment that is totally separated from food production above. This Vertical Farm includes a triple power system with electricity from solar panels 1328 on the roof, clean methane power 1341 with C02 & CH4 going into the plant atmosphere. There is also backup power from the Cluster City power system 1333. Organic waste 1342 from the Micro-Cities enters the anaerobic digester 1339, as well as solid waste organic matter 1343 , For example, the anaerobic digester 1339 may anaerobicaliy digest the waste 1342. After methane 1341 is extracted, the organic matter is pumped 1340 to the Aerobic Decomposition tank 1338. Organic waste from the Vertical Farm above is brought into this chamber as well, and then enzymes are employed to further break down the waste. Then it is pumped 1340 into another tank 1337 for drying and grinding. Once dried, the organic matter is conveyed into a sanitizing chamber 1336 where heat and ultra violet C radiation penetrate the matter while it is being churned. The dry matter is then conveyed either to the animal production areas upstairs 1335 as feed or dispersed outside on landscape and wildness areas as mulch 1334.

[0087] The illustration of FIG. 14 shows a cross section of a factory ring 1400, taken along sectional line 14-14 of FIG.2 FIG, 14A shows the circular concept of a series of factoty units 1410 existing in a vertical manner. The radial design pattern of 1410 allows for more equidistant commuting to reach the workplace (e.g. a distance between the factory ring and a ring of micro cities is convenient for commuters). It is to be understood that the various layers and floors shown in FIG. 14 run along the factory ring (circle) structure arrangement (e.g. circularly or longitudi ally, or intermittently or continuously). For example, FIG. 14 shows the roof being both a water catchment basin 1408, with accompanying drain 1409. Under the roof is a large chamber which serves as a water cistern 1401. It may also have solar panels located on the roof to generate electricity. At the same level as the cistern are elevator equipment penthouses 1407 that provide mechanization to move materials and goods vertically on heavy duty commercial elevators 1405. The cistern may be sub-divided into special water treatment mixtures 1406 for use below. Rooms 1402 are regular factory areas, while 1403 are special use areas. The middle of the building, at ground level or below, will have a continuous freight loading area 1404, comprised of two sets of 2-way track for heavy usage, as well as periodic parallel loading spurs. In so doing freight handling will be uninterrupted no matter what the weather conditions are. FIG. 14 further shows entrance/exit rail tracks 1412 that connect factory indoor freight train tracks to main freight train lines outside the city. As such, the factory- ring may transport freight or other goods and materials to other modules or cluster cities.

[0088] The illustration of FIG. 14A shows a 3 -Dimensional perspective image of the Factory ring 1410 and the individual vertical factory units 1411. [0089] The illustration of FIG. 15 shows the essence of Systems Design Programming for this improved city system. Under the unique Systems Design, the desired results are set as a goal and then it is back-stepped to the point of the existing or desired infra-structure. Development times must be extremely short as anthropogenic-forced climate change is occurring faster than most nations or civilization can adapt. We therefore have programmed this new city with an Integrated Tripartite design that includes the ultimate preferred elements of Ecology, Sustainability and High Performance to create an urban design more advanced than any and all previous work. For example, FIG. 15 shows a Venn diagram of three circles overlapping, the three circles each being "High Performance", "Ecological", or "Sustainable". In a high performance city, the city will have more economic efficiencies.

[0090] A high performance city will include digitally connected smart cities for greater human interaction, a protected transportation system to reduce commute time, communication and computer connectivity with fiber optics to all buildings, cyber security enhanced by organizing cloud storage in each Micro-City, a cluster city having a master smart controlled system including subset controllers tasked to carry out the majority of building control in each Micro-City, a city center that increases high-density interaction for over 200,000 people, a healthy and educated lifestyle and digital connectivity, and infrastructure spatial simplification providing greater efficiency than commonly existing cities.

[0091] A sustainable city is a city that protects its inhabitants from climate change effects, natural disasters and reduces impacts of pandemic disease. A sustainable city provides a constant supply of clean food, clean water, clean air, and clean abundant energy. A sustainable city is a resilient livable stmcture designed to withstand climate change and disasters, and works as a unified city to have organized disaster relief for inhabitants. A sustainable city also includes a security system preventing unwanted human intrusion and disease intrusion. Lastly, a sustainable city includes an air handling system using UVc sterilizing lights to disinfect air ducts.

[0092] An ecological city is a city having ecological harmony and mitigating neg- entropic aspects. For example, an ecological city is attributed with increased bio-diversity with over 50% dedicated space for "Wildness", and eliminates or reduces heat islands. An ecological city includes increased air flow. An ecological city has no cars (but in some embodiments zero emission autonomous vehicles are included), traditional trucks and most traditional roads, and instead uses electric mass transit to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. An ecological city produces electricity from renewable resources and nuclear power without producing any greenhouse gases. Waste heat co-generation in an ecological city provides more electricity and reduces or eliminates heat contamination. An ecological city may include a closed loop system that reduces an ecological footprint to under 0.4 gha. An ecological city eliminates waste outputs by using plasma incineration and/or bio- remediation, and may include a net zero water/waste system that eliminates the use of ground water.

[0093] The illustration of FIG. 16 shows a Master Process Plan Chart 1600 that demonstrates the interconnectedness of the Main Necessities of Life: AIR, WATER,

FOOD, ENERGY and WASTE RECYCLING with the BUILDING with Human

Consumption being a key element. This is an integrated design of the above elements to be self-sustaining and at the same time highly productive and ecological. For example, FIG.

16 starts out by receiving at a filter 1602 fresh air and generated oxygen (e.g. via electrolysis). The filter may receive enriched air (02) from a vertical farm 1604 (from generating food). Received elements at the filter may then be passed through UV sterilization 1606 to become air 1608. The air 1608 is then passed to a building 1610 for human consumption. From the building 1610 expended air (C02) is provided to the vertical farm 1604. Further, the building 1610 produces and provides waste 1612 (medical, industrial, blackwater, and solid waste). The waste 1612 is converted to energy 1614 via anaerobic digestion 1616 (organic waste) and methane generation. Some waste is recycled

1618 in a factor}' ring described above. The waste 1612 may be recycled to glass, metal, or plastic. Subsequent to the anaerobic digestion 1616 may be bio-remediation 1620, plasma incineration 1622, and accelerated decomposition 1624 (grinding, composting and drying).

Subsequent to accelerated decomposition 1624, matter may be provided back to the vertical farm 1604 as mulch & nutrients and/or filtered as recycled water to a filtration and reverse osmosis process 1626. At the vertical farm 1604, water and dehydrated water vapor may be recycled within the vertical farm 1604. The vertical farm 1604 may receive rain water, nutrients, and energy at 1628. Rain 1630 may be received and filtered or processed via reverse osmosis at 1626. After being filtered, the rain 1630 is passed from the filtration and reverse osmosis processing 1626 to a net zero water element 1632. From the net zero water 1632, water is provided as drinking, washing and/or cooking water to the building 1610. Industrial water may also be provided from the net zero water 1632 for industrial purposes at 1633. It is also anticipated that greywater may be provided from the building 1610 to the filtration and reverse osmosis process 1626. The building 1610 may receive imported food (e.g. a maximum of 10% of total food), and organic food matter from the vertical farm 1604. Turning to the energy 1614, the energy 1614 may be produced via solar, wind, or nuclear power at 1634. For example, nuclear generated electricity may be processed via electrolysis 1636 to produce hydrogen 1638, which in turn stores energy to later produce electricity 1640. Electricity 1640 may be used for industrial purposes in the factory ring, for lights or computer power, for elevator power, and HVAC systems at 1642.

[0094] The illustration of FIG. 17 shows a plan 1700 that embodies the concept of Recycling of Materials from use to waste and reuse. Shown is a typical Cluster City with the flows of materials for each residential building. The Central City Core is at 1710. Specialty Buildings are at 1709. Large Micro-Cities are at 1708. Smaller Micro-Cities are at 1701. Economy Small Micro-Cities are at 1705. The Vertical Farm 1706 both generates waste above and recycles waste underground. A flow of Waste Material 170 land 1704 goes from the Micro-City to the Vertical Farm. Food and oxygenated air flow from 1702 and 1703. At 1707 is a Micro-City. FIG. 17 may be directly related to the process plan shown in FIG. 16. For example, the arrows and processes described herein with respect to FIG. 17 may refer to respective elements of FIG. 16, such as directional flow of elements 1705, 1707, 1708, 1709 and 1710 to and from element 1706.

[0095] The illustration of FIG. 18 shows a plan of the Wildness Areas 1800 that shows "fingers" of Wildness which will extend from the perimeter of the City all the way to the Central City Core 1809. The hatched shading 1801 is land that will be protected from human intrusion. Two-way, Layered Transportation Corridors 1802 run circularly, as well radially. Common solutions for roads (e.g. prior art) roads would create a barrier preventing many wild creatures crossing to the other side, a disadvantage for ecological sustainability. However, in the present system, provided is a crawl space for smaller creatures to move at ground level under all the Layered Transportation Corridors 1802. These corridors allow for landscaped Sand next to them to be nature friendly. Beyond the landscape areas are thicket fences or water barriers that allow Wildness inhabitants to have little or no interaction with humans. Buildings, including the Vertical Farm 1804, Central City Core 1809, Specialty Buildings 1808 and Small Economy micro-City 1803 will be surrounded by these layers of landscaping and Wildness. Further, Micro-Cities 1805 and factor} 7 ring 1806 are shown in FIG. 18.

[0096] The illustration of FIG. 19 shows a chart that schematically presents an Ecological Footprint of an Integrated Cluster City 1902 according to the present disclosure. The new Integrated Cluster City is a compact high-density city with approximately 10% of the land used for building structures. Air, food, water and waste are recycled resulting in little environmental impact. The energy input is local, and does not emit greenhouse gases. Most of the food is grown within the city limits, with only 10% imported for variety of consumption. Over 60%o of the land within the city will be returned to Wildness to amplify Bio-Diversity, Over 70% of the exterior will have tree cover or water features. This city is depicted as having a physically small Ecological Footprint of about 0.4 gha. For example, at 1904, non-greenhouse gas (GHG) energy and imported food (e.g. maximum 10% of total food mass or calories) is inputted into the city system 1906. In the city system 1906, air, water, food, and waste is recycled. All waste is returned to the habitat (wildness) and biodiversity at 1908 in an ecologicaly sustainable matter as described herein.

[0097] It is to be understood that the above described circular arrangements (e.g. rows, rings, or circularly arranged sets) of structures or units may each include any number of structures or units. For example, a row or ring (i.e. a set) of circularly arranged Micro- Cities may include 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or more Micro-Cities. Further, each of the circular arrangements may have any appropriate circumference, diameter or radius. For example, an inner circular arrangement adjacent a core may have a smaller radius than an outer circular arrangement. Further, the circular arrangements are not limited to being exactly circular, and it is to be understood that it is within scope and spirit of this disclosure that the circular arrangements may be ellipsoid, or generally non-circular or asymmetrical or conforming to hillside or water features. For example, in some embodiments the arrangements may be non-circular to conform and accommodate terrain variations and features (e.g. lakes, hills, rivers, coasts, or mountains). For example, in coastal embodiments where a central core building arrangement is disposed at the coast, the herein disclosed "rings" may resemble "arcs" since the rings would not be able to complete a full circle. It is to be further understood that the drawings may indicate exemplary distances between circular arrangements (e.g. they may be to-scale). Further, the various rings, rows, or circular or concentric arrangements of units or structures described above may be continuous or may be intermittent or have discontinuities in certain embodiments. It is to be understood that the various levels or floors shown in the sectional views may extend along, an entire circular distance of a circular arrangement, or may be intermittently disposed along the circular arrangements.

[0098] As such, the above system is based upon a new paradigm of organizing cities based on a Tripartite System where ecological concepts are integrated into real sustainability measures, as well as high performance economic efficiencies. This concept has a Set-Limit of city population growth with additional Set-Limit cities built nearby that are linked through transportation and communication links into larger defined regional centers.

[0099] High-density city design is achieved through vertical building technology of skyscrapers that are not only tall, but are organized into micro-cities of multiple towers integrated together to form extreme high-density mixed-use units inhabiting 25,000 - 60,000 people without the use of traditional (combustion engine) cars, traditional trucks and the chaos of typical street systems. These 20-100 story micro-cities are 1,200'-1,800' in diameter (mega-structures) and are separated by an average of about one kilometer distance. This allows growth to be vertical instead of horizontally sprawling unrestrictedly.

[00100] A Cluster City is comprised of numerous modular/programmable Micro-Cities that will achieve the desired population and type of productivity. In addition, they will have their buildings constructed with a Net-Zero Water System, full waste recycling within the boundaries of the Cluster City and have Vertical Farm food production that will meet up to 90% of the cities' food requirements.

[00101 ] The Cluster City is designed around a transit-to-transit transportation system that has a walkabie distance to adjacent micro-cities. Use of light-rail, autonomous vehicles, walking and human-powered machines (bicycles) allow for movement above and below ground. As a self-contained-city, the Micro-Cities will have over 50% of occupants remaining within the city daily. Internal movement is vertically by high-speed elevator and horizontally by foot. The remainder of people will commute for work and visit nearby cities. They will be able to choose their transportation requirements with six ecological ways to get to their destination.

[00102] The primary foundation of these new cities is the orientation towards the Principles of Ecology to insure that all the inhabitants are living in balanced harmony with Nature, instead of contaminating Nature.

[00103] Under this new Cluster City design solid city sprawl is eliminated and replaced with intermittently located high-density Micro-Cities that occupy less than 10% of the Cluster City's area. The space between the Micro-Cities is then returned to Nature as dedicated "Wildness Preserves" land.

[00104] With most heat absorbing, hard-surfaces eliminated (roads, parking lots & buildings); solar energy is relegated to the production of photosynthesis within plant leaves. The absence of manmade hard surfaces eliminates the "Heat Island" effect where heat is absorbed in hard surfaces and remains all night instead of cooling over night with cooler mornings. This can result in a 3-4 degree C difference in ambient heat.

[00105] Creation of an on-site food supply will greatly alter the impact of humans on the Earth by reducing millions of hectares under the plow, thus reducing an ecological footprint. This footprint measures the Earth's productivity per hectare versus consumptive use. Reduction of external farmland and Human Ecological Footprint of City will mean a tremendous reduction in the ecological stress that cities play upon the countiyside. Cities will be able to reduce their impact on the Earth from an Ecological Footprint of 6.0-7.0 down to 0.4.

[00106] New Cluster Cities will be the most effective means employed anywhere on the Earth to mitigate human environmental damage and to restore harmony with Nature.

[00107] Sustainabiiity is referred to as an integration of basic support systems that include the immediate environment of each building with the collective support processes of the immediate city so that the entire Cluster City becomes a self-sufficient, self- supporting entity not requiring external import of materials and the export of waste for the City to exist. These basic life support systems include:

[00108] AIR - the air we breathe must be balanced at 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen. It must be held at 18-22 degrees C temperature with 50% humidity. Filtering eliminates all pollutants (chemical, pollen, dust, mites, insects, bacteria & viruses). Oxygen enhancement will become necessary as the environment changes. These features are provided by the embodiments described above.

[00109] WATER - the improved city systems above will employ Net-Zero Water techniques to eliminate any use of groundwater sourcing to maintain the Micro-Cities; as well as all food production and manufacturing areas.

[00110] FOOD - the above described Vertical Farm technology will allow food to be created without the Sun. Clean energy LED lighting will be included to produce food through photosynthetic hydroponic and aeroponic techniques and perfect nutrient solutions that create food that is superior to organically grown techniques. Such eliminates the use of toxic chemicals to combat insect and disease pests.

[0011 1] W^ASTE- the Cluster Cities place waste within the realm of a circular economy. Solid waste is separated into metals, glass, plastics and organics. All waste is processed and placed back into the economy with much less new materials entering the city boundaries. Liquid waste is processed into water and solids, which are sterilized, separated, then dried and finally returned to the soil or into the food production system. Air Pollution is virtually eliminated with electric power generation from clean energy sources (e.g. nuclear) and monitoring of industrial processes.

[00112] ENERGY - energy requirements for the entire city (e.g. cluster city or micro- city) must also be considered. A factory city will require more energy for robotic assembly, handling of raw materials and finished goods. Food production consumes energy as artificial LED light is replacing sunlight. This requires considerable energy and a robotic system for plant movement. Air conditioning with its many aspects requires large amounts of energy. Lastly, an all-electric transportation system has a large energy footprint to power trains and autonomous vehicles. All demands of the City must be viewed for these 24x7 (constant) requirements.

[001 13] These power demands need to be examined in terms of Base-load Power generation that is 24x7 (constant). This is the power that supplies 80%-85% of a city's energy requirements. Small Modular Nuclear (Uranium & Thorium) Generation IV units may be buried in the ground to provide power for the above described cities. Under this system there is no wasted fissile fuel (no radioactive waste storage requirements), no chance for meltdown and no energy loss from long-distance delivery. There wi ll be abundant clean energy with none of the negative effects of 60 year old nuclear designs, none of the adverse atmospheric problems associated with burning coal, oil and natural gas.

[00114] A small modular nuclear reactor may be buried underground in a concrete and steel encased vault with ultra-high security. The reactor may be controlled automatically with no direct personnel in the facility in which the reactor is housed. A fissile charge may last for 10 to 20 years before requiring refueling. A Pebble Bed core design or other fissile delivery system may be applied to reduce or eliminate the likelihood of a nuclear meltdown. Helium gas heat exchange operations may be applied to eliminate the need of pressure domes that usually involve water. Helium is an inert gas that does not transfer radiation from a core to electrical turbines. Nuclear reactors may be placed in parallel to increase generated wattage according to energy demand. Fissile fuel may be produced from old stored Uranium or from thorium.

[00115] BUILD TNG - the design and technology to produce this lifestyle will require new designs of how a Mega-structure is engineered and how it functions for mixed-use. This will push technology into new realms of environmental containment, sensor detection, building envelope thermal and impact resistance, environmental controls, material flow, gas and heat exchange, elevator transport of large volume of people to higher levels and waste flow processing never before achieved.

[00116] Each Micro-City will require special architectural design to produce unique, living green (eco-friendly) entities that will enable humans to survive the coming environmental changes facing the human race in the near future. [001 17] HEALTH - it is the responsibility of the system design to optimize the health of the occupants. With health being defined as "the condition of being sound in body, mind, or spirit; freedom from physical disease or pain". The objective in this creation is for the system to create environmental stability that can buffer its citizens from the harm of a rapidly changing and degrading world. It is necessary that extreme conditions must be anticipated such that the built environment will be able to adjust to exterior environmental decay. New building standards need to be made that will predict increased Natural Threats to people and their built-environment.

[00118] SAFETY/SECURITY- the herein described buildings may be engineered and designed to withstand intermittent threats such as severe wind, hail, floods, fires, pandemic disease penetration and earthquakes. With proper design coastal facilities, including ports, the buildings and structures described herein will be able withstand Sea Level Rise for at least 100-150 years.

[00119] The buildings must be designed to protect against external threats both natural and man-made. Insects such mosquitoes, ticks, roaches and flies, as well as parasitic worms and rodents are vectors for disease transmission. Zoonosis can allow diseases to be transferred from pets and other animals in contact with humans. All portals must be employed to prevent entrance of disease carriers, while the buildings should be capable of being hermetically sealed on temporary and permanent basis as the need occurs. The air handling system shall be equipped with filters and UV sterilizers to prevent disease spread within.

[00120] In addition, the separation of Micro-Cities allows means to slow the spread of vector dispersed pandemic disease, chaos, mayhem and crime. It will minimize damage from terrorism and sabotage. This physical isolation will also assist in thwarting cyber- attacks and corporate subversion due to individual cloud formations.

[00121] Lastly, each Micro-City will maintain its own Resilience Plan for recovery from any damage and the overall Cluster City system will maintain repair equipment on-site to rework any damage.

[00122] Cluster Cities incorporate the following physical attributes. Cluster Cities are designed with modular Micro-Cities that are capabl e of being modified in size and location to achieve desired results indicated by the present disclosure. The high-density Micro- Cities flourish internally with high-speed elevators for vertical transport and pedestrian horizontal movement. The herein described Cluster City of 2.5 million people may occupy an area 125 km sq., yielding a density over 2,000people/hectare while occupying only 10% of the land in an area the Cluster City generally extends through (e.g. a general area of the above described circular arrangement that forms the Cluster City) and providing additional use of 10% of the occupied land for food production (e.g. via the Vertical Farm). The Micro-Cities are located in concentric circular patterns, a walkable distance apart (e.g. radially) which optimizes rapid transit-to-transit mass transportation while allowing slower pedestrian traffic alternatives. Each Micro-City achieves a unique, showcased appearance that stands alone and is separate from other buildings within the Cluster City. As a mega- structure, the Micro-City includes a multitude of towers ranging from 20 stories to over 100 stories. The towers have internal and rooftop observation decks. The towers may connect to adjacent towers with Sky bridges also assisting in fire evacuation. The Cluster City has a finite completed size that is defined with boundaries to dismiss sprawl. Growth is continued through construction of adjacent Cluster Cities, each with a specialized, programmable functional design. Adjacent Cluster Cities are linked together with transportation and communications to form larger, Regional Cities. The Micro-Cities may be built at the least to 21st Century Green Building standards with abundant clean water and food, purified air and abundant non-polluting energy. The Micro-Cities are linked with Smart City digital communications and designed to easily accept new improved modification through trunk line fiber optics and city-wide Wi-Fi (wireless) transmissions. This will allow for immediate distribution of Knowledge and Culture through all digital portals. The Cluster City further links all the Micro-cities together with Smart City- technology that will employ the most current building sensor control systems that cannot be retrofitted to older buildings. A major improvement is the layered transportation system which includes light rail, autonomous vehicles, human powered machines and pedestrian walkway; ail on separated levels that reduces occupying the land surface. Extreme efficiency will dictate that not only the transportation time within the City be reduced but also inclement weather (rain, snow, hail, heat & cold) and air pollution (chemical, pollen and insect infection) be eliminated for each transportation journey. [00123] The above system provides high-density mixed-use living environments providing peak work performance. The high-density living environments may occur in various zones of the Micro-Cities with periodic densities reaching over 2,000 people/ hectare. This will make the Micro-Cities a network of the highest density work centers in the world, while injecting an Ecological Environment in between to reduce stress and tension.

[00124] This urban network of Micro-Cities is from a broad perspective similar to an electronic LAN communication system with smart computer terminals linked into a master system (Cluster City) whose total computing power and efficiency can become exponentially stronger.

[00125] A major efficiency component of these new cities is the radial approach of the Micro-Cities within the context of a circular Transit-to-Transit transportation network. By reducing the area of each Micro-City, the distance to a Metro Station is kept to a minimum (maximum of 500m) while allowing a maximum number of riders' access to both directions in above and below ground transit. By providing ail occupants short distances to Metro Stations greater ridership and dependence on the system for transportation will lend city occupants to use the system more frequently. With many people commuting to different work locations from where they live, transit time efficiency allows for either more work or more personal time.

[00126] One of the elements of the Transportation System is the Autonomous Vehicles. These vehicles may require sensor embedments in road surfaces to operate autonomously. The transportation system for 2.5 million people will be accomplished with about 220 km of layered transportation corridors.

[00127] Cost cutting techniques may be employed in the Micro-City design that allows low cost smaller towers to spread the footprint of the mega-structure so that the taller towers will be anchored to a larger base and reduce the cost of the moment connection anchoring. Likewise creation of monolithic foundations can be utilized to stabilize each of the component towers and hence reduce costs.

[00128] By using modular designs of mega-structure components both the initial construction costs and the maintenance costs can be reduced,

[00129] It is anticipated that higher construction costs of the high-rise elements can be offset by the addition of low cost mid-rise towers and by the reduction of many eliminated elements (roads, bridges, street lights, stop lights, pipes, and wire) of the infrastructure,

[00130] By having much greater system efficiency and higher productivity there should be an improvement of 20%-30% over current, existing cities. The efficiency profits can be used to offset increased investment expenses.

[00131] High-density cities, like the Cluster City, may be feasible with an ideal balanced distance between Micro-Cities that allows for both pedestrian ground movement and transit to transit stops. Further, the herein described protected transportation structures and enclosed cities will protect inhabitants from climate change and traditional weather.

[00132] The system may include Greenhouse Gas-free energy systems, such as the new Generation IV nuclear reactor designs or the like created in factory reproducible Small Modular Reactor units that are buried within the ground. Renewable energy sources (solar & wind) may be used to supplement the system during peak hour requirements.

[00133] It is anticipated that coastal Cluster Cities will include perimeter walls to protect against sea-level rise. Further, the towers or structures above may be shaped aerodynamicaliy to increase air flow within the cities and subsequently to eliminate heat islands. The aerodynamicaliy shaped towers, radiating canals, and wildness areas may be shaped specifically to direct wind and reflect the absorption of solar energy into the Earth,

[00134] In some embodiments, a water cistern may be located at a bottom of any of the herein building facilities to store purified water. Any of the herein disclosed buildings may be insulated, and the cistern may act as a geo-thermal heat stabilizer for stabilizing temperature variation inside the buildings. Air humidity variation inside the building structures may be eliminated or reduced with by including or employing dehurnidifiers that return moisture from human respiration into the water supply. Human exhausted air may be scrubbed of C02, which may be piped into the Vertical Farms, and thereafter supplemented with new 02 from an electrolysis generator. [00135] The Layered Transportation Corridors may connect all modular structures within each cluster above and/or below ground level. Disposed above the ground may be pedestrian and pedestrian wheel-powered enclosed pedestrian walkways, elevated light train or monorail, automation vehicles and cable gondolas. Disposed below ground may be pedestrian subway, freight subway, food & waste conveyors, power & communication cables, water pipes, air ducts, and pedestrian walkway tunnels. The factory ring may include adjacent stalls (internal building separations) or include consecutive buildings that comprise the factory rings. The overall size of the factory ring complex may be related to government requirements for factory production. Such factory buildings may be designed for expansion by increasing their height. The factory ring may contain a heavy freight train transportation system in the middle of the structure to move raw materials in and finished goods out. Freight elevators may be placed in each factory sub-unit to transport materials to the train system located below. Industrial heat and waste evacuation (solid & gaseous) may be available to each individual factory sub-unit.

[00136] The city systems may allow movement vertically via high-speed elevator locomotion within each micro-city or single-use tower. Movement of goods and materials may be accomplished on different sub-levels so as to not interfere with human movement. Movement of goods within the city may be accomplished via power-assisted vehicles. The factory ring may provide a proximate location for manufacturing, industry, and jobs relative to housing in Micro-Cities. For example, workers may be provided housing in Micro-Cities that are within walking distance of provided jobs for the workers, reducing long, and energy consumptive commuting.

[00137] The vertical farm ring may provide a reliable supply of food for all inhabitants. The food may be free of contaminants and nutritionally rich in the basic building blocks for supporting human life. Through algae production plant nutrients required for hydroponic and aeroponic growth may be created by the vertical farm structure(s). Dehydrated sludge and solid waste may be mechanically transported to the vertical farm structure where aerobic and anaerobic decomposition occurs. The farm roof may include a collector of rainwater that is dispersed back to all of the Micro-Cities. Waste containing heavy metals may be placed in bio-remediation tanks where plants and algae utilize the waste for food and end up purifying the remains, which may be dried and applied to soil to increase organic composition.

[00138] The above described ecological, sustainable, and high performance cities may replace existing cities in all locations. For example, the cities may be created from farmland near existing cities or through demolition of segments of existing cities until complete replacement is established.

[00139] The cluster cities may have a medium density of 5,000 people per square kilometer or a high density of more than 25,000 people per square kilometer. The density of the cities may be rated as property limits of the Cluster City (e.g. set by government or computer regulation). The population of a Cluster City may be between 0.4 to over 3.0 million people with Micro-City populations of 10,000 to 100,000 people.

[00140] The cities (e.g. Micro or Cluster cities) may vary from financial centers, manufacturing centers, mining centers, agricultural centers, resort/tourist centers, fishing centers, forestry centers, mountain centers, recreational/amusement centers, educational centers, high-security centers, medical/health centers, and shipping centers. The geographic location of the cities may be adjacent rivers or lakes or in plans, valleys, mountains, deserts, or islands. The cities may act as harbors and may be located in coastal regions or near seashore. The cities facilitate cultural or ethnic uniqueness while allowing inhabitants to flourish and survive climate change perturbations. The cities may provide opportunities for a wide range of wealth classes (e.g. upper, middle, lower). Most inhabitants may be required to obtain a minimum of 10 years of basic education, and may be provided college, university, and doctorate degree opportunities.

[00141] The modular Micro-Cities and single-use towers may integrate into a larger Cluster-City with their own central government and economy. The Cluster cities may be designed in many different variable forms depending on national and regional central planning requirements.

[00142] The Layered Transportation System for each Cluster City may be built as a functioning concentric ring (either circular, ovular, or elongated) with functioning portal stations operating to completed micro-cities for transporting inhabitants. The herein described transportation systems will occupy a minimum space at ground level and instead use multiple stacked levels, each level being dedicated or devoted to a mode of transportation. This stacked arrangement maximizes transportation capacity while minimizing ground surface area required for the transportation corridor. For example the transportation system provides various modes of transportation within a tightly defined corridor of stacked levels. This configuration narrows or focuses human presence for transportation such that more land is returned to nature. The transportation corridors will exist both above and below ground on a same or different footprint. The Cluster Cities limit a horizontal sprawl by including 20 to 150 floor buildings above ground in very high density. The Micro-Cities position high-density footprints with great open space between them, returning space and Sand back to nature (a feature known as Retractable Development). This feature allows "wildness areas" to repopulate with many species normally denied their original habitat by prior city systems. Such wildness areas also act as segregation barriers that may stop or slow pandemic disease from spreading. The structures may have security entrances (portals) that thermally scan and test inhabitants for disease. Additionally, the security portals maintain separate or block air flow from entering into the rest of a Micro-City, since the Micro-Cities are sealed from outside air contaminants.

[00143] The vertical farms may be fully automated with robotic controls of temperature, moisture, water, nutrients, pH levels, light, and gases. All growt activities may be monitored and controlled by a computer program to enhance the nutrition of the food grown. Vertical farms exist in a circular format to minimize a distance from Micro-Cities that food and waste must flow.

[00144] A single location may be determined in each Cluster city to build and maintain an underground, small modular nuclear facility which may have an underground micro- grid power supply directed to all Micro-Cities (mixed-use), Single-Use structures, Factory Ring, and Vertical Farm structures within each Cluster city. Using such nuclear energy- provides an uninterrupted supply of renewable energy for inhabitants within each Cluster City, virtually no energy loss in transmission from the source of the energy to users, industrial heat for production of steel, aluminum, glass and cement, a heat source for electrolysis that separates water into breathable oxygen and hydrogen for mobile fuel ceil operation, cogeneration of waste heat using a Rankin turbine electrical generation process, and reactor heat evaporative distillation of seawater for pure water for injection into city water supply.

[00145] It is anticipated that a computing system may be included to control building or constructing the various structures described herein. Such a computing system may control and regulate the acquiring, processing, distributing, and consuming of resources. Further, the computing system may regulate the various transportation systems described above to safely transport goods, commodities, products, building materials, and/or inhabitants. As such, the computing system may include various sensors to determine the appropriate distribution, control, or regulation of any of the above elements, commonly known as smart cities.

[00146] In conclusion, an ecological, sustainable, and high performance city system is disclosed, the system being configured to improve economic efficiency and performance. The system may comprise a plurality of concentric micro-city rings arranged for concentrated human living and surrounding a central core building arrangement, each ring including a plurality of micro-cities. The concentric micro-city rings may be configured to: allow transportation of goods and people at high speeds without cross-traffic interruptions of single level intersections, allow increased traffic flow while maintaining a same relative velocity by reducing intermodal space of low speed traffic, the low speed traffic being pedestrian traffic or human powered vehicle traffic, allow transporting small containers of goods intra and inter-city autonomously in a particular autonomous transportation level, allow human powered movement within each micro-city and between micro-cities due to short distances and time durations between journeys, allow a higher volume and activity of vertical people movement relative to horizontal people movement, allow over half of all driving activities to be short distance for school, groceries and/or entertainment without leaving a micro-city, while longer inter-city trips to work are executed via rapid transit and autonomous vehicles in short durations, and allow a higher density of human occupancy that creates more human interaction allowing for more business and social contact frequency.

[00147] The system may include a building arrangement, the building arrangement having building elements, where the building elements have a modular configuration allowing for system interchangeability, and the building elements may have: a varying height, shape, volume, and human density, varying locations of office and residential buildings, and varying locations of food and factory rings.

[00148] The micro-cities may provide improved security via a nodal configuration, the nodal configuration providing space between adjacent micro-cities, where the improved security may be facilitated by: physical security structures configured to isolate crime within a small and localized population to reduce crime incidence, and cyber-security systems localized and protected via isolated control of operation that is configured to be off a grid.

[00149] The central core building arrangement may be predominated with very high density office and residential populations to stimulate greater human activity and connectedness. The city system may be configured to provide a building environment configured to protect inhabitants from pollution. The city system may include air purification and recycling systems within each micro-city to keep occupants healthy by keeping the occupants from breathing harmful impurities and harmful biological agents of outside air. The air purification and recycling system may be supplemented with extra oxygen, wherein each micro-city provides occupants with purified and recycled water for reducing ingested harmful contaminants found in groundwater sources, the water being provided via a constant water supply regardless of how scarce external water resources are.

[00150] The system may include at least one radial transportation corridor radially configured for providing transportation between the micro-city rings and the central core building arrangement, the transportation corridor having environmental enhancements to allow comfortable movement on pedestrian and human powered levels to counter undesirable outside conditions, and at least one non-radial transportation corridor ring configured for providing transportation between micro-cities in each micro-city ring. A micro-city may include a system for providing clean and non-polluting locally produced energy via the implementation of: micro-grids to eliminate power loss in long-distance transmission, base-load power supplied by small modular nuclear reactors, high- temperature generating systems for industrial production of steel, aluminum, glass, and cement, and using renewable resources such as wind and solar for peak energy demands.

[00151] The city system may be configured for providing ecological harmony such that: ecological balance is achieved within city limits, land is returned back to nature such that unused land is returned to native growth and wild animal populations, such that high density micro-cities use approximately 10% of land compared to current low-rise sprawls, such that a layered transportation corridor uses 1% of land compared to current surface road systems having equivalent traffic volume that use over 30% land space, heat islands are reduced by eliminating road and parking lot surfaces to return land for growing foliage which converts heat into plant material, and by reducing building surfaces exposed to sunlight by incorporating trees onto buildings, using roof gardens, and by increasing building height to surface area ratios, thus reducing constant roof surface exposure, such that air flow is increased via implementing less overall surface area to smaller tall buildings, such that there is much more open space between large tali buildings allowing more horizontal air flow movement to reduce trapped heat, such that building presence is only approximately 10% of total area of a cluster city, turning hard building surfaces into softer areas to return land back to forests air flow is increased via implementing less tall buildings such that buildings contribute less to horizontal air flow movement and reduce trapped heat, and such that building presence is approximately 10% of a total area of a micro-city.

[00152] Lakes, ponds, and streams may be created to act as heat buffers allowing more surface air flow. Solid and liquid waste recycling may be achieved by chemically reversing existing landfill processes through heat and bio-chemical interaction. Packaging of food may be changed to support ecological harmony by altering food production systems, land used for supply requirements may be reduced reduced, farmland may be returned to nature, where plant production with harmful chemicals and saline water introductions may be stopped and feedlot contamination for animal production may be stopped, forest reduction may be slowed via greater replanting and reducing or eliminating the use of trees for products or as building materials, surface and ground water may be allowed to return to a natural balance, less mining may be done and tailing .may be returned into tunnels, atmosphere may be renewed by reducing carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas production. Land, rivers, and lakes may receive much less discarded pollutants such that water systems may be prevented from being contaminated and an ecological footprint of a city may be 0.5 or 0.4 hectares per person compared to traditional cities having 6.0 hectares per person for a same population number. [00153] The system may further comprise at least one factor}' ring and at least one farm ring, where the factory ring allows for commercial production and distribution of goods within a concentric micro-city via: non-interrupted two-way concentric rail tracks, one or more continuous entrances and exits for self-motive train cars that merge goods into a parade for loading and unloading goods along main tracks, and one or more manufacturing plants that are configured to receive raw materials and produce value-added labor and expel goods in a routing system for further completion or end-use distribution.

[00154] The system may further comprise at least one factory ring and at least one farm ring, wherein the farm ring produces locally grown indoor hydroponic and aeroponic food that is free of harmful chemicals that are typically used to defeat insects and disease, the food being free of the harmful chemicals to maximize worker output, wherein the farm ring provides a constant supply of fresh food grown 365 days a year without being affected by aberrant climate variables, insects, disease or pollution, and wherein the farm ring implements energy efficient food production techniques and food varieties for obtaining proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins as needed for human health and well being.

[00155] As such, in some embodiments the methods or tasks described above may be executed or carried out by a computing system including a tangible computer-readable storage medium, also described herein as a storage machine, that holds machine-readable instructions executable by a logic machine (i.e. a processor or programmable control device) to provide, implement, perform, and/or enact the above described methods, processes and/or tasks. When such m ethods and processes are implemented, the state of the storage machine may be changed to hold different data. For example, the storage machine may include memory devices such as various hard disk drives, CD, or DVD devices. For example, data may be stored for developing big data analytics for greater digital control. Also various cloud storage systems with cyber attack defenses may be included in the Cluster Cities or each Micro-City, or any structure or element thereof. The logic machine may execute machine-readable instructions via one or more physical information and/or logic processing devices. For example, the logic machine may be configured to execute instructions to perform tasks for a computer program. The logic machine may include one or more processors to execute the machine-readable instructions. The computing system may include a display subsystem to display a graphical user interface (GUI) or any visual element of the methods or processes described above. For example, the display subsystem, storage machine, and logic machine may be integrated such that the above method may be executed while visual elements of the disclosed system and/or method are displayed on a display screen for user consumption. The computing system may include an input subsystem that receives user input. The input subsystem may be configured to connect to and receive input from devices such as a mouse, keyboard or gaming controller. For example, a user input may indicate a request that certain task is to be executed by the computing system, such as requesting the computing system to display any of the above described information, or requesting that the user input updates or modifies existing stored information for processing. A communication subsystem may allow the methods or tasks described above to be executed or provided over a computer network. For example, the communication subsystem may be configured to enable the computing system to communicate with a plurality of personal computing devices. The communication subsystem may include wired and/or wireless communication devices to facilitate networked communication. The described methods or processes may be executed, provided, or implemented for a user or one or more computing devices via a computer- program product such as via an application programming interface (API). In some embodiments 3D holographic, augmented reality, or mixed reality computer systems may be included. For example, augmented reality computing systems may display 3D holograms or computer renderings in real space, such as in designated holographic rooms or in the various office or specialy facilities described above. For example, augmented reality holographic systems may be included for communication, productivity, or recreation.

[00156] Since many modifications, variations, and changes in detail can be made to the described preferred embodiments of the invention, it is intended that all matters in the foregoing description and shown in the accompanying drawings be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense. Thus, the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalents.