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Title:
IMPROVED POLYOL COATINGS, ARTICLES, AND METHODS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/141277
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed herein is an environmentally safe, grease and/or adhesion resistant article comprising an absorbent substrate, a cross-linking agent, and a polymer; wherein the substrate is first coated with the cross-linking agent and is then coated with the polymer.

Inventors:
MURPHY, Christopher, B. (2645 Luzern Ct, Woodridge, IL, 60527, US)
FABRI, Jon, O. (770 Clearview Dr, Charleston, SC, 29412, US)
MAHONEY, Robert, P. (2 Austin Lane, Newbury, MA, 01922, US)
Application Number:
US2010/036123
Publication Date:
December 09, 2010
Filing Date:
May 26, 2010
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
POLYMER VENTURES, INC. (1612 Harborview Road, Charleston, SC, 29412, US)
MURPHY, Christopher, B. (2645 Luzern Ct, Woodridge, IL, 60527, US)
FABRI, Jon, O. (770 Clearview Dr, Charleston, SC, 29412, US)
MAHONEY, Robert, P. (2 Austin Lane, Newbury, MA, 01922, US)
International Classes:
C08K3/38; C08L29/04; C09D129/04; D21H19/12; D21H19/16
Foreign References:
US3758324A1973-09-11
US5141797A1992-08-25
US20080064814A12008-03-13
US20050042443A12005-02-24
US4559186A1985-12-17
Other References:
CASASSA ET AL.: 'The Gelation of Polyvinyl Alcohol with Borax' J. CHEM. ED. vol. 63, 1986, pages 57 - 60
FUKUI TERUNOBU: 'A Review of Paper Coating. Paper Coating Technologies in the 20th Century' JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL vol. 55, 2001, pages 1651 - 1667
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GOODMAN, Jonathan, T. et al. (Marshall, Gerstein & Borun LLP233 S. Wacker Drive,6300 Willis Towe, Chicago IL, 60606-6357, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1 . An article comprising: an absorbent substrate, a polymer, and a cross-linking agent for the polymer; wherein the substrate is treated with the cross-linking agent and the polymer such that the polymer is cross-linked by the cross-linking agent after the substrate has been treated with the polymer.

2. The article of claim 1 , wherein the substrate is first treated with the cross-linking agent and is then surface treated with the polymer.

3. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein the cross-linking agent is applied to the substrate as a solution, the polymer is applied as a flowable solution, and the substrate has a liquid content of less than about 20 wt. % liquid prior to treatment with the polymer.

4. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein a ratio of a mass of the polymer to a mass of the cross-linking agent has a value of about 0.1 to about 10, and wherein both are applied as aqueous solutions.

5. The article of claim 4, wherein the ratio has a value of about 1 to about 8.

6. The article of claim 5, wherein the ratio has a value of about 3 to about 6.

7. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein the substrate is a water absorbent material selected from the group consisting of paper, board, cardboard, textile, leather, ceramic, a water-absorbent mineral, and combinations thereof.

8. The article of claim 7, wherein the absorbent substrate comprises thermal paper.

9. The article of claim 7, wherein the absorbent substrate comprises fibers selected from the group consisting of natural fibers, synthetic fibers, and mixtures thereof.

10. The article of claim 9, wherein the fibers comprise cellulosic fibers.

1 1. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein the cross-linking agent comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of a polycarboxylate, polycarboxylic acid, polyisocyanate, polyaldehyde, urea, urea formaldehyde, polyamide, formaldehyde copolymer, melamine formaldehyde, borate, aluminate, silane, phosphate, phosphate, phosphonate, epoxide, silicate and a mixture thereof.

12. The article of claim 1 1 , wherein the cross-linking agent is a borate selected from the group consisting of a monoborate, a diborate, a triborate, a tetraborate, a pentaborate, an octaborate, a metaborate and a combination thereof.

13. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein the polymer is a polyol and the cross-linking agent is a tetraborate selected from the group consisting of sodium tetraborate, potassium tetraborate, ammonium tetraborate, and mixtures thereof.

14. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein the polyol is selected from the group consisting of a polyvinylalcohol, a polyvinylalcohol copolymer, a polysaccharide, a polysaccharide copolymer, and a mixture thereof.

15. The article of any one of the proceeding claims further comprising a second, different polyol selected from the group consisting of polyvinylalcohol, polyvinylalcohol copolymer, polysaccharide, polysaccharide copolymer, and a mixture thereof.

16. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein the article has a Kit Test (TAPPI T 559 pm-96) value of greater than the Kit Test value of an article coated with a same amount of the polymer but without the cross-linking agent.

17. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein the article is flame resistant.

18. The article of any one of the proceeding claims, wherein the polymer cross-linked by the cross-linking agent is a polymer coating mechanically and chemically adhered to the substrate; and wherein a percentage of polymer cross-linking is higher at a substrate/polymer interface than at a free polymer surface farthest away from the substrate/polymer interface.

19. The article of claim 18, wherein the percentage of polymer cross-linking is a gradient such that the degree of polymer cross-linking is highest at the substrate/polymer interface and lowest at the free polymer surface farthest away from the substrate/polymer interface.

20. A method of manufacturing an article comprising: contacting at least a portion of an absorbent substrate with a cross-linking agent and drying the substrate to a liquid content less than about 20% by weight, and then contacting at least a portion of the cross-linking agent-contacted absorbent substrate with a polymer, and drying the absorbent substrate to a liquid content of less than about 20% by weight; wherein the polymer is cross-linked by the cross-linking agent to form a coating on the absorbent substrate.

21 . A method of manufacturing an article comprising: admixing a water soluble cross-linking agent and fibers used to form an absorbent substrate, forming the absorbent substrate from the fibers, then treating the substrate with a water soluble polymer capable of being cross-linked by said cross-linking agent to achieve cross-linking agent/polymer contact sufficient to crosslink said polymer in and on at least a portion of said fibers, and drying the substrate.

22. The method of any one of claims 20 and 21 further comprising drying the substrate at a temperature less than at about 212 0F (100 0C).

23. A method of manufacturing an environmentally safe article that comprises an absorbent substrate, a polymer, and a cross-linking agent for the polymer; the method comprising: admixing a water soluble cross-linking agent and fibers used to form an absorbent substrate; forming the absorbent substrate from the fibers; treating the substrate with a water soluble polymer capable of being cross-linked by said cross-linking agent to achieve cross-linking agent/polymer contact sufficient to crosslink said polymer in and on at least a portion of said fibers, and drying the substrate to a liquid content of less than about 20% by weight, at a temperature less than about 212 0F.

24. The method of any one of claims 20 through 23 further comprising drying the substrate at a temperature less than at about 212 0F (1000C).

25. The method of any one of claims 20 through 24 further comprising contacting an adhesive with the coating on the absorbent substrate.

26. The method of any one of claims 20 through 25 further comprising applying the adhesive to an article.

27. The method of any one of claims 20 through 26, wherein the adhesive is coated on an adhesive backed article.

28. The method of any one of claims 20 through 27 further comprising forming the article into a shape adapted to contain a food item.

29. The method of any one of claims 20 through 28, wherein combining of the absorbent substrate with the cross-linking agent comprises coating the substrate with an aqueous solution of the cross-linking agent.

30. The method of any one of claims 20 through 29, wherein a solution of cross- linking agent is coated onto the substrate by a coating device selected from the group consisting of a size press, a nip press, an impregnation unit, a knife coating unit, a wire wound coating bar, a roll coater, a spray coater, a brush coater, an air knife coater, an on- machine coater, a high speed blade coater, a light weight on-machine coater, a Gate roll coater, a double blade coater, a papermachine water box, and a combination thereof.

31. The method of any one of claims 20 through 30, wherein the absorbent substrate is selected from the group consisting of paper, board, cardboard, textile, leather, ceramic, a water-absorbent mineral, and a combination thereof.

32. The method of any one of claims 20 through 31 , wherein the absorbent substrate is a thermal paper.

33. The method of any one of claims 20 through 32, wherein the cross-linking agent is selected from the group consisting of a polycarboxylate, polycarboxylic acid, polyisocyanate, polyaldehyde, urea, urea formaldehyde, polyamide, formaldehyde copolymer, melamine formaldehyde, borate, aluminate, silane, phosphate, phosphonate, epoxide, silicate and a mixture thereof.

34. The method of any one of claims 20 through 33, wherein the cross-linking agent is a borate selected from the group consisting of a monoborate, a diborate, a triborate, a tetraborate, a pentaborate, an octaborate, a metaborate and a combination thereof.

35. The method of any one of claims 20 through 34, wherein the polymer is a polyol and the cross-linking agent is a tetraborate selected from the group consisting of sodium tetraborate, potassium tetraborate, ammonium tetraborate, and a mixture thereof.

36. The method of any one of claims 20 through 35, wherein the polyol is selected from the group consisting of a polyvinylalcohol, a polyvinylalcohol copolymer, a polysaccharide, a polysaccharide copolymer, and a mixture thereof.

37. The method of claim 36 further comprising a second, different polyol selected from the group consisting of polyvinylalcohol, polyvinylalcohol copolymer, polysaccharide, polysaccharide copolymer, and a mixture thereof.

38. A method of wrapping a food item having exposed oil and/or grease comprising disposing the food item within a container manufactured by the method of any one of claims 20 through 37 such that the exposed oil and/or grease contacts a polymer coated side of the container so that the oil and/or grease is not exposed.

39. A laminate comprising: a first layer comprising a release substrate having an adhesion-resistant portion formed by contacting at least a portion of an absorbent substrate with a cross-linking agent and then contacting the cross-linking agent-contacted portion of the absorbent substrate with a polymer that is cross-linked by the cross-linking agent; and a second layer comprising an adjacent article having an adhesive in contact with the adhesion-resistant portion of the release substrate.

40. The laminate of claim 39, wherein the second layer has an adhesive applied thereto prior to contacting the first layer.

41. The laminate of claim 39, wherein the second layer had no adhesive applied thereto until it is contacted with the first layer.

42. The laminate of claim 39, wherein the polymer is a polyol and the cross-linking agent is a tetraborate selected from the group consisting of sodium tetraborate, potassium tetraborate, ammonium tetraborate, and a mixture thereof.

43. The laminate of claim 39, wherein the second layer is print receptive.

44. A sheet material comprising: an absorbent substrate that has a portion of a first major surface coated with an adhesion-resistant coating formed by contacting at least a portion of the first major surface with a cross-linking agent then contacting the cross-linking agent-contacted portion with a polymer; and at least a portion of a second major surface coated with an adhesive.

45. The sheet material of claim 44, wherein the polymer is a polyol and the cross- linking agent is a tetraborate selected from the group consisting of sodium tetraborate, potassium tetraborate, ammonium tetraborate, and mixtures thereof.

46. The sheet material of claim 44, wherein the first major surface of the absorbent substrate is print receptive.

Description:
IMPROVED POLYOL COATINGS, ARTICLES, AND METHODS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Patent Application No. 12/476,037, filed June 1 , 2009 and U.S. Patent Application No. 12/624,871 filed November 24, 2009. The disclosure of which are incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0002] The disclosure generally relates to improved coatings, articles, and methods of coating substrates, more specifically, to polyol-based coatings on substrates such as paper and laminates.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF RELATED TECHNOLOGY

[0003] Materials, such as paper and textiles, are commonly treated or coated to improve their resistance to liquids such as water, grease and oil. Commercial fluorochemical compounds, such as those sold by DuPont Co. and Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Ltd., are widely used to improve the repellent properties of substrates, like papers, textile fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, upholstery, and carpet fibers.

[0004] The use of fluorochemicals to improve substrate repellent properties are the object of health and environmental concerns because of their persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate. An additional problem associated with the use of fluorochemicals on substrates, such as paper, is the effect the fluorochemical coatings have on the recycling of the substrate. The inclusion of the fluorochemical coatings prevents current reclamation systems from cost-effectively recycling the coated paper. Consequently, there is strong interest in replacing or reducing the use of fluorochemical compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) and other perfluorinated compounds that are widely used for imparting grease, oil, and/or water resistance to the substrates to which they are applied.

[0005] Recently several products have been introduced into the marketplace as potential replacements for the fluorochemical compounds. Often these materials are based on inorganic materials like silica, organic polymers, or combinations of these materials. However, to date, these replacements have fallen short of the cost/performance standards established by the use of fluorinated compounds. One class of materials that have been extensively used in place of the fluorochemical coatings are waxes. It is well known that the repellent properties of various materials are modified by the addition of a wax, and paraffin waxes have been used in many surface treatments. U.S. Pat. No. 4,1 17,199 provides examples of the use of waxes for surface treatment, coating, and the like.

[0006] Another organic material that has been used to coat substrates is polyvinyl alcohol) (PVOH). The application of PVOH has included the formation of films and/or coatings for water dispersability and/or repellent properties. Examples of PVOH coatings can be found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,468,526; 5,1 10,390; 5,283,090; 6,1 13,978; and US 2005/0042443 A1. Optionally, the PVOH can be used in polymer mixtures as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,981 ,01 1 .

[0007] Yet another organic material that has been used to coat substrates is a cellulose-based polymer, optionally including PVOH, as described in U.S. Pat. Appl. No. 1 1/857,630. This application teaches that satisfactory grease-resistance can be achieved when paper is coated with at least 6.4 g/m 2 of the cellulose-based polymer. The application also teaches the addition of a cellulose cross-linking agent to the cellulose- based polymer to prevent dissolution of the polymer after coating. There, the cross- linking agent was added either to the cellulose-based polymer treatment composition or was applied to the coated cellulose coated substrate by a second coating step.

[0008] Commercial markers and products, such as tapes, labels, and adhesive coated sheets, must be protected from adhesion to unintended surfaces. Generally, these markers and products are protected by covering the adhesive surface with an adhesion- resistant substrate. Often these adhesion-resistant substrates are secondary sheets containing an adhesion-resistant side, or in the case of tapes, the adhesion-resistant side is the backing of the tape which allows for winding. Most desirably, the adhesion- resistant substrate can be easily and completely removed from the adhesive to allow application of the adhesive, adhesive coated tape, label, or sheet to another surface.

[0009] These adhesive coated articles, usually coated with a pressure sensitive adhesive, are almost exclusively protected from adhesion by silicone-based release coatings or coated substrates. A general review of silicone release coatings can be found in J. D. Jones and Y. A. Peters "Silicone Release Coatings", Handbook of Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Technology. 2 nd Ed., 601 -626 (D. Satas, ed. 1989). The silicone based adhesion-resistant coating compositions, e.g., compositions based on polydimethylsiloxane, are readily available as emulsions, solvent solutions, and as solventless materials for the application to substrates to yield adhesion-resistant substrates after curing on a substrate at 300-400 0 F.

[0010] Alternative examples are the surfactant-polyol coating compositions for adhesion-resistance and contact with pressure-sensitive adhesives disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,386,183. Therein, polyols are coupled with surfactants to theoretically provide a surfactant-exposed polyol coating on an absorbent substrate. The compositions include surfactant bindings-agents, e.g., zinc salts and boric acid, to facilitate the surfactant exposure on the surface of the polyol coatings.

[0011] While adhesive coated articles are finding wide spread use, the adhesion- resistant substrates are thrown away. Examples of adhesive coated articles backed by adhesion-resistant substrates include printable labels for personal or commercial use. These labels include printable address labels, contact sheets, shelf markers, drum labels, adhesive backed RFIDs, stickers, and the like. Often, printable labels are designed to be fed through a printer, where the silicone coating on the adhesion- resistant surface of the adhesion-resistant substrate must be first treated with a friction coating. The friction coating assists with the feeding and movement of the product through the printer, e.g., an inkjet printer.

[0012] The adhesion-resistant substrates are thrown away because the commonly used polydimethylsiloxane coated papers are inherently difficult to recycle causing high unpredictability in performance and composition of the recycled paper. As a result, most coated papers are excluded from the recycling process and generally increase the amount of material added to landfills.

[0013] Generally, the prior art neither sufficiently teaches nor suggests to one of ordinary skill in the art the manufacture of cross-linked PVOH coatings that impart excellent grease and adhesion resistance. The prior art does not teach or suggest a method of increasing the adhesion-resistance and/or grease-resistance of an absorbent substrate by applying to the substrate a cross-linked PVOH film or a coating that provides excellent adhesion-resistance and/or grease-resistance with a very low loading of the polymer. The prior art does not teach or suggest a low temperature process for curing an adhesion-resistant coating. Additionally, the prior art neither teaches nor suggests either a recyclable and biodegradable release substrate or a recyclable and biodegradable grease resistant article.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0014] Disclosed herein is an article formed from an absorbent substrate and a cross- linked polyvinyl alcohol) that exhibits excellent grease-resistance and/or adhesive release, a method for making the same, and articles employing the same.

[0015] Additional features of the invention may become apparent to those skilled in the art from a review of the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the drawings, the examples, and the appended claims. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIGURES

[0016] For a more complete understanding of the disclosure, reference should be made to the following detailed description and accompanying drawing wherein Figure 1 is a drawing of a Fourdrinier paper machine.

[0017] Figure 2 is a drawing of a laminate composed of an adhesive-backed article and an release substrate.

[0018] Figure 3 is a drawing of a laminate composed of a release substrate that individually has two adhesion resistant sides and adhesive "dots."

[0019] Figure 4 is a drawing of a sheet having an adhesive-coated side and an adhesion-resistant side.

[0020] Figure 5 is a drawing of a sheet having adhesive "dots" and a substrate with an adhesion resistant side.

[0021] Figure 6 is a drawing of wound sheet having an adhesive-coated side and an adhesion-resistant side.

[0022] Figure 7 is a plot of the force necessary to remove an adhesive backed article from an adhesion-resistant substrate as a function of time.

[0023] While the disclosed articles and methods are susceptible of embodiments in various forms, there are illustrated in the drawing (and will hereafter be described) specific embodiments of the invention, with the understanding that the disclosure is intended to be illustrative, and is not intended to limit the invention to the specific embodiments described and illustrated herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0024] The articles and methods described herein may be understood more readily by reference to the following detailed description and the examples provided therein. It is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the specific components, articles, processes and/or conditions described, as these may, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting.

[0025] Ranges may be expressed herein as from "about" or "approximately" one particular value and/or to "about" or "approximately" another particular value. When such a range is expressed, another embodiment includes from the one particular value and/or to the other particular value. Similarly, when values are expressed as approximations, by use of the antecedent "about," it will be understood that the particular value forms another embodiment. [0026] The articles and methods described herein generally relate to environmentally safe, coatings, articles and methods. An important aspect of the development of new industrial chemicals and processes is the reduction of the environmental hazards associated with the chemicals and/or processes. Apart from the direct health implications of toxic materials, industrial use of hazardous material is increasing manufacturing costs due to, in part, emission restrictions. Herein, the articles, coatings, and methods for manufacture, employ materials significantly less hazardous to people and the environment, than those currently employed, e.g., fluorocarbons. Moreover, the coatings and coated articles described herein neither contaminate nor impede recycling processes.

[0027] The substrates described herein are made by applying coatings to substrates that are initially water-absorbent. The absorbency of water by a substrate can occur for example by capillary action, hydrophilic interactions, swelling, absorption, adsorption, and the like. Broadly, one of ordinary skill would understand water-absorbent substrates to become wet when water or a water solution is applied.

[0028] Often, the water-absorbent substrates are derived directly or through processing from agricultural products. For example, wood, cotton, wheat straw, hemp, grasses, bagasse, and corn have been processed to fibers or pulp for the manufacture of textiles and paper. Alternatively, water-absorbent substrates are produced from synthetic materials, for example those yarns manufactured for the production of textiles. Examples of a yarn produced from agricultural products and/or synthetic material include acetate, acrylic, cotton, wool, nylon, and polyester spuns and blends such as polyester/cotton, polyester/wool, and polyester/rayon.

[0029] Examples of water-absorbent substrates include: papers, boards, textiles, leathers, and ceramics. Examples of papers include but are not limited to tissue paper, toilet paper, paper, paperboard, and cardboard. Examples of boards include but are not limited to insulation board, medium density fiberboard, hardboard, wood composition board, gypsum board, wall board, and plaster board. Textiles can be woven or nonwoven textiles made from natural and/or synthetic materials. Examples of textiles include but are not limited to carpeting, upholstery, window coverings, table coverings, bed coverings, towels, napkins, filters, flags, backpacks, tents, nets, balloons, kites, sails, parachutes, and clothing. Leathers include artificial leather and natural leather.

[0030] A nonlimiting list of natural materials that can be employed in woven or nonwoven textiles includes cotton, hemp, wool, and hair. A nonlimiting list of synthetic materials that can be included in water-absorbent woven or nonwoven textiles includes polymer filaments of polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, polyester (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate), polymer blends, co-polymers, and the like.

[0031] An important aspect of the present articles and methods described herein is the treatment of the substrate with a coating polymer. The coating polymer may be water-soluble, water-insoluble, or partially water-soluble and is not gelled prior to contacting the substrate. Preferably the coating polymer is soluble in water, more preferably the coating polymer forms homogeneous, non-gelled solutions in water from which uniform films can be applied on a substrate. Gellation of the coating polymer prior to contacting the substrate should be avoided and the unacceptable gelling or gellation of the polymer coating material is hereby defined as the state of the coating polymer, prior to contacting the substrate, wherein cross-linking has occurred such that the polymer acts as a solid or semi-solid and/or exhibits limited or no flow when at rest. Examples of polymer and cross-linker applications include but are not limited to spraying, coating, dip-coating, painting, printing, and the like. The coating polymer can be a single polymer, a blend of a plurality of polymers, or a blend of polymer(s) and surface treatment aids.

[0032] The herein described preferred coating polymers contain a plurality of hydroxyl groups. These polymers, often called polymer polyols or simply polyols, can be characterized by the number of hydroxyl groups on the polymer. One means for determining and reporting the number of hydroxyl groups is by the hydroxyl number of the polymer. A hydroxyl number is determined by measuring the amount in milligrams of potassium hydroxide that is needed to neutralize the acetic acid that is formed when acetic anhydride and pyridine are reacted with 1 g of the polymer. The hydroxyl number is reported in milligrams KOH per gram of polymer (mg KOH/g). This technique, well known in the art, is an easy means for determining the density of hydroxyl groups on a polyol-polymer backbone. The polymers applicable herein have hydroxyl numbers grater than about 20 mg KOH/g, preferably greater than about 50 mg KOH/g, more preferably greater than 100 mg KOH/g, and still more preferably greater than 200 mg KOH/g.

[0033] Useful polyols have a weight average molecular weight of about 500 to about 20,000,000 Dalton. One of ordinary skill in the art would understand that the weight average molecular weight of the employed polyol polymer is dependent on the chemical structure and characteristics of the polyol. For example, a polyvinyl alcohol) polyol preferably has a weight average molecular weight of about 500 to about 10,000,000 Daltons whereas a polysaccharide polyol preferably has a weight average molecular weight of about 10,000 to about 20,000,000 Daltons. [0034] One class of preferable polyol is polyvinyl alcohol), PVOH, or a copolymer thereof. Polyvinyl alcohol) is typically produced by hydrolyzing polyvinyl acetate to replace the acetate groups with alcohol groups. The number of acetate groups that are replaced are generally referenced by the percent hydrolysis. Those of ordinary skill in the art believe that the greater the degree of hydrolysis, the higher the percentage, the better the polyol barrier properties. Another class of preferable polyol is polysaccharide or a copolymer thereof.

[0035] The production of PVOH yields polymers with various viscosities and degrees of hydrolysis. Viscosity is generally understood to be a function of the molecular weight of PVOH and commercial PVOHs are generally sold based on viscosity ranges not weight average molecular weights. Examples of commercially available PVOHs useful in the articles and methods described herein include but are not limited to PVOHs with the following viscosities in centipoises and degrees of hydrolysis:

POLYOLS

Partially Hydrolyzed Viscosity % hydrolyzed

MOWIOL 3-85 3.4-4.0 84.2-86.2

MOWIOL 4-88 3.5-4.5 86.7-88.7

MOWIOL 5-88 5.0-6.0 86.7-88.7

ELVANOL 51 -05 5.0-6.0 87.0-89.0

MOWIOL 8-88 7.0-9.0 86.7-88.7

MOWIOL 13-88 1 1 .5-14.5 86.7-88.7

MOWIOL 18-88 16.5-19.5 86.7-88.7

MOWIOL 23-88 21 .5-24.5 86.7-88.7

ELVANOL 52-22 23.0-27.0 87.0-89.0

MOWIOL 26-88 24.5-27.5 86.7-88.7

MOWIOL 32-88 30.0-34.0 86.7-88.7

MOWIOL 40-88 38.0-42.0 86.7-88.7

MOWIOL 47-88 45.0-49.0 86.7-88.7

ELVANOL 50-42 44.0-50.0 87.0-89.0

MOWIOL 56-88 52.0-60.0 86.7-88.7

Intermediately Hydrolyzed Viscosity % hydrolyzed

ELVANOL 70-14 13.0-16.0 95.0-97.0

ELVANOL 70-27 25.0-30.0 95.5-96.5

ELVANOL 60-30 27.0-33.0 90.0-93.0

MOWIOL 30-92 28.0-32.0 91 .5-93.3

Fully Hydrolyzed Viscosity % hydrolyzed

MOWIOL 4-98 4.0-5.0 98.0-98.8

MOWIOL 6-98 5.0-7.0 98.0-98.8

ELVANOL 70-06 6.0-7.0 98.0-99.0

MOWIOL 10-98 9.0-1 1.0 98.0-98.8

MOWIOL 20-98 18.5-21.5 98.0-98.8

ELVANOL 71 -30 27.0-33.0 98.0-99.0

MOWIOL 30-98 28.5-31.5 98.0-98.8

MOWIOL 56-98 52.0-60.0 98.0-98.8

[0036] The MOWIOL product line is available from KURARAY AMERICA, Inc., Houston TX; the ELVANOL product line is available from DUPONT Co., Wilmington DE. Viscosity is measured for a 4% solids aqueous solution at 20 0 C, as reposted by the commercial supplier.

[0037] Applicable PVOHs have a viscosity less than about 60 cP, preferably a viscosity less than about 30 cP, more preferably a viscosity less than about 15 cP, and most preferably a viscosity less than about 10 cP, when measured as 4% PVOH by weight in aqueous solution. While the coating technology art teaches that PVOH coatings employing higher molecular weight PVOHs are preferable, the coatings and methods of making the coatings disclosed herein were found to be superior when lower molecular weight (lower viscosity) PVOHs were used.

[0038] Optionally, additional hydroxyl containing polymers may be included with the polyol polymers (separately or copolymerized with) in the herein described coatings. Examples of additional polyols include polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and the like. Non-limiting examples of polysaccharides include glucan, glycogen, starch, cellulose, dextran, maltodextrin, fructan, mannan, chitin, and the like. Additionally, polysaccharide polymers include those polymers that are derived from sugar repeat units, including copolymers of sugar repeat units and other repeat units, and polymers and/or copolymers of repeat units derived from sugar repeat units. If applied to a paper substrate, the other hydroxyl containing polymer preferably does not produce an odor or color the paper upon the typical heating utilized in the paper making process. Additionally, the other hydroxyl containing polymers are preferably miscible with polyvinyl alcohol) or aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol), and preferably form uniform coatings. In one embodiment, the coating polymer contains no cellulose-based polymer(s), particularly no cellulose ether or cellulose ester polymers.

[0039] The coating polymer can be a blend of a plurality of polymers wherein the plurality includes at least one polyol, preferably a water-soluble polyol. The other polymers can be hydroxyl containing polymers, fluoropolymers, polyurethanes, nylons, polycarbonates, polyalkenes, polyacrylates, polyvinylcholorides, silicones, polystyrenes, celluloses, starches, polyisoprenes, proteins, cationic polymers, co-polymers, blends, and/or derivatives thereof. Preferably, the other polymers contribute to the grease repellent, grease resistant, and/or adhesive release properties of the articles described herein. More preferably, the other polymers are not directly detrimental to the grease resistant and/or adhesive release properties described herein.

[0040] The coating polymer can be applied from a composition that is a blend of polymer(s) and may include one or more surface treatment aids. Examples of surface treatment aids include but are not limited to waxes, wax emulsions, gels, clays, minerals, surfactants, and the like. Additional characteristics may be added to the substrate, e.g., water repellency, by the addition of, for example, other polymers or copolymers, e.g., silicones, siloxanes, stearylated melamine, calcium stearates, alkyl succinic anhydrides, alkyl ketene dimers, latex binders ( i.e. styrene-butadiene co-polymers, styrene acrylonitrile butadiene co-polymers), SB-R (rubber) copolymers, poly (vinyl acetate) and copolymers thereof, or the like. Surface treatment aids (alone or in combination) may be added in amounts in the range of about 0.1 wt.% to about 50 wt. % of the polyol polymer- containing composition.

[0041] Another important aspect of the present disclosure is the reaction of the coating polymer with a cross-linking agent. The cross-linking agent can be water-soluble, water-insoluble, or partially water-soluble. One of ordinary skill understands that the specific coating polymer and the specific cross-linking agent are mutually dependant. Preferably, the cross-linking agent reacts with the hydroxyl functionality of a water- soluble polyol. Examples of organic cross-linking agents include chloroformate esters; ureas; urea formaldehyde polymers; polyamides; polycarboxylates; polycarboxylic acids, e.g., di-, tri-, or tetra- carboxylate/carboxylic acid; polyisocyanates, e.g., di-, tri-, or tetra isocyanate; polyaldehydes, e.g., di, tri-, or tetra aldehyde (e.g., glutaraldehyde);epoxides, e.g., epoxidized polyamine-polyamide resin; formaldehyde copolymers, such as urea formaldehyde polymers and melamine formaldehyde polymers; and modified melamine formaldehyde polymers (e.g., CYMEL product line available from CYTEC INDUSTRIES Inc.). Examples of inorganic cross-linking agents include borates, aluminates, silanes, silicates, phosphates (e.g., trisodium trimetaphosphate), phosphites, and phosphonates. When the coating polymer is a PVOH or copolymer thereof, the cross-linking agent is preferably a borate. The reaction of borates with PVOH is well know in the art to yield a cross-linked gel. See e.g. Casassa et al. "The Gelation of Polyvinyl Alcohol with Borax" J. Chem. Ed. 1986, 63, 57-60. More preferably the borate is a monoborate, a diborate, a triborate, a tetraborate, pentaborate, octaborate, or a metaborate. Even more preferably the borate is a tetraborate, e.g., sodium tetraborate, potassium tetraborate, and ammonium tetraborate. Still more preferably, the borate is borax.

[0042] Another important aspect of the present disclosure is the process for the manufacture of the article. While the combinations of the herein described cross-linking agent and polymer are well known in the art, the general combination of the above- described materials is known to produce a gel or other gelatinous material that has been found unsuitable for forming a relatively permanent coating on a substrate. One benefit of the disclosed material is obtained when the substrate is first treated with the cross- linking agent via a first treatment step and is then treated with the coating polymer via a subsequent treatment step. As used herein, treating and coating are synonymous; generally a treatment refers to the process of applying a material to a substrate and a coating is the layer or material on the substrate. Preferably, the substrate is treated with the cross-linking agent and is then dried, thereby depositing the cross-linking agent on the substrate. Following the drying of the cross-linking agent-containing substrate, the coating polymer then is added to the substrate, as described in more detail hereinafter.

[0043] The method of treating the substrate in the above-described treatment steps is dependent on the nature of the substrate; a goal of the treatment steps is to provide a uniform application of the cross-linking agent and the polymer to the substrate. Examples of cross-linking agent coating units suitable for obtaining uniform cross-linking agent coatings on substrates include impregnation units, knife coating units, wire wound coating bars, roll coaters, spray coaters, size presses, nip presses, and the like. As one non-limiting example, paper can be treated with a cross-linking agent utilizing coaters, e.g., brush and air knife coaters, on-machine coaters, high speed blade coaters, light weight on-machine coaters, Gate roll coaters, double blade coaters, and those coaters presented in Fukui Terunobu, "A Review of Paper Coating. Paper Coating Technologies in the 20th Century", Japan TAPPI Journal, 2001 , 55, 1651 -1667 and Jerzy Wypych, Polymer Modified Textile Materials (John Wiley & Sons 1988), both of which incorporated herein by reference. Another non-limiting example applicable to paper is the treatment of pulp with a cross-linking agent, either by the addition of the cross-linking agent to the pulper (wherein the pulper is the first coating unit) or by adding, e.g., spraying, the cross-linking agent onto the pulp on the paper-making wire. Additional non- limiting examples include spray coating, e.g., utilizing a spray arm with preferably a plurality of spray nozzles, dip coating, painting, re-wetting with cross-linker and polymer(s) at the water box of a papermachine, and the like. Substrates other than paper may require adaptation or augmentation of the treatment methods, these adaptations or augmentations are within the knowledge of one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0044] Drying the cross-linking agent-coated substrate formed after treating the substrate with the cross-linking agent can include the application of heat, the application of vacuum, the application of both heat and vacuum, or the air drying of the substrate. Applicable methods for any particular substrate are known to those of ordinary skill in the art. As used herein, dry and drying mean that water or other solvents were removed from the substrate to the point that reapplication of water or other solvent would darken or visibly wet the substrate. Preferably, dry or drying is to about 10% by wt. to about 20% by wt. water or other solvent, but may be 0% to about 20% by wt., more preferably 0% to 10 % by wt. water.

[0045] The method of treating the cross-linking agent-coated-substrate with the coating polymer is dependent on the nature of the substrate; a goal of the treating is to provide a uniform application of the coating polymer on the substrate, preferably essentially co-extensive with the surface of the substrate contacted by the cross-linking agent. As one non-limiting example, a second coating unit can be a brush and/or air knife coater, on-machine coater, high speed blade coater, light weight on-machine coater, Gate roll coater, double blade coater, and those coaters presented in Fukui Terunobu, "A Review of Paper Coating. Paper Coating Technologies in the 20th Century", Japan TAPPI Journal, 2001 , 55, 1651 -1667 and Jerzy Wypych, Polymer Modified Textile Materials (John Wiley & Sons 1988), both of which incorporated herein by reference. Additional non-limiting examples of methods include spray coating, e.g., utilizing a spray arm with preferably a plurality of spray nozzles, dip coating, painting, and the like. Substrates other than paper may require adaptation or augmentation of the treatment methods, these adaptations or augmentations are within the knowledge of one of ordinary skill in the art. Preferably, the substrate is treated with the coating polymer and is then dried. In the manufacture, the drying preferably includes heating the paper to a drying temperature, preferably, less than about 300 0 F, more preferably less than about 212 0 F, even more preferably less than about 150 0 F, and still more preferably less than about 125 0 F, at 1 atmosphere.

[0046] Without being bound to theory, the process for the manufacture of the articles and substrates described herein is believed to benefit from both the individual treatment of fibers in fibrous substrates and the formation of cross-linked density gradients. First, the individual treatment of fibers in a fibrous substrate, e.g. paper, is believed to be effectuated by the multi step treatment process described above. The individual fibers are believed to be first coated with the cross-linking agent and then coated with the polyol polymer. This subsequent treatment of the substrate with the polymer is believed to allow the polymer to individually coat the fibers as opposed to coat the surface of the substrate (leaving voids in a roughened substrate surface). Furthermore, the herein described process is believed to yield a polyol-polymer coating wherein a percentage of polymer cross-linking is higher at the substrate/polymer interface and lower at a polymer surface furthest away from the substrate surface. The process is additionally believed to yield a cross-link density gradient in between the substrate interface and the free polymer surface. Moreover, it is believed that the process described herein significantly enhances both the mechanical and chemical bonding of the polyol-polymer coating to the substrate.

[0047] Physical characteristics of the articles and substrates described herein can be modified by changing the amount of coating polymer added to the substrate and by changing the coating-polymer/cross-linking agent ratio. Preferably, the amount of the coating polymer added to the substrate is sufficient to provide grease and or adhesion resistance. More preferably, the amount of coating polymer applied to the substrate, and cross-linked in situ as disclosed herein is less then the amount of coating polymer utilized in the art and necessary in the art to provide the same grease and/or adhesion resistance. Even more preferably, the amount of coating polymer utilized in the present disclosure is less than 75% of the amount of coating polymer necessary in the art, still more preferably, the amount of coating polymer utilized in the present disclosure is less than 50% of the amount of coating polymer necessary in the art. As a non-limiting example for paper having a basis weight of about 20 pounds per 3,000 square feet, if 200 pounds of polyol per ton of substrate is necessary to obtain a KIT test grease resistance value of 5 in the prior art, then the preferable amount of polyol added to the herein described substrate obtain the same KIT test value is less than 100 pounds per ton of substrate, more preferably less than 50 pounds per ton of substrate. The amount of polymer added is preferably about 1 to about 200 pounds per ton of substrate, more preferably about 5 to about 150 pounds per ton of substrate, even more preferably about 10 to about 100 pounds per ton of substrate, still more preferably about 10 to about 50 pounds per ton of substrate. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that wherein a sheet of 20 pound basis weight paper may need 50 pounds polymer per ton of paper, a sheet of 40 pound basis weight paper may only need about 25 pounds polymer per ton of paper and a sheet of 80 pounds basis weight paper may only need about 12 pounds polymer per ton of paper.

[0048] Likewise, the ratio of the coating polymer to cross-linking agent is sufficient to provide grease and/or adhesion resistance to the substrate. The benefits of substantial grease and/or adhesion resistance of the present disclosure are achieved when the ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent is low, relative to prior art polymer-cross linking agent compositions. Preferably, the mass ratio of the polymer to cross-linking agent is less than about 10:1 . More preferably the mass ratio is less than about 5:1 , and even more preferably the mass ratio is less than or equal to about 3:1 .

[0049] Corresponding to the above presented preferred ratio of polymer to cross- linking agent, the preferred amount of cross-linking agent added to the substrate is about 0.1 to about 400 pounds per ton of substrate, more preferably about 1 to about 200 pounds per ton of substrate, most preferably about 5 to about 50 pounds per ton of substrate.

[0050] In one preferred embodiment where the polymer is a polyol and the cross- linking agent is borax, the preferred mass ratio of polyol to cross-linking agent is in a range of about 1 :10 to about 10:1 , more preferably about 1 :1 to about 8:1 , even more preferably about 2:1 to about 7:1 , still more preferably about 3:1 to about 6:1 . [0051] When the substrate is paper, the coating is preferably applied during the paper making process. The treatment of the paper with the cross-linking agent, preferably borax, can be accomplished by any of the methods outlined above. Preferably the borax is added as a water based solution to the paper.

[0052] Referring to Figure 1 , the addition of the cross-linking agent to paper fibers can occur at one or more places on a paper machine 100. For example, this fiber treatment can be carried out by spraying the cross-linking agent or a solution thereof onto the paper fibers at one or more locations 110-112 in the forming section 102 of the paper machine 100 and/or at a location 113 within or at a location 114 after the press section 103 and before the dryer sections 104-105 and/or at a location 115 after a first dryer section 104 but before a second dryer section 105. The location where the coating polymer is added to the paper fibers in dependent on the location of the addition of the cross-linking agent. In one non-limiting example, the cross-linking agent can be applied at a location 114 after the press section 103 and before the first dryer section 104. The coating polymer could then be added at a location 115 after the first dryer section 104 and before the section dryer section 105. Other possibilities include the addition of the cross-linking agent at a location before the headbox 101 , in the flow line from the pulper to the headbox 101 , or directly to the pulper. Still other possibilities include the addition of the cross-linking agent and the coating polymer to the substrate or the coating polymer to the cross-linking agent treated substrate at the water box of a papermachine, or off of the paper making line, for example through the use of an off-line coater well.

[0053] The coated substrates described herein were tested for repellency of grease, and oil by a Kit Test (TAPPI T 559 pm-96) and by a Fatty Acid Test (FA Test). The Kit Test was designed for testing paper and board treated with fluorochemical sizing agents, which are replaced with the herein described coatings. The Kit Test, well known in the paper and board coating art, involves the addition of a drop of a test solution, shown in Table 1 , onto the substrate. The test solution is quickly removed after 15 seconds and any darkening of the substrate (wetting) is recorded. The Kit Testing is repeated until the highest number kit solution that does not cause failure (wetting) is identified.

Table 1. Mixtures of reagents for preparing Kit Test (TAPPI T 559 pm-96) solutions.

Kit No. Castor Oil, Toluene, n-heptane,

Q ml_ ml_

1 960.0 0 0

2 872.1 50 50

3 775.2 100 100

4 678.3 150 150

5 581 .4 200 200

6 484.5 250 150

7 387.6 300 300 Kit No. Castor Oil, Toluene, n-heptane, g ml_ ml_

8 290.7 350 350

9 193.8 400 400

10 96.9 450 450

11 0 500 500

12 0 450 550

[0054] The Fatty A σ > σ > cid Test (FA Test) differs from the Kit Test a number of ways, one of the most significant is that the substrates and test solutions are maintained at 60 0 C which speeds the failure (wetting) of a substrate. The FA Test is similar to the Kit Test in that it involves a series of test mixtures, shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Mixtures of reagents for preparing Fatty Acid Test solutions.

Mi Y t i IΓP Composition (% wt.) ι u e Castor Oil Oleic Acid Octanoic Acid

1 100 0 0

2 50 50 0

3 30 70 0

4 0 100 0

5 0 80 20

0 70 30

7 0 55 45

8 0 35 65

0 20 80

10 0 10 90

11 0 0 100

[0055] The FA Test is accomplished by warming the substrate to 60 0 C and then applying a pre-warmed test mixture in the same manner as the Kit Test. The substrate and test solution are then stored at 60 0 C for five minutes, and then a failure (wetting) is noted. The FA Testing is repeated until the highest number test solution that does not cause failure (wetting) is identified.

[0056] As used herein, grease resistant means articles preferably have a Kit test rating of at least 1 , preferably a rating greater than 2, still more preferably greater than 3. Grease resistant additionally means that the articles preferably have a FA Test rating of at least 1 , preferably a rating greater than 3, still more preferably greater than 5. Often the level of grease resistance of paper is dependent on the application, for example for quick service restaurant (QSR) applications the FA Test value is preferably greater than 2, more preferably in a range of 3-4; wherein the low value is often obtained by limiting the amount of coating applied to the paper. For pizza box or pet food bag applications the FA Test value is preferably greater than 5, more preferably in a range of 6-8. For microwave popcorn applications the FA Test value is preferably greater than 8. [0057] The grease resistant articles described above are useful for forming into containers for oil and/or grease containing items. Importantly, the materials used to form the above-described articles are generally approved for contact with food and food stuffs, for example, for use in quick service restaurant wraps, french-fry sleeves, dog food bags, and microwave popcorn bags. The application of the above-described grease resistant articles as a container for microwave popcorn fully illustrates the beneficial features of the articles. Microwave popcorn is packaged in flexible paper bags containing a microwave susceptor as a slurry including popcorn kernels and a oil material. The popping of the kernels requires the application of microwave energy and a sufficient increase in temperature oil and the kernels.

[0058] The herein described articles are grease resistant, flame resistant, printable, and glueable, all important features for the construction of a microwave popcorn bag. Herein, the articles show high FA Test values indicative of superior grease resistance at the elevated temperatures necessary to pop the kernels. Additionally, the articles show flame resistance, preferably the articles herein are self-extinguishing, an important feature in the design of microwave popcorn bags where popped kernels often scorch during popping. The herein described grease resistant articles are preferably printable, that is images and/or lettering can be applied to the articles by methods known in the art. Similarly, the herein described grease resistant articles are preferably glueable, for example a sheet of grease resistant paper described above can be folded upon itself and glued to form a structure capable of holding food. Preferably, the application of an adhesive or a glue to the grease resistant paper is not inhibited by the presence of the grease resistant coating allowing for the application of adhesive to any side of the paper. One of ordinary skill, in light of the disclosure presented below, would recognize that the release of an adhesive from the coated substrate is dependent on the adhesive used. Herein, the gluing of the coated substrate can form either a structural or a releasable bond dependent on the adhesive used, e.g., structural adhesives and pressure sensitive adhesives (e.g., permanent, repositionable and removable adhesives), respectively. As commercial microwave popcorn bags are printed and glued to form containers for the oil containing popcorn slurry and are then heated to about 200 0 C to pop the kernels, the above-described articles provide the microwave popcorn manufacturer with a single article that can be printed, shaped and used as a container for popcorn.

[0059] Once the article has been prepared, the article can be employed as either a release substrate (liner) or as an adhesive backed article (a "sheet"), e.g., a pressure sensitive adhesive tape. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that the terms adhesive backed article and adhesive coated article are, herein, interchangeable, while adhesive backed is typically used to describe the article and adhesive coated is typically used to describe the adhesive function. As a release sheet, the adhesion-resistant article and an adhesive backed article form a laminate. As a pressure sensitive adhesive tape, the adhesion-resistant article is combined with an adhesive to form a sheet.

[0060] Multiple techniques for manufacturing laminates are available. In one example, the adhesive is applied to the adhesion-resistant side of the absorbent substrate and then an article, e.g., paper, is applied to the adhesive. In a second example, the adhesive is first applied to at least one major surface of an article and then the adhesive- coated surface of the article is applied to the adhesive resistant side of the absorbent substrate.

[0061] Referring to Figure 2, the laminate 200 is constructed of at least two distinct layers, the adhesive backed article 201 and the release substrate 202, which are individually composed of multiple components. The adhesive backed article 201 comprises an article 203 and an adhesive 204. The article 203 can be the same material as the absorbent substrate 207, as described above, or can be a non-absorbent material, e.g., polystyrene films, polyethylene films, metal sheets, foils, or films, and the like. The article 203 can be print receptive, that is the article 203 is capable of receiving printing from, for example, an ink transfer unit, an inkjet printer, a laser printer, thermal printer, and the like. Alternatively, the article 203 can additionally comprise one or more print receptive layers. Still further, the article 203 can exhibit or comprise additional functional layers that exhibit properties such as magnetic, electromagnetic, thermochromic, piezioelectic, semiconducting, and the like. The release substrate 202 is composed of an adhesion-resistant coating 205 adhered or coated on an adhesion- resistant side 206 of the absorbent substrate 207. Depending on the thickness of the adhesion-resistant coating 205, the coating may or may not appear as a distinct layer supported on the adhesion-resistant side of the absorbent substrate 207. Moreover, the laminate can comprise an article with adhesive coatings on a plurality of major surfaces, e.g., double sided tape, wherein the plurality of major adhesive surfaces are in contact with one or more adhesion-resistant substrates (not shown).

[0062] Referring to Figure 3, a laminate can comprise an adhesive 303 in the absence of an article, e.g., the pressure sensitive adhesive disks described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,319,442, incorporated herein by reference. Therein the adhesive is supported between a plurality of release substrates 301. As shown the release substrates 301 can comprise adhesion-resistant coatings 302 on a plurality of major surfaces. Alternatively, the release substrates 301 can comprise an adhesion-resistant coating 302 on only one major surface wherein the laminate would comprise a single layer of adhesive disks, see e.g., Figure 5. [0063] Similarly, multiple techniques are available for the manufacture of sheets. In one example, the adhesive is applied to the adhesion-resistant side of the absorbent substrate and, optionally, the substrate is wound so the adhesive contacts a side of the absorbent substrate that is opposite that of the adhesion-resistant side. In another example, the adhesive is applied to the adhesion-resistant side of the absorbent substrate and then a side of a second substrate comprising a second adhesion-resistant side is applied to the adhesive so the adhesive contacts the side of the second absorbent substrate that is opposite that of the second adhesion-resistant side. In still another example, the adhesive is directly applied to the side of the substrate opposite that of the adhesion-resistant side.

[0064] Referring to Figure 4, the sheet 400 comprises an adhesive 401 in contact with a major surface of an absorbent substrate 402, e.g., those described above, that is opposite to the adhesion-resistant side 403 of the absorbent substrate 402. The adhesion-resistant side 403 is the major surface of the absorbent substrate where the adhesion-resistant coating 404 was applied, as described above.

[0065] Referring to Figure 5, the sheet 500 is illustrated with pressure sensitive adhesive disks 503 in contact with an adhesion-resistant (release) substrate 501. Therein, the adhesive is supported on or weakly adhered to the major surface of the release substrate 501 treated with an adhesion-resistant coating 502.

[0066] Referring to Figure 6, the sheet is illustrated as a wound tape 600. The single- sided adhesive tape shown comprises an adsorbent substrate 602 where the adhesive 601 and the adhesive resistant side 603 positioned such that the adhesive 601 contacts the adhesive resistant side 603 when the tape 600 is wound. Furthermore, the adhesive resistant side 603 is preferably on an outer surface when the tape is wound, thereby, preventing the wound tape from adhering to other objects. An alternative embodiment is a double sided tape comprising a laminate constructed from an article with adhesive on both sides and a substrate with both sides being adhesion-resistant.

EXAMPLES

[0067] The following examples are provided to illustrate the invention, but are not intended to limit the scope thereof. Example 1 are samples of articles treated and tested by the above-described methods. Example 2 are samples of articles coated by the above-described methods wherein the coating polymer is a blend of a polyvinyl alcohol) and another polymer. Example 3 are results of a comparative release test, where a plurality of known coating agents were compared to a herein described adhesion resistant substrate. Comparative samples are included in both Example 1 and Example 2 wherein the cross-linking agent was omitted from the method. [0068] The general procedure was followed for all of the samples produced, recognizing that comparative examples omit the borax treatment step. Generally: a 8 inch by 1 1 inch sheet of uncoated 20 pound paper was dried at 105 0 C for 2 min in a speedy drier, then coated with an aqueous cross-linker, e.g., borax solution using a #1.5 Mayer Rod, providing a 0.0015 inch (3.8 μm) thick coat of the solution (approximate coverage 10,700 ft 2 /gal (263 m 2 /l) and a wet film weight of 0.94 lbs/1000 ft 2 (3.8 g/m 2 )). The paper was then dried for 2 min at 105 0 C. Next, the paper was coated with an aqueous coating polymer solution using a #1 .5 Mayer Rod and then the paper was dried for 2 minutes at 105 0 C. The, as dried, paper was tested for repellency of grease and oil by the Kit Test (TAPPI T 559 pm-96) and by the Fatty Acid Test.

[0069] Significant variability was observed in the adsorption of the paper after the treatment of the paper with the cross-linker solution. Without being bound to any particular theory, it is believed that these variabilities are due in part to the wicking properties of the paper after borax addition and to the rapid reaction of the polyol with the borax. The reported values for pounds of borax per ton of paper were calculated by weighing the paper after the first drying, coating the sheet and drying the sheet, and then re-weighing and measuring the area coated. This provides a measure of the grams of coating per square centimeter, that value is then converted to pounds per ton of paper. The reported values for pounds of polymer per ton of paper were calculated in the same way.

[0070] The provided examples employ polyols of varying viscosity and hydrolyzation. The series tested and reported herein are the ELVANOL brand of polyvinyl alcohols available from DUPONT Co., Wilmington DE. Table 3 lists the general characteristics of this series of ELVANOL polymers.

Table 3.

Representative Polyols 1 % hydrolyzed Viscosity (cP) 2

ELVANOL 51 -05 87-89 5-6 ELVANOL 52-22 87-89 23-27 ELVANOL 50-42 87-89 44-50

ELVANOL 70-06 98-99 6-7 ELVANOL 71 -30 98-99% 27-33

1 ELVANOL polyols are hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohols (PVOH) available from DUPONT Co., Wilmington DE.

2 4% solids aqueous solution at 2O 0 C

EXAMPLE 1

[0071 ] Samples 1 -5 presented in Table 4 provide representative test data for coatings of the polyols used throughout Example 1. These samples were prepared by the general method, above, where the coating of the paper with borax was omitted. The aqueous coating polymer solution was a 7.5 wt. % solution of the polyol in water. The weight of polymer(s) and borax in the following tables are calculated on a dry polymer and dry borax basis.

Table 4.

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax FATTY

KIT Test Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of ACID Test Result weight g/m 2 paper paper Result

O none O O O O

1 ELVANOL 51 -05 68.7 O 7 O 1 .075

2 ELVANOL 52-22 107 O 3 O 1 .743

3 ELVANOL 50-42 66 O 7 2 1.108

4 ELVANOL 70-06 46 0 3 0 0.766

5 ELVANOL 71 -30 51 .7 0 5 0 0.863

[0072] Samples 6-10 presented in Table 5 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 2.5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 7.5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 3:1.

Table 5

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax FATTY

KIT Test Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of ACID Test Result weight g/m 2 paper paper Result

6 ELVANOL 51 -05 52.4 7.5 12 8 0.880

7 ELVANOL 52-22 52.7 19.8 1 1 -12 6 0.880

8 ELVANOL 50-42 104.5 33.8 8 0 1 .694

9 ELVANOL 70-06 71.9 6.5 9 3 1 .205

10 ELVANOL 71 -30 66.6 6.6 10 1 1.108

[0073] Samples 1 1 -15 presented in Table 6 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 7.5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 1.5:1.

Table 6

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax KIT FATTY

Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of Test ACID Test weight g/m 2 paper paper Result Result

11 ELVANOL 51 -05 88.7 22.2 12 7 1 .482 12 ELVANOL 52-22 59.6 39.7 8 - 10 3 1 .091 13 ELVANOL 50-42 86.6 26.7 8 5 1 .450

14 ELVANOL 70-06 78.5 26.2 1 1 8 1 .303 15 ELVANOL 71-30 99.9 33.3 9 1 1 .661

[0074] Samples 16-20 presented in Table 7 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 7.5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 7.5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 1 :1. The higher concentration of borax required the addition of about 2.5 wt. % to about 7.5 wt. % of glycerol to the aqueous borax solution prior to coating.

Table 7

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax FATTY

KIT Test Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of ACID Test Result weight g/m 2 paper paper Result

16 ELVANOL 51 -05 67.4 37.4 10 1 1 .124

17 ELVANOL 52-22 93.3 93.3 7 6 1 .564

18 ELVANOL 50-42 162 47.5 10 4 2.704

19 ELVANOL 70-06 84.2 83.9 12 8 1.401

20 ELVANOL 71 -30 100.2 66.9 9 3 1 .661

[0075] Samples 21 -25 presented in Table 8 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 2.5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 2:1 .

Table 8

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax KIT FATTY

Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of Test ACID Test weight g/m 2 paper paper Result Result

21 ELVANOL 51 -05 47.2 6.7 9 4 COO O 0.782 22 ELVANOL 52-22 39.7 26.5 1 1 -12 6 0.668 23 ELVANOL 50-42 46.4 26.5 9 1 0.782

24 ELVANOL 70-06 68.8 13.8 7 1.157 25 ELVANOL 71 -30 53.1 19.9 10 0.880

[0076] Samples 26-30 presented in Table 9 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 1 :1 .

Table 9

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax FATTY

KIT Test Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of ACID Test Result weight g/m 2 paper paper Result

26 ELVANOL 51 -05 66.5 22.2 12 8 1.108

27 ELVANOL 52-22 39.7 33.1 9 5 0.668

28 ELVANOL 50-42 60.7 33.8 9 1 1.010

29 ELVANOL 70-06 52.3 32.6 1 1 8 0.880

30 ELVANOL 71 -30 27 26.6 9 3 0.440

[0077] Samples 31 -35 presented in Table 10 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 7.5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 0.66:1. The higher concentration of borax required the addition of about 2.5 wt. % to about 7.5 wt. % of glycerol to the aqueous borax solution prior to coating.

Table 10

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax FATTY

KIT Test Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of ACID Test Result weight g/m 2 paper paper Result

31 ELVANOL 51 -05 52.4 44.9 9 0 0.880

32 ELVANOL 52-22 73.5 100 7 3 1.222

33 ELVANOL 50-42 88.8 40.9 8 0 1.482

34 ELVANOL 70-06 65.4 58.8 10 4 1.091

35 ELVANOL 71-30 88.6 67 10 2 1.450

[0078] Samples 36-40 presented in Table 1 1 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 2.5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 2.5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 1 :1.

Table 11

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax FATTY

KIT Test Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of ACID Test Result weight g/m 2 paper paper Result

36 ELVANOL 51 -05 44.4 7.4 9 0 0.733

37 ELVANOL 52-22 40.2 26.8 9 3 0.668

38 ELVANOL 50-42 13.3 13.4 9 4 0.228

39 ELVANOL 70-06 33.0 6.6 8 0 0.554

40 ELVANOL 71 -30 13.5 13.5 9 3 0.228

[0079] Samples 41 -45 presented in Table 12 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 2.5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 0.5:1.

Table 12

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax FATTY

KIT Test Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of ACID Test Result weight g/m 2 paper paper Result

41 ELVANOL 51 -05 15.0 23.3 9 3 0.244

42 ELVANOL 52-22 46.4 33.1 7 1 0.782

43 ELVANOL 50-42 21 .1 40.4 8 6 0.326

44 ELVANOL 70-06 71 .9 32.6 8 3 1 .205

45 ELVANOL 71 -30 33.8 27.0 8 3 0.570

[0080] Samples 46-50 presented in Table 13 provide test data for paper first treated with an aqueous 7.5 wt. % borax solution and then an aqueous 2.5 wt. % coating polymer solution. The application ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent was 0.33:1 . The higher concentration of borax required the addition of about 2.5 wt. % to about 7.5 wt. % of glycerol to the aqueous borax solution prior to coating. Table 13

Lbs. Polyol Lbs Borax FATTY

KIT Test Polyol coat

Polyol per Ton of per Ton of ACID Test Result weight g/m 2 paper paper Result

46 ELVANOL 51 -05 29.7 51.9 9 2 0.489

47 ELVANOL 52-22 33.3 53.3 5 1 0.554

48 ELVANOL 50-42 33.7 40.5 10 3 0.570

49 ELVANOL 70-06 26.0 45.8 8 0 0.440

50 ELVANOL 71 -30 33.1 59.6 7 2 0.554

EXAMPLE 2

[0081] Samples presented in Example 2 were prepared from blends of polymers. These polymer blends were dissolved to provide a 5 wt. % polymer blend solution in water and then applied as provided in the General Procedure. Example 2 includes comparative samples, i.e., without cross-linking agent, and samples wherein the cross- linking agent was applied as provided in the General Procedure. The cross-linking agent shown in these samples was borax and was provided as a 5 wt. % borax solution in water.

[0082] In Table 14, Samples 51 , 53, and 55 are comparative samples wherein the borax was omitted. Sample 52 shows the effect of borax on a sample employing ethylated starch available from PENFORD PRODUCTS Co., Cedar Rapids IA. Sample 54 is previously presented Sample 26. Sample 56 shows the effect of including ethylated starch in the coating polymer.

Table 14

Lbs. Coating Lbs Borax

KIT Test FATTY ACID

Coating Polymer Polymer per per Ton of Result Test Result Ton of paper paper

51 Ethylated Starch 89.13 0.00 3 0 52 Ethylated Starch 40.95 27.30 5 0

53 ELVANOL 51 -05 68.56 0.00 7 0 54 ELVANOL 51 -05 66.50 22.20 12 8

55 75/25 (51 -05)/ES 1 81 .71 0.00 5 0 56 75/25 (51 -05)/ES 1 41 .16 20.58 12 8

1 Coating Polymers were a mixture of 75 wt. % ELVANOL 51 -05 and 25 wt. % Ethylated Starch.

[0083] In Table 15, Samples 57, 59, 61 , and 63 are comparative samples wherein the borax was omitted. Sample 58 shows the effect of borax on a sample employing Methyl Cellulose available from DOW WOLFF CELLULOSICS, Bound Brook NJ. Sample 60 is previously presented Sample 26. Samples 62 and 64 show the effects of including methyl cellulose in the coating polymer. Table 15

Lbs. Coating Lbs Borax

KIT Test FATTY ACID

Coating Polymer Polymer per per Ton of Result Test Result Ton of paper paper 7 Methyl cellulose 47.43 0.00 5 0 8 Methyl cellulose 20.60 41.21 5 0 9 ELVANOL 51 -05 68.56 0.00 7 0 0 ELVANOL 51 -05 66.50 22.2 12 8 1 75/25 51 -05/MC 1 67.67 0.00 5 0 2 75/25 51 -05/MC 1 54.71 27.35 12 8 3 50/50 51 -05/ MC 2 67.38 0.00 4 0 4 50/50 51 -05/ MC 2 41 .18 41.18 9 7 Coating Polymers were a mixture of 75 wt. % ELVANOL 51 -05 and 25 wt. % Methyl Cellulose. Coating Polymers were a mixture of 50 wt. % ELVANOL 51 -05 and 50 wt. % Methyl Cellulose.

[0084] In Table 16, Samples 65, 67, 69, and 71 are comparative samples wherein the borax was omitted. Sample 66 shows the effect of borax on a sample employing Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HMPC) available from DOW WOLFF CELLULOSICS. Sample 68 is previously presented Sample 26. Samples 70 and 72 show the effects of including HMPC in the coating polymer.

Table 16

Lbs. Coating Lbs Borax

KIT Test FATTY ACID

Coating Polymer Polymer per per Ton of Result Test Result Ton of paper paper

65 HMPC 1 60.68 0.00 5 0 66 HMPC 1 36.17 28.94 4 0

67 ELVANOL 51 -05 68.56 0.00 7 0 68 ELVANOL 51 -05 66.50 22.20 12 8

69 75/25 51 -05/HPMC 2 67.05 0.00 4 0 70 75/25 51 -05/HPMC 2 79.07 21.57 12 7

71 50/50 51 -05/HPMC 3 76.73 0.00 4 0 72 50/50 51 -05/HPMC 3 86.26 21.57 12 6

1 Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC)

2 Coating Polymers were a mixture of 75 wt. % ELVANOL 51 -05 and 25 wt. % HPMC.

3 Coating Polymers were a mixture of 50 wt. % ELVANOL 51 -05 and 50 wt. % HPMC.

[0085] In Table 17, Samples 73, 75, and 77 are comparative examples wherein the borax was omitted. Samples 74, 76, and 78 show the effect of borax on the mixed polymer, coating polymer. In these three samples significant improvement in the grease resistance was observed by the stepwise treatment as provided in the general procedure. Table 17

76 75/25 51 -05/Cwax-PE 2 67.337 26.9349 12 4

77 75/25 51 -05/pEAA 3 33.085 0.0000 1 0 78 75/25 51 -05/pEAA 3 20.289 27.0517 1 1 4

1 Coating Polymers were a mixture of 75 wt. % ELVANOL 51 -05 and 25 wt. % Polyvinylidene chloride.

2 Coating Polymers were a mixture of 75 wt. % ELVANOL 51 -05 and 25 wt. % carnauba wax/polyethylene wax emulsion.

3 Coating Polymers were a mixture of 75 wt. % ELVANOL 51 -05 and 25 wt. % polyethylene-acrylic acid copolymer .

[0086] Table 18 shows the effect of different borates on the grease resistance of a coated sheet of paper. The paper was first treated with a borate solution and then treated with either a 2.5 wt. %, 5 wt. % or 7.5 wt. % solution of ELVANOL 70-06. In these samples the relative effects of the borate source can be observed. Samples without borate were provided for reference.

Table 18

Lbs. Coating Lbs Borate KIT FATTY Wt. % CO O

Cross-linking Agent Polymer per per Ton of Test ACID Test borate Ton of paper paper Result Result solution

2 .5 wt. % coating polymer 33 0 1 0 0

82 32.2 19.4 8 0 2.5 83 Potassium Borate 39 26 7 0 5 84 39 26 7 0 7.5

5 wt. % coating polymer 45.2 0 1 0 0

88 68.8 13.8 7 3 2.5 89 Sodium Borate 52.3 32.6 1 1 8 5 90 65.4 58.8 10 4 7.5

91 90 19.4 7 7 2.5 92 Potassium Borate 70.3 25.6 10 8 5 93 84.2 51.8 10 8 7.5

94 20.1 26.8 5 0 2.5 95 Ammonium Borate 47.05 20.15 7 0 5 96 73.1 46.5 5 0 7.5

7 .5 wt. % coating polymer 46 0 3 0 0

97 Sodium Borate 71 .9 6.5 9 3 2.5

98 78.5 26.2 1 1 8 5 Lbs. Coating Lbs Borate KIT FATTY Wt. %

Cross-linking Agent Polymer per per Ton of Test ACID Test borate Ton of paper paper Result Result solution

99 84.2 83.9 12 8 7.5

100 78.4 6.5 7 4 2.5 101 Potassium Borate 51.6 32.3 9 8 5 102 102.4 83.1 10 7 7.5

103 80.4 6.7 5 0 2.5 104 Ammonium Borate 66.7 20.03 8 0 5 105 109.5 47.9 10 0 7.5

EXAMPLE 3

[0087] The qualitative release properties of multiple prior art coatings were compared against a coating corresponding to the present disclosure. The coatings were prepared by the general procedure of coating office inkjet paper (Hammermill®) with a 5% solution of the release agent/coating then using an automatic drawdown machine with Mayer Rod # 1.5; and drying the coated paper for 2 minutes at 80 0 C on a speedy dryer. Then an Avery label was pulled from silicone backing and placed on the coated sheet for 60 -72 hours. The label was then pulled from the paper. The qualitative results are presented in Table 19.

Table 19

Trade Name Chemistry Observation

MOWIOL 5-88 PVOH label / paper tore PolySize 47 1 paraffin emulsion label / paper tore PolySize 1597 1 paraffin emulsion label / paper tore PolySize 12 1 paraffin/ PVOH emulsion label / paper tore Norane OC 2 paraffin emulsion label / paper tore Sequapel 417 2 paraffin emulsion label / paper tore PEN1031 3 Carnauba wax emulsion label / paper tore Emulsion A25 3 polyethylene emulsion label / paper tore Sequapel 409 2 alkylamine emulsion label / paper tore Surfene 2060 4 polyvinylidene chloride label / paper tore Disperison WEA-25A 3 ethylene-acrylic acid emulsion label / paper tore Sequabond VS 9056 2 vinyl acrylic polymer label / paper tore tight release

5% borax/ 5% MOWIOL 5-88 Herein disclosed no tear

1 available from POLYMER VENTURES, Inc., Charleston, SC.

2 available from OMNOVA SOLUTIONS, Fairlawn, OH.

3 available from CHEMCOR, Chester NY.

4 available from ROHM AND HAAS, Philadelphia, PA.

EXAMPLE 4

[0088] A thermal base paper, obtained from a local paper company, was first coated with a 2.5% solution of borax using a # 1 .5 Rod and then dried with an industrial air drier at setting "2" (warm but not warm enough to darken the thermal paper). The sheets were then coated with either 2.5, 5, or 7.5% Elvanol 52-22 and then dried using the same air drier. Avery labels (AVERY ® , Brea, CA) were then adhered to the side of the sheet coated with borax and then PVOH. Release data (peel force using a PHASE Il (Carlstadt, NJ) force gauge fitted with film clamps) was recorded over time and is presented in Figure 7.

[0089] The foregoing description is given for clearness of understanding only, and no unnecessary limitations should be understood therefrom, as modifications within the scope of the invention may be apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art.