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Title:
IMPROVED FIRE COLLAR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/130979
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Known fire collars may be made from multiple components that must be assembled to retain an intumescent or may be made from costly materials. The fire collar of the present disclosure comprises a collar body having an outer surface adapted to be cast into a building partition, the collar body defining a bore adapted to receive a pipe or duct therethrough and at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion extending inwardly into the bore for retaining an intumescent material within the bore, and the outer surface comprising at least one retainer adapted to retain the collar body in the partition after casting, wherein the retainer extends inwardly from the outer surface to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion.

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Inventors:
PORTER, Raymond (163 Longwood Rd, Heathfield, 5153, 5153, AU)
DUBROWSKI, Darius (1 Scotland Road, Mile End SouthAdelaide, SA 5031, SA 5031, AU)
Application Number:
IB2018/050199
Publication Date:
July 19, 2018
Filing Date:
January 12, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PROMAT AUSTRALIA PTY LTD (1 Scotland Road, Mile End SouthAdelaide, SA 5031, SA 5031, AU)
International Classes:
A62C2/06; A62C3/16; E04F17/08; F16L5/04; F16L55/00; H02G3/10; H02G3/22
Foreign References:
EP1293714A12003-03-19
DE29712909U11997-11-27
US20030192269A12003-10-16
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FISHER ADAMS KELLY CALLINANS (Patent and Trade Marks Attorneys, Level 6 175 Eagle Stree, Brisbane QLD 4000, AU)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A cast in fire collar assembly comprising:

a collar body having an outer surface adapted to be cast into a building partition, the collar body defining a bore adapted to receive a pipe or duct therethrough and comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion extending inwardly into the bore for retaining an intumescent material within the bore, and the outer surface comprising at least one retainer, the retainer adapted to retain the collar body in the partition, wherein the retainer extends inwardly from the outer surface to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion; and

an intumescent material.

2. The fire collar assembly of claim 1, wherein the retainer comprises at least one groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion.

3. The fire collar assembly of claim 1 or 2, wherein the retainer comprises a continuous groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form a continuous intumescent material retaining protrusion.

4. The fire collar assembly of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the retainer comprises an annular groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form an annular intumescent material retaining protrusion.

5. The fire collar assembly of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the intumescent material is retained in the bore.

6. The fire collar assembly of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the intumescent material is adjacent at least a part of an outer surface of the pipe or duct.

7. The fire collar assembly of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the intumescent material surrounds the pipe or duct.

8. The fire collar assembly of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion comprises a first inwardly extending wall which extends inwardly into the bore from an outer wall of the collar body, and adjoins a first wall facing the bore.

9. The fire collar assembly of claim 8, wherein the first wall surrounds the bore.

10. The fire collar assembly of any one of the preceding claims, wherein a first narrowed portion of the bore is defined by the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion.

11. The fire collar assembly of claim 10, wherein a second narrowed portion of the bore is defined by a second inwardly extending wall which extends inwardly into the bore from an outer wall of the collar body, and adjoins a second wall facing the bore.

12. The fire collar assembly of claim 11, wherein the second wall surrounds the bore. 13. The fire collar assembly of claim 11 or 12, wherein an intumescent holding channel is defined by the first narrowed portion of the bore, the second narrowed portion of the bore, and an intervening region of the bore between the first and second narrowed portions, the intervening region having a greater lateral width than either of the first or second narrowed portions.

14. The fire collar assembly of any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion forms part of an intumescent holding channel.

15. The fire collar assembly of claim 13 or 14, wherein the intumescent material is retained in the intumescent holding channel.

16. The fire collar assembly of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the retainer also extends outwardly from the outer surface. 17. The fire collar assembly of claim 16, wherein the retainer comprises at least one protrusion extending from the outer surface.

18. The fire collar assembly of claim 16 or 17, wherein the retainer comprises at least one ridge extending from the outer surface.

19. The fire collar assembly of any one of claims 16 to 18, wherein the retainer comprises a continuous ridge extending from the outer surface.

20. The fire collar assembly of any one of claims 16 to 19, wherein the retainer comprises an annular ridge extending from the outer surface.

21. The fire collar assembly of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the pipe or duct has an outer diameter and at least a portion of the bore has a diameter substantially the same as or larger than the outer diameter of the pipe or duct.

22. A cast in fire collar comprising a fire collar assembly according to any one of the preceding claims.

23. A cast in fire collar comprising:

a collar body having an outer surface adapted to be cast into a building partition, the collar body defining a bore adapted to receive a pipe or duct therethrough and comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion extending inwardly into the bore for retaining an intumescent material within the bore and the outer surface comprising at least one retainer, the retainer adapted to retain the collar body in the partition, wherein the retainer extends inwardly from the outer surface to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion.

24. The cast in fire collar of claim 22 or 23, wherein the retainer comprises at least one groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion. 25. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 22 to 24, wherein the retainer comprises a continuous groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form a continuous intumescent material retaining protrusion.

26. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 22 to 25, wherein the retainer comprises an annular groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form an annular intumescent material retaining protrusion. 27. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 22 to 26, wherein the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion comprises a first inwardly extending wall which extends inwardly into the bore from an outer wall of the collar body, and adjoins a first wall facing the bore.

28. The cast in fire collar of claim 27, wherein the first wall surrounds the bore.

29. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 22 to 28, wherein a first narrowed portion is provided by the or each one intumescent material retaining protrusion.

30. The cast in fire collar of claim 29, wherein a second narrowed portion is defined by a second inwardly extending wall which extends inwardly into the bore from an outer wall of the collar body, and adjoins a second wall facing the bore.

31. The cast in fire collar of claim 30, wherein the second wall surrounds the bore. 32. The cast in fire collar of claim 30 or 31, wherein an intumescent holding channel is defined by the first narrowed portion of the bore, the second narrowed portion of the bore, and an intervening region of the bore between the first and second narrowed portions, the intervening region having a greater lateral width than either of the first or second narrowed portions.

33. The cast in fire collar of any one claims 22 to 32, wherein the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion forms part of an intumescent holding channel.

34. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 22 to 33, wherein the retainer also extends outwardly from the outer surface. 35. The cast in fire collar of claim 34, wherein the retainer comprises at least one protrusion extending from the outer surface.

36. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 34 or 35, wherein the retainer comprises at least one ridge extending from the outer surface.

37. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 34 to 36, wherein the retainer comprises a continuous ridge extending from the outer surface.

38. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 34 to 37, wherein the retainer comprises an annular ridge extending from the outer surface.

39. The cast in fire collar of any one of claims 22 to 38, wherein the pipe or duct has an outer diameter and at least a portion of the bore has a diameter substantially the same as or larger than the outer diameter of the pipe or duct.

40. A fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material, the fire collar comprising a cast in fire collar of any one of claims 22 to 39.

41. A fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material, the fire collar comprising a collar body having an outer surface adapted to be cast into the building partition, the collar body defining a bore adapted to receive a pipe or duct therethrough and comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion extending inwardly into the bore for retaining an intumescent material within the bore and the outer surface comprising at least one retainer, the retainer adapted to retain the collar body in the partition, wherein the retainer extends inwardly from the outer surface to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion; and wherein the settable material of the partition is keyed around the or each retainer to define at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion in the settable material.

42. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 40 to 41, wherein the retainer comprises at least one groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion.

43. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 40 to 42, wherein the retainer comprises a continuous groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form a continuous intumescent material retaining protrusion.

44. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 40 to 43, wherein the retainer comprises an annular groove formed in the outer surface to thereby form an annular intumescent material retaining protrusion.

45. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 40 to 44, wherein the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion comprises a first inwardly extending wall which extends inwardly into the bore from an outer wall of the collar body, and adjoins a first wall facing the bore.

46. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 45, wherein the first wall surrounds the bore.

47. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 40 to 46, wherein a first narrowed portion of the bore is defined by the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion.

48. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 47, wherein a second narrowed portion of the bore is defined by a second inwardly extending wall which extends inwardly into the bore from an outer wall of the collar body, and adjoins a second wall facing the bore.

49. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 48, wherein the second wall surrounds the bore.

50. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 48 or 49, wherein an intumescent holding channel is defined by the first narrowed portion of the bore, the second narrowed portion of the bore, and an intervening region of the bore between the first and second narrowed portions, the intervening region having a greater lateral width than either of the first or second narrowed portions. 51. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one claims 40 to 49, wherein the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion forms part of an intumescent holding channel.

52. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 40 to 51, further comprising an intumescent material retained in the bore.

53. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 50, further comprising an intumescent material retained in the intervening region of the bore between the first and second narrowed portions.

54. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 40 to 53, wherein the intumescent material is adjacent at least a part of an outer surface of the pipe or duct.

55. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 40 to 54, wherein the intumescent material surrounds the pipe or duct.

56. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 40 to 55, wherein the retainer comprises at least one protrusion extending from the outer surface. 57. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 56, wherein the retainer comprises at least one ridge extending from the outer surface.

58. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 56 or 57, wherein the retainer comprises a continuous ridge extending from the outer surface.

59. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 56 to 58, wherein the retainer comprises an annular ridge extending from the outer surface.

60. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of any one of claims 40 to 59, wherein the pipe or duct has an outer diameter and at least a portion of the bore has a diameter substantially the same as or larger than the outer diameter of the pipe or duct.

61. The fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material of claim 60, in use and in the event of a fire, either one or both of the intumescent material retaining protrusion of the collar body and the intumescent material retaining protrusion in the settable material, directs at least some of an expanding intumescent substance at the pipe or duct in the bore.

62. A building partition comprising the fire collar of any one of claims 40 to 61.

Description:
IMPROVED FIRE COLLAR

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present disclosure relates to service shut off devices and more particularly to fire collars. BACKGROUND [0002] Fire collars are placed around service lines such as pipes, ducts or cable trays where they pass through a building partition such as a wall or soffit so that in the event of a fire intumescent material associated with the fire collar expands and closes off any gap in the partition to prevent the fire passing from one part of a building to another. Nowadays, many of the service pipes used in buildings are made of plastic and, in the event of fire, plastic pipes start to deform. Once the pipe starts to deform, the intumescent material in the fire collar expands, closing off the plastic pipe or combustible insulation, and thus forming an insulating barrier. The intumescent material continues to expand over the course of the fire and forms a char which prevents flame and hot gases passing into adjacent parts of a building through the partition.

[0003] Known fire collars are typically made from multiple components that must be assembled at an appropriate time with fasteners or the like. Alternatively, known fire collars are of unitary construction with an intumescent distributed throughout the unitary body of the device which may increase manufacturing costs. Generally, known fire collars have to be fixed in position on the partition using a suitable attachment means.

[0004] There is a need to provide a fire collar that improves upon, or at least provides a viable alternative to known fire collars.

SUMMARY

[0005] According to a first aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a cast in fire collar assembly comprising a collar body having an outer surface adapted to be cast into a building partition, the collar body defining a bore adapted to receive a pipe or duct therethrough comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion extending inwardly into the bore for retaining an intumescent material within the bore, and the outer surface comprising at least one retainer, the retainer adapted to retain the collar body in the partition, wherein the retainer extends inwardly from the outer surface to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion; and an intumescent material. [0006] According to a second aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a cast in fire collar comprising a collar body having an outer surface adapted to be cast into a building partition, the collar body defining a bore adapted to receive a pipe or duct therethrough and comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion extending inwardly into the bore for retaining an intumescent material within the bore and the outer surface comprising at least one retainer, the retainer adapted to retain the collar body in the partition, wherein the retainer extends inwardly from the outer surface to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion. According to this aspect, the cast in fire collar may comprise a cast in fire collar assembly according to the first aspect of the invention.

[0007] According to a third aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material, the fire collar comprising a collar body having an outer surface adapted to be cast into the building partition, the collar body defining a bore adapted to receive a pipe or duct therethrough and comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion extending inwardly into the bore for retaining an intumescent material within the bore and the outer surface comprising at least one retainer, the retainer adapted to retain the collar body in the partition, wherein the retainer extends inwardly from the outer surface to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion; and wherein the settable material of the partition is keyed around the or each retainer to define at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion in the settable material. According to this aspect, the fire collar cast into a building partition of settable material may comprise a cast in fire collar assembly according to the first aspect of the invention and/or a cast in fire collar according to the second aspect of the invention.

[0008] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the retainer that extends inwardly from the outer surface can be filled with concrete or other material in the casting process which results in the fire collar being "keyed in" to the building partition after casting. In specific embodiments, the retainer comprises at least one groove formed in the outer surface, such as a continuous groove formed in the outer surface or an annular groove formed in the outer surface. Thereby, the retainer forms the inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion, which may be at least one ridge, continuous or annular.

[0009] In certain embodiments of the third aspect, the fire collar comprises an intumescent material. In certain embodiments of the first and third aspects, the intumescent material is retained in the bore. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material is adjacent at least a part of an outer surface of the pipe or duct. In particular embodiments, the intumescent material surrounds the pipe or duct.

[0010] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion comprises a first inwardly extending wall which extends inwardly into the bore from an outer wall of the collar body, and adjoins a first wall facing the bore. [0011] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the first wall surrounds the bore.

[0012] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, a first narrowed portion of the bore is defined by the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion.

[0013] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, a second narrowed portion of the bore is defined by a second inwardly extending wall which extends inwardly into the bore from an outer wall of the collar body, and adjoins a second wall facing the bore.

[0014] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the second wall surrounds the bore.

[0015] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, an intumescent holding channel is defined by the first narrowed portion of the bore, the second narrowed portion of the bore, and an intervening region of the bore between the first and second narrowed portions, the intervening region having a greater lateral width than either of the first or second narrowed portions.

[0016] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the or each intumescent material retaining protrusion forms part of an intumescent holding channel.

[0017] In certain embodiments where an intumescent material is present (eg the first aspect), the intumescent material is retained in the intumescent holding channel.

[0018] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the collar body is a unitary body.

[0019] In certain other embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the retainer also extends outwardly from the outer surface. In these embodiments, the retainer that extends outwardly from the outer surface can be surrounded with concrete or other material in the casting process which results in the fire collar being "keyed in" to the building partition after casting. In specific embodiments, the retainer comprises at least one protrusion or ridge extending from the outer surface. Alternatively, the retainer may comprise a continuous ridge extending from the outer surface, for example, an annular ridge.

[0020] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the collar body further comprises at least one mounting portion, the mounting portion comprising at least one flange, wherein an outermost portion of the at least one flange extends outwardly further than the outer surface of the collar body. In certain embodiments, the mounting portion comprises an annular flange, where the annular flange extends outwardly further than the outer surface of the collar body. [0021] In certain embodiments of the first, second and third aspects, the pipe or duct has an outer diameter and at least a portion of the bore has a diameter substantially the same as or larger than the outer diameter of the pipe or duct.

[0022] The pipe or duct may be a polymeric pipe or duct or a metal pipe or duct. The polymeric pipe or duct may be an ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride), PB (polybutylene), PE (Polyethylene), PEX (Cross-linked Polyethylene), PP (Polypropylene) or a

PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) pipe or duct. The polymeric pipe or duct may be meltable or otherwise deformable at elevated temperatures above normal operating temperature.

[0023] In certain embodiments of the first aspect, in use and in the event of a fire, the intumescent holding channel of the collar body, directs at least some of an expanding intumescent substance at the pipe or duct in the bore. In certain embodiments of the third aspect, in use and in the event of a fire, either one or both of the intumescent holding channel of the collar body and the intumescent holding channel in the settable material, directs at least some of an expanding intumescent substance at the pipe or duct in the bore. [0024] According to a fourth aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a building partition comprising the fire collar of the present disclosure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0025] Embodiments of the present invention will be discussed with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein: [0026] Figure 1 is an isometric view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure;

[0027] Figure 2 is an elevation view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure;

[0028] Figure 3 is a bottom view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure and showing section A-A;

[0029] Figure 4 is an isometric view of an embodiment of the bore of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure;

[0030] Figure 5 shows section A-A of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure cast in concrete; [0031] Figure 6 is an isometric view of a further embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having two bores;

[0032] Figure 7 is an isometric view of a further embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having a square bore; [0033] Figure 8 is a bottom view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an annular flange with three holes;

[0034] Figure 9 is a bottom view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an annular flange with two holes;

[0035] Figure 10 is a bottom view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having three flanges with slots;

[0036] Figure 11 is a bottom view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having two flanges with slots;

[0037] Figure 12 is a bottom view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an annular flange with slots in an outer edge of the flange; [0038] Figure 13 is an isometric view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having a retainer that is a groove;

[0039] Figure 14 is an isometric view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having a retainer that also has a continuous ridge;

[0040] Figure 15 is an isometric view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having a retainer that also has an annular ridge;

[0041] Figure 16 is a section of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an inwardly directed protrusion that provides a narrowing bore;

[0042] Figure 17 is a ghosted view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an intumescent material installed therein; [0043] Figure 18 is a ghosted view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having a pipe or duct installed therein; [0044] Figure 19 is a top view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure;

[0045] Figure 20 is a bottom view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an annular flange with no holes; [0046] Figure 21 is an isometric view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an elongate second wall;

[0047] Figure 22 is an elevation view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an elongate second wall;

[0048] Figure 23 is a top view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an elongate second wall;

[0049] Figure 24 is a bottom view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an elongate second wall and showing section B-B;

[0050] Figure 25 shows section B-B of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an elongate second wall when cast in concrete; [0051] Figure 26 is an isometric view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an elongate retainer;

[0052] Figure 27 is an elevation view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having an elongate retainer;

[0053] Figure 28 is a cross-section of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure where the outer wall extends to a full height of the fire collar;

[0054] Figure 29 is an isometric view of a circular strip of intumescent material according to embodiments of the disclosure;

[0055] Figure 30 is isometric view of a circular strip of intumescent material having a substantially nonflammable material covering according to embodiments of the disclosure and showing section C-C; [0056] Figure 31 shows section C-C of the circular strip of intumescent material having a substantially non-flammable material covering according to embodiments of the disclosure; [0057] Figure 32 is an isometric view of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having a third wall; and

[0058] Figure 33 shows a section of an embodiment of a fire collar according to embodiments of the disclosure having a third wall. [0059] In the following description, like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout the figures.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0060] Referring now to the Figures 1 to 28, 32 and 33, there are illustrated various embodiments of the cast in fire collar 10. In a first aspect, there is provided a cast in fire collar assembly, comprising a cast in fire collar 10 comprising a collar body 12 having an outer surface 22 adapted to be cast into a partition 70 of settable material, such as a concrete slab, as described further below. As used herein, the term

"partition" or "building partition" includes a wall, floor, ceiling, soffit, column, beam or other portion of a building that can be made from a settable material. The collar body 12 defines a bore 14 extending through the collar body 12 and is adapted to receive a service 74, such as a pipe or duct 72 therethrough. The collar body 12 also comprises at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 extending inwardly into the bore 14 for retaining an intumescent material 60 within the bore 14. The outer surface 22 of the collar body 12 comprises at least one retainer 40, which is adapted to retain the collar body 12 in the partition 70. The retainer 40 extends inwardly from the outer surface 22 to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion 16 extending into the bore. The assembly also comprises an intumescent material 60.

[0061] In use, the fire collar 10 is attached to formwork that is configured for forming the partition 70. The embodiments of the fire collar shown in Figures 1-20 will typically not extend all the way through the partition to be formed (ie span the width of the partition). Accordingly, a section of the pipe or duct 72 is inserted into the bore 14, so that the section of the pipe of duct spans the width of the partition to be formed. The embodiments of the fire collar shown in Figures 21-28, 32 and 33 will typically be of a sufficient height to span the width of the partition to be formed. Therefore, a section of the pipe or duct is not required to be inserted into the bore 14. Once the fire collar 10 is attached to the formwork and the pipe or duct is inserted into the bore, as required, the settable material is poured and the fire collar 10 is cast into the partition 70. The settable material ends up being keyed around the fire collar and the retainer 40 to retain the fire collar 10 in the partition 70. In certain embodiments, after the partition 70 has been cast, the intumescent material 60 can be inserted into the bore 14 through a gap between the pipe or duct 72 and the collar body 12. In alternative embodiments, the intumescent material 60 is inserted into the bore 14 before the fire collar 10 is attached to the formwork, or at least before the pipe or duct 72 is inserted into the bore. Accordingly, the intumescent material 60 may be inserted into the bore 14 either before or after the partition 70 has been cast, as appropriate.

[0062] The collar body 12 may be made from at least one material, including, but not limited to polymeric materials or metal materials. Examples of suitable polymeric materials include either one or both of thermoplastic and thermo-hardening (thermoset) polymers. Thermoplastic materials may be polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyamide (PA or nylon) such as PA6, PA6.6 and/or PA10, polyacrylic polymers,

polyvinylchloride, polystyrene, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acetal (POM), polycarbonate (PC), acrylate styrene acrylonitrile (ASA), styrene acrylonitrile (SAN), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polyurethane (PUR), polyesters (PBT, PET), polysulphone (PES, PSU) polyphenylene sulphide (PPS), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyphenylene oxide (PPO), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or blends or copolymers thereof. In particular embodiments, the thermoplastic material is at least one of polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon or PVC used as a co-polymer or homo- polymer. Thermo-hardening polymers may be epoxy resin, melamine formaldehyde, polyester resin, urea formaldehyde, Bakelite, faturan, phenol formaldehyde resin, polyhexahydrotriazine, polyimide, polyisocyanurate, silicone, vinyl ester, vulcanised rubber, duroplast or blends or copolymers thereof. In particular embodiments, the thermo-hardening polymer is at least one of polyurethane, duroplast or polyester resins. Examples of suitable methods of production include rotational moulding, injection moulding, blow moulding and compression moulding, which may be used as appropriate according to the polymer. Examples of suitable metals include aluminium, iron, steel, alloys or the like. Examples of suitable methods of production include casting, such as sand casting or die casting, or fabricating from components.

[0063] In certain embodiments, the collar body is integrally formed (ie the collar body is a unitary body). In alternative embodiments, the collar body is made from two or more pieces. In certain embodiments where the collar body is made from two or more pieces, the pieces may be formed separately and then assembled prior to use or for use and held together by cognate interlocking portions, welding, fasteners, glue, or the like. For example, in embodiments where the collar body is made from two or more pieces, a first piece may be formed and then a second or further piece may be formed or moulded onto, against or around the first piece. As the collar body 12 is adapted to be cast into a partition 70, it must be of sufficient strength to not crush during casting of the settable material. To provide sufficient strength, the thickness of the walls of the collar body should be at least 0.2mm. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the walls of the collar body are between 0.2mm and 10mm, such as the range of 1 millimetre (mm) to 5mm, eg, in the range of 1mm to 4mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 1mm to 3mm.

[0064] It will be appreciated that when the collar body 12 is formed from a polymeric material it may melt or otherwise become deformed in a fire event. However, at the same time the intumescent material 60 will have swelled or expanded but the expansion will be constrained by the partition material (eg concrete) surrounding the collar body. As such, the intumescent material will have filled any gap between the partition 70 and the pipe or duct 72 and will be retained by forming an interference fit between the partition 70 and the pipe or duct 72 even if the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 is no longer present.

[0065] The fire collar 10 is suitable for use with a service, such as one or more pipes, ducts or cable trays. The pipe or duct may be made from either one or both of a polymeric material or a metal material. The polymeric pipe or duct may be any suitable polymer, including, but not limited to ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride), PB (polybutylene), PE (polyethylene), PEX (cross-linked polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) or PVC (polyvinyl chloride),

[0066] In the embodiments illustrated in Figures 1 to 6, 8 to 13, 15 to 28, 32 and 33, the collar body 12 is circular in cross-section and has an outer wall 20 surrounding a central axis 80. In alternative

embodiments shown in Figures 7 and 14, the collar body 12 is square in cross section. In certain embodiments, the collar body has a regular or irregular shape, such as an irregular or regular polygonal shape. In alternative non-illustrated embodiments, the collar body 12 comprises any appropriate cross section for the relevant pipe or duct 72 or as required. For example, a triangular collar body 12 cast into a ceiling may seat flush with two walls adjoining at a corner, an oblong or irregular shaped collar body 12 may provide for pipes or ducts of these shapes or allow the fire collar 10 to be positioned adjacent an irregular shaped feature being cast into the partition 70. The outer wall 20 has an outwardly directed outer surface 22 and an inwardly directed inner surface 26. The inner surface 26 defines a portion of the bore 14. The inner surface 26 of the outer wall 20 forms a portion of an intumescent holding channel 13.

[0067] In the embodiments illustrated in Figures 1 to 5, 8 to 13, 15 to 28, 32 and 33, the central axis 80 of the collar body 12 also forms a central axis 84 of the bore 14 (ie the collar body 12 and bore 14 are coaxial). In alternative embodiments, the axis 84 of the bore 14 is not coaxial with the central axis 80, for example, the axis 84 and the central axis 80 may be parallel and laterally offset, or, the axis 84 and the central axis may be not parallel and laterally offset. In certain embodiments, the bore 14 is cylindrical. In alternative embodiments, the bore 14 has any other shape suitable for the pipe or duct 72, for example, a square profile for an electrical cable (eg trunk) in a square profile duct, for example, as shown in Figures 7 and 14. The bore may be of any suitable size as required for the relevant service to pass therethrough and the required size of the bore may readily be determined by the skilled person in view of the relevant service. For embodiments where the bore is cylindrical, the size of the bore refers to the diameter and for other bore shapes the size of the bore refers to a lateral width of the bore. In certain embodiments, the size of the bore is at least 1mm. In certain embodiments, the size of the bore is between 1mm and 1 metre (m) or 1mm and 750mm, such as the range of 10mm to 600mm, eg, 20mm to 400mm or 12mm to 350mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 40mm and 300mm, eg 43mm, 45mm, 55mm, 56mm, 58mm, 69mm, 70mm, 71mm, 83mm, 84mm, 85mm, 95mm, 110mm, 112mm, 127mm, 140mm, 162mm, 190mm, 194mm, 254mm or 318mm.

[0068] In an embodiment illustrated in Figure 6, the collar body 12 comprises two bores 14. This may be useful where two services are required adjacent to each other but it is desirable to keep them separate, for example, where a first service is potable water and a second service is electrical cable. In these cases, two pipes or ducts 72 may be fitted in the collar 10, with one in each bore 14. In alternative embodiments, the collar body 12 comprises three or more bores 14. This may be useful where multiple services are required but it is desirable to keep them separate, for example, three services comprising fibre optics, copper telecommunication lines and electrical cables.

[0069] As shown in Figures 1 to 28, 32 and 33, the outer wall 20 is stepped inwardly at a first end 24 to provide the at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 for retaining an intumescent material 60 within the bore 14. The intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 forms a portion of the intumescent holding channel 13. The intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 may extend inwardly from the outer wall 20 any required distance to retain the intumescent material 60, such as at least 1mm, in the range of 1mm to 200mm, such as the range of 1mm to 100mm, 1mm to 50mm or 1mm to 25mm, eg, in the range of 2mm to 20mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 3mm to 15mm, eg, 3mm, 4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 7mm, 8mm, 9mm, 10mm, 11mm, 12mm, 13mm, 14mm or 15mm. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the inwardly extending protrusion 16 extends from the inner surface 26. In certain embodiments where there are two or more intumescent material retaining protrusions 16, these may be evenly spaced apart around the bore 14, for example, two protrusions may be diametrically opposed (ie 180 degrees relative to the central axis), as shown in Figure 13), or three protrusions may be positioned every 120 degrees. In alternative embodiments where there are two or more intumescent material retaining protrusions 16, these may be spaced in any alternative configuration suitable for retaining the intumescent material 60 within the bore 14, for example, three protrusions may be separated by 90 degrees, 90 degrees and 180 degrees. In certain embodiments, for example, and as shown in Figures 4 and 5, the at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 is an inwardly extending annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18. In certain embodiments, for example, as shown in Figure 7, the at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 is an inwardly extending continuous intumescent material retaining protrusion. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 is integrally formed with the collar body 12. In alternative embodiments, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 is formed separately and then assembled with the collar body 12. In other embodiments, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 is formed or moulded onto, against, within or around the collar body 12.

[0070] In certain embodiments, the fire collar 10 further comprises at least one mounting portion 30 for mounting the fire collar 10 to form work for pouring the partition 70. An example of this is illustrated in Figure 1. In certain embodiments, the mounting portion 30 is integrally formed with the collar body 12. In alternative embodiments, the mounting portion 30 is formed separately and then assembled with the collar body 12. In other embodiments, the mounting portion 30 is formed or moulded onto, against or around the collar body 12. In certain embodiments, the mounting portion 30 comprises at least one flange 32, where an outermost portion of the at least one flange 32 extends outwardly from the outer surface 22 of the collar body 12. As shown in the embodiments shown in Figures 10 and 11 where there are two or more flanges 32, these may be evenly spaced apart around the collar body 12, for example, flanges may be diametrically opposed (ie 180 degrees relative to the central axis) or three flanges may be positioned every 120 degrees. In alternative non-illustrated embodiments where there are two or more flanges, these may be spaced in any alternative configuration suitable for mounting the fire collar 10 to the formwork. In certain embodiments, for example, as shown in Figure 1, the mounting portion 30 comprises an annular flange 34. In alternative embodiments, the flange 32 extends around the collar body 12, but has a different shape to the outer perimeter, relative to the collar body 12. For example, the collar body 12 may have a substantially circular outer perimeter and the flange 32 may have a square, rectangular, triangular or other polygonal shape, or other irregular or curved shape. The shape of the flange 32 may be adapted to the particular installation requirements of the fire collar, for example, positioning the fire collar adjacent a structure, such as a column. The mounting portion 30 may have a thickness (ie in line with the central axis 80) of at least 0.1mm, in the range of 0.1mm to 50mm , such as the range of 0.1mm to 20mm or 0.2mm to 10mm, eg, in the range of 0.3mm to 8mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 0.5mm to 5mm, eg, 0.6mm, 0.8mm, 1mm, 1.5mm, 2mm, 2.5mm, 3mm, 3.5mm, 4mm or 4.5mm. The mounting portion 30 may extend outwardly from the outer surface of the collar body at least 1mm, in the range of lmm to 200mm, such as the range of 2mm to 100mm, 3mm to 80mm or 5mm to 60mm, eg, in the range of 8mm to 50mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 10mm to 45mm, eg, 1 lmm, 12mm, 13mm, 14mm, 15mm, 16mm, 17mm, 18mm, 19mm, 20mm, 21mm, 22mm, 23mm, 24mm, 25mm, 26mm, 27mm, 28mm, 29mm, 30mm, 31mm or 32mm.

[0071] In certain embodiments, the mounting portion 30 comprises at least one attachment portion 36, in which a fastener can engage to attach the fire collar 10 to the formwork. In certain embodiments, the attachment portion 36 comprises at least one blind recess or depression, a through hole 37 or slot 38, or a depression or slot 39 in an outer edge of the flange. Examples of through holes 37, slots 38 and slots 39 in an outer edge of the flange are shown in Figures 1, 3, 4, 6, to 15, 17 to 19, 21, 23, 24 and 26. Suitable fasteners include screws, bolts, nails, staples or the like, which may engage in a through hole or slot. Fasteners having a laterally extending portion, for example, a hook or washer may engage in a blind recess or depression. In certain embodiments, the mounting portion could be glued or adhered in position in any way known to the skilled person, such as by gluing using acrylic, anaerobic, cyanoacrylate, epoxy, pressure sensitive, silicone or other adhesives. In certain embodiments, such as that illustrated in Figure

20, the mounting portion 30 does not have an attachment portion, such as a pre-formed hole. Accordingly, the fire collar 10 is attached to the formwork by other means, such as an adhesive (as described above) or fasteners may be driven directly through the mounting portion 30. For example, a self-tapping screw could be screwed through the mounting portion 30 or a nail driven through the mounting portion 30.

[0072] As described above, the outer surface 22 comprises at least one retainer 40, which is adapted to retain the fire collar 10 in the partition 70. For example, when the partition 70 is formed, the material of the partition 70, such as concrete, is keyed around the at least one retainer 40, which then retains the fire collar 10 in the partition 70 once the material has set. As shown in the Figures, the retainer 40 extends inwardly from the outer surface 22. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the retainer 40 comprises at least one depression, cavity or groove 42 formed in the outer surface 22. As shown in Figure 7, in certain embodiments, the retainer 40 comprises a continuous groove 44 formed in the outer surface 22.

Accordingly, the groove will extend continuously around the collar body 12 of the fire collar 10. In certain embodiments, where the collar body 12 is circular in cross section, for example, in Figures 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 13, 15, 16, 21 and 26, the retainer comprises an annular groove 46 formed in the outer surface 22. In certain embodiments, the retainer extends inwardly from the outer surface 22 (ie the depth of the retainer) at least 1mm, in the range of 1mm to 200mm, such as the range of 1mm to 100mm, 1mm to 50mm or lmm to 25mm, eg, in the range of 2mm to 20mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 3mm to 15mm, eg, 3mm, 4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 7mm, 8mm, 9mm, 10mm, 11mm, 12mm, 13mm, 14mm or 15mm. In certain embodiments, a width of the retainer (eg the base portion of the groove extending in line with the central axis 80) is at least lmm, or in the range of lmm to 300mm, such as the range of 2mm to 100mm, eg, in the range of 5mm to 60mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 6mm to 30mm. An example of the retainer having an elongate width is shown in Figures 26 and 27. This places the intumescent material inwardly from an edge of the partition.

[0073] As shown in Figures 14 and 15, in certain embodiments, the retainer 40 also extends outwardly from the outer surface 22. Accordingly, the retainer may comprise at least one protrusion 50, such as a bump, rod or ridge extending from the outer surface 22. In certain embodiments, the retainer comprises a continuous ridge 54 extending from the outer surface 22. Accordingly, the ridge will extend continuously around the collar body 12 of the fire collar 10. In certain embodiments, for example where the collar body 12 is circular in cross section, the retainer may comprise an annular ridge 56 extending from the outer surface 22. However, the retainer 40 is not limited to inwardly or outwardly extending embodiments, but may include both in any suitable combination, for example, other ratios of inward and outward retainers such as 1 :2, 1 :3, 1 :4, 2: 1, 3: 1 or 4: 1.

[0074] As can be seen in the embodiments shown in Figures 5, 25 and 28, the outer wall 20 is stepped inwardly at a first end 24 to provide the inwardly extending annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18 in the bore 14 of the fire collar 10 (ie inside of the collar) and also provide the annular groove 46 on the outside of the fire collar 10. As would be appreciated by the skilled person, in alternative embodiments where the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 comprises one or more protrusions or a continuous protrusion, the retainer may be cognate one or more depressions, cavities or grooves 42 or a continuous groove 44 on the outside of the fire collar 10. In use, when the fire collar has been cast into the partition such as a ceiling, the settable material is keyed into, for example, the annular groove 46, which provides a ridge of settable material extending beneath the intumescent material. In the event of a fire or heat, when the intumescent material 60 swells or expands, the ridge of settable material, now set, may help to direct the expanding intumescent material inwardly to crush the pipe or duct, rather than escaping downward. The inwardly extending annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18 comprises a first inwardly extending wall 19 extending radially inward from the inner surface 26 and substantially normal to the inner surface 26 of the outer wall 20, and a first wall 21 (being cylindrical in this embodiment) radially inward of and substantially parallel with the outer wall 20, the first wall 21 adjoining the first inwardly extending wall 19 at one end and terminating at an opposite end in the annular flange 34 of the mounting portion 30. The first wall 21 comprises an inwardly directed surface 21.1 that faces the bore 14. The first wall 21 also comprises an outwardly directed surface 40.1 that forms the base portion of the retainer 40 (ie a groove extending in line with the central axis 80). The first inwardly extending wall 19 and the first wall 21 provide a first narrowed portion 23 of the bore 12. The cognate retainer 40 that extends inwardly from the outer surface 22 will also provide the first narrowed portion 23. In certain embodiments, the diameter of the first narrowed portion 23 may be the size of the bore, as described previously. In alternative embodiments, the diameter of the first narrowed portion 23 may be larger than the size of the bore, in order to provide a space through which intumescent material can be inserted between a pipe or duct passing through the bore and the first wall 21 of the inwardly extending annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18.

[0075] The first inwardly extending wall 19 defines a width of the inwardly extending annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18 and the adjoining first wall 21 defines a depth of the inwardly extending annular intumescent material retaining protrusion. In certain embodiments, the first inwardly extending wall 19 extends inwardly from the outer wall 20 at least 1mm, or in the range of 1mm to 200mm, such as the range of 1mm to 100mm, 1mm to 50mm or 1mm to 25mm, eg, in the range of 2mm to 20mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 3mm to 15mm, eg, 3mm, 4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 7mm, 8mm, 9mm, 10mm, 11mm, 12mm, 13mm, 14mm or 15mm. In certain embodiments, the first wall 21 extends for a height of at least 1mm, or in the range of 1mm to 300mm, such as the range of 2mm to 100mm, eg, in the range of 5mm to 60mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 6mm to 30mm. In alternative embodiments, the outer wall 20 may be stepped inwardly on the inner surface 26 and outwardly on the outer surface 22. As would be appreciated by the person skilled in the art, any combination of intumescent material retaining protrusions 16 and inwardly or outwardly extending retainers 40 may be feasible and are within the scope of the present disclosure. As would be appreciated by the skilled person, the described widths and depths of the inwardly extending annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18 are equally applicable to other embodiments of the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16, as appropriate.

[0076] As can be seen in the embodiments shown in Figures 5, 25 and 28, the annular flange 34 and the first inwardly extending wall 19 are parallel, and are substantially normal to the first wall 21 and the inner surface 26 of the outer wall 20. As would be appreciated by the skilled person, an angle between the first inwardly extending wall 19 and the inner surface of the outer wall may be greater or less than 90°, eg, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70°, 80°, 110°, 120°, 130° or 140°, provided that the first inwardly extending wall 19 of the intumescent retaining protrusion 16 retains the function of retaining the intumescent 60. As shown in Figure 16, in certain embodiments, an angle between the first wall 21 and the flange 34 is greater than 90°, which means that the bore 14 narrows along the first wall 21 between the flange 34 and the first inwardly extending wall 19. The narrowing of the bore 14 provided by the angled first wall 21 provides a guide for the intumescent material as it is inserted into the bore 14. In certain embodiments, the first wall 21 is curved to facilitate insertion of the intumescent material. When the intumescent material has been inserted past the first narrowed portion of the bore 14 provided by the first wall 21, it will enter a region (ie intervening region 31, defined further below) of the bore 14 provided by the outer wall 20 having an inner transverse dimension larger than that provided by the first wall 21. In this way, the intumescent material would be slightly compressed when passing the first narrowed portion of the bore provided by the first wall 21 and then expand once in the portion of the bore 14 provided by the outer wall 20, which would make removal difficult. [0077] As would be appreciated by the skilled person, the function of the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 is to retain an intumescent material within the bore 14. Accordingly, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 may take any form suitable for achieving this function. As defined above, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 may also be an annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18; however, the configuration of the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 or an annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18 is not limited to the above defined first inwardly extending wall 19 and first wall 21. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, for example, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 comprises one or more spikes, barbs, hooks or the like, extending radially inward from the inner surface 26. In certain embodiments, one or more intumescent material retaining protrusions 16 are adapted to allow an intumescent material to pass in a first direction into the collar body 12 but not allow the intumescent material to pass in an opposite second direction out of the collar body

12. This could be achieved by the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 being resilient and thereby resiliently deforming as the intumescent material passes in the first direction and then the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 would return to its original shape. In alternative embodiments, one or more inwardly extending intumescent material retaining protrusions 16 are positioned part way along the internal surface and are angled so that the intumescent material may pass in the first direction into the collar body, but if an attempt is made to move the intumescent material in an opposite second direction out of the collar body, the intumescent material retaining protrusions 16 engage with or penetrate into the intumescent material to resist its removal from the collar body. In these embodiments where the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 is not an annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 may be formed from a material that melts at a higher temperature than the remainder of the collar body. For example, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 may comprise metal inserts. These may be cast with the collar body 12 or assembled together with the collar body 12 following manufacture of the collar body 12. When assembled together with the collar body 12, the inserts may be held in place using cognate interlocking portions, welding, fasteners, glue, or the like. In certain embodiments, the inserts extend along the outer wall 20, for example, to or beyond the second end 25, described further below. In the event of a fire, the metal inserts may help to retain the intumescent material in the bore.

[0078] In the embodiments illustrated in Figures 5, 25 and 33, the outer wall 20 is stepped inwardly at a second end 25 through a second inwardly extending wall 29, which extends radially inward. A second wall 27 (being cylindrical in this embodiment and surrounding the bore) adjoins the second inwardly extending wall 29 radially inward of the outer wall 20 and extends substantially parallel with the outer wall 20 and away from the remainder of the collar body. In alternative embodiments, for example, as shown in Figure 7, the second wall 27 surrounds the bore 14 and is shaped as appropriate for the service (eg square). The second wall 27 comprises an inwardly directed surface 27.1 that faces the bore 14. The second inwardly extending wall 29 and second wall 27 provide a second narrowed portion 28 of the bore 14 having an inner transverse dimension that is smaller than an inner transverse dimension between the inner surface 26 of the outer wall 20. The diameter of the second narrowed portion 28 may be the size of the bore, as described previously. In use, when the fire collar has been cast into the partition such as a ceiling, the settable material is keyed around the second inwardly extending wall 29 and the second wall 27, which provides a shelf of settable material extending above the intumescent material. In the event of a fire or heat, when the intumescent material 60 swells or expands, the shelf of settable material, now set, may help to direct the expanding intumescent material inwardly to crush the pipe or duct, rather than escaping upward. In alternative embodiments, for example, as shown in Figures 14 and 28, the outer wall extends to a full height of the fire collar. Accordingly, the outer wall 20 is not stepped inwardly at the second end 25 through the second inwardly extending wall 29. Further, the second wall 27 is absent. This also means that the second narrowed portion 28 is absent. The outer wall will therefore typically be of a height sufficient to span the width of the partition. The height of the outer wall will then be approximately a height of the intumescent material plus the height of what the second wall would have been, as described in the paragraph below. In the embodiment illustrated in Figures 32 and 33, the height of second wall 27 is equivalent to the embodiments illustrated in Figures 1-20 and a third wall 33 extends from the second inwardly extending wall 29, in a direction substantially in line with and radially outward from the second wall 27. In the illustrated embodiment, the third wall 33 is an annular wall, but could be any other shape, such as a regular or irregular polygon, as appropriate. In these embodiments, the third wall 33 will typically be of a height sufficient to span the width of the partition.

[0079] A height of the second wall (or the outer wall for embodiments of Figures 14 and 28, or the third wall for embodiments of Figures 32 and 33) may be selected by the skilled person according to the application of the fire collar 10. In certain embodiments, such as those shown in Figures 1-20, the height of the second wall 27 may be in the range of 0mm to 100mm, such as the range of 5mm to 70mm, eg, the range of 10mm to 60mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 20mm to 50mm, eg, 22mm, 25mm, 28mm, 30mm, 35mm or 40mm. In other embodiments, such as those shown in Figures 21-28, 32 and 33 where the fire collar is typically of a sufficient height to span the width of the partition to be formed, the height of the second wall 27 will be at least 100mm, or in the range of 100mm to 800mm, such as the range of 100mm to 400mm, eg, in the range of 150mm to 350mm or in particular embodiments, in the range of 200mm to 300mm.

[0080] In certain embodiments, the second narrowed portion 28 of the bore 14 has a diameter substantially the same as or larger than the outer diameter of the pipe or duct 72 that passes therethrough. Accordingly, in certain embodiments, there will be some clearance between the pipe or duct 72 and the second wall 27 defining the second narrowed portion 28 of the bore 14. In alternative embodiments, the pipe or duct 72 will contact the second wall 27. In certain embodiments, the pipe or duct 72 will form a friction fit with the bore 14 or a sealing fit with the bore 14, eg, with either one or both of the second wall 27 and the first wall 21. In certain embodiments, the pipe or duct 72 has an outer diameter and at least a portion of the bore 14 has a diameter substantially the same as or larger than the outer diameter of the pipe or duct. An example of a pipe or duct 72 installed in the fire collar 10 is shown in Figure 18. In embodiments where the diameter of the bore provides for clearance around the relevant service, any intervening space may be filled with a settable material, such as a mortar or sealant. However, it is important that the settable material does not come between the service and the intumescent material. This may be achieved using, for example, a viscous settable material. This may be relevant, for example, for the embodiment shown in Figure 28, where the second narrowed portion 28 of the bore is not present.

[0081] In certain embodiments, such as that shown in Figure 26, a cap portion 55 may cover an open top of the bore 14 defined by the second wall 27. The cap portion 55 may be integrally formed with the collar body 12, formed separately and then attached by, for example, plastic welding or an adhesive, formed separately and then separably attached or simply supplied as a separate cover to be used as required. The cap portion is designed to prevent the settable material of the partition from entering the bore 14 when the partition is formed. As would be appreciated by the skilled person, the cap 55 may be used with any embodiment described herein, as appropriate, and may take different forms depending upon the shape of the collar body 12, for example, where the bore is square. [0082] In certain embodiments, such as that shown in Figures 32 and 33, strengthening protrusions 35 are positioned between the third wall 33 and the second inwardly extending wall 29, to strengthen the third wall 33. In the illustrated embodiment, the strengthening protrusions 35 are elongate and triangular in cross section and extend from the second inwardly extending wall 29 and along an externally directed surface of the third wall 33 substantially in line with the axis 80. In alternative non-illustrated embodiments, there may be one or more strengthening protrusions that are any appropriate shape, such as a regular or irregular polygon with sides appropriate to contact the third wall 33 and the second inwardly extending wall 29. In certain non-illustrated embodiments, the strengthening ribs are positioned between the second wall 27 and the second inwardly extending wall 29. The strengthening ribs 35 may be integrally formed, attached or separably attached as appropriate. The strengthening ribs 35 may also inhibit rotation of the collar body 12 when cast into settable material.

[0083] Returning now to Figure 6 which illustrates an embodiment where the collar body 12 comprises two bores 14, these bores 14 may extend as two discrete bores part-way through or throughout the collar body 12. In embodiments where the bores 14 extend part-way through the collar body, the collar body comprises the outer wall 20, which is stepped inwardly at the second end 25 of the collar body 12, through the second inwardly extending wall 29 extending radially inward. Each bore 14 is then defined by a second wall 27 extending from and substantially normal to the second inwardly extending wall 29. As with other embodiments, for example, as shown in Figure 5, the outer wall 20 defines a single cavity which houses the intumescent material 60. Accordingly, the two discrete bores 14 in the embodiment shown in Figure 6 open out into this single cavity. In embodiments where the bores extend throughout the collar body, each bore is defined by a second wall 27 which extends substantially from the first end 24 to the second end 25 of the collar body, or beyond either one or both of the first end 24 and the second end 25 of the collar body. As would be appreciated by the skilled person, the fire collar may be constructed so as to have one, two, three or more bores that extend part-way through or throughout the collar body. [0084] As described above, the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16, the second inwardly extending wall 29 and the inner surface 26 of the outer wall 20, each form a portion of the intumescent holding channel 13. An alternative explanation is that the intumescent holding channel is defined by the first narrowed portion 23 of the bore (ie the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 comprising the first inwardly extending wall 19 and the first wall 21), the second narrowed portion 28 of the bore (ie second inwardly extending wall 29 and second wall 27), and an intervening region 31 of the bore between the first and second narrowed portions (ie the inner surface 26 of the outer wall 20), where the intervening region 31 has a greater lateral width than either of the first or second narrowed portions. In certain embodiments where the second wall is not present, for example, as shown in Figures 14 and 28, the intumescent holding channel 13 may extend to a full height of the fire collar (ie a full axial length of the bore). [0085] In certain embodiments, for example, as shown in Figures 17 and 28, the fire collar 10 further comprises an intumescent material 60 within the bore 14. The intumescent material may be, for example, in the intervening region 31 of the bore between the first and second narrowed portions (eg in the intumescent holding channel 13). Depending upon the embodiment, the intumescent material 60 is supported at one, two, three, four or more positions around the bore 14 by the at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 16. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material is circumferentially supported, for example, by the annular intumescent material retaining protrusion 18. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material 60 substantially surrounds the bore 14, for example, on two opposing sides, on three sides or on four or more sides. Accordingly, the intumescent material 60 may comprise one or more pieces that are positioned independently or together around the bore. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material comprises a continuous strip that is cut to length before being formed into a substantially circular shape and placed in the bore 14. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material 60 is retained in the bore 14. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material 60 wholly surrounds the bore 14. Accordingly, the intumescent material may comprise a continuous ring. An example of the intumescent material as a continuous ring is shown in Figure 29. In use, the pipe or duct 72 may pass through the bore 14 of the fire collar 10 and may be substantially surrounded by the intumescent material. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material is adjacent at least a part of an outer surface of the pipe or duct.

[0086] Myriad types of intumescent material may be suitable for use in the fire collar 10 of the present disclosure. Examples of suitable intumescent material include, but are not limited to, polymer-bonded active substances such as swelling graphite or ammonium polyphosphate. In certain embodiments, the intumescent material comprises either one or both of a non-flammable material and a flammable material.

[0087] In certain embodiments, for example, as shown in Figures 28, 30 and 31, the intumescent material 60 comprises material 62, which may be optionally be substantially non-flammable, (eg a wrapping or covering) that at least partially surrounds the intumescent substance 61 to help direct the expanding intumescent substance 61 in the event of a fire. In these embodiments, the substantially non-flammable material 62 provides an intumescent holding channel 13. In certain embodiments, the substantially nonflammable material 62 partially or wholly covers the intumescent substance 61, for example, the substantially non-flammable material 62 may surround the intumescent substance 61, leaving a small portion of the intumescent substance 61 uncovered. In use, the uncovered portion may be directed towards the axis 84 of the bore. Examples of suitable substantially non-flammable materials include, but are not limited to, glass fibre, aluminised fabric, cellulose fibre, modacrylic fibre, polybenzimidazole or metal foil. As would be appreciated by the skilled person, the substantially non-flammable material need not be completely non-flammable, but must merely be suitable for directing the expanding intumescent substance. The use of a substantially non-flammable material 62 to help direct the expanding intumescent substance 61 in the event of a fire may be particularly useful in embodiments where the retainer 40 extends inwardly from the outer surface 22 at one or more locations (eg Figure 13) and thereby, when in use (eg in a ceiling), there are only one or more protrusions of settable material extending beneath the intumescent material 60 to help direct the expansion of the intumescent substance 61. The use of a substantially non-flammable material 62 may also be particularly useful in embodiments where the outer wall 20 is not stepped inwardly at the second end 25 through the second inwardly extending wall 29 (ie the second narrowed portion 28 is absent) (eg Figures 14 and 28), and thereby, when in use (eg in a ceiling), there is no ridge of settable material extending above the intumescent material 60, to help direct the expansion of the intumescent substance 61. [0088] The amount of intumescent material 60 required to form an effective insulating barrier in a fire event may readily be determined by the skilled person. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the intumescent material is at least 0.5mm, or in the range of 0.5mm to 100mm, such as the range of 0.5mm to 50mm, eg, in the range of 0.8mm to 40mm, or in particular embodiments, 1.2mm to 22mm, eg, 1.4mm, 1.8mm, 2.5mm, 3mm, 4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 7mm, 8mm, 9mm, 10mm, 11mm, 12mm, 13mm, 14mm, 15mm, 16mm, 17mm, 18mm, 19mm, 20mm or 21mm. In certain embodiments, the height of the intumescent material is at least 2mm, or in the range of 2mm to 300mm, such as the range of 3mm to 200mm, eg, in the range of 4mm to 150mm, or in particular embodiments, in the range of 5mm to 130mm, eg 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 15mm, 20mm, 30mm, 40mm, 50mm, 60mm, 70mm, 80mm, 90mm, 100mm, 110mm, or 120mm. [0089] In a second aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a cast in fire collar 10 comprising a collar body 12 having an outer surface 22 adapted to be cast into a building partition 70, the collar body 12 defining a bore 14 adapted to receive a pipe or duct 72 therethrough and comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 extending inwardly into the bore 14 for retaining an intumescent material 60 within the bore 14 and the outer surface 22 comprising at least one retainer 40, the retainer 40 adapted to retain the collar body 12 in the partition 70, wherein the retainer 40 extends inwardly from the outer surface 22 to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion 16. As would be appreciated by the skilled person, the cast in fire collar 10 of the second aspect has any or all of the features of the cast in fire collar 10 as defined in the first aspect, as appropriate. For example, the cast in fire collar 10 of the second aspect may have an intumescent holding channel 13 for retaining the intumescent in the bore and for directing at least some of an expanding intumescent substance 61 at the pipe or duct 72 in the event of a fire, accordingly, the configuration of the first narrowed portion 23 of the bore 14 (ie the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 comprising the first inwardly extending wall 19 and the first wall 21) or the second narrowed portion 28 of the bore 14 (ie second inwardly extending wall 29 and second wall 27), if present, will be appropriate for directing at least some of an expanding intumescent substance 61 at the pipe or duct 72 in the event of a fire. For example, a first narrowed portion 23 comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 on an inside of the bore 14 and an inwardly extending retainer 40 (eg depression, groove or cavity 42, continuous groove 44 or annular groove 46) may be a particularly appropriate configuration for directing at least some of an expanding intumescent substance 61 at the pipe or duct 72 in the event of a fire. [0090] In a third aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a fire collar 10 cast into a building partition 70 of settable material, the fire collar 10 comprising a collar body 12 having an outer surface 22 adapted to be cast into the building partition 70, the collar body 12 defining a bore 14 adapted to receive a pipe or duct 72 therethrough and comprising at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 extending inwardly into the bore 14 for retaining an intumescent material within the bore 14 and the outer surface 22 comprising at least one retainer 40, the retainer 40 adapted to retain the collar body 12 in the partition 70, wherein the retainer 40 extends inwardly from the outer surface 22 to form the or each inwardly extending intumescent retaining protrusion 16, and where the settable material of the partition 70 is keyed around the or each retainer 40 to define at least one intumescent material retaining protrusion 90 in the settable material. [0091] As would be appreciated by the skilled person, the fire collar 10 of the third aspect has any or all of the features of the cast in fire collar 10 as defined in the first aspect, as appropriate. The third aspect of the disclosure relates to the above described fire collar 10 when installed (ie cast) in a partition 70. In this case, the fire collar 10 acts as a mould for the settable material of the partition 70 which is cast around the fire collar 10 to form a chamber in the shape of the fire collar 10 and in particular, in the shape of the intumescent holding channel 13. In use and in the event of a fire, if or when the collar body 12 melts or is otherwise deformed, the chamber of settable material in the shape of the fire collar 10 (and the intumescent holding channel 13), including the intumescent retaining protrusion 90, will serve for directing at least some of an expanding intumescent substance 61 at a pipe or duct 72 in the bore 14.

[0092] In a fourth aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided building partition comprising the fire collar of the present disclosure. The building partition may be as described anywhere in this disclosure.

[0093] As would be appreciated by the skilled person, it is within the scope of the present disclosure that any particular embodiment of a given feature is not limited to being combined with any particular embodiment of another feature. For example, the following non-limiting combinations include, any one of the different embodiments of the bore 14 (eg one, two, three or more bores, being coaxial or otherwise with the central axis 80) may be combined with any one of the different embodiments of the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 (eg one, two, three or more protrusions, a continuous or annular protrusion, spikes, barbs, hooks or the like, resilient or otherwise), which may be combined with any one of the different embodiments of the mounting portion 30 (eg flange, annular flange, with holes, slots or otherwise), which may be combined with any one of the different embodiments of the retainer 40 (eg retainer, groove, continuous groove, annular groove, protrusion, ridge, continuous ridge, annular ridge or otherwise) and which may be combined with any of the different embodiments of the cap 55, as appropriate. [0094] As described briefly above, when a partition 70 is formed from a settable material, such as concrete, formwork is assembled together with pipes or ducts 72 for services that must pass through the partition 70. The fire collar 10 of the present disclosure is attached to this formwork via, for example, fasteners that engage with attachment portions 36. The settable material is then poured and the fire collar is cast into the partition 70, where the settable material is keyed around the fire collar and the retainer 40 to retain the fire collar 10 in the partition 70. When the settable material has cured, the formwork is removed, an intumescent material 60 is inserted into the fire collar and a pipe or duct 72 is then inserted therethrough. In the event of a fire or heat, the intumescent material 60 swells or expands. The collar body 12 and the matenal of the partition 70 constrain the swelling intumescent material 60 and cause it to apply pressure on the pipe or duct 72. If the pipe or duct 72 is made of a polymeric material, the pipe or duct 72 may collapse under the pressure of the swelling intumescent. If the pipe or duct 72 is made of metal (and not able to be crushed) the space around the pipe or duct 72 will be filled with intumescent. Thereby the passage through the partition 70 is closed off effectively for heat and smoke.

[0095] The fire collar 10 of the present disclosure provides numerous advantages over known fire collars. In some instances for known fire collars, where the base plate is metal (whether integral or separate), it may rust away (can be common in coastal regions where graphite based intumescent reacts with galvanising) rendering the collar in-operable.

[0096] Another advantage is conveyed by the retainer 40 extending inwardly from the outer surface 22. In use, when the fire collar has been cast into the partition such as a ceiling, the settable material is keyed into, eg, the annular groove 46 (ie the retainer), which provides a ridge of settable material extending beneath the intumescent material. In the event of a fire or heat, the collar body, with the intumescent material retaining protrusion 16 contained therein, may melt (depending upon the material the collar body is made from) and provide a path for the expanding intumescent material 60 to escape , In these embodiments, the ridge of settable material, now set, may help to direct the expanding intumescent material inwardly to crush the pipe or duct, rather than escaping downward. Some previous fire collars have used a metal plate to prevent an expanding intumescent material from escaping downwards. The fire collar of the present disclosure does not require a separate metal plate to prevent an expanding intumescent material from escaping downwards. [0097] Some previous fire collars have also been expensive to produce, being constructed of metal. The fire collar of the present disclosure may be moulded from a polymeric material, which is significantly cheaper.

[0098] Alternative previous fire collars have been constructed with intumescent material throughout the fire collar. These may be more costly to produce, since more intumescent is required. Further, to have suitable strength to not deform during the casting into the partition, a significant proportion of the material is not intumescent. This may limit the effectiveness of the fire collar. In contrast, the fire collar of the present disclosure has a strip of intumescent material within the bore, which will expand and close off the hole through the partition to prevent the fire passing from one part of a building to another. [0099] It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the disclosure is not restricted in its use to the particular application described. Neither is the present disclosure restricted in its preferred embodiment with regard to the particular elements and/or features described or depicted herein. It will be appreciated that the disclosure is not limited to the embodiment or embodiments disclosed, but is capable of numerous rearrangements, modifications and substitutions without departing from the scope of the disclosure as set forth and defined by the following claims.

[00100] Throughout the specification and the claims that follow, unless the context requires otherwise, the words "comprise" and "include" and variations such as "comprising" and "including" will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated integer or group of integers, but not the exclusion of any other integer or group of integers. [00101] The reference to any prior art in this specification is not, and should not be taken as, an acknowledgement of any form of suggestion that such prior art forms part of the common general knowledge.