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Title:
IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO APPARATUS FOR COOKING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/042163
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An apparatus for cooking (10) comprising a frame member (11), an oven (30), the oven (30) being mountable to the frame member (11) such that it can rotate between a first position and a second position, and a lens element (40), the lens element (40) being mountable to the oven (30) and the frame member (11) such that it can pivot between a first position and a second position, and, in use, being configured to provide focused sunlight to the oven (30), and wherein the frame member (11) is configured to permit simultaneous movement of the oven (30) and the lens element (40).

Inventors:
HOWIESON, Stirling (42/11, Gardner's Crescent, Edinburgh Lothian EH3 8DG, EH3 8DG, GB)
Application Number:
GB2017/052513
Publication Date:
March 08, 2018
Filing Date:
August 29, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
HOWIESON, Stirling (42/11, Gardner's Crescent, Edinburgh Lothian EH3 8DG, EH3 8DG, GB)
International Classes:
C02F1/14; F22B1/00; F24S20/30; F24S23/30; F24S30/425; F24S50/20; H01L35/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015092363A22015-06-25
Foreign References:
CH675908A51990-11-15
US5706798A1998-01-13
US4619244A1986-10-28
US1081098A1913-12-09
JP2001153471A2001-06-08
JP2009270738A2009-11-19
CA2479862A12006-02-25
US4913130A1990-04-03
US4585318A1986-04-29
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LAWRIE IP LIMITED (The Hub, Pacific QuayPacific Drive, Pacific Drive, Glasgow Strathclyde G51 1EA, G51 1EA, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. An apparatus for cooking comprising:

a frame member;

an oven, the oven being mountable to the frame member such that it can rotate between a first position and a second position; and

a lens element, the lens element being mountable to the oven and the frame member such that it can pivot between a first position and a second position, and, in use, being configured to provide focused sunlight to the oven,

wherein the frame member is configured to permit simultaneous movement of the oven and the lens element.

2. The apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the frame member is arranged such that, in use, the lens element maintains focused sunlight to the oven between the first position and the second position.

3. The apparatus of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the apparatus is configured such that the oven and the lens element move dependently with respect to one another.

4. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the apparatus is configured such that the lens element pivots with respect to the oven and the frame member.

5. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the lens element is movably coupled to the frame member.

6. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the frame member includes a base portion and the apparatus is arranged such that the oven substantially lies within an area defined by the footprint that the base portion of frame member makes on the ground, or other supporting surface. 7. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the axis about which the oven rotates is orthogonal to the axis about which the lens element rotates.

8. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the frame member provides support to the oven and guidance to the lens element.

9. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the frame member includes a track member and the lens element is moveably connectable to the track member.

10. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the lens element is configured to run on the track member.

1 1. The apparatus of claim 9 or claim 10, wherein the track member is shaped to allow the lens element to rotate between the first position and the second position as the lens element moves relative to the track member.

12. The apparatus of any of claims 9 to 1 1 , wherein the track member is supported by one or more track member support portions connected to the base portion of the frame member.

13. The apparatus of any of claims 9 to 12, wherein the track member is a parabolic-shaped rail member.

14. The apparatus of any of claims 9 to 13, wherein the lens element is moveably connectable to the track member by a coupling member.

15. The apparatus of claim 14, wherein the coupling member is fixedly attachable to the lens element and is configured to allow the lens element to move freely along the track member.

16. The apparatus of claim 14 or claim 15, wherein the coupling member is configured to move between a first unextended position and a second extended position as the coupling member traverses the track member.

17. The apparatus of any of claims 14 to 16, wherein the coupling member is pivotably connectable to the lens element.

18. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the lens element includes first and second support arms, the first support arms being configured to provide support to the lens element and the second support arms being configured to connect the lens element to the frame member.

19. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein the first and second support arms are pivotably connectable to the oven and the second support arms are connectable to the frame member. 20. The apparatus of claim 18 or claim 19, wherein the coupling member is connectable to the second support arms.

21. The apparatus of any of claims 18 to 20, wherein the second support arms are configured to pass over, or around, the oven as the lens element moves between the first and second positions.

22. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the frame member includes an oven rotating member, the oven rotating member being operable to support and rotate the oven.

23. The apparatus of claim 22, wherein the frame member includes a drive mechanism, the drive mechanism being configured to rotate the oven rotating member and the oven. 24. The apparatus of claim 23, wherein the drive mechanism includes a control lever, a lever cog connected to the control lever, a drive cog connected to the lever cog and a drive belt, the drive belt connected between the drive cog and the oven rotating member, and wherein movement of the lever moves the lever cog, which moves the drive cog, which moves the drive belt, which moves the oven rotating member, which rotates the oven and the lens element from their first position to their second position.

25. The apparatus of claim 23 or claim 24, wherein the drive mechanism includes a biasing member, the biasing member being operable to bias the control lever towards a first position.

26. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the lens element is a modular lens comprising a centre lens element and one or more outer lens elements, the centre lens element being a hexagonal lens element and the one or more outer lens elements being irregular hexagonal lens elements.

27. The apparatus of claim 26, wherein the lens element is a Fresnel lens and is substantially planar on its non-focus side and has light focussing elements, or surfaces, on its focus side. 28. The apparatus of claim 26 or claim 27, wherein the lens elements are attached to a modular framework and the modular framework and lens elements are configured such that each lens element is spaced from adjacent lens elements. 29. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the outer lens elements are pivotably connectable to the modular framework.

30. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the, or each, outer lens element is pivotable with respect to the centre lens element, such that the outer lens elements may be folded to overlap with the centre lens element.

31. The apparatus of any of claims 26 to 30, wherein the lens elements are configured to provide at least a partial geodesic lens, or configuration. 32. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the apparatus further comprises a thermal transfer apparatus, the thermal transfer apparatus being configured to receive focused sunlight from the lens element and transfer the heat generated therefrom to the oven. 33. The apparatus of claim 32, wherein the thermal transfer apparatus is located adjacent a side wall of the oven.

34. The apparatus of claim 32 or claim 33, wherein the oven is located on the thermal transfer apparatus.

35. The apparatus of any of claims 32 to 34, wherein the thermal transfer apparatus includes an electromagnetic radiation absorption member, the electromagnetic radiation absorption member being operable to convert electromagnetic energy to thermal energy.

36. The apparatus of claim 35, wherein the electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes a transparent element, the transparent element having a low electromagnetic absorption coefficient. 37. The apparatus of claim 35 or claim 36, wherein the electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes a high thermal conductivity layer, the high thermal conductivity layer being capable of rising in temperature in response to electromagnetic radiation energy being incident thereon. 38. The apparatus of claim 37, wherein the apparatus includes a gasket member, the gasket member being located between the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity layer.

39. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the gasket member provides at least a partial vacuum between the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity layer.

40. The apparatus of any of claims 35 to 39, wherein the

electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes first and second thermal absorber members, the first and second thermal absorber members having high electromagnetic absorption coefficients.

41. The apparatus of claim 40, wherein the high thermal conductivity layer is in thermal contact with the first thermal absorber member.

42. The apparatus of claim 40 or claim 41 , wherein the second thermal absorber member is in thermal contact with the first thermal absorber member. 43. The apparatus of any of claims 40 to 42, wherein the second thermal absorber member includes one or more heat exchange member receiving portions, the heat exchange member receiving portions being configured to receive at least a portion of a heat exchange member therein.

44. The apparatus of any of claims 40 to 42, wherein the second thermal absorber member includes one or more layers, wherein the two layers together define one or more heat exchange member receiving portions, the heat exchange member receiving portions being configured to receive at least a portion of a heat exchange member therein.

45. The apparatus of claim 44, wherein the one or more heat exchange member receiving portions are located between the two layers of the second thermal absorber member.

46. The apparatus of any of claims 40 to 45, wherein the

electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes an inner frame member, the inner frame member surrounding the transparent layer, the gasket member, the high thermal conductivity layer, the first thermal absorber member and the second thermal absorber member.

47. The apparatus of claim 46, wherein the electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes an outer frame member, wherein the outer frame member surrounds the inner frame member.

48. The apparatus of any of claims 32 to 47, wherein the thermal transfer apparatus includes at least one heat exchange member, the heat exchange member being operable to transfer thermal energy from the thermal transfer apparatus.

49. The apparatus of claim 48, wherein the heat exchange member is a heat pipe, latent heat transfer device, or phase change heat transfer device. 50. The apparatus of claim 48 or claim 49, wherein the heat exchange member includes an evaporation section, an adiabatic section and a condenser section.

51. The apparatus of any of claims 48 to 50, wherein the heat exchange member is at least partially located within the one or more heat exchange member receiving portions of the second thermal absorber member.

52. The apparatus of any of claims 50 to 51 , wherein the evaporation section of the heat exchange member is thermally connectable to the second thermal absorber member, such that in use, the heat exchange member transfers heat from the second thermal absorber member to the condenser section of the heat exchange member. 53. The apparatus of any of claims 32 to 52, wherein the thermal transfer apparatus includes an oven heating member, the oven heating member being operable to transfer heat from the thermal transfer apparatus to the oven.

54. The apparatus of claim 53, wherein the oven heating member includes one or more heat exchange member receiving portions, the heat exchange member receiving portions being configured to receive at least a portion of a heat exchange member therein.

55. The apparatus of claim 53 or claim 54, wherein the heat exchange member is at least partially located within the oven heating member.

56. The apparatus of any of claims 53 to 55, wherein the condenser section of the heat exchange member is at least partially located within the oven heating member.

57. The apparatus of any of claims 32 to 56, wherein the thermal transfer apparatus includes one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements, the one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements being operable to reflect electromagnetic radiation towards the thermal transfer apparatus and shield at least a portion of the oven from electromagnetic radiation. 58. The apparatus of any of claims 32 to 57, wherein the thermal transfer apparatus further comprises at least one thermoelectric generator element, the thermoelectric generator element being operable to generate electrical energy in response to a temperature differential across the element.

59. The apparatus of claim 58, wherein a first "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element is thermally connectable with the first thermal absorber layer and a second "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element is thermally connectable with the second thermal absorber member.

60. The apparatus of claim 58 or claim 59, wherein the apparatus further includes an energy storage device, the energy storage device being operable to receive and store electrical energy from the

thermoelectric generator element.

61. The apparatus of any preceding claim, wherein the apparatus further includes an oven rotating device, the oven rotating device being configured to rotate the oven between the first position and the second position.

62. The apparatus of claim 61 , when dependent upon any of claims 23 to 60, wherein the oven rotating device is connectable to the control lever of the drive mechanism, such that operation of the oven rotating device causes operation of the control lever and rotation of the oven and lens element.

63. The apparatus of claim 61 or 62, wherein the oven rotating device is connectable to the control lever of the drive mechanism by a wire.

64. The apparatus of any of claims 61 to 63, wherein the oven rotating device includes a water-operated pulling system, the water-operated pulling system comprising:

a pipe member;

a float; and

a water transfer device,

wherein the pipe member includes a first chamber and a second chamber, the chambers being arranged to permit water to be transferred from the first chamber to the second chamber via the water transfer device, and wherein the float is located in the second chamber of the pipe member and is arranged such that it can move from the bottom of the pipe member towards the top of the pipe member as water fills the second chamber, and wherein an end of the wire is attached to the float. 65. The apparatus of claim 64, wherein the water transfer device includes a filter element, the filter element being operable to filter water passing through the water transfer device.

66. The apparatus of claim 64 or claim 65, wherein the water transfer device includes a water evaporating device, the water evaporating device being configured to collect water from the first chamber and transfer evaporated water to the second chamber.

67. The apparatus of claim 66, wherein the water evaporating device includes an inlet and an outlet, the inlet being connectable to the first chamber and the outlet being connectable to the second chamber, and wherein the inlet and the outlet are located in a lid portion of the water evaporating device. 68. The apparatus of any of claims 64 to 67, wherein the water transfer device includes a condenser element located between the water evaporating vessel and the second chamber, the condenser element being operable to condense vapour from the water evaporating vessel into liquid water.

69. The apparatus of any of claims 64 to 68, wherein the water transfer device includes a transparent water evaporating vessel.

70. The apparatus of claim 69, wherein the water evaporating vessel includes an electromagnetic radiation absorption member located within the vessel. 71. The apparatus of any of claims 64 to 70, wherein the water transfer device includes an electromagnetic radiation focussing element, the electromagnetic radiation focussing element being configured to direct focussed sunlight to the water evaporating vessel. 72. The apparatus of claim 71 , wherein the electromagnetic radiation focussing element is a reflective member.

73. The apparatus of any of claims 64 to 72, wherein the second chamber includes a tap device to allow water to be removed from the second chamber.

74. An apparatus for generating electrical energy comprising:

an electromagnetic radiation absorption member;

a thermoelectric generator element; and

one or more thermal transfer devices;

wherein the thermoelectric generator element is located between the electromagnetic radiation absorption member and the one or more thermal transfer devices, such that one side of the thermoelectric generator is in thermal contact with the electromagnetic radiation absorption member and the other side of the thermoelectric generator element is in thermal contact with the one or more thermal transfer devices,

wherein, in use, a temperature difference is created across the thermoelectric generator element and electrical energy is generated when electromagnetic radiation is incident on the electromagnetic radiation absorption member.

75. A thermal transfer apparatus comprising:

an electromagnetic radiation absorption member; and

one or more heat exchange members;

wherein the one or heat exchange members are thermally connectable to the electromagnetic radiation absorption member. 76. The apparatus of claim 74 or claim 75, wherein the electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes a transparent element, the transparent element having a low electromagnetic absorption coefficient.

77. The apparatus of any of claims 74 to 76, wherein the

electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes a high thermal conductivity layer, the high thermal conductivity layer being capable of rising in temperature in response to electromagnetic radiation energy being incident thereon. 78. The apparatus of any of claims 74 to 77, wherein the apparatus includes a gasket member, the gasket member being located between the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity layer.

79. The apparatus of claim 78, wherein the gasket member provides at least a partial vacuum between the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity layer.

80. The apparatus of any of claims 74 to 79, wherein the

electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes first and second thermal absorber members, the first and second thermal absorber members having high electromagnetic absorption coefficients.

81. The apparatus of claim 80, wherein the high thermal conductivity layer is in thermal contact with the first thermal absorber member.

82. The apparatus of claim 80 or 81 , wherein the second thermal absorber member is in thermal contact with the first thermal absorber member.

83. The apparatus of any of claims 80 to 82, wherein the second thermal absorber member includes one or more heat exchange member receiving portions, the heat exchange member receiving portions being configured to receive at least a portion of a heat exchange member therein.

84. The apparatus of any of claims 80 to 82, wherein the second thermal absorber member includes one or more layers, wherein the two layers together define one or more heat exchange member receiving portions, the heat exchange member receiving portions being configured to receive at least a portion of a heat exchange member therein.

85. The apparatus of claim 84, wherein the one or more heat exchange member receiving portions are located between the two layers of the second thermal absorber member.

86. The apparatus of any of claims 80 to 85, wherein the

electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes an inner frame member, the inner frame member surrounding the transparent layer, the gasket member, the high thermal conductivity layer, the first thermal absorber member and the second thermal absorber layer.

87. The apparatus of claim 86, wherein the electromagnetic radiation absorption member includes an outer frame member, wherein the outer frame member surrounds the inner frame member.

88. The apparatus of any of claims 74 to 87, wherein the thermal transfer apparatus includes at least one heat exchange member, the heat exchange member being operable to transfer thermal energy from the thermal transfer apparatus.

89. The apparatus of claim 88, wherein the heat exchange member is a heat pipe, latent heat transfer device, or phase change heat transfer device.

90. The apparatus of claim 88 or claim 89, wherein the heat exchange member includes an evaporation section, an adiabatic section and a condenser section.

91. The apparatus of any of claims 88 to 90, wherein the heat exchange member is at least partially located within the one or more heat exchange member receiving portions of the second thermal absorber. 92. The apparatus of claim 90 or claim 91 , wherein the evaporation section of the heat exchange member is thermally connectable to the second thermal absorber member, such that in use, the heat exchange member transfers heat from the second thermal absorber member to the condenser section of the heat exchange member.

93. The apparatus of any of claims 80 to 92, when dependent upon claim 74, wherein a first "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element is thermally connectable with the first thermal absorber layer and a second "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element is thermally

connectable with the second thermal absorber member.

94. The apparatus of claim 74, or any of claims 76 to 93 when dependent upon claim 74, wherein the apparatus further includes an energy storage device, the energy storage device being operable to receive and store electrical energy from the thermoelectric generator element.

95. A water treatment apparatus comprising:

a first chamber;

a second chamber;

a water evaporating device located between the first chamber and the second chamber;

wherein the water evaporating device includes an inlet and an outlet, the inlet being fluidly connectable to the first chamber, and the outlet being fluidly connectable to the second chamber; and

wherein the water evaporating device is configured to receive water from the first chamber and transfer evaporated water vapour to the second chamber. 96. The apparatus of claim 95, wherein apparatus includes a water transfer device located between the first chamber and the second chamber.

97. The apparatus of claim 96, wherein the water transfer device includes a filter element, the filter element being operable to filter water passing through the water transfer device. 98. The apparatus of any of claims 95 to 97, wherein the water evaporating device includes an inlet and an outlet, the inlet being connectable to the first chamber and the outlet being connectable to the second chamber, and wherein the inlet and the outlet are located in a lid portion of the water evaporating device.

99. The apparatus of any of claims 96 to 98, wherein the water transfer device includes a condenser element located between the water evaporating vessel and the second chamber, the condenser element being operable to condense vapour from the water evaporating vessel into liquid water.

100. The apparatus of any of claims 96 to 99, wherein the water transfer device includes a transparent water evaporating vessel. 101. The apparatus of claim 100, wherein the water evaporating vessel includes an electromagnetic radiation absorption member located within the vessel.

102. The apparatus of any of claims 96 to 101 , wherein the water transfer device includes an electromagnetic radiation focussing element, the electromagnetic radiation focussing element being configured to direct focussed sunlight to the water evaporating vessel.

103. The apparatus of claim 102, wherein the electromagnetic radiation focussing element is a reflective member.

104. The apparatus of any of claims 95 to 103, wherein the second chamber includes a tap device to allow water to be removed from the second chamber.

105. A modular lens comprising:

at least two lens elements, the at least two lens elements combining to produce a lens having a plurality of concentric facets, rings, or ridges, on at least one surface thereof, wherein the at least two lens elements are arranged to form at least a partial geodesic lens.

106. The apparatus of claim 105, wherein the lens element includes a centre lens element and one or more outer lens elements, wherein each lens element contributes to a complete Fresnel lens.

107. The apparatus of claim 106, wherein the centre lens element is a hexagonal lens element.

108. The apparatus of claim 106, wherein the centre lens element is an irregular hexagonal lens element.

109. The apparatus of any of claims 106 to 108, wherein the one or more outer lens elements are irregular hexagonal lens elements. 1 10. The apparatus of any of claims 105 to 109, wherein the lens element is a Fresnel lens with its facets, or grooves, on the focus side of the lens.

1 1 1. The apparatus of any of claims 106 to 1 10, wherein the Fresnel lens elements are supported on a modular framework.

1 12. The apparatus of claim 1 1 1 , wherein the modular framework is arranged such that the centre lens element is spaced from the outer lens elements, such that a gap exists between the centre lens element and the outer lens elements.

1 13. The apparatus of any of claims 106 to 1 12, wherein the centre lens element and the surrounding lens elements are arranged to provide a geodesic lens.

1 14. The apparatus of any of claims 106 to 1 13, wherein the, or each, outer lens element is pivotable with respect to the centre lens element and/or modular framework. 1 15. The apparatus of any of claims 106 to 1 14, wherein the, or each, outer lens element is configured to allow it to be folded onto the centre lens element.

Description:
Improvements in or relating to apparatus for cooking

Field of the invention Background to the invention

The present invention relates to a cooking apparatus, particularly, but not exclusively, to a solar powered cooking apparatus. The present invention also relates to a modular lens, a thermal transfer apparatus and a water treatment apparatus.

Solar powered cooking apparatuses use the solar electromagnetic radiation from the Sun to cook food. Known solar devices may be used to provide enough energy to cook food. However, such solar devices are limited in that the heat achieved to cook the food in the device properly occurs during the day. This is inconvenient, as the time when food is required is often after the Sun has set. Known solar devices are limited in their thermal efficiency, particularly if food is to be kept hot for

consumption several hours after sunset.

The inventor has appreciated the shortcomings in known solar cooking apparatuses.

According to a first aspect of the present invention there is provided an apparatus for cooking comprising:

a frame member;

an oven, the oven being mountable to the frame member such that it can rotate between a first position and a second position; and

a lens element, the lens element being mountable to the oven and the frame member such that it can pivot between a first position and a second position, and, in use, being configured to provide focused sunlight to the oven,

wherein the frame member is configured to permit simultaneous movement of the oven and the lens element.

The term "lens element" used here and throughout the specification is considered to be an optical device that transmits, refracts and

concentrates electromagnetic radiation, particularly in the visible and near infrared spectrum range.

The term "sunlight" used here and throughout the specification is considered to be the portion of electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, particularly near infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. The cooking apparatus may be considered a solar cooking apparatus.

The apparatus may be arranged such that, in use, the lens element maintains focused sunlight to the oven between the first position and the second position. That is, the lens element may be arranged to provide focused sunlight to the oven as it moves between its first position and its second position. That is, the lens element and the frame member may be arranged to provide focused sunlight to the oven as it moves between its first position and its second position. The apparatus may be configured such that the oven and the lens element move simultaneously. The apparatus may be configured such that the oven and the lens element move simultaneously between their respective first and second positions. The apparatus may be configured such that the oven and the lens element move dependently with respect to one another. That is, movement of the oven with respect to the frame member results in movement of the lens element with respect to the oven and the frame member. That is, movement of the oven with respect to the frame member results in movement of the lens element with respect to the oven and the frame member and vice versa.

The apparatus may be configured such that the lens element may pivot with respect to the oven. The apparatus may be configured such that the lens element may pivot with respect to the frame member. The apparatus may be configured such that the lens element may pivot with respect to the oven and the frame member.

The lens element may be pivotably connectable to the oven.

The lens element may be movably connectable to the frame member. The lens element may be movably coupled to the frame member. That is, the lens element may be connectable to the frame member such that it may move relative thereto.

The apparatus may be free-standing.

The frame member may include a base portion. The base portion may be a ground engaging base portion. The base portion may be a substantially planar member. The apparatus may be arranged such that it substantially lies within an area defined by the footprint that the base portion of frame member makes on the ground, or other supporting surface. The apparatus may be arranged such that the oven substantially lies within an area defined by the footprint that the base portion of frame member makes on the ground, or other supporting surface. The apparatus may be configured to permit the oven to at least partially rotate relative to the frame member about at least one axis of rotation. The frame member may be configured to permit the oven to at least partially rotate relative to the frame member about at least one axis of rotation.

The apparatus may be configured to permit the oven to at least partially pivot/rotate relative to the base portion of the frame member about at least one axis of rotation. The base portion of the frame member may be configured to permit the oven to at least partially pivot/rotate relative to the base portion about at least one axis of rotation. The apparatus may be configured to permit the lens element to at least partially pivot/rotate relative to the frame member about at least one axis of rotation. The frame member may be configured to permit the lens element to at least partially pivot/rotate relative to the frame member about at least one axis of rotation.

The apparatus may be configured to permit the lens element to at least partially pivot/rotate relative to the base portion of the frame member about at least one axis of rotation. The frame member may be configured to permit the lens element to at least partially pivot/rotate relative to the base portion about at least one axis of rotation.

The axis of rotation/pivot of the oven may be substantially vertical. The axis of rotation/pivot of the lens element may be substantially horizontal. The axes of rotation/pivot of the oven and the lens element may be orthogonal to each other. That is, the oven may rotate around a vertical axis and the lens element may rotate about a horizontal axis. The apparatus may be configured to permit the oven to rotate/pivot relative to the base portion of the frame member by between 0 degrees and 120 degrees. The apparatus may be configured to permit the oven to rotate/pivot relative to the base portion of the frame member by between 0 degrees and 140 degrees. The apparatus may be configured to permit the oven to rotate/pivot relative to the base portion of the frame member by between 0 degrees and 160 degrees. The apparatus may be configured to permit the oven to rotate/pivot relative to the base portion of the frame member, such that the oven tracks the path of the Sun for between approximately 8 and 12 hours.

The frame member may be configured to provide support to the oven. The frame member may be configured to provide support to the lens element. The frame member may be configured to provide support to the oven and the lens element. The base portion of the frame member may be configured to provide support to the oven.

The frame member may include a track member. The track member may be supported by the base portion of the frame member. The lens element may be connectable to the track member. The lens element may be moveably connected/connectable to the track member. The lens element may be configured to traverse the track member. The lens element may be configured to run on the track member. The track member may be shaped to allow the lens element to rotate/pivot between the first position and the second position. The track member may be shaped to allow the lens element to rotate/pivot between the first position and the second position as the lens element moves relative to the frame member/track member. The track member may be shaped to allow the lens element to rotate/pivot between the first position and the second position as the lens element moves with the oven.

The track member may be supported by one or more track member support portions. The track member support portions may be connected to a portion of the frame member. The track member support portions may be connected to the base portion of the frame member. The track member support portions may be rods, bars, or the like. The track member may be a rail. The track member may be a rail member. The track member may guide the lens element as the lens element moves with respect thereto. The track member may be shaped to allow the lens element to rotate/pivot between the first position and the second position as the lens element moves relative to the track member.

The track member may be a parabolic shape. The track member may be parabolic-shaped. The track member may follow at least a portion of the shape of a parabola. The shape of the track member may match at least a portion of path of the Sun. The track member may be shaped to correspond to the day arc of the Sun. The track member may be shaped to correspond to a substantial portion of the day arc of the Sun.

The shape of the track member may allow the lens element to track the day arc of the Sun. The shape of the track member may allow the lens element to track a substantial portion of the day arc of the Sun. That is, the shape of the track member may allow the lens element to track the day arc of the Sun as the lens element moves from the first position to the second position. The shape of the track member may allow the lens element to track a substantial portion of the day arc of the Sun as the lens element moves from the first position to the second position.

The track member may be curved. The track member may be arcuate. The track member may be U-shaped. The track member may be a rod/rail. The track member may be a parabolic or elliptical rod/rail. The track member may be a Sun path shaped rod/rail. The track member may be a day arc of the Sun shaped rod/rail. The track member may be elliptically shaped.

The lens element may be moveably connected/connectable to the track member by a coupling member. The coupling member may be fixedly attached to the lens element. The coupling member may be configured to allow the lens element to move freely along, over, across, or around the track member. The coupling member may be configured to allow the lens element to pass the track member support portions without obstruction. That is, as the lens element moves from the first position to the second position, the coupling member may not be obstructed by the track member support portions. In this arrangement as the oven rotates/pivots, the coupling member may move along the track member, such that the lens element moves with the oven.

The coupling member may include a bearing race, or the like. The coupling member may include an extendable portion. The coupling member may be configured to move from a first unextended position to a second extended position as the coupling member traverses the track member. The coupling member may be pivotably connectable to the lens element. The coupling member may move from the second extended position to the first unextended position, as the coupling member traverses the track member. In use, as the coupling member traverses the track member, the bearing race may move freely along, over, across, or around the track member, and the position of the bearing race may extend and retract relative to the lens element in response to the shape of the track member. In use, the bearing race may rotate relative to the lens element, as the bearing race traverses the track member. The bearing race may be telescopically connectable/connected to the lens element. The coupling member may be made from a plastic or metal material.

The lens element may include first and second support arms. The first support arms may be configured to provide support to the lens element. The second support arms may be configured to connect the lens element to the frame member. The first and second support arms may be pivotably connected/connectable to the oven. The second support arms may be connected/connectable to the frame member. The second support arms may be connected/connectable to the track member. The coupling member may be connected to the second support arms.

The first support arms may include a pair of support arms. The second support arms may include a pair of support arms.

The first and second support arms may be detachably

connected/connectable to one another. The first and second support arms may be detachably connected/connectable to one another at a pivot point on the oven. The first and second support arms may be integrally formed with one another. The first and second support arms may be pivotably connected to each other.

The lens element may be rotationally adjustable with respect to the first support arms. The rotational position of the lens element relative to the first support arms may be manually adjustable. The position of the lens element may be manually adjusted, such that at different latitudes and seasons the position of the Sun may be tracked by the lens element. The first support arms may be manually adjustable. The first support arms may be rotationally adjustable with respect to the frame member. The first support arms may be rotationally adjustable by between 0 degrees and 90 degrees with respect to the frame member. The first support arms may be rotationally adjustable by between 0 degrees and 120 degrees with respect to the frame member. That is, the position of the first support arms may be manually adjusted, such that at different latitudes and seasons the position of the Sun may be tracked by the lens element.

The first support arms may be rotationally adjustable by between 0 degrees and 150 degrees. That is, should the apparatus be placed in a raised location, such as a hilltop, the lens element may be rotated below the base plate of the frame member.

The second support arms may be configured to pass over, or around, the oven as the lens element moves between the first and second positions. The second support arms may be shaped to pass around the oven. That is, the second support arms may be shaped such that, as the lens element pivots from the first position to the second position, the oven does not obstruct the second support arms. The first support arms may include lens element attachment members. The lens attachment members may provide for adjustment of the lens element with respect to the first support arms. The frame member may include a caster track. The base portion of the frame member may include a caster track. Wheels, bearings, rollers or casters may be engageable with the caster track.

The oven may include a roller member. The roller member may be connected/connectable to the base of the oven. The roller member may be connected/connectable to the underside of the oven. The roller member may be one or more wheels, bearings, rollers or casters. The roller member may be engageable with the caster track. That is, the oven may include wheels, bearings, rollers or casters that may be engageable with the caster track of the frame member. The roller member may allow the oven to run on the caster track as the oven rotates from the first position to the second position. The oven may run on the caster track as the apparatus tracks the position of the Sun from a first position to a second position. The roller member may run on the base portion of the frame member. The roller member may provide support to the oven.

The frame member may include an oven rotating member, the oven rotating member being operable to rotate the oven. The oven rotating member may include a cog. The oven rotating member may include one or more cogs. The oven rotating member may include a bearing race or the like. The oven rotating member may include one or more cogs, and a bearing race. The oven rotating member may include one or more cogs connected to a bearing race. The oven rotating member may be connected/connectable to the oven. The oven rotating member may be connected/connectable to the base of the oven. The oven rotating member may be connected/connectable to the frame member. The oven rotating member may connect the oven to the frame member. That is, the oven and the oven rotating member may rotate relative to the base portion of the frame member. The oven rotating member may rotate relative to the frame member. The oven rotating member may rotate relative to the frame member about a substantially vertical axis. The oven rotating member may rotate about the axis of rotation of the oven.

The frame member may include a drive mechanism. The drive

mechanism may be configured to rotate the oven rotating member. The drive mechanism may be configured to rotate the oven rotating member and the oven.

The drive mechanism may include a control lever. The control lever may be operable to rotate the oven rotating member. The control lever may be a longitudinal member. The control lever may pivot relative to the frame member. The control lever may pivot about a substantially horizontal axis. The control lever may pivot between a first position and a second position.

The drive mechanism may include a lever cog. The lever cog may be connected/connectable to the control lever. The lever cog may rotate about a substantially horizontal axis. The rotational axis of the lever cog may be arranged to be coaxial with the pivot axis of the control lever. The lever cog may be configured to move simultaneously with the control lever. The lever cog may rotate relative to the frame member. The lever cog may rotate relative to the frame member from a first position to a second position. The control lever may be connectable to the frame member. The control lever may pivot with respect to the frame member. The frame member may provide support to the control lever.

The drive mechanism may include a drive cog. The drive cog may be connectable to the frame member. The frame member may provide support to the drive cog. The drive cog may rotate about a substantially vertical axis. The drive cog may be one or more cogs. The drive cog may be a geared cog system.

The axes of the lever cog and drive cog may be orthogonal to each other. The lever cog and the drive cog may be engageable with each other. The lever cog and the drive cog may be configured such that rotation of the lever cog causes rotation of the drive cog. The lever cog and the drive cog may be configured such that as the lever cog rotates, the teeth of the lever cog engage with the teeth of the drive cog, which rotates the drive cog. The lever cog may rotate about a substantially horizontal axis and the drive cog may rotate about a substantially vertical axis simultaneously. The lever cog and the drive cog may include a bevel gear arrangement.

The frame member may include a drive mechanism support member. The frame member may include a substantially L-shaped drive mechanism support member. The lever cog and drive cog may be mountable on the drive mechanism support member.

The drive cog may be connected/connectable to the oven rotating member by a drive belt or drive chain. In use, as the drive cog rotates and moves the drive belt or drive chain, the oven rotating member may be rotated by the drive belt or drive chain. In this arrangement, the movement of the lever moves the lever cog, which moves the drive cog, which moves the drive belt or drive chain, which moves the oven rotating member, which rotates the oven from the first position to the second position. In this arrangement, as the control lever moves from a first position to a second position, the oven rotates from a first position to a second position relative to the frame member.

The apparatus may be configured such that the movement of the control lever from the first position to the second position causes the oven to track the movement of the day arc of the Sun. The apparatus may be configured such that the movement of the control lever from the first position to the second position causes the oven to track the Sun path. The apparatus may be configured such that the movement of the control lever from the first position to the second position causes the oven to track a substantial portion of the movement of the Sun.

The control lever may be connectable to a wire, string, chain, or the like. This may be a control lever pulling member. The control lever may be connectable to a wire such that movement of the wire causes the control lever to move. That is, as the wire moves, the oven rotates from the first position to the second position.

The wire may include a first end and a second end. The wire may be flexible. The first end of the wire may be connectable/connected to the control lever. The wire may be connectable/connected to an end portion of the control lever. The second end of the wire may be

connectable/connected to a wire pulling member.

The drive mechanism may include a biasing member. The biasing member may be a restraining member. The biasing member may include a first end and a second end. The biasing member may be configured to move from a first unextended position to a second extended position. The biasing member may be extendable. In use, the biasing member may be configured to extend from the first unextended position to the second extended position if an opposing force is applied to the first end and the second end. In use, if no force is applied to the first end and the second end, the biasing member may be configured to be in the first unextended position. The biasing member may be a spring member. The biasing member may be a spring. The biasing member may be connectable to the frame member. The biasing member may be connectable to the control lever. The biasing member may be connectable to the frame member and to the control lever. The first end of the biasing member may be connected to the control lever and the second end of the biasing member may be connected to the frame member. The biasing member may be

connectable to a centre portion of the control lever.

The biasing member may be a coil spring, helical spring, or the like. The biasing member may be a tension coil spring. The biasing member may be one or more helical/coil springs.

The first end of the biasing member may be connected/connectable to the control lever. The second end of the biasing member may be

connected/connectable to the frame member. In use, the biasing member may move from the first unextended position to the second extended position as the control lever moves from the first position to the second position. As the control lever moves from the first position to the second position, the biasing member may be extended. In use, if the force acting upon the control lever is removed, the biasing member may move the control lever to the first position by rotating/pulling the control lever relative to the frame member. The biasing member may be biased to be in the first unextended position when no net force is acting upon the biasing member.

In use, when the control lever is in a fixed position, the biasing member may counteract the force applied to the control lever by the wire. That is, the biasing member may add stability to the control lever. In use, the biasing member may pull the control lever to the first position if no force is acting upon the wire, string, chain, or the like.

The drive mechanism may be configured to increase the inertia of the oven. The drive mechanism may include a geared drive cog, which may increase the inertia of the oven. That is, for example, should an external force be applied to the oven, such as a gust of wind, the gain of the geared drive cog may ensure that the stability exerted by the biasing member would be, in effect, greater than that for a drive cog with no gearing/gain. The geared drive cog may add stability to the oven. The geared drive cog may increase the angular rotation of the oven, in response to angular rotation of the control lever. The control lever may rotate relative to the frame member by between 0 degrees and 180 degrees. The control lever may rotate relative to the frame member by between 0 degrees and 90 degrees. The control lever may rotate relative to the frame member by between 0 and 45 degrees. The geared drive cog may allow the range of rotation of the oven to be greater than the range of rotation of the control lever.

The lens element may be a modular lens. The lens element may comprise a number of individual lens elements. The lens element may include one or more hexagonal lens elements. The lens element may include a centre lens element and one or more outer lens elements. The lens element may include a centre lens element and six outer lens elements. The centre lens element may be a hexagonal lens element. The one or more outer lens elements may be hexagonal lens elements. The centre lens element may be an irregular hexagonal lens element. The one or more outer lens elements may be irregular hexagonal lens elements. The centre lens element may be polygon shaped. The one or more outer lens elements may be polygon shaped. The centre lens element may be a six-sided polygon. The one or more outer lens elements may be six-sided polygons. The centre lens element may be a triangle, square, pentagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon lens element. The outer lens elements may be a triangle, square, pentagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon lens elements. The lens element may be used as a collector. The lens element may be used as a solar concentrator.

The lens element may be a Fresnel lens. The lens element may be an inverted Fresnel lens. The lens element may have a positive focal length. The Fresnel lens may have its facets, or grooves, on the focus side of the lens. The Fresnel lens may have its facets, or grooves, on the underside of the lens. The lens element may be substantially planar on its non-focus side and have light focussing elements, or surfaces, on its focus side. The lens element may be substantially planar on its non-focus side and have light focussing facets on its focus side. The lens element may include a piano side. The lens element may be used to concentrate sunlight and bring it to a focus at its focus point.

The Fresnel lens may be modular. The Fresnel lens may comprise a number of lens elements, wherein each lens element contributes to a complete Fresnel lens. The Fresnel lens may comprise a number of lens elements, wherein each lens element contributes to a complete Fresnel lens of sufficient area to provide the requisite heat energy. The lens may include a centre lens element and a number of lens elements surrounding the centre lens element. The centre lens element may include the centre of the concentric facets (concentric facet rings), rings, or grooves, of the Fresnel lens and each additional lens element together may provide the surrounding concentric facets, rings, or grooves, of the Fresnel lens. The centre lens element may be unique, as it contains the centre of the concentric facets, rings, or grooves, of the Fresnel lens, and the surrounding satellite lens elements may be identical. The lens elements of the modular Fresnel lens may be hexagonal. The lens elements may be made from PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)), or polycarbonate (Lexan). In this arrangement the modular Fresnel lens includes one central hexagonal lens element and six surrounding hexagonal lens elements. Together the seven lens elements make up a Fresnel lens. The Fresnel lens modules may be supported on a modular framework. The modular framework may be made from lightweight metal. The metal may be aluminium. The Fresnel lens modules may be connected/connectable to the modular framework. The Fresnel lens modules may be detachably connectable to the modular framework. The Fresnel lens modules may be detachably connectable to the modular framework by an attachment means. The Fresnel lens modules may be detachably connectable to the modular framework by releasable locking means. The releasable locking means may be thumbscrews.

The modular framework may be connectable to the first support arms. The first support arms may provide support to the modular framework. The modular framework may be arranged such that a gap exists between the centre lens element and the surrounding lens elements. That is, a gap may exist between the centre lens element and the outer lens element, such that wind may blow through the gap. That is, there may be a gap between the centre lens element and the outer lens element, such that the lens is more resilient to the wind. The centre lens element may be spaced from the outer lens elements, such that a gap exists between the centre lens element and the outer lens elements. The gap may reduce the sail effect of the lens element.

The centre lens element and the surrounding lens elements may be arranged to provide a geodesic lens, or geodesic configuration. The centre lens element and the surrounding lens elements may be arranged to provide a geodesic Fresnel lens. That is, the axes perpendicular to the surface of each outer lens element may be angularly offset, or non- parallel, with respect to the axis perpendicular to the surface of the centre lens element. The axes of each outer lens element may be angularly offset with respect to the axis of the centre lens element by between 0 degrees and 180 degrees. The, or each, outer lens elements may be pivotable with respect to the centre lens element/modular framework. The, or each, outer lens elements may be pivotable with respect to the centre lens element/modular framework, such that the outer lens elements may be folded to overlap with the centre lens element. That is, the, or each, outer lens element may be folded onto the centre lens element. The modular framework may be configured to allow the outer lens elements to fold onto the centre lens element.

The lens element may be arranged such that its focal point is at a point inside the oven or at a point outside the oven. The lens element may include a lens cover. The lens cover may be made from an opaque material. In use, the lens cover may prevent the lens element from focussing sunlight. In use, the lens cover may prevent the lens element from focussing sunlight onto the oven.

The apparatus may include one or more thermal transfer apparatuses. The oven may include one or more thermal transfer apparatuses.

The thermal transfer apparatus may be configured to transfer heat to the oven. The thermal transfer apparatus may be configured to receive focused sunlight from the lens element and transfer the heat generated therefrom to the oven. The lens element may be configured such that, in use, it provides focused sunlight to the thermal transfer apparatus. The lens element may be configured such that the focal length of the lens element is greater than the distance between the lens element and the thermal transfer apparatus. That is, the focal length of the lens element may lie at a position beyond the thermal transfer apparatus. In this arrangement the lens element provides focussed sunlight on an outwardly facing surface of the thermal transfer apparatus.

The thermal transfer apparatus may be located on a side wall of the oven. The oven may include a sloped side wall portion. The thermal transfer apparatus may be located on the sloped side wall portion of the oven. The thermal transfer apparatus may be fixedly secured to the oven. The thermal transfer apparatus may be fixedly secured to the side wall of the oven. The thermal transfer apparatus may be fixedly secured to the sloped side wall portion of the oven.

The oven may be located on the thermal transfer apparatus. The thermal transfer apparatus may include an oven support member. The oven may be located on the oven support member. The oven support member may be configured to transfer heat from the thermal transfer apparatus to the oven. The oven support member may be in thermal contact with the oven. The thermal transfer apparatus may include an electromagnetic radiation absorption member. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be operable to convert electromagnetic energy to thermal energy. That is, the electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be configured to convert sunlight to thermal energy/heat.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may include a transparent element. The transparent element may be a transparent layer. The transparent element may have a low electromagnetic absorption coefficient. That is, the majority of focussed sunlight may pass through the transparent element. The transparent element may be a planar member. The transparent element may be a sheet. The

transparent element may be made from glass or plastic. The glass may be borosilicate glass. The transparent element may be between 100 mm to 400 mm wide, between 100 mm to 400 mm long, and between 3 mm to 9 mm thick. The transparent element may be 300 mm wide, 300 mm long, and 6 mm thick.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may include a high thermal conductivity layer. The high thermal conductivity layer may be a heat plate. The high thermal conductivity layer may have a high thermal conductivity. The high thermal conductivity layer may be configured to convert electromagnetic radiation energy to thermal energy/heat. That is, the high thermal conductivity layer may convert sunlight into thermal energy/heat. The high thermal conductivity layer may be a substantially planar member. The high thermal conductivity layer may be a sheet member. The high thermal conductivity layer may be a planar sheet member. The high thermal conductivity layer may be made from a metallic material. The electromagnetic radiation absorption layer may be made from aluminium. The dimensions of the high thermal conductivity layer may be between 100 mm and 400 mm wide, between 100 mm and 400 mm long and between 3 mm and 9 mm high. The high thermal conductivity layer may be 300 mm wide, 300 mm long and 6 mm high. In use, the high thermal conductivity layer may operate at a temperature of between 0 °C and 550 °C. The temperature of the high thermal conductivity layer may rise in response to electromagnetic radiation energy being incident thereon.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may include a gasket member. The gasket member may be a square-ring or rectangular-ring, gasket. The gasket member may be a frame member. The gasket member may be a rectangular-shaped frame member. The gasket member may be a substantially planar member. The gasket member may include a hollow portion. The hollow portion may be a cavity. The gasket member may be connectable to the transparent element. The gasket member may be connectable to the high thermal conductivity layer. The gasket member may be connectable to the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity layer. The gasket member may be connectable to the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity layer, such that the hollow portion of the gasket member provides a gap between the transparent layer and the high thermal conductivity layer. The gap between the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity layer may have a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure. The gap between the transparent layer and the high thermal conductivity layer may be at least a partial vacuum. The gap between the transparent layer and the high thermal conductivity layer may have a pressure that lies in the vacuum range. That is, the gap between the transparent layer and the first electromagnetic layer may have a pressure between 760 Torr (1.013 x 10 5 Pa) and 1 x 10 "12 Torr (1 x 10 "10 Pa). The gasket member may be made from a metallic material. The gasket may be made from glass tape. The gasket member may be between 1 mm and 12 mm thick. That is, the gasket member may separate the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity member by between 1 mm and 12 mm. The gasket member may be between 100 mm and 400 mm wide, between 100 mm and 400 mm long and between 1 mm and 12 mm thick. The gasket member may be 300 mm wide, 300 mm long, and 10 mm thick. The cavity in the gasket member may be between 80 mm and 380 mm wide, between 80 mm and 380 mm long and between 1 mm and 12 mm thick. The cavity in the gasket member may be 280 mm wide, 280 mm long and 10 mm thick. The gap between the transparent element and the high thermal conductivity layer may define a sealed volume having a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure and may be at least a partial vacuum. In use, the at least partial vacuum, may reduce heat loss by reducing convection in the cavity. That is, the function of the at least partial vacuum is to reduce the back losses from the high thermal conductivity layer.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may include a first thermal absorber member. The first thermal absorber member may be coated with a material that has a high electromagnetic absorption coefficient, particularly, but not exclusively in the wavelengths of spectral light and near infrared. The first thermal absorber member may be coated with a black selective surface. The first thermal absorber member may be coated with a black selective material. This may be a black paint. The first thermal absorber member may be coated with a material that has a high electromagnetic absorption coefficient, particularly in the wavelengths of spectral light and near infrared and a low thermal emissivity coefficient. The first thermal absorber member may include a cavity.

The high thermal conductivity layer may be connectable to the first thermal absorber member.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may include a second thermal absorber member. The second thermal absorber member may be a thermal absorber layer. The second thermal absorber member may be connectable to the first thermal absorber member. The second thermal absorber member may be made from aluminium. The second thermal absorber member may be made from metal. The second thermal absorber member may be a planar member. The second thermal absorber member may include one or more channels/recesses. The channels/recesses may be at least partially cylindrical. The second thermal absorber member may include one or more heat exchange element/member/heat pipe receiving portions.

The second thermal absorber member may include one or more layers. The second thermal absorber member may comprise two layers. The two layers may be connectable to each other. The two layers may each comprise grooves. The grooves may form channels/recesses when the two layers are connected together. The two layers may be configured to define one or more heat exchange element/member/heat pipe receiving chambers.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may include a frame element. The frame element may include an inner frame member. The frame element may include an outer frame member. The frame element may include an inner frame member and an outer frame member. The inner frame member may be mountable to the second thermal absorber layer. In use, the inner frame member may surround the transparent layer, the gasket member, the first high thermal conductivity layer, the first thermal absorber member and the second thermal absorber layer. That is, the transparent layer, the gasket member, the first high thermal

conductivity layer, the first thermal absorber member and the second thermal absorber layer may be enclosed within the inner frame member. The inner frame member may be a substantially planar member including a hollow portion. The inner frame member may be made from a material with a low thermal emissivity and high thermal resistivity. That is, the inner frame member may be made from a thermally insulating material.

The inner frame member may be made from phenolic foam, rock wool or foam glass. The outer frame member may comprise four L-shaped rails arranged in a square, or rectangle shape. The outer frame member may surround the inner frame member. That is, in use, the transparent element, the gasket member, the high thermal conductivity layer, the first thermal absorber member and the second thermal absorber layer may be surrounded by the inner frame member, and the outer frame member may surround the inner frame member. The outer frame member may be connectable to the inner frame member. The inner frame member may be connectable/mountable to the oven. The outer frame member may be connectable/mountable to the oven.

The distance between the centre lens element and the high thermal conductivity layer may be between 700 mm and 800 mm. The distance between the centre lens element and the high thermal conductivity layer may be between 500 mm and 1000 mm. The distance between the centre lens element and the electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be between 700 mm and 800 mm. The distance between the centre lens element and the electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be between 500 mm and 1000 mm. The thermal transfer apparatus may include at least one heat exchange member. The heat exchange member may be a heat pipe. The heat exchange member may be a latent heat transfer device. The heat exchange member may be a phase change heat transfer device. The thermal transfer apparatus may include a plurality of heat exchange members.

The heat exchange member may be a hollow tube member. The heat exchange member may be made from a metallic material. The heat exchange member may be made from copper, aluminium or stainless steel. The heat exchange member may include an inner wall and an outer wall. The outer wall of the heat exchange member may be coated in nickel. The outer wall of the heat exchange member may be coated in nickel, such that the heat exchange member may be engageable with an aluminium member without the risk of galvanic corrosion occurring.

The heat exchange member may include an evaporation section, an adiabatic section and a condenser section. The heat exchange member may include a working fluid. The working fluid may be methane, water, ammonia, or sodium. The heat exchange member may be operable to cause the working fluid to evaporate, the vaporised fluid may then create a pressure gradient forcing the vapour towards the condenser section. The vapour may then travel through the adiabatic section. Upon reaching the condenser section, heat is transferred outside the heat exchange member. Vaporised working fluid may then condense and release its latent heat.

The heat exchange member may include a wick element. The wick element may be positioned on the inner wall of the heat exchange member. The wick element may be an axial groove, fine fibre, screen mesh, or sintering, wick.

In use, the working fluid in the evaporation section may heat up by receiving heat from the thermal transfer apparatus, the working fluid may then evaporate, the vaporised fluid may then create a pressure gradient forcing the vapour towards the condenser section. The vapour may then travel through the adiabatic section. Upon reaching the condenser section, heat is transferred outside the heat exchange member.

Vaporised working fluid condenses and releases its latent heat. The condensed working fluid is drawn back to the evaporator section by the wick element.

The heat exchange member may be configured such that the condenser section is elevated with respect to the adiabatic section. The heat exchange member may be configured such that the condenser section is elevated with respect to the evaporation section. The heat exchange member may be configured such that the adiabatic section is elevated with respect to the evaporation section.

The heat exchange member may include an angled portion. The heat exchange member may be non-linear. The heat exchange member may include a horizontal portion and an angled portion. The evaporation section of the heat exchange member may be thermally connected to the second thermal absorber member. The heat exchange member may be engageable with the channels/recesses/grooves of the second thermal absorber member. The heat exchange member may be thermally connectable to the second thermal absorber member. The heat exchange member may be fixedly attached to the second thermal absorber member. In use, the heat exchange member may transfer heat from the second thermal absorber member to the condenser section of the heat exchange member.

The heat exchange member may have a high effective thermal conductivity between the evaporation section and the condenser section.

The heat exchange member may be one or more heat exchange members.

The thermal transfer apparatus may include an oven heating member. The oven heating member may be a heat plate. The oven heating member may be a substantially planar member. The oven heating member may be a disc, cylinder, cuboid, or the like. The oven heating member may be a base plate. The oven heating member may be connectable to the oven. The oven heating member may be connectable to the base of the oven. The oven heating member may be thermally connectable to the oven. The oven heating member may include one or more recesses, channels, or grooves. The recesses, channels, or grooves may be located on the underside of the oven heating member. The recesses, channels, or grooves may be configured to receive at least a portion of one or more heat exchange members therein. The recesses, channels, or grooves may be configured to receive at least a portion of the condenser section of the one or more heat exchange members therein. The oven heating member may be made from aluminium. The heat exchange member may be engageable with the recesses/channels. The heat exchange member may be thermally connectable to the oven heating member. The heat exchange member may be fixedly attached to the oven heating member. In use, the heat exchange member may transfer heat from the electromagnetic radiation absorption member to the oven heating member. The condenser section may be thermally connectable to the oven heating member.

In use, focussed sunlight may pass through the transparent element, through the gap between the transparent element, and be converted to thermal energy by the first high thermal conductivity layer, the thermal energy is then transferred to the first thermal absorber member, and then to the second thermal absorber member. The thermal energy is then transferred to the evaporation section of the heat exchange member, and then to the condenser section thereto. Thermal energy is then transferred from the condenser section to the oven heating member and is transferred to the oven. In this way, focussed sunlight is used to provide heat to the oven.

The oven heating member may provide support to the oven.

The thermal transfer apparatus may include one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be operable to reflect electromagnetic radiation from the Sun towards the thermal transfer apparatus. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may have a high reflectance coefficient. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be configured to shield a portion of the oven from electromagnetic radiation. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may reflect focussed sunlight from the lens element towards the thermal transfer apparatus. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be substantially planar members. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be mountable to the oven. The one or more electromagnetic radiation elements may be pivotably connectable to the thermal transfer apparatus. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be planar rectangular sheet members. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be engageable with each other. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be connectable to each other. One or more first electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be pivotably connectable to the thermal transfer apparatus, and one or more second

electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be connectable to the first electromagnetic radiation reflector elements.

The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be made from a metallic material. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements may be made from aluminium.

The thermal transfer apparatus may also include a thermoelectric generator element.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may also include a thermoelectric generator element.

The thermoelectric generator element may include a "hot" side and a "cold" side, such that a temperature difference/gradient between the "hot" side and the "cold" side causes electrical energy/power to be produced by the thermoelectric generator. The thermoelectric generator element may function by way of the Seebeck Effect. The thermoelectric generator element may function by way of the thermoelectric effect.

The "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element may be thermally connectable with the first thermal absorber layer. The "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element may be thermally connectable with the second thermal absorber member. In use, as the heat exchanger causes heat energy to be transferred away from the second thermal absorber member, the temperature of the "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element becomes lower than the temperature of the "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element. That is, as thermal energy is absorbed at the "hot" side, and thermal energy is drawn away from the "cold" side, electrical energy may be generated by the thermoelectric generator element. The apparatus may be configured such that the temperature difference between the "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element and the "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element may be between 0 °C and 500 °C. The apparatus may be configured such that the "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element is between 0 °C and 500 °C. The apparatus may be configured such that the "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element will operate between 0 °C and 150 °C. That is, in use, the apparatus may be configured such that the

electromagnetic radiation absorption member converts focussed sunlight to thermal energy, such that the "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element is heated between 0 °C and 500 °C, and the action of the heat exchange member may draw heat from the "cold" side such that a temperature difference exists between the "hot" and "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element. That is, the apparatus may be configured such that electrical energy is generated by the thermoelectric generator element in response to focussed sunlight reaching the electromagnetic radiation absorption member.

In use, the apparatus may be configured to cause the thermoelectric generator element to generate between 0 W and 100 W of electrical energy.

The apparatus may include a power management device. The power management device may include at least one input connection and at least one output connection. The thermoelectric generator element may be connectable to the input connection of the power management device. The power management device may be a voltage/current regulator.

The output of the power management device may be connectable to an energy storage device. The energy storage device may be a battery, cell, or the like. The energy storage device may be a car battery. The energy storage device may be located within the oven.

The efficiency of the apparatus, measured as the ratio of electrical energy delivered to the battery compared with the electrical energy generated by the thermoelectric generator element may be between 50% and 90%. The efficiency of the apparatus, measured as the ratio of electrical energy delivered to the battery compared with the electrical energy generated by the thermoelectric generator element may be between 65% and 95%. The efficiency of the apparatus, measured as the ratio of electrical energy delivered to the battery compared with the electrical energy generated by the thermoelectric generator element may be between 0% and 95%.

The thermoelectric generator element may comprise one or more thermoelectric generators. The one or more thermoelectric generators may be connectable to each other. The one or more thermoelectric generators may be connected to each other in parallel/series. The apparatus may be configured such that, in use, each thermoelectric generator provides between 0 W and 25 W of electrical energy.

The apparatus may include an oven rotating device. The oven rotating device may be an automated oven rotating device.

The oven rotating device may be configured to at least partially rotate the oven between the first position and the second position about the axis of rotation of the oven. The oven rotating device may be configured to rotate the oven between the second position and the first position about the axis of rotation of the oven. The oven rotating device may be configured to rotate the oven relative to the frame member. The oven rotating device may be configured to rotate the oven relative to the frame member by between 0 degrees and 120 degrees. The oven rotating device may be configured to rotate the oven relative to the frame member by between 0 degrees and 140 degrees. The oven rotating device may be configured to rotate the oven relative to the frame member by between 0 degrees and 160 degrees.

The oven rotating device may be connectable to the wire, string, chain, or the like. The first end of the wire may be connectable to the drive mechanism and the second end of the wire may be connectable to the oven rotating device. The first end of the wire may be connectable to the control lever of the drive mechanism and the second end of the wire may be connectable to the oven rotating device. Operation of the oven rotating device causes a force to be applied to the wire, such that the wire pulls the control lever of the drive mechanism. The oven rotating device may include a water operated pulling system. The water operated pulling system may comprise a pipe member, a float and a water transfer device. The pipe member may be sealed at one end thereof and open at the other. The pipe member may be arranged to be in a vertical position with the sealed end at the bottom thereof. The pipe member may include two chambers, a first chamber and a second chamber. The water transfer device may be arranged to allow water to be transferred from the first chamber to the second chamber. The water transfer device may be arranged to allow water to be transferred between the first and second chambers at a very low rate. The water may be transferred by dripping the water into the second chamber from the first chamber. In this

arrangement the transfer of water from the first chamber to the second chamber may take several hours, for example, up to ten hours.

The float may be located in the second chamber of the pipe member and may be arranged such that it can move freely between the bottom of the pipe member towards the top of the pipe member, or towards the top of the pipe member. Attached to the float is the second end of the wire, string, chain, or the like.

The water operated pulling system may also include a number of pulleys. A first pulley may be located at the bottom of the pipe member and a second pulley may be located towards the middle of the pipe member. The wire, string, chain, or the like is connected to the drive mechanism at the first end, and the first and, optionally, second pulleys.

The oven rotating device may be arranged such that, in use, water held in the first chamber of the water operated pulling system is transferred to the second chamber via the water transfer device. As the water is transferred to the second chamber of the water operated pulling system the second chamber begins to fill with water. As the second chamber fills up with water, the float begins to rise up the second chamber. As the float rises up the second chamber a force is applied to the second end of the wire, string, chain, or the like, i.e., the wire is put under tension. This tension is transmitted through the wire via the first and second pulleys to the control lever of the drive mechanism. The wire then applies force to the control lever of the drive mechanism to rotate the oven from either the first position to the second position, or the second position to the first position, depending on the starting conditions.

The water transfer device may include a filter element. The first and second chamber may include a filter element. The filter element may be a mesh filter. The filter element may have a porosity of between 10 m and 100 Mm. The filter element may be made from fine weave stainless steel mesh. The water transfer device may include a filter receiving portion. The filter element may be engageable with the filter receiving portion. The first chamber of the water operated pulling system may include a filter receiving portion. The filter element may be engageable with the filter receiving portion. The second chamber of the water operated pulling system may include a filter receiving portion. The filter element may be engageable with the filter receiving portion. The filter element may be located within the first chamber of the water operated pulling system. The filter element may be located within the second chamber of the water operated pulling system. The filter element may be located within the filter receiving portion.

The filter element may comprise one or more filter elements. The water transfer device may include a water evaporating device. The water evaporating device may include an inlet. The water evaporating device may include an outlet. The inlet may be fluidly connectable to the first chamber of the water operated pulling system. That is, water may flow from the first chamber of the water operated pulling system to the inlet of the water evaporating device. The outlet of the water evaporating device may be connectable to the second chamber of the water operated pulling device, such that in use, evaporated water vapour may flow to the second chamber of the water operated pulling system.

The water transfer device may include a water evaporating vessel. The water evaporating vessel may be a vacuum flask. The vacuum flask may be a double skin transparent vacuum flask. The water evaporating vessel may be a substantially cylindrical member. The water evaporating vessel may be substantially transparent. That is, the majority of incident sunlight may be transmitted to the inside of the water evaporating vessel. The water evaporating vessel may include a lid member. The lid member may be detachably connectable to the water evaporating vessel. The inlet and/or the outlet of the water evaporating vessel may be integrated within the lid member thereof. The inlet of the water evaporating vessel may be connectable to the first chamber of the water operated pulling system. The outlet of the water evaporating vessel may be connectable to the second chamber of the water operated puling system. The water evaporating vessel may include an electromagnetic radiation absorption member. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be configured to have a high surface area to volume ratio. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be made from a material with a high thermal conductivity. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be made from a metallic material. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be made from steel wool, stainless steel wool, or the like. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member may be located within the water evaporating vessel. The water transfer device may include an electromagnetic radiation focussing element. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be substantially curved, arcuate, or parabolic-shaped. The

electromagnetic radiation focussing element may have a high reflectance coefficient. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be a mirror. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be a parabolic mirror. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be a substantially cylindrical element. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be configured to direct focussed sunlight to the water evaporating vessel. That is, the electromagnetic radiation focussing element may direct focussed sunlight to the water evaporating vessel, such that the temperature within the water evaporating vessel increases. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may surround at least half of the water evaporating vessel. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may surround a substantial portion of the water evaporating vessel. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be made from a metallic material. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be made from stainless steel. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be made from a polished metal material, for example it may be made from polished steel.

The inlet of the water evaporating vessel may be located on an upper portion thereof. The outlet of the water evaporating vessel may be on the upper portion thereof. In use, water may flow from the inlet, by gravity, into the water evaporating vessel. The water is then vaporised by the focussed electromagnetic radiation energy from the electromagnetic radiation focussing element. The vapour/steam may then flow into the outlet of the water evaporating vessel. The vapour/steam may then condense and flow to the second chamber. The water transfer device may include a frame member. The water evaporating vessel may be mountable to the frame member of the water transfer device. The water evaporating vessel may be fixedly attached to the frame member of the water transfer device. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be mountable to the frame member of the water transfer device. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may be fixedly attached to the frame member of the water transfer device. The frame member of the water transfer device may provide support to the electromagnetic radiation focussing element. The frame member of the water transfer device may provide support to the water evaporating vessel.

The water transfer device may include a condenser element. The condenser element may be operable to condense the vapour/steam from the water evaporating vessel into liquid water. The condenser element may be a cylindrical member. The condenser element may be made from an opaque material. The condenser element may be coated in an opaque material. The condenser may be configured to reduce the temperature of the water vapour/steam, or water. The condenser may be configured to operate at a temperature of between 0 °C and 100 °C. The condenser may be configured to convert the water vapour/steam into water in the liquid phase. The condenser may be a phase change element. The condenser element may include an inlet and an outlet. The inlet of the condenser element may be fluidly connectable to the outlet of the water evaporating vessel. The outlet of the condenser element may be fluidly connectable to the second chamber of the water operated pulling system. In use, water vapour/steam from the water evaporating vessel outlet may flow into the inlet of the condenser, where it is cooled to liquid water, the liquid water may then flow out of the outlet of the condenser and into the second chamber of the water operated pulling device. The water transfer device may be configured to operate as follows. The first chamber of the water operated pulling system may be filled with water. Water may then flow from the first chamber of the water operated pulling system, through the filter element and into the inlet of the water

evaporating vessel. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element may provide focussed electromagnetic energy to the water evaporating vessel, such that the temperature of the water entering the water evaporating vessel increases. The water is then vaporised into water vapour/steam and thus enters the outlet of the water evaporating vessel. The

vapour/steam then enters the inlet of the condenser element, and is condensed. That is, the vapour is then cooled such that it becomes liquid water. The condensed water (liquid water) may then exit the outlet of the condenser and flow into the second chamber of the water operated pulling system. In this way, water may flow from the first chamber of the water operated pulling system to the second chamber of the water operated pulling system, such that it is filtered and desalinated. In this

arrangement, filtered and desalinated water is produced in the second chamber of the water operated pulling system, and as the second chamber of the water operated pulling system fills with water, the oven rotating device may pull the control lever from the first position to the second position, or from the second position to the first position, depending upon the starting conditions.

The second chamber may include a tap, or the like, to allow the filtered and desalinated water to be accessed by a user of the apparatus. The oven rotating device may include a lid member. The lid member may be engageable with the first chamber, such that the first chamber may be opened or closed. The lid member may be removably attachable to the first chamber.

The oven rotating device may be engageable with the ground. A substantial portion of the oven rotating device may be buried in the ground. The walls of the oven may be insulated. The walls of the oven may be insulated with foam. The insulation may be phenolic foam. The insulation may be cellular glass. The insulation may be rock wool, or mineral wool. The insulation may be a combination of any of phenolic foam, cellular glass, rock wool, or mineral wool. At least a portion of the oven may be made from metal. The metal may be copper, aluminium or galvanised steel. The internal walls of the oven may be made from copper, aluminium or galvanised steel. The outer wall may be made from a polymer material. The outer wall may be made from polypropylene. The oven may include a removable lid.

The oven may include an oven chamber. The oven chamber may be a cooking chamber. The oven chamber may be configured to receive cooking utensils, such as pots and the like. The oven chamber may include a base plate located towards a lower end of the oven chamber.

The oven may include lens support arm receiving portions. The lens support arm receiving portions may be recesses/channels. The lens support arm receiving portions may be configured to receive at least a portion of the lens support arms. The oven may provide support to the lens support arms. That is, the oven may provide support to the lens element.

The walls of the oven chamber may be made from metal. The metal may be copper, aluminium or galvanised steel.

According to a second aspect of the present invention there is provided a thermal transfer apparatus comprising:

an electromagnetic radiation absorption member; and

one or more latent heat transfer devices;

wherein the one or more latent heat transfer devices are thermally connectable to the electromagnetic radiation absorption member.

Embodiments of the second aspect of the present invention may include one or more features of the first aspect of the present invention or their embodiments.

According to a third aspect of the present invention there is provided a thermal transfer apparatus comprising:

an electromagnetic radiation absorption member; and

one or more heat exchange members;

wherein the one or heat exchange members are thermally connectable to the electromagnetic radiation absorption member. Embodiments of the third aspect of the present invention may include one or more features of the first or second aspects of the present invention or their embodiments. Similarly, embodiments of the first or second aspects of the present invention may include one or more features of the third aspect of the present invention or its embodiments. The thermal transfer apparatus may include a thermoelectric generator element.

According to a fourth aspect of the present invention there is provided an apparatus for generating electrical energy comprising:

an electromagnetic radiation absorption member;

a thermoelectric generator element; and

one or more thermal transfer devices;

wherein the thermoelectric generator element is located between the electromagnetic radiation absorption member and the one or more thermal transfer devices, such that one side of the thermoelectric generator is in thermal contact with the electromagnetic radiation absorption member and the other side of the thermoelectric generator element is in thermal contact with the one or more thermal transfer devices,

wherein, in use, a temperature difference is created across the thermoelectric generator element and electrical energy is generated when electromagnetic radiation is incident on the electromagnetic radiation absorption member.

Embodiments of the fourth aspect of the present invention may include one or more features of the first, second or third aspects of the present invention or their embodiments. Similarly, embodiments of the first, second or third aspects of the present invention may include one or more features of the fourth aspect of the present invention or its embodiments.

According to a fifth aspect of the present invention there is provided a water treatment apparatus comprising:

a first chamber;

a second chamber; a water evaporating device located between the first chamber and the second chamber;

wherein the water evaporating device includes an inlet and an outlet, the inlet being fluidly connectable to the first chamber, and the outlet being fluidly connectable to the second chamber; and

wherein the water evaporating device is configured to receive water from the first chamber and transfer evaporated water vapour to the second chamber. Embodiments of the fifth aspect of the present invention may include one or more features of the first, second, third or fourth aspects of the present invention or their embodiments. Similarly, embodiments of the first, second, third or fourth aspects of the present invention may include one or more features of the fifth aspect of the present invention or its

embodiments.

According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a modular lens comprising:

at least two lens elements, the at least two lens elements combining to produce a lens having a plurality of concentric facets, rings, or ridges, on at least one surface thereof, wherein the at least two lens elements are arranged to form at least a partial geodesic lens.

Embodiments of the sixth aspect of the present invention may include one or more features of the first, second, third, fourth or fifth aspects of the present invention or their embodiments. Similarly, embodiments of the first, second, third, fourth or fifth aspects of the present invention may include one or more features of the sixth aspect of the present invention or its embodiments. Brief description of the drawings

An embodiment of the invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of an apparatus for cooking according to the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a partial cross sectional view of the apparatus of Fig. 1 ;

Fig. 3 is a top view of the apparatus of Fig. 1 ;

Fig. 4 is a partial view of the apparatus of Fig. 1 ;

Fig. 5 is a partially exploded view of the thermal transfer apparatus of the apparatus of Fig. 1 ;

Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the thermal transfer apparatus of the apparatus of Fig. 1 ;

Fig. 7 is a cross section view of the thermal transfer apparatus of the apparatus of Fig. 1 ;

Figs. 8a and 8b are partial cross sectional in-use views of the oven rotating device of the apparatus of Fig. 1 ; and

Figs. 9a to 9c are perspective in-use views of the apparatus of Fig. 1.

Description of preferred embodiments

With reference to Figs. 1 to 9c, an apparatus for cooking 10 is illustrated. The apparatus 10 includes a frame member 1 1 , an oven 30 and a lens element 40. The apparatus 10 is a solar cooking apparatus that utilises radiation from the Sun to heat the oven 30 via the lens element 40.

The oven 30 is mountable to the frame member 1 1 such that it can rotate between a first position and a second position. As illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4, the lens element 40 is mounted to the oven 30 and the frame member 1 1 such that it can pivot between a first position and a second position. The apparatus 10 is configured such that the lens element 40 may pivot with respect to the oven 30 and the frame member 1 1.

As described further below, the lens element 40 is configured to provide focused sunlight to the oven 30 and the frame member 1 1 is configured to permit simultaneous movement of the oven 30 and the lens element 40. The apparatus 10 is configured such that the oven 30 and the lens element 40 move simultaneously between their respective first and second positions. That is, movement of the oven 30 with respect to the frame member 1 1 results in movement of the lens element 40 with respect to the oven 30 and the frame member 1 1 , and vice versa.

The apparatus 10 is arranged such that, in use, the lens element 40 maintains focused sunlight to the oven 30 between the first position and the second position. That is, the lens element 40 is arranged to provide focused sunlight to the oven 30 as it moves between its first position and its second position. The lens element 40 is movably coupled to the frame member 1 1. That is, the lens element 40 is connected to the frame member 1 1 such that it may move relative thereto, as described further below. In this arrangement the lens element 40 is connectable to the frame member 1 1 such that it may move relative thereto.

With reference to Figs. 1 to 3, the frame member 1 1 includes a base portion 12. The base portion 12 is a substantially planar member which provides support to the oven 30 and other operating components of the apparatus 10, as described further below. The apparatus 10 is arranged such that the oven 30 substantially lies within an area defined by the footprint that the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 makes on the ground 1 1 a, or other supporting surface.

As illustrated best in Figs. 1 to 3, the apparatus 10 is configured to permit the oven 30 to at least partially rotate relative to the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 about a vertical axis of rotation 32, and to permit the lens element 40 to at least partially rotate relative to the frame member 1 1 about a horizontal axis of rotation 42. The vertical axis 32 and horizontal axis 42 are arranged to be orthogonal to one another. That is, the oven 30 may rotate around a vertical axis 32 and the lens element 40 may rotate about a horizontal axis 42. The apparatus 10 is configured to permit the oven 30 to rotate relative to the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 by between 0 degrees and 120 degrees. That is, the apparatus 10 is configured to permit the oven 30 to rotate relative to the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 , such that the oven 30 tracks the path of the Sun for approximately 8 hours.

However, it should be understood that the apparatus 10 could be configured to permit the oven 30 to rotate relative to the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 by between 0 degrees and 160 degrees or more, such that the oven 30 tracks the path of the Sun for between

approximately 8 and 12 hours.

The frame member 1 1 is configured to provide support to the oven 30 and the lens element 40. The base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 is configured to provide support to the oven 30. As best illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3 and 9a to 9c, the frame member 1 1 includes a track member 14. The track member 14 is supported by the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1. The lens element 40 is movably connectable to the track member 14 such that the lens element 40 may traverse, or run on, the track member 14. The track member 14 is shaped to allow the lens element 40 to rotate between the first position and the second position as it moves along the track member 14.

The track member 14 is supported by three track member support portions 16, which are connected to the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1. However, it should be understood that there may be one or more track member support portions 16. The track member support portions 16 may be rods connected to the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1.

As described further below, the track member 14 is a rail member that guides the lens element 40 as the lens element moves 40 with respect thereto.

In the arrangement illustrated and described here the track member 14 is a generally parabolic-shaped rail. The shape of the track member 14 allows the lens element 40 to track the day arc of the Sun. That is, the shape of the track member 14 allows the lens element 40 to track the day arc of the Sun as the lens element 40 moves from the first position to the second position.

The lens element 40 is moveably connected to the track member 14 by a coupling member 18. The coupling member 18 is configured to allow the lens element 40 to move freely along, over, across, or around the track member 14. The coupling member 18 is fixedly attached to the lens element 40 and is configured to allow the lens element 40 to pass the track member support portions 16 without obstruction. That is, as the lens element 40 moves from the first position to the second position, the coupling member 18 is not obstructed by the track member support portions 16. In this arrangement as the oven 30 rotates, the coupling member 18 moves along the track member 14, such that the lens element 40 moves with the oven 30.

The coupling member 18 includes a bearing race 22 and an extendable portion 20, such that the coupling member 18 can move from a first unextended position to a second extended position (or vice versa) as the coupling member 18 traverses the track member 14. The coupling member 18 is also pivotably connectable to the lens element 40, such that it may pivot with respect to the lens element 40 as it moves relative to the track member 14. In use, as the coupling member 18 traverses the track member 14, the bearing race 22 can move freely along, over, across, or around the track member 14, and the position of the coupling member 18 extends and retracts relative to the lens element 40 in response to the shape of the track member 14. The coupling member 18 is telescopically connected to the lens element 40.

The lens element 40 includes first and second support arms 44 and 45 configured to provide support to the lens element 40. The first and second support arms 44 and 45 are pairs of support arms. The first support arms 44 connect the lens element 40 to the oven 30 and the second support arms 45 connect the lens element 40 to the frame member 1 1. The first and second support arms 44 and 45 are pivotably connected to the oven 30. The second support arms 45 are connected to the track member 14 by the coupling member 18. The first and second support arms 44 and 45 are pivotably connected to one another at a pivot point 31 on the oven 30 and may be integrally formed with one another.

The lens element 40 is rotationally adjustable with respect to the first support arms 44. The position of the lens element 40 can be manually adjusted, such that at different latitudes and seasons the position of the Sun may be tracked by the lens element 40.

The first support arms 44 are rotationally adjustable with respect to the frame member 1 1. The first support arms 44 are rotationally adjustable by between 0 degrees and 90 degrees with respect to the frame member 1 1. However, it should be understood that the first support arms 44 could be rotationally adjustable by between 0 degrees and 120 degrees with respect to the frame member 1 1. That is, the position of the first support arms 44 can be adjusted, such that at different latitudes and seasons the position of the Sun may be tracked by the lens element 40. However, it should also be understood that the first support arms 44 could be rotationally adjustable by between 0 degrees and 150 degrees. That is, should the apparatus 10 be placed in a raised location, such as a hilltop, the lens element 40 may be rotated below the base plate 12 of the frame member 1 1. The second support arms 45 are configured to pass over, or around, the oven 30 as the lens element 40 moves between the first and second positions. That is, the second support arms 45 are shaped such that, as the lens element 40 pivots from the first position to the second position, the oven 30 does not obstruct the second support arms 45. The first support arms 44 include lens element attachment members 46, which provide for attachment and adjustment of the lens element 40 to the first support arms 44. As best illustrated in Fig. 2, the oven 30 includes a caster wheel 34, which is connected to the base 30' of the oven 30. However, it should be understood that other wheels, bearings, or rollers may also be used, and that there may be any number thereof connected to the base 30' or underside of the oven 30. The caster wheel 34 runs on the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 and provide support to the oven 30.

As best illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3, the frame member 1 1 /apparatus 10 includes an oven rotating member 24 having an oven cog 26 and a bearing race 28. The oven cog 26 and bearing race 28 are connected to the base 30' of the oven 30 and the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1. However, it should be understood that there could be one or more oven cogs 26. The oven cog 26 and bearing race 28 are operable to rotate the oven 30. That is, both the oven 30, the oven cog 26 and the bearing race 28 can rotate relative to the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 about the substantially vertical axis 32.

The frame member 1 1/apparatus 10 includes a drive mechanism 60 configured to rotate the oven rotating member 24 and thus the oven 30. The drive mechanism 60 includes a control lever 61 operable to rotate the oven rotating member 24. The control lever 61 is a longitudinal member, which can pivot relative to the frame member 1 1 about a substantially horizontal axis 66 between a first position and a second position. The drive mechanism 60 includes a lever cog 62 connected to the control lever 61 . The lever cog 62 can rotate about the substantially horizontal axis 66 relative to the frame member 1 1 from a first position to a second position. The rotational axis 66 of the lever cog 62 is arranged to be coaxial with the axis 66 of the control lever 61. The lever cog 62 is configured to move simultaneously with the control lever 61.

The control lever 61 is connected to, and supported by the frame member 1 1.

The drive mechanism 60 includes a drive cog arrangement 63 connected to, and supported by, the frame member 1 1 . The drive cog arrangement 63 can rotate about a substantially vertical axis 70. The drive cog arrangement 63 is a geared cog system comprising two cogs 63' and 63". However, it should be understood that a single drive cog 63 may be used.

The axes 68, 70 of the lever cog 62 and drive cog arrangement 63 are orthogonal to each other. The lever cog 62 and the drive cog arrangement 63 are configured such that rotation of the lever cog 62 causes rotation of the drive cog arrangement 63. In this arrangement the lever cog 62 and the drive cog arrangement 63 are configured such that as the lever cog 62 rotates, the teeth of the lever cog 62 engage with the teeth of the drive cog 63", which rotates the drive cog 63". The lever cog 62 can rotate about the substantially horizontal axis 68 and the drive cog arrangement 63 can rotate about the substantially vertical axis 70 simultaneously. The lever cog 62 and the drive cog 63" form a bevel gear arrangement.

The frame member 1 1 includes a substantially L-shaped drive mechanism support member 64. The lever cog 62 and drive cog arrangement 63 are mounted on the drive mechanism support member 64. The drive cog arrangement 63 is connected to the oven rotating member 24 by a drive belt 65. In use, as the drive cog arrangement 63 rotates and moves the drive belt 65, the oven rotating member 24 is rotated by the drive belt 65. In this arrangement, the movement of the control lever 61 moves the lever cog 62, which moves the drive cog arrangement 63, which moves the drive belt 65, which moves the oven rotating member 24, which rotates the oven 30 from the first position to the second position. In this arrangement, as the control lever 61 moves from a first position to a second position, the oven 30 rotates from a first position to a second position relative to the frame member 1 1.

The apparatus 10 is configured such that the movement of the control lever 61 from the first position to the second position causes the oven 30 to track the movement of the day arc of the Sun.

The control lever 61 is connected to a wire 67 (an example of a control lever pulling member). Movement of the wire 67 causes the control lever 61 to move. That is, as the wire 67 moves, the oven 30 rotates from the first position to the second position.

The wire 67 includes a first end 67' and a second end 67". The first end 67' is connected to an end portion 61 ' of the control lever 61. The second end 67" is connected to an oven rotating device 100 (an example of a wire pulling member).

The drive mechanism 60 includes a spring member 69 (an example of a biasing member or restraining member). The spring 69 includes a first end 69' and a second end 69". The spring 69 is configured to be moveable from a first unextended position to a second extended position. In use, the spring 69 is configured to extend from the first unextended position to the second extended position if an opposing force is applied to the first end 69' and the second end 69". In use, if no force is applied to the first end 69' and the second end 69", the spring 69 is configured to be in the first unextended position.

The first end of the spring 69' is connected to a centre portion 61 " of the control lever 61 , and the second end 69" of the spring 69 is connected to the frame member 1 1 .

In use, the spring 69 is configured to move from the first unextended position to the second extended position as the control lever 61 moves from the first position to the second position. As the control lever 61 moves from the first position to the second position, the spring 69 is extended. In use, if the force acting upon the control lever 61 is removed, the spring 69 will move the control lever 61 to the first position by rotating/pulling the control lever 61 relative to the frame member 1 1. The spring 69 is biased to be in the first unextended position when no net force is acting upon the spring 69.

In use, when the control lever 61 is in a fixed position, the spring 69 counteracts the force applied to the control lever 61 by the wire 67. That is, the spring 69 adds stability to the control lever 61. The drive cog arrangement 63 increases the inertia of the oven 30. That is, for example, should an external force be applied to the oven 30, such as a gust of wind, the gain of the drive cog arrangement 63 ensures that the stability exerted by the spring 69 is, in effect, greater than that for a drive cog arrangement 63 with no gearing/gain. The drive cog

arrangement 63 thus adds stability to the oven 30. The drive cog arrangement 63 can increase the angular rotation of the oven 30, in response to angular rotation of the control lever 61 . The control lever 61 can rotate relative to the frame member 1 1 by between 0 degrees and 90 degrees. However, it should be understood that the control lever 61 could rotate relative to the frame member 1 1 by between 0 and 180 degrees. The drive cog arrangement 63 allows the range of rotation of the oven 30 to be greater than the range of rotation of the control lever 61.

The lens element 40 is a modular lens, comprising a hexagonal centre lens element 48 and six irregular hexagonal outer lens elements 49.

However, it should be understood that there may be one or more outer lens elements 49, and that the lens elements 48 and 49 may be regular hexagons. The lens element 40 acts as a solar concentrator (an example of a collector).

The lens element 40 is an inverted Fresnel lens with a positive focal length. The lens element 40 is substantially planar on its non-focus side and has light focussing facets on its focus side. The lens element 40 is used to concentrate sunlight and bring it to a focus at its focus point.

Each lens element 48 and 49 contributes to a complete Fresnel lens of sufficient area to provide the requisite heat energy. The centre lens element 48 includes the centre of the concentric facets (concentric facet rings) of the Fresnel lens and each additional lens element 49 together provides the surrounding concentric facets of the Fresnel lens. The centre lens element 48 is unique, as it contains the centre of the concentric facets of the Fresnel lens, and the surrounding satellite lens elements 49 may be identical. The lens elements 48 and 49 are made from PMMA

(Poly(methyl methacrylate)). However, it should be understood that the lens elements 48 and 49 could be made from polycarbonate (Lexan). The Fresnel lens modules 48 and 49 are supported on, and connected to, a modular framework 50. The modular framework 50 is made from a lightweight metal, such as aluminium. The Fresnel lens modules 48 and 49 are detachably connectable to the modular framework 50 by releasable locking means 46a (an example of an attachment means). However, it should be understood that other attachment means, such as

thumbscrews, or the like, may be used. The modular framework 50 is connected to the first support arms 44. The first support arms 44 provide support to the modular framework 50.

The modular framework 50 is arranged such that a gap 53 exists between the centre lens element 48 and the outer lens elements 49, such that, in use, wind may blow through the gap 53, which makes the lens element 40 more resilient to the wind. The gap 53 reduces the sail effect of the lens element 40.

The centre lens element 48 and the surrounding lens elements 49 are arranged to provide a geodesic Fresnel lens. That is, the axes 52 perpendicular to the surface of each outer lens element 49 are angularly offset, or non-parallel, with respect to the axis 51 perpendicular to the surface of the centre lens element 48. The axes 52 of each outer lens element 49 can be angularly offset with respect to the axis 51 of the centre lens 48 element by between 0 degrees and 180 degrees. Each outer lens element 49 is pivotable with respect to the centre lens element 48, such that the outer lens elements 49 may be folded to overlap with the centre lens element 48. That is each outer lens element 49 may be folded onto the centre lens element 48. The modular framework 50 is configured to allow the outer lens elements 49 to fold onto the centre lens element 48. As best illustrated in Fig. 9c, the lens element 40 is arranged such that its focal point 40' is at a point inside the oven 30. However, it should be understood that the lens element 40 could be arranged such that its focal point 40' is at a point outside the oven 30.

The lens element 40 includes a lens cover (not shown). The lens cover is made from an opaque material. In use, the lens cover prevents the lens element 40 from focussing sunlight onto the oven 30.

As best shown in Figs. 5 to 7, the apparatus 10 includes a thermal transfer apparatus 80.

The thermal transfer apparatus 80 is configured to transfer heat to the oven 30. The thermal transfer apparatus 80 is configured to receive focused sunlight from the lens element 40 and transfer the heat generated therefrom to the oven 30. The lens element 40 is configured such that, in use, it provides focused sunlight to the thermal transfer apparatus 80. The focal length of the lens element 40 lies at a position beyond the thermal transfer apparatus 80. In this arrangement the lens element 40 provides focussed sunlight on an outwardly facing surface of the thermal transfer apparatus 80. The thermal transfer apparatus 80 as illustrated and described here is also an example of an apparatus for generating electrical energy, as described below.

In the embodiment illustrated and described here, the thermal transfer apparatus 80 is fixedly secured to a sloped side wall portion 38 of the oven 30. The thermal transfer apparatus 80 includes an electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 is operable to convert electromagnetic energy to thermal energy. That is, the electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 is configured to convert sunlight to thermal energy or heat.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 includes a transparent element 84 (an example of a transparent layer). The transparent element 84 has a low electromagnetic absorption coefficient. That is, the majority of focussed sunlight may pass through the

transparent element 84 without being absorbed. The transparent element 84 is a planar sheet member and is made from glass. However, it should be understood that the transparent element 84 may be made from plastic. The transparent element 84 is 300 mm wide, 300 mm high, and 6 mm thick. However, it should be understood that the transparent element 84 could be between 100 mm and 400 mm wide, between 100 mm and 400 mm long and between 3 mm and 9 mm thick.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 also includes a high thermal conductivity layer 86. The high thermal conductivity layer 86 is a heat plate. The high thermal conductivity layer 86 has a high thermal conductivity. The high thermal conductivity layer 86 is configured to convert electromagnetic radiation energy to thermal energy/heat. That is, the high thermal conductivity layer 86 converts sunlight into thermal energy/heat. The high thermal conductivity layer 86 is a substantially planar sheet member and is made from aluminium. However, it should be understood that the high thermal conductivity layer 86 may be made from any other suitable metal. The dimensions of the high thermal conductivity layer 86 are 300 mm wide, 300 mm long and 6 mm thick. However, it should be understood that the high thermal conductivity layer 86 could be between 100 mm and 400 mm wide, between 100 mm and 400 mm long and between 3 mm and 9 mm thick. In use, the high thermal conductivity layer 86 operates at a temperature of between 0 °C and 500 °C. The temperature of the high thermal conductivity layer 86 rises in response to electromagnetic radiation energy being incident thereon. In use, the transparent element 84 protects the high thermal conductivity layer 86.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 also includes a gasket member 87 (an example of a gasket). The gasket member 87 is a square-ring gasket, or frame member, and is a substantially planar member. The gasket member 87 includes a cavity 85. The gasket member 87 is connected to the transparent element 84 and the high thermal conductivity layer 86, such that the cavity 85 of the gasket member 87 provides a gap between the transparent element 84 and the high thermal conductivity layer 86. The gap between the transparent element 84 and the high thermal conductivity layer 86 defines a sealed volume having a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure and is at least a partial vacuum. That is, the cavity 85 between the transparent layer 84 and the high thermal conductivity layer 86 could have a pressure between 760 Torr (1.013 x 10 5 Pa) and 1 x 10 12 Torr (1 x 10 "10 Pa). The gasket 87 is made from glass tape. The gasket member 87 is 10 mm thick. That is, the gasket member 87 separates the transparent element 84 and the high thermal conductivity layer 86 by 10 mm. However, it should be

understood that the gasket member 87 may be between 1 mm and 12 mm thick, such that the gasket member 87 could separate the transparent element 84 from the high thermal conductivity layer 86 by between 1 mm and 12 mm. The gasket member 87 is 300 mm wide, 300 mm long and 10 mm thick. However, it should be understood that the gasket member 87 may be between 100 mm and 400 mm wide, between 100 mm and 400 mm long and between 1 mm and 12 mm thick. The cavity 85 in the gasket member 87 is 280 mm wide, 280 mm long and 10 mm thick. However, it should be understood that the cavity 85 in the gasket member 87 may be between 80 mm and 380 mm wide, between 80 mm and 380 mm long and between 1 mm and 12 mm thick. In use, the cavity 85, by being at least a partial vacuum, reduces heat loss by reducing convection in the cavity 85. That is, the function of the cavity 85 is to reduce the back losses from the high thermal conductivity layer 86.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 includes a first thermal absorber member 88. The first thermal absorber member 88 is coated with a material that has a high electromagnetic absorption coefficient, particularly in the wavelengths of spectral light and near infrared and a low thermal emissivity coefficient. The high thermal conductivity layer 86 is thermally connected to the first thermal absorber member 88.

The electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 includes a second thermal absorber layer 89, an example of a thermal absorber member. The second thermal absorber member 89 is thermally connected to the first thermal absorber member 88. The second thermal absorber member 89 is made from aluminium. However, it should be understood that the second thermal absorber member 89 may be made from any other suitable metal. The second thermal absorber member 89 is a planar member and includes five partially cylindrical channels 95 (examples of heat exchange member receiving portions). The channels 95 are heat pipe receiving portions, in that they are configured to receive at least a portion of a heat exchange member therein. Note that a heat pipe and a latent heat transfer device are examples of heat exchange members. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 includes an inner frame member 91 and an outer frame member 92, together forming a frame element 90. The inner frame member 91 is mounted to the second thermal absorber layer 89. In use, the inner frame member 91 surrounds the transparent layer 84, the gasket member 87, the first high thermal conductivity layer 86, the first thermal absorber member 88 and the second thermal absorber layer 89. That is, the transparent layer 84, the gasket member 87, the first high thermal conductivity layer 86, the first thermal absorber member 88 and the second thermal absorber layer 89 are enclosed within the inner frame member 91. The inner frame member

91 is a substantially planar member including a hollow portion and is made from a material with a low thermal emissivity and high thermal resistivity. The inner frame member 91 is made from phenolic foam. The outer frame member 92 comprises four L-shaped rails arranged in a square, or rectangle shape. The outer frame member 92 surrounds the inner frame member 91 . That is, in use, the transparent element 84, the gasket member 87, the high thermal conductivity layer 86, the first thermal absorber member 88 and the second thermal absorber layer 89 are surrounded by the inner frame member 91 , and the outer frame member

92 surrounds the inner frame member 91.

The distance between the centre lens element 48 and the high thermal conductivity layer 86 is approximately 800 mm. However, it should be understood that the distance between the centre lens element 48 and the high thermal conductivity layer 86 may be between 500 mm and 1000 mm.

The thermal transfer apparatus 80 includes a plurality of heat pipes 94, which are examples of heat exchange members and latent heat transfer devices. However, it should be understood that any required number of heat exchange members 94 may be included in the thermal transfer apparatus 80.

Each heat exchange member 94 is a hollow tube member made from copper, and includes an inner wall and an outer wall. As is known, each heat exchange member includes an evaporation section 94a, an adiabatic section 94b and a condenser section 94c.

Each heat exchange member 94 includes a working fluid. The working fluid is water. Each heat exchange member 94 may be operable to cause the water to evaporate, the water vapour may then create a pressure gradient forcing the vapour towards the condenser section 94c. The vapour may then travel through the adiabatic section 94b. Upon reaching the condenser section 94c, heat is transferred outside the heat exchange member 94. Water vapour may then condense and release its latent heat.

Each heat exchange member 94 includes a wick element (not illustrated). The wick element is positioned on the inner wall of the heat exchange member 94. The wick element could be an axial groove, fine fibre, screen mesh, or sintering, wick.

In use, the working fluid in the evaporation section 94a heats up by receiving heat from the thermal transfer apparatus 80, the working fluid may then evaporate, the vaporised fluid may then create a pressure gradient forcing the vapour towards the condenser section 94c. The vapour may then travel through the adiabatic section 94b. Upon reaching the condenser section 94c, heat is transferred outside the heat exchange member 94. Vaporised working fluid condenses and releases its latent heat. The condensed working fluid is drawn back to the evaporator section 94a by the wick element. Each heat exchange member 94 is configured such that the condenser section 94c is elevated with respect to the adiabatic section 94b. Each heat exchange member 94 is configured such that the condenser section 94c is elevated with respect to the evaporation section 94a. The heat exchange member 94 is configured such that the adiabatic section 94b is elevated with respect to the evaporation section 94a.

The heat exchange member 94 includes an angled portion 94'. The heat exchange member 94 is non-linear. The heat exchange member 94 includes a horizontal portion and an angled portion 94'.

The evaporation section 94a of the heat exchange member 94 is thermally connected to the second thermal absorber member 89. The heat exchange member 94 is engageable with the channels 95 of the second thermal absorber member 89. The heat exchange member 94 is fixedly attached to the second thermal absorber member 89. In use, the heat exchange member 94 transfers heat from the second thermal absorber member 89 to the condenser section 94c of the heat exchange member 94.

The heat exchange member 94 has a high effective thermal conductivity between the evaporation section 94a and the condenser section 94c. The thermal transfer apparatus 80 includes an oven heating member 96. The oven heating member 96 is a heat plate and is a substantially planar member. The oven heating member 96 is a disc shaped base plate. The oven heating member 96 is thermally connected to the base of the oven 30. The oven heating member 96 includes five heat exchange member receiving channels 96' located on the underside of the oven heating member 96.

The oven heating member 96 is made from aluminium. However, it should be understood that the oven heating member 96 may be made from any suitable metal. The heat exchange members 94 are thermally connected to the oven heating member 96 by being engaged with the heat exchange member receiving channels 96'. The heat exchange members 94 are fixedly attached to the oven heating member 96. In use, the heat exchange member 94 transfers heat from the electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 to the oven heating member 96. The condenser section 94c is thermally connected to the oven heating member 96.

In use, focussed sunlight from the lens element 40 passes through the transparent element 84, through the vacuum volume 85 between the transparent element 84, and is converted to thermal energy by the high thermal conductivity layer 86, the thermal energy is then transferred to the first thermal absorber member 88, and then to the second thermal absorber member 89. The thermal energy is then transferred to the evaporation section 94a of the heat exchange member 94, and then to the condenser section 94c thereof. Thermal energy is then transferred from the condenser section 94c to the oven heating member 96 and then to the oven 30. In this way, focussed sunlight is used to provide heat to the oven 30. The working fluid cycles between evaporation and condensation at around fifty times per second (i.e., 50 Hz). However, it should be appreciated that other working rates are possible.

The thermal transfer apparatus 80 includes eight electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 , although it should be appreciated that the thermal transfer apparatus 80 may include any suitable number of electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81. The electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 are operable to reflect electromagnetic radiation from the Sun towards the thermal transfer apparatus 80. The eight electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 have a high reflectance coefficient. The eight electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 are configured to shield a portion of the oven 30 from electromagnetic radiation. The one or more electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 reflect focussed sunlight from the lens element 40 towards the thermal transfer apparatus 80.

The eight electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 are substantially planar members. The eight electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 are mounted to the oven 30. The electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 are made from aluminium. However, it should be understood that the electromagnetic radiation reflector elements 81 could be made from any other suitable metal, or reflective material.

The thermal transfer apparatus 80 includes four thermoelectric generator elements 98 (an example of a thermoelectric generator). However, it should be appreciated that the thermal transfer apparatus 80 may include any required number of thermoelectric generators 98.

The thermoelectric generator element 98 includes a "hot" side and a "cold" side, such that a temperature difference/gradient between the "hot" side and the "cold" side causes electrical energy/power to be produced by the thermoelectric generator 98. The thermoelectric generator element 98 functions by way of the thermoelectric effect.

The "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element 98 is thermally connected to the first thermal absorber layer 88. The "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element is thermally connected to the second thermal absorber member 89. In use, as the heat exchanger member 94 causes heat energy to be transferred away from the second thermal absorber member 89, the temperature of the "cold" side of the

thermoelectric generator element 98 becomes lower than the temperature of the "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element 98. That is, as thermal energy is absorbed at the "hot" side, and thermal energy is drawn away from the "cold" side, electrical energy may be generated by the thermoelectric generator element 98.

The apparatus 10 is configured such that the temperature difference between the "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element 98 and the "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element 98 may be between 0 °C and 500°C. The apparatus 10 is configured such that the "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element 98 can reach temperatures of between 0 °C and 500 °C. The apparatus 10 is configured such that the "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element 98 is between 0 °C and 150°C. That is, in use, the apparatus 10 is configured such that the electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82 converts focussed sunlight to thermal energy, such that the "hot" side of the thermoelectric generator element 98 is heated to temperatures of between 0 °C and 500 °C, and the action of the heat exchange member 94 may draw heat from the "cold" side such that a temperature difference exists between the "hot" and "cold" side of the thermoelectric generator element 98. That is, the apparatus 10 is configured such that electrical energy is generated by the thermoelectric generator element 98 in response to focussed sunlight reaching the electromagnetic radiation absorption member 82. In use, the apparatus 10 is configured to cause the thermoelectric generator element 98 to generate between 0 W and 100 W of electrical energy. The apparatus 10 includes a power management device (not illustrated). The power management device includes an input connection and an output connection. The thermoelectric generator element 98 is connected to the input connection of the power management device. The power management device is a voltage regulator.

The output of the power management device is connected to a battery (not illustrated), an example of an energy storage device. It should be appreciated that the battery may be located within the oven 30, or located remotely from the oven 30.

The efficiency of the apparatus 10, measured as the ratio of electrical energy delivered to the battery compared with the electrical energy generated by the thermoelectric generator element 98 is between 50% and 90%. However, it should be understood that the efficiency of the apparatus 10, measured as the ratio of electrical energy delivered to the battery compared with the electrical energy generated by the

thermoelectric generator element 98 may be between 0% and 95%.

The four thermoelectric generators 98 are connected to each other in parallel. However, it should be understood that the thermoelectric generators 98 may be connected to each other in series. The apparatus 10 is configured such that, in use, each thermoelectric generator 98 provides between 0 W and 25 W of electrical energy. As shown in Figs. 1 to 4, and 8a to 9c, the apparatus 10 includes an automated oven rotating device 100 (an example of a water operated pulling system), comprising a pipe member 101 , a float 104 and a water transfer device 106. The oven rotating device 100 and its components are also an example of a water treatment apparatus, as described further below.

The oven rotating device 100 is configured to rotate the oven 30 between the first position and the second position about the axis of rotation 32 of the oven 30. The oven rotating device 100 is configured to rotate the oven 30 relative to the frame member 1 1 . The oven rotating device 100 is configured to rotate the oven 30 relative to the frame member 1 1 by between 0 degrees and 120 degrees. However, it should be understood that the oven rotating device 100 could also be configured to rotate the oven 30 relative to the frame member 1 1 by between 0 degrees and 160 degrees.

The first end of the wire 67' is connected to the control lever 61 and the second end of the wire 67" is connected to the oven rotating device 100. Operation of the oven rotating device 100 causes a force to be applied to the wire 67, such that the wire 67 pulls the control lever 61 of the drive mechanism 60.

The pipe member 101 is sealed at the lower end thereof and open at the upper end thereof. The pipe member 101 is arranged to be in a vertical position with the sealed end at the bottom thereof. The pipe member 101 includes two chambers, a first chamber 102 and a second chamber 103. The water transfer device 106 is arranged to allow water to be transferred from the first chamber 102 to the second chamber 103 at a very low rate. In this arrangement the transfer of water from the first chamber 102 to the second chamber 103 may take several hours, for example, up to ten hours.

The float 104 is located in the second chamber 103 of the pipe member 101 and is arranged such that it can move freely between the bottom of the pipe member 101 towards the top of the pipe member 101. Attached to the float 104 is the second end of the wire 67".

The water operated pulling system 100 also includes two pulleys 108. A first pulley 108' is located at the bottom of the pipe member 101 and a second pulley 108" is located towards the middle of the pipe member 101. The wire 67 is connected to the control lever 61 of the drive mechanism 60 at the first end 67', and the first 108' and, second 108" pulleys, and the float 104, at the second end of the wire 67".

The oven rotating device 100 is arranged such that, in use, water held in the first chamber 102 of the water operated pulling system 100 is transferred to the second chamber 103 via the water transfer device 106. As the water is transferred to the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling system 100 the second chamber 103 begins to fill with water. As the second chamber 103 fills up with water, the float 104 begins to rise up the second chamber 103. As the float rises up the second chamber 103 a force is applied to the second end of the wire 67", i.e., the wire 67 is put under tension. This tension is transmitted through the wire 67 via the first 108' and second 108" pulleys to the control lever 61 of the drive mechanism 60. The wire 67 then applies force to the control lever 61 of the drive mechanism 60 to rotate the oven 30 from either the first position to the second position, or the second position to the first position, depending on the starting conditions. The first chamber 102 includes a filter element 1 10. The filter element 1 10 is a mesh filter with a porosity of between 10 m and 100 m. The filter element 1 10 is made from fine weave stainless steel mesh. The filter element 1 10 is located within the filter receiving portion 102' of the first chamber 102.

The water transfer device 106 includes a water evaporating device 112. The water evaporating device 1 12 includes an inlet 1 13 and an outlet 114. The inlet 1 13 is fluidly connected to the first chamber 102 of the water operated pulling system 100. That is, water may flow from the first chamber 102 of the water operated pulling system 100 to the inlet 1 13 of the water evaporating device 1 12. The outlet 1 14 of the water evaporating device 1 12 is connected to the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling device 100, such that in use, evaporated water vapour may flow to the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling system 100.

The water transfer device 106 includes a water evaporating vessel 120. The water evaporating vessel 120 is a substantially transparent cylindrical vacuum flask. That is, the majority of incident sunlight can be transmitted to the inside of the water evaporating vessel 120. The water evaporating vessel 120 includes a lid member 121 which is detachably connectable to the water evaporating vessel 120. The inlet 1 13 and the outlet 1 14 of the water evaporating vessel 120 are integrated within the lid member 121 thereof. The inlet 1 13 of the water evaporating vessel 120 is connected to the first chamber 102 of the water operated pulling system 100. The outlet 1 14 of the water evaporating vessel 120 is connected to the second chamber 103 of the water operated puling system 100.

The water evaporating vessel 120 includes an electromagnetic radiation absorption member 122 located therein. The electromagnetic radiation absorption member 122 is configured to have a high surface area to volume ratio. In the embodiment illustrated and described here, the electromagnetic radiation absorption member 122 is made from steel wool, that is it is made from a material with a high thermal conductivity. However, it should be appreciated that the electromagnetic radiation absorption member 122 may be made from a metallic material.

The water transfer device 106 includes a substantially parabolic-shaped electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130 mounted on a frame member 132. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130 has a high reflectance coefficient. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130 is configured to direct focussed sunlight to the water evaporating vessel 1 12, such that the temperature within the water evaporating vessel 1 12 increases. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130 surrounds at least half of the water evaporating vessel 120. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130 is made from polished stainless steel. However, it should be understood that the electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130 may be made from any other suitable reflective material.

The inlet 1 13 of the water evaporating vessel 120 is located on an upper portion thereof and the outlet 1 14 of the water evaporating vessel 120 is located on the upper portion thereof. In use, water may flow from the inlet 1 13, by gravity, into the water evaporating vessel 120. The water is then vaporised by the focussed electromagnetic radiation energy from the electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130. The vapour/steam may then flow into the outlet 1 14 of the water evaporating vessel 120. The vapour/steam may then condense and flow to the second chamber 103. The water evaporating vessel 120 is mounted to the frame member 132 of the water transfer device 106. The water evaporating vessel 120 is fixedly attached to the frame member 132 of the water transfer device 106. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130 is fixedly attached to the frame member 132 of the water transfer device 106. The frame member 132 of the water transfer device 106 provides support to the

electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130. The frame member 132 of the water transfer device 106 provides support to the water evaporating vessel 120.

The water transfer device 106 includes a condenser element 140, operable to condense the vapour/steam from the water evaporating vessel 120 into liquid water. The condenser element 140 is a cylindrical member made from an opaque material. The condenser element 140 is configured to reduce the temperature of the water vapour/steam, or water. The condenser 140 is configured to operate at a temperature of between 0 °C and 100 °C. The condenser 140 is configured to convert the water vapour/steam into water in the liquid phase. The condenser element 140 includes an inlet 141 and an outlet 142. The inlet 141 of the condenser element 140 is fluidly connected to the outlet 1 14 of the water evaporating vessel 120. The outlet 142 of the condenser element 140 is fluidly connectable to the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling system 100. In use, water vapour/steam from the water evaporating vessel outlet 1 14 may flow into the inlet 141 of the condenser 140, where it is cooled to liquid water, the liquid water may then flow out of the outlet 142 of the condenser 140 and into the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling device 100.

The water transfer device 106 is configured to operate as follows. The first chamber 102 of the water operated pulling system 100 is filled with water. Water may then flow from the first chamber 102 of the water operated pulling system 100, through the filter element 1 10 and into the inlet 1 13 of the water evaporating vessel 120. The electromagnetic radiation focussing element 130 provides focussed electromagnetic energy to the water evaporating vessel 120, such that the temperature of the water entering the water evaporating vessel 120 increases. The water is then vaporised into water vapour/steam and thus enters the outlet 1 14 of the water evaporating vessel 120. The vapour/steam then enters the inlet 141 of the condenser element 140, and is condensed. That is, the vapour is then cooled such that it becomes liquid water. The condensed water (liquid water) may then exit the outlet 142 of the condenser 140 and flow into the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling system 100. In this way, water may flow from the first chamber 102 of the water operated pulling system 100 to the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling system 100, such that it is filtered and desalinated. In this arrangement, filtered and desalinated water is produced in the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling system 100, and as the second chamber 103 of the water operated pulling system 100 fills with water, the oven rotating device 100 pulls the control lever 61 from the first position to the second position, or from the second position to the first position, depending upon the starting conditions.

The second chamber 103 includes a tap 107, or the like, to allow the filtered and desalinated water to be accessed by a user of the apparatus 10.

The oven rotating device 100 includes a lid member (not illustrated). The lid member is engageable with the first chamber 102, such that the first chamber 102 may be opened or closed. The lid member may be removably attachable to the first chamber 102. A substantial portion of the oven rotating device 100 is buried in the ground 105. The walls 30d of the oven 30 are insulated. The walls 30d of the oven 30 are insulated with foam. However, it should be understood that the insulation may be a combination of any of phenolic foam, cellular glass, rock wool, or mineral wool. At least a portion of the oven 30 may be made from aluminium. However, it should be appreciated that at least a portion of the oven 30 could be made from metal. The outer wall 30a is made from polypropylene. However, it should be understood that the outer wall 30a may be made from a polymer material.

The oven 30 includes a removable lid 30b.

The oven 30 includes an oven chamber 30c. The oven chamber 30c is a cooking chamber. The oven chamber 30c is configured to receive cooking utensils, such as pots and the like. The oven 30 includes lens support arm receiving portions 31 a. The lens support arm receiving portions 31 a are recesses. The lens support arm receiving portions 31 a are configured to receive at least a portion of the lens support arms 44 and 45. The oven 30 provides support to the lens support arms 44 and 45 and thus the lens element 40.

The walls of the oven chamber 30c may be made from aluminium.

However, it should also be understood that the walls of the oven chamber 30c may be made from a metallic material. In use, setting up the apparatus 10 comprises the following steps. First, the control lever 61 is pulled by the user such that the oven 30 is rotated to the first position, as shown in Fig. 9a. The lens element 40 is thus also in the first position. The user may place food items in the oven 30 to be cooked throughout the day. Next, the second chamber 103 of the oven rotating device 100 is drained of water by the user. The first chamber 102 of the oven rotating device 100 is then filled with water. In this first position, the coupling member 18 is at a raised position on the track member 14.

When the apparatus 10 is ready for use, water from the first chamber 102 of the oven rotating device 100 flows through the water transfer device 106 and into the second chamber 103 of the oven rotating device 100 at a slow rate. Note that the water transfer device 106 may include a valve (not illustrated) to allow water to start to flow therethrough when the apparatus 10 is ready for use. As the water fills the second chamber 103, the float 104 rises in the second chamber 103. As the float 104 rises, a force is applied to the wire 67 which in turn pulls the control lever 61 away from the first position. The oven 30 thus begins to rotate about the axis of rotation 32, whilst simultaneously the lens element 40 rotates about the axis of rotation 42. As the oven 30 and the lens element 40 move away from the first position, the lens element 40 begins to rise, due to the motion of the coupling member 18 on the track member 14. Thus the lens element 40 rises relative to the frame member 1 1 to track the Sun path. Simultaneously, the oven 30 is rotated about a vertical axis 32.

By approximately midday, the apparatus 10 is in the position indicated in Fig. 9b. In this position the lens element 40 has reached its peak height due to the shape of the track member 14. The oven 30 has rotated from the first position to track the movement of the Sun. The coupling member 18 is at its lowest position on the track member 14. In the afternoon, the apparatus 10 continues to move towards the second position as the second chamber 103 fills with water. In the afternoon, the lens element 40 is rotated about its horizontal axis 42, such that the lens element 40 is moving towards the base portion 12 of the frame member 1 1 . The oven 30 continues to rotate to track the Sun path. When the second chamber 103 fills with water, or when the water in the first chamber 102 runs out, the apparatus 10 will cease to rotate the oven 30 and the lens element 40. At the second position, as shown in Fig. 9c, the apparatus 10 has ceased to rotate. Throughout the transition from the first position to the second position, the lens element 40 provides focussed sunlight to the thermal transfer apparatus 80, such that the temperature of the oven 30 rises, thus the food within the oven 30 is cooked. Note that in Figs. 9a to 9c the lens element 40 is a planar lens element 40. However, it should be appreciated that the lens element 40 could be a geodesic lens element 40, as illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4.

After operation of the apparatus 10, the food is removed from the oven 30 for consumption and filtered desalinated water may be accessed through a tap 107 in the second chamber 103. This filtered desalinated water is produced by first filtering the water by the filter element 110, and by the action of the water evaporating device 1 12 as previously described. Thus a user may leave the apparatus 10 to track the Sun, and return to obtain some drinking water from the second chamber 103. For different seasons and latitudes, the stage of setting up the apparatus 10 may involve manually adjusting the lens element 40 with respect to the frame member 1 1 , such that the lens element 40 may continue to provide focussed sunlight to the oven 30. Electrical energy is generated by the apparatus 10 throughout the day by way of the temperature difference applied to the thermoelectric generators 94. The user may thus charge a battery or electronic device as the apparatus 10 tracks the movement of the Sun.

Modifications may be made to the foregoing embodiment within the scope of the present invention. For example, although the track member has been illustrated and described above as being a parabolic shaped member, it should be appreciated that the track member may be curved, arcuate or U-shaped. The track member may be a rod/rail. The track member may be a parabolic or elliptical rod/rail. The track member may be a Sun path shaped rod/rail. The track member may be a day arc of the Sun shaped rod/rail. The track member may be elliptically shaped. Also, although the outer lens elements have been illustrated and described as being irregular hexagons, it should be appreciated that each element may be the shape of a triangle, square, pentagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon or decagon. Furthermore, the apparatus has been illustrated and described above as having one thermal transfer apparatus and one thermoelectric generator, it should be appreciated that the apparatus may include one or more thermal transfer apparatuses and one or more thermoelectric generators. It should be noted that the oven may be considered as including the removable oven 30 as well as the supporting portion therebeneath as well as the portion to which the thermal transfer apparatus 80 is attached.

Furthermore, although the drive mechanism has been illustrated and described above as including a control lever and associated operating cogs that are operable to rotate the oven rotating member, it should be appreciated that the drive mechanism may include other devices, mechanisms, member, or the like, to control/operate the rotation of the oven rotating member/oven. That is, it should be appreciated that the control lever and associated cogs are not essential for the control/rotation of the oven rotating member/oven.