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Title:
INHIBITORS OF CYCLIC-AMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/094732
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure provides compounds of Formula (I), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. The compounds described herein are useful in treating diseases associated with the binding of CREB to CREB-binding protein (CBP) and/or the CREB-CBP pathway, (e.g., proliferative diseases, for example, cancer (e.g., lung cancer or breast cancer), and inflammatory disease (e.g., pancreatic fibrosis or liver fibrosis)). Also provided in the present disclosure are pharmaceutical compositions, kits, methods, and uses including or using a compound described herein.

Inventors:
CHEN, Ching-Shih (1840 Suffolk Road, Upper Arlington, OH, 43221, US)
WU, Chia-Hsien (128 Academia Road, Section 2Nankan, Taipei ., 11529, TW)
HSIEH, I-Shan (128 Academia Road, Section 2Nankan, Taipei ., 11529, TW)
HUANG, Po-Hsien (No. 1, University RoadTainan City, 701, 701, TW)
Application Number:
US2018/060048
Publication Date:
May 16, 2019
Filing Date:
November 09, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ACADEMIA SINICA (128 Academia Road, Section 2 Nankan, Taipei 115, 115, TW)
NATIONAL CHENG KUNG UNIVERSITY (No. 1, University RoadTainan City, 701, 701, TW)
CHEN, Ching-Shih (1840 Suffolk Road, Upper Arlington, OH, 43221, US)
WU, Chia-Hsien (128 Academia Road, Section 2Nankan, Taipei ., 11529, TW)
HSIEH, I-Shan (128 Academia Road, Section 2Nankan, Taipei ., 11529, TW)
HUANG, Po-Hsien (No. 1, University RoadTainan City, 701, 701, TW)
International Classes:
C07D207/34; C07C235/56; C07C309/76; C07D213/75; C07D237/20; C07D241/20; C07D265/12; C07D291/08; C07D295/104; C07D471/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2017156489A12017-09-14
WO2016210289A12016-12-29
WO2004006858A22004-01-22
WO2005094805A12005-10-13
Foreign References:
JPH11209328A1999-08-03
Other References:
KAUEROVA, T. ET AL.: "Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of novel nitro-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides on human cancer cell lines", INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol. 17, no. 8, 2016, pages 1 - 14, XP055607707
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CHAO, Jessica J. (Wolf, Greenfield & Sacks P.C.,600 Atlantic Avenu, Boston MA, 02210-2206, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A compound of Formula

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

each of R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5, is independently H, halogen, alkylhalogen, C1-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, C1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, -NH2, alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -NO2, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, - OSO2R, -S02NR'R", -OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R1, R2, R3, R4, or R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6-membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring;

X is -C- or -N-;

L is -C=0-, -C(=0)NR'-, -C(=0)NR'CH2- -C(=0)NR'NR'C(=0)-, - C(OH)N(R' )2- -NR'C(=0)-, -NR'-S(=0)2, -0-, or -S(=0)2-;

A is -NR'- or -0-;

n is 0 or 1 ;

or optionally, wherein A and R5 are joined together with the atoms to which they are attached to form a optionally substituted heterocyclic ring;

Ring B is aryl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, or monocyclic or bicyclic 5-10 membered heterocyclyl, each of which is optionally substituted by H, halogen, alkylhalogen, Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, Ci-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, - NH2, alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, cyano, nitro, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, - SH, -S02NR'R", -OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R";

R is hydrogen, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl;

R' is H, acyl, Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, or Ci-6 alkynyl; and R" is H, acyl, C1-6 alkyl, C1-6 alkenyl, or C1-6 alkynyl.

2. The compound of claim 1 of Formula (I):

(I),

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

each of R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5, is independently H, halogen, alkylhalogen, C1-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, C1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, -NH2, alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -N02, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, - S02NR'R", -OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R1, R2, R3, R4, or R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6-membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring;

X is -C- or -N-;

L is -C=0-, -C(=0)NR'-, -C(=0)NR'CH2- -C(=0)NR'NR'C(=0)-, - C(OH)N(R' )2- -NR'C(=0)-, -NR'-S(=0)2, -0-, or -S(=0)2-;

A is -NR'- or -0-;

n is 0 or 1 ;

or optionally, wherein A and R5 are joined together with the atoms to which they are attached to form a optionally substituted heterocyclic ring;

Ring B is aryl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, or monocyclic or bicyclic 5-10 membered heterocyclyl, each of which is optionally substituted by H, halogen, alkylhalogen, Ci-6 alkyl, C1-6 alkenyl, C1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, - NH2, alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, cyano, nitro, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, - SH, -S02NR'R", -OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R";

R is hydrogen, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl;

R' is H, acyl, C1-6 alkyl, C1-6 alkenyl, or C1-6 alkynyl; and

R" is H, acyl, C1-6 alkyl, C1-6 alkenyl, or C1-6 alkynyl.

3. The compound of claim 1 or 2, wherein R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted phenyl ring.

4. The compound of claim 3, wherein R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an unsubstituted phenyl ring.

5. The compound of any one of claims 1-4, wherein R4 and R5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted phenyl ring.

6. The compound of any one of claims 1-5, wherein Ring B is optionally substituted phenyl.

7. The compound of any one of claims 1-5, wherein Ring B is optionally substituted pyridine, optionally substituted pyrazine, optionally substituted pyridazine, optionally substituted morpholine, optionally substituted pyrrole, or optionally substituted

triazolopyridine.

8. The compound of any one of claims 1-7, wherein X is -C-.

9. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein L is -C=0-.

10. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein L is -0-.

11. The compound of any one of claims 1-8, wherein L is -NR'C(=0)- or -S(=0)2-.

12. The compound of any one of claims 1-11, wherein A is -NR'-.

13. The compound of any one of claims 1-12, wherein n is 0.

14. The compound of any one of claims 1-12, wherein n is 1.

15. The compound of any one of claims 1-12 or 14, wherein A is -NR'- and n is 1.

16. The compound of claim 12 or 15, wherein R' is hydrogen.

17. The compound of any one of claims 1-16, wherein R3 is hydrogen.

18. The compound of any one of claims 1-4 or 6-17, wherein R4 is hydrogen.

19. The compound of any one of claims 1-4 or 6-18, wherein R5 is -OH, -C(0)OH, or Ci- 6 alkoxyl.

20. The compound of any one of claims 1-4 or 6-18, wherein R5 is -OS02(Me) or - OS02(phenyl).

104

105

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

22. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1-21, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

23. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 22, further comprising an additional pharmaceutical agent.

24. A method of interfering with the binding of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) to CREB binding protein (CBP) in a subject, the method comprising:

contacting cells expressing CREB and CBP with an effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 1-21 or a pharmaceutical composition of any one of claims 22 or 23.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein the contacting step is performed by administering the compound or the pharmaceutical compositon to a subject in need thereof.

26. The method of any one of claims 24-25, wherein the subject has, is suspected of having, or is at risk for a disease associated with the CREB-CBP pathway.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein the disease is cancer or an inflammatory disease.

28. The method of claim 27, wherein the cancer is selected from the group consisting of lung cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, Burkitt' s lymphoma, melanoma, multiple myeloma, Ewing's sarcoma, osteosarcoma, brain cancer, ovarian cancer, neuroblastoma, and colorectal cancer.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein the subject is a human patient having triple-negative breast cancer.

30. The method of claim 27, wherein the inflammatory disease is pancreatic fibrosis or liver fibrosis.

31. A pharmaceutical composition for use in treating cancer or an inflammatory disease, comprising a compound of any one of claims 1-21, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

32. Use of a compound to treat a disease in a subject in need thereof, the use comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 1-21, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, co-crystal, tautomer, stereoisomer, solvate, hydrate, polymorph, isotopically enriched derivative, or prodrug thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 22 or 23.

33. A compound of any one of claims 1-21, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, co- crystal, tautomer, stereoisomer, solvate, hydrate, polymorph, isotopically enriched derivative, or prodrug thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 22 or 23, for use in treating a disease in a subject in need thereof.

34. A kit comprising:

a compound of any one of claims 1-21, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, co- crystal, tautomer, stereoisomer, solvate, hydrate, polymorph, isotopically enriched derivative, or prodrug thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 22 or 23; and

instructions for administering to a subject or contacting a cell, tissue, or biological sample with the compound, or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, tautomer, or stereoisomer thereof, or the pharmaceutical composition.

Description:
INHIBITORS OF CYCLIC -AMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to U.S. Provisional

Application, U.S. S.N. 62/584,590, filed November 10, 2017, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The cyclic- AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear transcription factor activated by phosphorylation at Serl33 by multiple kinases. Upon phosphorylation, CREB enters the nucleus and binds the transcriptional co-activator, CREB-binding protein (CBP), to initiate CREB -dependent transcriptional activation of genes related to the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. Accumulating evidence indicates that CREB represents an important drug target for cancer therapy. A series of novel CREB inhibitors has been developed via the screening of a focused compound library. These inhibitors, for example, CHW-71, disrupt the interaction between CREB and CBP, leading to the proteasomal degradation of CREB and/or CBP and the downregulation of an array of CREB target gene products. Data indicates that these inhibitors can be used for treating a number of diseases, for example, but not limited to, triple-negative breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic fibrosis, and liver fibrosis. There is therefore a need for to develop new agents that target the binding of CREB to CBP, to treat diseases associated with the binding of CREB to CBP (e.g. , proliferative disease, or inflammatory disease), in a subject in need thereof.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0003] In one aspect, described herein are compounds of Formula (I), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, hydrates, polymorphs, co-crystals, tautomers, stereoisomers, isotopically labeled derivatives, and prodrugs thereof. The compounds described herein are inhibitors of the nuclear transcription factor, cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The compounds are useful in treating and/or preventing diseases associated with the binding of CREB to CREB-binding protein (CBP) and/or the CREB-CBP pathway, e.g. , proliferative disease, or inflammatory disease, in a subject in need thereof. Also provided are pharmaceutical compositions, kits, methods, and uses including a compound described herein.

[0004] In one aspect, the present disclosure provides compounds of Formula (I):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, hydrates, polymorphs, co-crystals, tautomers, stereoisomers, isotopically labeled derivatives, and prodrugs thereof, wherein:

each of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , and R 5 , is independently H, halogen, alkylhalogen, C 1-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, C 1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -NO2, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, - OSO2R, -S0 2 NR'R", -OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6-membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring;

X is -C- or -N-;

L is -C=0-, -C(=0)NR'-, -C(=0)NR'CH 2 - -C(=0)NR'NR'C(=0)-, - C(OH)N(R')2- -NR'C(=0)-, -NR'-S(=0) 2 , -0-, or -S(=0) 2 -;

A is -NR'- or -0-;

n is 0 or 1 ;

or optionally, wherein A and R 5 are joined together with the atoms to which they are attached to form a optionally substituted heterocyclic ring;

Ring B is aryl, 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, or monocyclic or bicyclic 5-10 membered heterocyclyl, each of which is optionally substituted by H, halogen, alkylhalogen, Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, Ci-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, - NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, cyano, nitro, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, - SH, -S0 2 NR'R", -OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R";

R is hydrogen, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted carbocyclyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl;

R' is H, acyl, Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, or Ci-6 alkynyl; and

R" is H, acyl, Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, or Ci-6 alkynyl. [0005] Exemplary compounds of Formula (I) include but are not limited to:

 and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, hydrates, polymorphs, co-crystals, tautomers, stereoisomers, isotopically labeled derivatives, and prodrugs thereof.

[0006] Exemplary compounds of Formula (I) include, but are not limited to:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, hydrates, polymorphs, co-crystals, tautomers, stereoisomers, isotopically labeled derivatives, and prodrugs thereof,

wherein a is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5; and

each instance of R a is independently H, halogen, alkylhalogen, C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 alkenyl, Ci-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, cyano, nitro, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -S0 2 NR'R", - OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", wherein R, R' , and R" are as defined in Formula (I).

[0007] In another aspect, described herein are pharmaceutical compositions including a compound described herein, and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition described herein includes a

therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of a compound described herein. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition described herein further comprises an additional pharmaceutical agent. The pharmaceutical compositions may be useful in modulating (e.g., inhibiting) the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell; in treating a disease (e.g. , a proliferative disease) in a subject in need thereof; or in preventing a disease in a subject in need thereof.

[0008] In certain embodiments, the disease is a disease associated with the CREB -CBP pathway. In certain embodiments, the disease associated with binding of CREB to CBP. In certain embodiments, the disease is a proliferative disease (e.g., cancer), or an inflammatory disease. In certain embodiments, the disease is cancer. In certain embodiments, the disease is lung cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, Burkitt' s lymphoma, melanoma, multiple myeloma, Ewing' s sarcoma, osteosarcoma, brain cancer, ovarian cancer, neuroblastoma, or colorectal cancer.

[0009] In certain embodiments, the subject is a human. In certain embodiments, the subject is a non-human animal. In certain embodiments, the cell is in vitro. In certain embodiments, the cell is in vivo. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human patient with a proliferative disease. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human patient having cancer. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human patient having triple-negative breast cancer. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human patient having lung cancer. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human patient having an inflammatory disease. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human patient having pancreatic fibrosis or liver fibrosis. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human patient having lung cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, acute

lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, Burkitt' s lymphoma, melanoma, multiple myeloma, Ewing's sarcoma, osteosarcoma, brain cancer, ovarian cancer, neuroblastoma, or colorectal cancer.

[0010] In still another aspect, described herein are kits including a container with a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein. A kit described herein may include a single dose or multiple doses of the compound or pharmaceutical composition. The described kits may be useful in inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell, in treating a disease associated with the CREB-CBP pathway in a subject in need thereof, in preventing a disease associated with the CREB-CBP pathway in a subject in need thereof, in treating a disease (e.g. , proliferative disease, inflammatory disease) in a subject in need thereof, and/or in preventing a disease (e.g. , proliferative disease, inflammatory disease) in a subject in need thereof. In certain

embodiments, a kit described herein further includes instructions for using the compound or pharmaceutical composition included in the kit. In certain embodiments, a kit described herein includes compounds described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, co- crystal, tautomer, stereoisomer, solvate, hydrate, polymorph, isotopically enriched derivative, or prodrug thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition described herein, and instructions for using the compound or pharmaceutical composition included in the kit.

[0011] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides methods of modulating (e.g. , inhibiting) the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject in need thereof, the methods comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein.

[0012] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides methods of modulating (e.g. , inhibiting) the binding of CREB to CBP in a biological sample, tissue, or cell, the methods comprising contacting the biological sample, tissue, or cell with an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein.

[0013] In certain embodiments, the compound being administered or used to the subject or biological sample selectively inhibits the binding of CREB to CBP. When a compound, pharmaceutical composition, method, use, or kit is referred to as "selectively," "specifically," or "competitively" inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP, the compound, pharmaceutical composition, method, use, or kit inhibits the binding of CREB to CBP to a greater extent (e.g. , not less than 2-fold, not less than 5-fold, not less than 10-fold, not less than 30-fold, not less than 100-fold, not less than 1,000-fold, or not less than 10,000-fold; and/or: not more than 2- fold, not more than 5-fold, not more than 10-fold, not more than 30-fold, not more than 100- fold, not more than 1,000-fold, or not more than 10,000-fold) than inhibiting the binding of CREB to a different protein.

[0014] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to methods of treating a disease in a subject in need thereof, the methods comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein.

[0015] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides methods of preventing a disease in a subject in need thereof, the methods comprising administering to the subject a

prophylactically effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein.

[0016] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to methods of inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject in need thereof, the methods comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein.

[0017] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to methods of inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP in a biological sample, tissue, or cell, the methods comprising contacting the biological sample, tissue, or cell with an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein.

[0018] In yet another aspect, the present disclosure provides compounds and pharmaceutical compositions described herein for use in a method of the disclosure (e.g., a method of inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP, a method of treating a disease (e.g., a proliferative disease), or a method of preventing a disease (e.g., a proliferative disease).

[0019] The present application refers to various issued patents, published patent applications, journal articles, and other publications, all of which are incorporated herein by reference. The details of one or more embodiments of the disclosure are set forth herein. Other features, objects, and advantages of the disclosure will be apparent from the Detailed Description, the Examples, and the Claims.

DEFINITIONS

[0020] Definitions of specific functional groups and chemical terms are described in more detail below. The chemical elements are identified in accordance with the Periodic Table of the Elements, CAS version, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 75 th Ed., inside cover, and specific functional groups are generally defined as described therein. Additionally, general principles of organic chemistry, as well as specific functional moieties and reactivity, are described in Thomas Sorrell, Organic Chemistry, University Science Books, Sausalito, 1999; Smith and March, March 's Advanced Organic Chemistry, 5 th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2001; Larock, Comprehensive Organic Transformations, VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, 1989; and Carruthers, Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis, 3 rd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987. The disclosure is not intended to be limited in any manner by the exemplary listing of substituents described herein.

[0021] Compounds described herein can comprise one or more asymmetric centers, and thus can exist in various isomeric forms, e.g., enantiomers and/or diastereomers. For example, the compounds described herein can be in the form of an individual enantiomer, diastereomer or geometric isomer, or can be in the form of a mixture of stereoisomers, including racemic mixtures and mixtures enriched in one or more stereoisomer. Isomers can be isolated from mixtures by methods known to those skilled in the art, including chiral high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the formation and crystallization of chiral salts; or preferred isomers can be prepared by asymmetric syntheses. See, for example, Jacques et al.,

Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1981); Wilen et al., Tetrahedron 33:2725 (1977); Eliel, Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds (McGraw-Hill, NY, 1962); and Wilen, Tables of Resolving Agents and Optical Resolutions p. 268 (E.L. Eliel, Ed., Univ. of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN 1972). The disclosure additionally encompasses compounds described herein as individual isomers substantially free of other isomers, and alternatively, as mixtures of various isomers.

[0022] When a range of values is listed, it is intended to encompass each value and sub-range within the range. For example "Ο-ό" is intended to encompass, Ci, C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C5, C 6 , Ci-6, Ci-5, Ci^, Ci- 3 , Ci- 2 , C 2 -6, C2-5, C2- , C2-3, C3-6, C3-5, C 3 ^, C4-6, C4-5, and C5-6.

[0023] The term "aliphatic" includes both saturated and unsaturated, straight chain (i.e. , unbranched), branched, acyclic, cyclic, or polycyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are optionally substituted with one or more functional groups. As will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art, "aliphatic" is intended herein to include, but is not limited to, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, and cycloalkynyl moieties. Thus, the term "alkyl" includes straight, branched and cyclic alkyl groups. An analogous convention applies to other generic terms such as "alkenyl", "alkynyl", and the like. Furthermore, the terms "alkyl", "alkenyl", "alkynyl", and the like encompass both substituted and unsubstituted groups. In certain embodiments, "lower alkyl" is used to indicate those alkyl groups (cyclic, acyclic, substituted, unsubstituted, branched or unbranched) having 1-6 carbon atoms.

[0024] In certain embodiments, the alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups employed in the disclosure contain 1-20 aliphatic carbon atoms. In certain other embodiments, the alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups employed in the disclosure contain 1-10 aliphatic carbon atoms. In yet other embodiments, the alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups employed in the disclosure contain 1-8 aliphatic carbon atoms. In still other embodiments, the alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups employed in the disclosure contain 1-6 aliphatic carbon atoms. In yet other

embodiments, the alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups employed in the disclosure contain 1-4 carbon atoms. Illustrative aliphatic groups thus include, but are not limited to, for example, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, -CH 2 -cyclopropyl, vinyl, allyl, n-butyl, sec- butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, cyclobutyl, -CH 2 -cyclobutyl, n-pentyl, sec-pentyl, isopentyl, tert- pentyl, cyclopentyl, -CH 2 -cyclopentyl, n-hexyl, sec-hexyl, cyclohexyl, -CH 2 -cyclohexyl moieties and the like, which again, may bear one or more substituents. Alkenyl groups include, but are not limited to, for example, ethenyl, propenyl, butenyl, l-methyl-2-buten-l-yl, and the like. Representative alkynyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethynyl, 2- propynyl (propargyl), 1-propynyl, and the like.

[0025] The term "alkyl" refers to a radical of a straight-chain or branched saturated hydrocarbon group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms ("O-io alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 9 carbon atoms ("C1-9 alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 8 carbon atoms ("O-s alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 7 carbon atoms ("C1-7 alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 6 carbon atoms ("Ci-6 alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 5 carbon atoms ("C1-5 alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 4 carbon atoms ("Ci^ alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 3 carbon atoms ("C1-3 alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 to 2 carbon atoms ("C1-2 alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 1 carbon atom ("Ci alkyl"). In some embodiments, an alkyl group has 2 to 6 carbon atoms ("C2-6 alkyl"). Examples of Ci-6 alkyl groups include methyl (O), ethyl (C2), propyl (C3) (e.g. , n-propyl, isopropyl), butyl (C 4 ) (e.g. , n-butyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, iso-butyl), pentyl (C5) (e.g. , n-pentyl, 3-pentanyl, amyl, neopentyl, 3-methyl-2-butanyl, tertiary amyl), and hexyl (C 6 ) (e.g. , n-hexyl). Additional examples of alkyl groups include n-heptyl (C 7 ), n- octyl (Cs), and the like. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of an alkyl group is independently unsubstituted (an "unsubstituted alkyl") or substituted (a "substituted alkyl") with one or more substituents (e.g. , halogen, such as F). In certain embodiments, the alkyl group is an unsubstituted Cuo alkyl (such as unsubstituted Ci-β alkyl, e.g., -CH3 (Me), unsubstituted ethyl (Et), unsubstituted propyl (Pr, e.g. , unsubstituted n-propyl (n-Pr), unsubstituted isopropyl (z ' -Pr)), unsubstituted butyl (Bu, e.g. , unsubstituted n-butyl (n-Bu), unsubstituted tert-butyl (tert-Bu or ί-Bu), unsubstituted sec-butyl (sec-Bu), unsubstituted isobutyl (z ' -Bu)). In certain embodiments, the alkyl group is a substituted Cuo alkyl (such as substituted C 1-6 alkyl, e.g. , -CF3, Bn). The term "alkylhalogen" refers to an alkyl group substituted with halogen. The term "alkylamino" refers to an alkyl group substituted with an amine group.

[0026] "Alkenyl" refers to a radical of a straight-chain or branched hydrocarbon group having from 2 to 20 carbon atoms, one or more carbon-carbon double bonds, and no triple bonds ("C2-20 alkenyl"). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 10 carbon atoms ("C2-10 alkenyl"). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 9 carbon atoms ("C2-9 alkenyl"). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 8 carbon atoms ("C2-8 alkenyl"). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 7 carbon atoms ("C2-7 alkenyl"). In some embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 6 carbon atoms ("C2-6 alkenyl"). In some

embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 5 carbon atoms ("C2-5 alkenyl"). In some

embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 4 carbon atoms ("C2- alkenyl"). In some

embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 to 3 carbon atoms ("C2-3 alkenyl"). In some

embodiments, an alkenyl group has 2 carbon atoms ("C2 alkenyl"). The one or more carbon- carbon double bonds can be internal (such as in 2-butenyl) or terminal (such as in 1-butenyl). Examples of C2-4 alkenyl groups include ethenyl (C2), 1-propenyl (C3), 2-propenyl (C3), 1- butenyl (C 4 ), 2-butenyl (C 4 ), butadienyl (C 4 ), and the like. Examples of C2-6 alkenyl groups include the aforementioned C2-A alkenyl groups as well as pentenyl (C5), pentadienyl (C5), hexenyl (C 6 ), and the like. Additional examples of alkenyl include heptenyl (C 7 ), octenyl (Cs), octatrienyl (Cs), and the like. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of an alkenyl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e. , unsubstituted (an "unsubstituted alkenyl") or substituted (a "substituted alkenyl") with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the alkenyl group is unsubstituted C2-10 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, the alkenyl group is substituted C2-10 alkenyl. In an alkenyl group, a C=C double bond for which the

stereochemistry is not specified {e.g. , -CH=CHCH 3 or ' Χ ^ 5 *^ ) ma y be an (E)- or (Z)- double bond.

[0027] "Alkynyl" refers to a radical of a straight-chain or branched hydrocarbon group having from 2 to 20 carbon atoms, one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds, and optionally one or more double bonds ("C2-20 alkynyl"). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 10 carbon atoms ("C2-10 alkynyl"). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 9 carbon atoms ("C2-9 alkynyl"). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 8 carbon atoms ("C2-8 alkynyl"). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 7 carbon atoms ("C2-7 alkynyl"). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 6 carbon atoms ("C2-6 alkynyl"). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 5 carbon atoms ("C2-5 alkynyl"). In some embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 4 carbon atoms ("C2^ alkynyl"). In some

embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 to 3 carbon atoms ("C2-3 alkynyl"). In some

embodiments, an alkynyl group has 2 carbon atoms ("C2 alkynyl"). The one or more carbon- carbon triple bonds can be internal (such as in 2-butynyl) or terminal (such as in 1-butynyl). Examples of C2-4 alkynyl groups include, without limitation, ethynyl (C2), 1-propynyl (C 3 ), 2-propynyl (C 3 ), 1-butynyl (C 4 ), 2-butynyl (C 4 ), and the like. Examples of C2-6 alkenyl groups include the aforementioned C2- alkynyl groups as well as pentynyl (C5), hexynyl (C 6 ), and the like. Additional examples of alkynyl include heptynyl (C 7 ), octynyl (Cs), and the like. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of an alkynyl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e. , unsubstituted (an "unsubstituted alkynyl") or substituted (a "substituted alkynyl") with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the alkynyl group is unsubstituted C2-10 alkynyl. In certain embodiments, the alkynyl group is substituted C2-10 alkynyl. [0028] "Carbocyclyl" or "carbocyclic" refers to a radical of a non-aromatic cyclic hydrocarbon group having from 3 to 10 ring carbon atoms ("C3-10 carbocyclyl") and zero heteroatoms in the non-aromatic ring system. In some embodiments, a carbocyclyl group has 3 to 8 ring carbon atoms ("C3-8 carbocyclyl"). In some embodiments, a carbocyclyl group has 3 to 6 ring carbon atoms ("C3-6 carbocyclyl"). In some embodiments, a carbocyclyl group has 3 to 6 ring carbon atoms ("C3-6 carbocyclyl"). In some embodiments, a carbocyclyl group has 5 to 10 ring carbon atoms ("C5-10 carbocyclyl"). Exemplary C3-6 carbocyclyl groups include, without limitation, cyclopropyl (C3), cyclopropenyl (C3), cyclobutyl (C 4 ), cyclobutenyl (C 4 ), cyclopentyl (C5), cyclopentenyl (C5), cyclohexyl (C 6 ), cyclohexenyl (C 6 ), cyclohexadienyl (C 6 ), and the like. Exemplary C3-8 carbocyclyl groups include, without limitation, the aforementioned C3-6 carbocyclyl groups as well as cycloheptyl (C 7 ), cycloheptenyl (C 7 ), cycloheptadienyl (C 7 ), cycloheptatrienyl (C 7 ), cyclooctyl (C 8 ), cyclooctenyl (C 8 ),

bicyclo[2.2.1]heptanyl (C 7 ), bicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl (C 8 ), and the like. Exemplary C3-10 carbocyclyl groups include, without limitation, the aforementioned C3-8 carbocyclyl groups as well as cyclononyl (C9), cyclononenyl (C9), cyclodecyl (C10), cyclodecenyl (C10), octahydro-lH-indenyl (C9), decahydronaphthalenyl (C10), spiro[4.5]decanyl (C10), and the like. As the foregoing examples illustrate, in certain embodiments, the carbocyclyl group is either monocyclic ("monocyclic carbocyclyl") or contain a fused, bridged or spiro ring system such as a bicyclic system ("bicyclic carbocyclyl") and can be saturated or can be partially unsaturated. "Carbocyclyl" also includes ring systems wherein the carbocyclic ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more aryl or heteroaryl groups wherein the point of attachment is on the carbocyclic ring, and in such instances, the number of carbons continue to designate the number of carbons in the carbocyclic ring system. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of a carbocyclyl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e.,

unsubstituted (an "unsubstituted carbocyclyl") or substituted (a "substituted carbocyclyl") with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the carbocyclyl group is unsubstituted C3-10 carbocyclyl. In certain embodiments, the carbocyclyl group is substituted C3-10 carbocyclyl.

[0029] In some embodiments, "carbocyclyl" is a monocyclic, saturated carbocyclyl group having from 3 to 10 ring carbon atoms ("C3-10 cycloalkyl"). In some embodiments, a cycloalkyl group has 3 to 8 ring carbon atoms ("C3-8 cycloalkyl"). In some embodiments, a cycloalkyl group has 3 to 6 ring carbon atoms ("C3-6 cycloalkyl"). In some embodiments, a cycloalkyl group has 5 to 6 ring carbon atoms ("C5-6 cycloalkyl"). In some embodiments, a cycloalkyl group has 5 to 10 ring carbon atoms ("C5-10 cycloalkyl"). Examples of C5-6 cycloalkyl groups include cyclopentyl (C5) and cyclohexyl (C5). Examples of C3-6 cycloalkyl groups include the aforementioned C5-6 cycloalkyl groups as well as cyclopropyl (C3) and cyclobutyl (C 4 ). Examples of C3-8 cycloalkyl groups include the aforementioned C3-6 cycloalkyl groups as well as cycloheptyl (C 7 ) and cyclooctyl (Cs). Unless otherwise specified, each instance of a cycloalkyl group is independently unsubstituted (an "unsubstituted cycloalkyl") or substituted (a "substituted cycloalkyl") with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the cycloalkyl group is unsubstituted C3-10 cycloalkyl. In certain embodiments, the cycloalkyl group is substituted C3-10 cycloalkyl.

[0030] "Heterocyclyl" or "heterocyclic" refers to a radical of a 3- to 10-membered non- aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1 to 4 ring heteroatoms, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, boron, phosphorus, and silicon ("3-10 membered heterocyclyl"). In heterocyclyl groups that contain one or more nitrogen atoms, the point of attachment can be a carbon or nitrogen atom, as valency permits. A heterocyclyl group can either be monocyclic ("monocyclic heterocyclyl") or a fused, bridged, or spiro ring system, such as a bicyclic system ("bicyclic heterocyclyl"), and can be saturated or can be partially unsaturated. Heterocyclyl bicyclic ring systems can include one or more heteroatoms in one or both rings. "Heterocyclyl" also includes ring systems wherein the heterocyclic ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more carbocyclyl groups wherein the point of attachment is either on the carbocyclyl or heterocyclic ring, or ring systems wherein the heterocyclic ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more aryl or heteroaryl groups, wherein the point of attachment is on the heterocyclic ring, and in such instances, the number of ring members continue to designate the number of ring members in the

heterocyclic ring system. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of heterocyclyl is independently optionally substituted, i.e., unsubstituted (an "unsubstituted heterocyclyl") or substituted (a "substituted heterocyclyl") with one or more substituents. In certain

embodiments, the heterocyclyl group is unsubstituted 3-10 membered heterocyclyl. In certain embodiments, the heterocyclyl group is substituted 3-10 membered heterocyclyl.

[0031] In some embodiments, a heterocyclyl group is a 5-10 membered non-aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, boron, phosphorus, and silicon ("5-10 membered heterocyclyl"). In some embodiments, a heterocyclyl group is a 5-8 membered non-aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur ("5-8 membered heterocyclyl"). In some embodiments, a heterocyclyl group is a 5-6 membered non-aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur ("5-6 membered heterocyclyl"). In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heterocyclyl has 1-3 ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heterocyclyl has 1-2 ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heterocyclyl has one ring heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.

[0032] Exemplary 3-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azirdinyl, oxiranyl, thiiranyl. Exemplary 4-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azetidinyl, oxetanyl and thietanyl. Exemplary 5-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, tetrahydrofuranyl, dihydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, dihydrothiophenyl, pyrrolidinyl, dihydropyrrolyl, and pyrrolyl-2,5-dione. Exemplary 5-membered heterocyclyl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, dioxolanyl, oxasulfuranyl, disulfuranyl, and oxazolidin-2-one. Exemplary 5-membered heterocyclyl groups containing three heteroatoms include, without limitation, triazolinyl, oxadiazolinyl, and thiadiazolinyl. Exemplary 6-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, dihydropyridinyl, and thianyl. Exemplary 6- membered heterocyclyl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, dithianyl, and dioxanyl. Exemplary 6-membered heterocyclyl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, triazinanyl. Exemplary 7- membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azepanyl, oxepanyl and thiepanyl. Exemplary 8-membered heterocyclyl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azocanyl, oxecanyl and thiocanyl. Exemplary 5- membered heterocyclyl groups fused to a C 6 aryl ring (also referred to herein as a 5,6-bicyclic heterocyclic ring) include, without limitation, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, dihydrobenzofuranyl, dihydrobenzothienyl, benzoxazolinonyl, and the like. Exemplary 6-membered heterocyclyl groups fused to an aryl ring (also referred to herein as a 6,6-bicyclic heterocyclic ring) include, without limitation, tetrahydroquinolinyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, and the like.

[0033] "Aryl" refers to a radical of a monocyclic or polycyclic (e.g. , bicyclic or tricyclic) 4n+2 aromatic ring system (e.g. , having 6, 10, or 14 pi electrons shared in a cyclic array) having 6-14 ring carbon atoms and zero heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system ("C6-14 aryl"). In some embodiments, an aryl group has six ring carbon atoms ("C6 aryl"; e.g. , phenyl). In some embodiments, an aryl group has ten ring carbon atoms ("Cio aryl"; e.g. , naphthyl such as 1-naphthyl and 2-naphthyl). In some embodiments, an aryl group has fourteen ring carbon atoms ("Ci 4 aryl"; e.g. , anthracyl). "Aryl" also includes ring systems wherein the aryl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more carbocyclyl or heterocyclyl groups wherein the radical or point of attachment is on the aryl ring, and in such instances, the number of carbon atoms continue to designate the number of carbon atoms in the aryl ring system. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of an aryl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e. , unsubstituted (an "unsubstituted aryl") or substituted (a

"substituted aryl") with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the aryl group is unsubstituted Ce-i4 aryl. In certain embodiments, the aryl group is substituted C 6 -i4 aryl.

[0034] "Aralkyl" is a subset of alkyl and aryl and refers to an optionally substituted alkyl group substituted by an optionally substituted aryl group. In certain embodiments, the aralkyl is optionally substituted benzyl. In certain embodiments, the aralkyl is benzyl. In certain embodiments, the aralkyl is optionally substituted phenethyl. In certain embodiments, the aralkyl is phenethyl.

[0035] "Heteroaryl" refers to a radical of a 5-10 membered monocyclic or bicyclic 4n+2 aromatic ring system (e.g. , having 6 or 10 pi electrons shared in a cyclic array) having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur ("5-10 membered heteroaryl"). In heteroaryl groups that contain one or more nitrogen atoms, the point of attachment can be a carbon or nitrogen atom, as valency permits. Heteroaryl bicyclic ring systems can include one or more heteroatoms in one or both rings. "Heteroaryl" includes ring systems wherein the heteroaryl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more carbocyclyl or heterocyclyl groups wherein the point of attachment is on the heteroaryl ring, and in such instances, the number of ring members continue to designate the number of ring members in the heteroaryl ring system. "Heteroaryl" also includes ring systems wherein the heteroaryl ring, as defined above, is fused with one or more aryl groups wherein the point of attachment is either on the aryl or heteroaryl ring, and in such instances, the number of ring members designates the number of ring members in the fused (aryl/heteroaryl) ring system. Bicyclic heteroaryl groups wherein one ring does not contain a heteroatom (e.g. , indolyl, quinolinyl, carbazolyl, and the like) the point of attachment can be on either ring, i.e. , either the ring bearing a heteroatom (e.g. , 2-indolyl) or the ring that does not contain a heteroatom (e.g. , 5- indolyl).

[0036] In some embodiments, a heteroaryl group is a 5-10 membered aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur ("5-10 membered heteroaryl"). In some embodiments, a heteroaryl group is a 5-8 membered aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur ("5-8 membered heteroaryl"). In some embodiments, a heteroaryl group is a 5-6 membered aromatic ring system having ring carbon atoms and 1-4 ring heteroatoms provided in the aromatic ring system, wherein each heteroatom is independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur ("5-6 membered heteroaryl"). In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heteroaryl has 1-3 ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heteroaryl has 1-2 ring heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the 5-6 membered heteroaryl has 1 ring heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Unless otherwise specified, each instance of a heteroaryl group is independently optionally substituted, i.e. , unsubstituted (an "unsubstituted heteroaryl") or substituted (a "substituted heteroaryl") with one or more substituents. In certain embodiments, the heteroaryl group is unsubstituted 5-14 membered heteroaryl. In certain embodiments, the heteroaryl group is substituted 5-14 membered heteroaryl.

[0037] Exemplary 5-membered heteroaryl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, pyrrolyl, furanyl, and thiophenyl. Exemplary 5-membered heteroaryl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, and isothiazolyl. Exemplary 5-membered heteroaryl groups containing three heteroatoms include, without limitation, triazolyl, oxadiazolyl, and thiadiazolyl. Exemplary 5-membered heteroaryl groups containing four heteroatoms include, without limitation, tetrazolyl. Exemplary 6-membered heteroaryl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, pyridinyl. Exemplary 6-membered heteroaryl groups containing two heteroatoms include, without limitation, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, and pyrazinyl. Exemplary 6-membered heteroaryl groups containing three or four heteroatoms include, without limitation, triazinyl and tetrazinyl, respectively. Exemplary 7-membered heteroaryl groups containing one heteroatom include, without limitation, azepinyl, oxepinyl, and thiepinyl. Exemplary 5,6-bicyclic heteroaryl groups include, without limitation, indolyl, isoindolyl, indazolyl, benzotriazolyl, benzothiophenyl, isobenzothiophenyl, benzofuranyl, benzoisofuranyl, benzimidazolyl, benzoxazolyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzoxadiazolyl, benzthiazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzthiadiazolyl, indolizinyl, and purinyl. Exemplary 6,6- bicyclic heteroaryl groups include, without limitation, naphthyridinyl, pteridinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, cinnolinyl, quinoxalinyl, phthalazinyl, and quinazolinyl.

[0038] "Heteroaralkyl" is a subset of alkyl and heteroaryl and refers to an optionally substituted alkyl group substituted by an optionally substituted heteroaryl group.

[0039] "Unsaturated" or "partially unsaturated" refers to a group that includes at least one double or triple bond. A "partially unsaturated" ring system is further intended to encompass rings having multiple sites of unsaturation, but is not intended to include aromatic groups (e.g. , aryl or heteroaryl groups). Likewise, "saturated" refers to a group that does not contain a double or triple bond, i.e. , contains all single bonds.

[0040] Alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl groups, which are divalent bridging groups, are further referred to using the suffix -ene, e.g. , alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, carbocyclylene, heterocyclylene, arylene, and heteroarylene.

[0041] An atom, moiety, or group described herein may be unsubstituted or substituted, as valency permits, unless otherwise provided expressly. The term "optionally substituted" refers to substituted or unsubstituted.

[0042] A group is optionally substituted unless expressly provided otherwise. The term "optionally substituted" refers to being substituted or unsubstituted. In certain embodiments, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl groups are optionally substituted (e.g. , "substituted" or "unsubstituted" alkyl, "substituted" or "unsubstituted" alkenyl, "substituted" or "unsubstituted" alkynyl, "substituted" or "unsubstituted" carbocyclyl, "substituted" or "unsubstituted" heterocyclyl, "substituted" or "unsubstituted" aryl or "substituted" or "unsubstituted" heteroaryl group). In general, the term "substituted", whether preceded by the term "optionally" or not, means that at least one hydrogen present on a group (e.g. , a carbon or nitrogen atom) is replaced with a permissible substituent, e.g. , a substituent which upon substitution results in a stable compound, e.g. , a compound which does not spontaneously undergo transformation such as by rearrangement, cyclization, elimination, or other reaction. Unless otherwise indicated, a "substituted" group has a substituent at one or more substitutable positions of the group, and when more than one position in any given structure is substituted, the substituent is either the same or different at each position. The term "substituted" is contemplated to include substitution with all permissible substituents of organic compounds, any of the substituents described herein that results in the formation of a stable compound. The present disclosure contemplates any and all such combinations in order to arrive at a stable compound. For purposes of this disclosure, heteroatoms such as nitrogen may have hydrogen substituents and/or any suitable substituent as described herein which satisfy the valencies of the heteroatoms and results in the formation of a stable moiety. In certain embodiments, the substituent is a carbon atom substituent. In certain embodiments, the substituent is a nitrogen atom substituent. In certain embodiments, the substituent is an oxygen atom substituent. In certain embodiments, the substituent is a sulfur atom substituent.

[0043] Exemplary carbon atom substituents include, but are not limited to, halogen, -CN, -NO2, -N3, -SO2H, -SO3H, -OH, -OR^, -ON(R bb ) 2 , -N(R bb ) 2 , -N(R bb ) 3 + X _ , -N(OR cc )R bb , -SH, -SR^, -SSR CC , -C(=0)R aa , -CO2H, -CHO, -C(OR cc ) 2 , -C0 2 R aa , -OC(=0)R aa , -OC0 2 R aa , -C(=0)N(R bb ) 2 , -OC(=0)N(R bb ) 2 , -NR bb C(=0)R aa , -NR bb C0 2 R aa ,

-NR bb C(=0)N(R bb ) 2 , -C(=NR bb )R aa , -C(=NR bb )OR aa , -OC(=NR bb )R aa , -OC(=NR bb )OR aa , -C(=NR bb )N(R bb ) 2 , -OC(=NR bb )N(R bb ) 2 , -NR bb C(=NR bb )N(R bb ) 2 , -C(=0)NR bb S0 2 R aa , -NR bb S0 2 R aa , -S0 2 N(R bb ) 2 , -S0 2 R aa , -S0 2 OR aa , -OS0 2 R aa , -S(=0)R aa , -OS(=0)R aa , -Si(R aa ) 3 , -OSi(R aa ) -C(=S)N(R bb ) 2 , -C(=0)SR aa , -C(=S)SR aa , -SC(=S)SR aa ,

-SC(=0)SR aa , -OC(=0)SR aa , -SC(=0)OR aa , -SC(=0)R aa , -P(=0)(R aa ) 2 , -P(=0)(OR cc ) 2 , -OP(=0)(R aa ) 2 , -OP(=0)(OR cc ) 2 , -P(=0)(N(R bb ) 2 )2, -OP(=0)(N(R bb ) 2 )2, -NR bb P(=0)(R aa ) 2 , -NR bb P(=0)(OR cc ) 2 , -NR bb P(=0)(N(R bb ) 2 )2, -P(R CC )2, -P(OR cc ) 2 , -P(R CC ) 3 + X " ,

-P(OR cc ) + X " , -P(R CC ) 4 , -P(OR cc ) 4 , -OP(R cc ) 2 , -OP(R cc ) + X " , -OP(OR cc ) 2 , -OP(OR cc ) + X " , -OP(R cc ) 4 , -OP(OR cc ) 4 , -B(R aa ) 2 , -B(OR cc ) 2 , -BR aa (OR cc ), Ci-10 alkyl, Ci-10 perhaloalkyl, C2-10 alkenyl, C2-10 alkynyl, heteroCi-10 alkyl, heteroC2-io alkenyl, heteroC2-io alkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups; wherein X ~ is a counterion;

or two geminal hydrogens on a carbon atom are replaced with the group =0, =S, =NN(R bb ) 2 , =NNR bb C(=0)R aa , =NNR bb C(=0)OR aa , =NNR bb S(=0) 2 R aa , =NR bb , or =NOR cc ; each instance of is, independently, selected from Ci-10 alkyl, Ci-10 perhaloalkyl, C2-10 alkenyl, C2-10 alkynyl, heteroCi-10 alkyl, heteroC2-ioalkenyl, heteroC2-ioalkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, or two groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups;

each instance of R bb is, independently, selected from hydrogen, -OH, -OR aa ,

-N(R CC ) 2 , -CN, -C(=0)R aa , -C(=0)N(R cc ) 2 , -CC R^, -SC R^, -C(=NR cc )OR aa ,

-C(=NR CC )N(R CC ) 2 , -S0 2 N(R cc ) 2 , -S0 2 R cc , -S0 2 OR cc , -SOR^, -C(=S)N(R CC ) 2 , -C(=0)SR cc , -C(=S)SR CC , -P(=0)(R aa ) 2 , -P(=0)(OR cc ) 2 , -P(=0)(N(R cc ) 2 ) 2 , CMO alkyl, Ci-io perhaloalkyl, C 2 -io alkenyl, C 2 -io alkynyl, heteroCi-ioalkyl, heteroC 2 -ioalkenyl, heteroC 2 -ioalkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, or two R bb groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups; wherein X ~ is a counterion;

each instance of R cc is, independently, selected from hydrogen, Ci-10 alkyl, Ci-10 perhaloalkyl, C 2 -io alkenyl, C 2 -io alkynyl, heteroCi-10 alkyl, heteroC 2 -io alkenyl, heteroC 2 -io alkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl, or two R cc groups are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups;

each instance of R dd is, independently, selected from halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N3, -S0 2 H, -SO3H, -OH, -OR ee , -ON(R ff ) 2 , -N(R ff ) 2 , -N(R ff ) 3 + X _ , -N(OR ee )R ff , -SH, -SR ee , -SSR ee , -C(=0)R ee , -C0 2 H, -C0 2 R ee , -OC(=0)R ee , -OC0 2 R ee , -C(=0)N(R ff ) 2 ,

-OC(=0)N(R ff ) 2 , -NR ff C(=0)R ee , -NR ff C0 2 R ee , -NR ff C(=0)N(R ff ) 2 , -C(=NR ff )OR ee , -OC(=NR ff )R ee , -OC(=NR ff )OR ee , -C(=NR ff )N(R ff ) 2 , -OC(=NR ff )N(R ff ) 2 ,

-NR ff C(=NR ff )N(R ff ) 2 , -NR ff S0 2 R ee , -S0 2 N(R ff ) 2 , -S0 2 R ee , -S0 2 OR ee , -OS0 2 R ee ,

-S(=0)R ee , -Si(R ee ) 3 , -OSi(R ee ) 3 , -C(=S)N(R ff ) 2 , -C(=0)SR ee , -C(=S)SR ee , -SC(=S)SR ee , -P(=0)(OR ee ) 2 , -P(=0)(R ee ) 2 , -OP(=0)(R ee ) 2 , -OP(=0)(OR ee ) 2 , Ci_ 6 alkyl, Ci_ 6 perhaloalkyl, C 2 -6 alkenyl, C 2 -6 alkynyl, heteroCi-6alkyl, heteroC 2 -6alkenyl, heteroC 2 -6alkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, 3-10 membered heterocyclyl, C6-10 aryl, 5-10 membered heteroaryl, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R gg groups, or two geminal R substituents can be joined to form =0 or =S; wherein X ~ is a counterion;

each instance of R ee is, independently, selected from C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 perhaloalkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl, heteroCi-6 alkyl, heteroC2-6alkenyl, heteroC 2 -6 alkynyl, C3-10

carbocyclyl, C 6 -io aryl, 3-10 membered heterocyclyl, and 3-10 membered heteroaryl, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R gg groups;

each instance of R ff is, independently, selected from hydrogen, C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 perhaloalkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl, heteroCi-6alkyl, heteroC 2 -6alkenyl, heteroC 2 -6alkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, 3-10 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -io aryl and 5-10 membered heteroaryl, or two R ff groups are joined to form a 3-10 membered heterocyclyl or 5-10 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl,

heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R gg groups; and

each instance of R gg is, independently, halogen, -CN, -NO2, -N3, -SO2H, -SO3H, -OH, -OCi-6 alkyl, -ON(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , -N(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , -N(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 3 + X-, -NH(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 + X _ , -NH 2 (Ci- 6 alkyl) + X " , -NH 3 + X ~ , -N(0O- 6 alkyl)(Ci- 6 alkyl), -N(OH)(Ci- 6 alkyl), -NH(OH), -SH, -SCi-6 alkyl, -SS(Ci_ 6 alkyl), -C(=0)(Ci- 6 alkyl), -CO2H, -C0 2 (Ci- 6 alkyl), -OC(=0)(Ci- 6 alkyl), -OC0 2 (Ci- 6 alkyl), -C(=0)NH 2 , -C(=0)N(O- 6 alkyl) 2 , -OC(=0)NH(Ci-6 alkyl), -NHC(=0)( Ci_ 6 alkyl), -N(Ci_ 6 alkyl)C(=0)( Ci_ 6 alkyl),

-NHC0 2 (Ci-6 alkyl), -NHC(=0)N(Ci- 6 alkyl) 2 , -NHC(=0)NH(O- 6 alkyl), -NHC(=0)NH 2 , -C(=NH)0(Ci-6 alkyl), -OC(=NH)(Ci- 6 alkyl), -OC(=NH)OCi- 6 alkyl, -C(=NH)N(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , -C(=NH)NH(Ci_ 6 alkyl), -C(=NH)NH 2 , -OC(=NH)N(Ci- 6 alkyl) 2 , -OC(NH)NH(Ci- 6 alkyl), -OC(NH)NH 2 , -NHC(NH)N(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , -NHC(=NH)NH 2 , -NHS0 2 (Ci- 6 alkyl), -S0 2 N(O-6 alkyl) 2 , -S0 2 NH(Ci- 6 alkyl), -SO2NH2, -SO2C1-6 alkyl, -SO2OC1-6 alkyl, -OSO2C1-6 alkyl, -SOCi-6 alkyl, -Si(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 3 , -OSi(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 3 -C(=S)N(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , C(=S)NH(Ci-6 alkyl), C(=S)NH 2 , -C(=0)S(Ci_ 6 alkyl), -C(=S)SCi_ 6 alkyl, -SC(=S)SCi_ 6 alkyl, -P(=0)(OCi-6 alkyl) 2 , -P(=0)(Ci_ 6 alkyl) 2 , -OP(=0)(Ci- 6 alkyl) 2 , -OP(=0)(OCi- 6 alkyl) 2 , Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 perhaloalkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 alkynyl, heteroCi-6alkyl, heteroC 2 - 6 alkenyl, heteroC 2 -6alkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, C 6 -io aryl, 3-10 membered heterocyclyl, 5-10 membered heteroaryl; or two geminal R gg substituents can be joined to form =0 or =S;

wherein X ~ is a counterion. [0044] A "counterion" or "anionic counterion" is a negatively charged group associated with a positively charged group in order to maintain electronic neutrality. An anionic counterion may be monovalent (i.e., including one formal negative charge). An anionic counterion may also be multivalent (i.e., including more than one formal negative charge), such as divalent or trivalent. Exemplary counterions include halide ions (e.g. , F , CI " , Br " , Γ), NO3 , C10 4 " , OH " , H 2 P0 4 , HC03 ~ HS0 4 , sulfonate ions (e.g. , methansulfonate, trifluoromethanesulfonate, p- toluenesulfonate, benzenesulfonate, 10-camphor sulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate, naphthalene- 1 -sulfonic acid-5-sulfonate, ethan-1 -sulfonic acid-2-sulfonate, and the like), carboxylate ions (e.g. , acetate, propanoate, benzoate, glycerate, lactate, tartrate, glycolate, gluconate, and the like), BF 4 ~ , PF 4 " , PF 6 , AsF 6 " , SbF 6 , B[3,5-(CF3) 2 C 6 H3] 4 ] " , B(C 6 F5) 4 " , BPh 4 " , Al(OC(CF 3 )3)4 " , and carborane anions (e.g. , CB 11H12 or (HCB iiMe 5 Br 6 ) ).

Exemplary counterions which may be multivalent include C03 2- , HP0 4 2_ , P0 4 3_ , B 4 07 2_ , S0 4 2_ , S 2 03 2_ , carboxylate anions (e.g., tartrate, citrate, fumarate, maleate, malate, malonate, gluconate, succinate, glutarate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelate, sebacate, salicylate, phthalates, aspartate, glutamate, and the like), and carboranes.

[0045] "Halo" or "halogen" refers to fluorine (fluoro, -F), chlorine (chloro, -CI), bromine (bromo, -Br), or iodine (iodo, -I).

[0046] "Acyl" refers to a moiety selected from the group consisting of -C(=0)R aa , -CHO, -

C(=0)NR bb S0 2 R aa , -C(=S)N(R bb ) 2 , -C(=0)SR aa , or -C(=S)SR aa , wherein R aa and R bb are as defined herein.

[0047] Nitrogen atoms can be substituted or unsubstituted as valency permits, and include primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary nitrogen atoms. Exemplary nitrogen atom substituents include, but are not limited to, hydrogen, -OH, -OR 2121 , -N(R CC ) 2 , -CN,

-C(=0)R aa , -C(=0)N(R cc ) 2 , -C0 2 R aa , -S0 2 R aa , -C(=NR bb )R aa , -C(=NR cc )OR aa ,

-C(=NR CC )N(R CC ) 2 , -S0 2 N(R cc ) 2 , -S0 2 R cc , -S0 2 OR cc , -SOR^, -C(=S)N(R CC ) 2 , -C(=0)SR cc , -C(=S)SR CC , -P(=0)(OR cc ) 2 , -P(=0)(R aa ) 2 , -P(=0)(N(R cc ) 2 ) 2 , Ci-10 alkyl, Ci-10 perhaloalkyl, C2-10 alkenyl, C2-10 alkynyl, heteroCi-ioalkyl, heteroC 2 -ioalkenyl, heteroC 2 -ioalkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -i4 aryl, and 5- 14 membered heteroaryl, or two R cc groups attached to an N atom are joined to form a 3-14 membered heterocyclyl or 5-14 membered heteroaryl ring, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups, and wherein R aa , R bb , R cc and R dd are as defined above. [0048] In certain embodiments, the substituent present on the nitrogen atom is an nitrogen protecting group (also referred to herein as an "amino protecting group"). Nitrogen protecting groups include, but are not limited to, -OH, -OR aa , -N(R CC ) 2 , -C^C R^, -C(=0)N(R cc ) 2 , -C0 2 R aa , -S0 2 R aa , -C(=NR cc )R aa , -C(=NR cc )OR aa , -C(=NR CC )N(R CC ) 2 , -S0 2 N(R cc ) 2 , -S0 2 R cc , -S0 2 OR cc , -SOR aa , -C(=S)N(R CC ) 2 , -C(=0)SR cc , -C(=S)SR CC , Ci-io alkyl (e.g., aralkyl, heteroaralkyl), C2-10 alkenyl, C2-10 alkynyl, heteroCi-10 alkyl, heteroC 2 -io alkenyl, heteroC 2 -io alkynyl, C3-10 carbocyclyl, 3-14 membered heterocyclyl, C 6 -i4 aryl, and 5-14 membered heteroaryl groups, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl,

heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, carbocyclyl, heterocyclyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl is independently substituted with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 R dd groups, and wherein R aa , R bb , R cc and R dd are as defined herein. Nitrogen protecting groups are well known in the art and include those described in detail in Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, 3 rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1999, incorporated herein by reference.

[0049] For example, nitrogen protecting groups such as amide groups (e.g., -C(=0)R aa ) include, but are not limited to, formamide, acetamide, chloroacetamide, trichloroacetamide, trifluoroacetamide, phenylacetamide, 3-phenylpropanamide, picolinamide, 3- pyridylcarboxamide, N-benzoylphenylalanyl derivative, benzamide, p-phenylbenzamide, o- nitophenylacetamide, o-nitrophenoxyacetamide, acetoacetamide, (Ν'- dithiobenzyloxyacylamino)acetamide, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propanamide, 3-(o- nitrophenyl)propanamide, 2-methyl-2-(o-nitrophenoxy)propanamide, 2-methyl-2-(o- phenylazophenoxy)propanamide, 4-chlorobutanamide, 3-methyl-3-nitrobutanamide, o- nitrocinnamide, N-acetylmethionine derivative, o-nitrobenzamide and o- (benzoyloxymethyl)benzamide.

[0050] Nitrogen protecting groups such as carbamate groups (e.g., -C(=0)OR aa ) include, but are not limited to, methyl carbamate, ethyl carbamate, 9-fluorenylmethyl carbamate (Fmoc), 9-(2-sulfo)fluorenylmethyl carbamate, 9-(2,7-dibromo)fluoroenylmethyl carbamate, 2,7-di-t- butyl-[9-(10,10-dioxo-10,10,10,10-tetrahydrothioxanthyl)] methyl carbamate (DBD-Tmoc), 4-methoxyphenacyl carbamate (Phenoc), 2,2,2-trichloroethyl carbamate (Troc), 2- trimethylsilylethyl carbamate (Teoc), 2-phenylethyl carbamate (hZ), l-(l-adamantyl)-l- methylethyl carbamate (Adpoc), l,l-dimethyl-2-haloethyl carbamate, l,l-dimethyl-2,2- dibromoethyl carbamate (DB-t-BOC), l,l-dimethyl-2,2,2-trichloroethyl carbamate

(TCBOC), 1 -methyl- l-(4-biphenylyl)ethyl carbamate (Bpoc), l-(3,5-di-t-butylphenyl)-l- methylethyl carbamate (t-Bumeoc), 2-(2'- and 4'-pyridyl)ethyl carbamate (Pyoc), 2-(N,N- dicyclohexylcarboxamido)ethyl carbamate, t-butyl carbamate (BOC or Boc), 1-adamantyl carbamate (Adoc), vinyl carbamate (Voc), allyl carbamate (Alloc), 1-isopropylallyl carbamate (Ipaoc), cinnamyl carbamate (Coc), 4-nitrocinnamyl carbamate (Noc), 8-quinolyl carbamate, N-hydroxypiperidinyl carbamate, alkyldithio carbamate, benzyl carbamate (Cbz), p-methoxybenzyl carbamate (Moz), p-nitobenzyl carbamate, p-bromobenzyl carbamate, p- chlorobenzyl carbamate, 2,4-dichlorobenzyl carbamate, 4-methylsulfinylbenzyl carbamate (Msz), 9-anthrylmethyl carbamate, diphenylmethyl carbamate, 2-methylthioethyl carbamate, 2-methylsulfonylethyl carbamate, 2-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethyl carbamate, [2-(l,3- dithianyl)] methyl carbamate (Dmoc), 4-methylthiophenyl carbamate (Mtpc), 2,4- dimethylthiophenyl carbamate (Bmpc), 2-phosphonioethyl carbamate (Peoc), 2- triphenylphosphonioisopropyl carbamate (Ppoc), l,l-dimethyl-2-cyanoethyl carbamate, m- chloro-p-acyloxybenzyl carbamate, p-(dihydroxyboryl)benzyl carbamate, 5- benzisoxazolylmethyl carbamate, 2-(trifluoromethyl)-6-chromonylmethyl carbamate (Tcroc), m-nitrophenyl carbamate, 3,5-dimethoxybenzyl carbamate, o-nitrobenzyl carbamate, 3,4- dimethoxy-6-nitrobenzyl carbamate, phenyl(o-nitrophenyl)methyl carbamate, t-amyl carbamate, S-benzyl thiocarbamate, p-cyanobenzyl carbamate, cyclobutyl carbamate, cyclohexyl carbamate, cyclopentyl carbamate, cyclopropylmethyl carbamate, p- decyloxybenzyl carbamate, 2,2-dimethoxyacylvinyl carbamate, o-(N,N- dimethylcarboxamido)benzyl carbamate, l,l-dimethyl-3-(N,N-dimethylcarboxamido)propyl carbamate, 1,1-dimethylpropynyl carbamate, di(2-pyridyl)methyl carbamate, 2-furanylmethyl carbamate, 2-iodoethyl carbamate, isoborynl carbamate, isobutyl carbamate, isonicotinyl carbamate, p-(p'-methoxyphenylazo)benzyl carbamate, 1-methylcyclobutyl carbamate, 1- methylcyclohexyl carbamate, 1 -methyl- 1 -cyclopropylmethyl carbamate, 1 -methyl- 1 -(3,5- dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl carbamate, 1 -methyl- l-(p-phenylazophenyl)ethyl carbamate, 1- methyl-l-phenylethyl carbamate, 1 -methyl- l-(4-pyridyl)ethyl carbamate, phenyl carbamate, p-(phenylazo)benzyl carbamate, 2,4,6-tri-t-butylphenyl carbamate, 4- (trimethylammonium)benzyl carbamate, and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl carbamate.

[0051] Nitrogen protecting groups such as sulfonamide groups (e.g., -S(=0) 2 R aa ) include, but are not limited to, p-toluenesulfonamide (Ts), benzenesulfonamide, 2,3,6-trimethyl-4- methoxybenzenesulfonamide (Mtr), 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzenesulfonamide (Mtb), 2,6- dimethyl-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide (Pme), 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-4- methoxybenzenesulfonamide (Mte), 4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide (Mbs), 2,4,6- trimethylbenzenesulfonamide (Mts), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (iMds), 2,2,5,7, 8-pentamethylchroman-6-sulfonamide (Pmc), methanesulfonamide (Ms), β- trimethylsilylethanesulfonamide (SES), 9-anthracenesulfonamide, 4-(4',8'- dimethoxynaphthylmethyl)benzenesulfonamide (DNMB S ), benzylsulfonamide,

trifluoromethylsulfonamide, and phenacylsulfonamide.

Other nitrogen protecting groups include, but are not limited to, phenothiazinyl-(10)-acyl derivative, N'-p-toluenesulfonylaminoacyl derivative, N'-phenylaminothioacyl derivative, N- benzoylphenylalanyl derivative, N-acetylmethionine derivative, 4,5-diphenyl-3-oxazolin-2- one, N-phthalimide, N-dithiasuccinimide (Dts), N-2,3-diphenylmaleimide, N-2,5- dimethylpyrrole, N-l,l,4,4-tetramethyldisilylazacyclopentane adduct (STABASE), 5- substituted l,3-dimethyl-l,3,5-triazacyclohexan-2-one, 5-substituted l,3-dibenzyl-l,3,5- triazacyclohexan-2-one, 1 -substituted 3,5-dinitro-4-pyridone, N-methylamine, N-allylamine, N-[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methylamine (SEM), N-3-acetoxypropylamine, N-(l-isopropyl- 4-nitro-2-oxo-3-pyroolin-3-yl)amine, quaternary ammonium salts, N-benzylamine, N-di(4- methoxyphenyl)methylamine, N-5-dibenzosuberylamine, N-triphenylmethylamine (Tr), N- [(4-methoxyphenyl)diphenylmethyl]amine (MMTr), N-9-phenylfluorenylamine (PhF), N- 2,7-dichloro-9-fluorenylmethyleneamine, N-ferrocenylmethylamino (Fcm), N-2- picolylamino N' -oxide, N-l,l-dimethylthiomethyleneamine, N-benzylideneamine, N-p- methoxybenzylideneamine, N-diphenylmethyleneamine, N-[(2- pyridyl)mesityl]methyleneamine, N-(N' ,N'-dimethylaminomethylene)amine, Ν,Ν'- isopropylidenediamine, N-p-nitrobenzylideneamine, N-salicylideneamine, N-5- chlorosalicylideneamine, N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)phenylmethyleneamine, N- cyclohexylideneamine, N-(5,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-l-cyclohexenyl)amine, N-borane derivative, N-diphenylborinic acid derivative, N-[phenyl(pentaacylchromium- or tungsten)acyl] amine, N-copper chelate, N-zinc chelate, N-nitroamine, N-nitrosoamine, amine N-oxide,

diphenylphosphinamide (Dpp), dimethylthiophosphinamide (Mpt),

diphenylthiophosphinamide (Ppt), dialkyl phosphoramidates, dibenzyl phosphoramidate, diphenyl phosphoramidate, benzenesulfenamide, o-nitrobenzenesulfenamide (Nps), 2,4- dinitrobenzenesulfenamide, pentachlorobenzenesulfenamide, 2-nitro-4- methoxybenzenesulfenamide, triphenylmethylsulfenamide, and 3-nitropyridinesulfenamide (Npys).

[0052] As used herein, a "leaving group" (LG) is an art-understood term referring to a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage, wherein the molecular fragment is an anion or neutral molecule. As used herein, a leaving group can be an atom or a group capable of being displaced by a nucleophile. See, for example, Smith, March Advanced Organic Chemistry 6th ed. (501-502). Exemplary leaving groups include, but are not limited to, halo (e.g. , chloro, bromo, iodo) and activated substituted hydroxyl groups (e.g. , -OC(=0)SR aa , -OC(=0)R aa , -OCOiR^, -OC(=0)N(R bb ) 2 , -OC(=NR bb )R aa , - OC(=NR bb )OR aa , -OC(=NR bb )N(R bb ) 2 , -OS(=0)R aa , -OSChR^, -OP(R cc ) 2 , -OP(R cc ) 3 , - ΟΡ(=0)^, -OP(=0)(R aa ) 2 , -OP(=0)(OR cc ) 2 , -OP(=0) 2 N(R bb ) 2 , and -OP(=0)(NR bb ) 2 , wherein R^, R bb , and R cc are as defined herein).

[0053] A "hydrocarbon chain" refers to a substituted or unsubstituted divalent alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl group. A hydrocarbon chain includes (1) one or more chains of carbon atoms immediately between the two radicals of the hydrocarbon chain; (2) optionally one or more hydrogen atoms on the chain(s) of carbon atoms; and (3) optionally one or more substituents ("non-chain substituents," which are not hydrogen) on the chain(s) of carbon atoms. A chain of carbon atoms consists of consecutively connected carbon atoms ("chain atoms") and does not include hydrogen atoms or heteroatoms. However, a non-chain substituent of a hydrocarbon chain may include any atoms, including hydrogen atoms, carbon atoms, and heteroatoms. For example, hydrocarbon chain -C A H(C B H 2 C C H 3 )- includes one chain atom C A , one hydrogen atom on C A , and non-chain substituent -(C B H 2 C C H 3 ). The term "C x hydrocarbon chain," wherein x is a positive integer, refers to a hydrocarbon chain that includes x number of chain atom(s) between the two radicals of the hydrocarbon chain. If there is more than one possible value of x, the smallest possible value of x is used for the definition of the hydrocarbon chain. For example, -CH(C 2 Hs)- is a Ci hydrocarbon chain,

and is a C 3 hydrocarbon chain. When a range of values is used, the meaning of the range is as described herein. For example, a C3-10 hydrocarbon chain refers to a hydrocarbon chain where the number of chain atoms of the shortest chain of carbon atoms immediately between the two radicals of the hydrocarbon chain is 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10. A hydrocarbon chain may be saturated (e.g. , -(CH 2 ) 4 -). A hydrocarbon chain may also be unsaturated and include one or more C=C and/or C≡C bonds anywhere in the hydrocarbon chain. For instance, -CH=CH-(CH 2 ) 2 - -CH 2 -C≡C-CH 2 - and -C≡C-CH=CH- are all examples of a unsubstituted and unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. In certain embodiments, the hydrocarbon chain is unsubstituted (e.g. , -C=C- or -(CH 2 ) 4 -). In certain embodiments, the hydrocarbon chain is substituted (e.g. , -CH(C 2 Hs)- and -CF2-). Any two substituents on the hydrocarbon chain may be joined to form an optionally substituted carbocyclyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl ring.

all examples of a hydrocarbon chain. In contrast, in certain embodiments, are not within the scope of the hydrocarbon chains described herein. When a chain atom of a C x hydrocarbon chain is replaced with a heteroatom, the resulting group is referred to as a C x hydrocarbon chain wherein a chain atom is replaced with a heteroatom, as opposed to a C x-1 hydrocarbon chain. For example, ^ is a C 3 hydrocarbon chain wherein one chain atom is replaced with an oxygen atom.

[0054] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" refers to those salts which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of humans and lower animals without undue toxicity, irritation, allergic response, and the like, and are commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are well known in the art. For example, Berge et al., describe pharmaceutically acceptable salts in detail in J. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1977, 66, 1-19, incorporated herein by reference.

Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds described herein include those derived from suitable inorganic and organic acids and bases. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable, nontoxic acid addition salts are salts of an amino group formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid or with organic acids such as acetic acid, oxalic acid, maleic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, succinic acid, or malonic acid or by using other methods known in the art such as ion exchange. Other pharmaceutically acceptable salts include adipate, alginate, ascorbate, aspartate, benzenesulfonate, benzoate, bisulfate, borate, butyrate, camphorate,

camphorsulfonate, citrate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate,

ethanesulfonate, formate, fumarate, glucoheptonate, glycerophosphate, gluconate,

hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxy-ethanesulfonate, lactobionate, lactate, laurate, lauryl sulfate, malate, maleate, malonate, methanesulfonate, 2- naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, oleate, oxalate, palmitate, pamoate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, stearate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, /?-toluenesulfonate, undecanoate, valerate salts, and the like. Salts derived from appropriate bases include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, ammonium and N + (Ci^ alkyl) 4 " salts. Representative alkali or alkaline earth metal salts include sodium, lithium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and the like. Further pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, when appropriate, nontoxic ammonium, quaternary ammonium, and amine cations formed using counterions such as halide, hydroxide, carboxylate, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, lower alkyl sulfonate, and aryl sulfonate.

[0055] The term "solvate" refers to forms of the compound, or a salt thereof, that are associated with a solvent, usually by a solvolysis reaction. This physical association may include hydrogen bonding. Conventional solvents include water, methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, DMSO, THF, diethyl ether, and the like. The compounds described herein may be prepared, e.g. , in crystalline form, and may be solvated. Suitable solvates include

pharmaceutically acceptable solvates and further include both stoichiometric solvates and non-stoichiometric solvates. In certain instances, the solvate will be capable of isolation, for example, when one or more solvent molecules are incorporated in the crystal lattice of a crystalline solid. "Solvate" encompasses both solution-phase and isolatable solvates.

Representative solvates include hydrates, ethanolates, and methanolates.

[0056] The term "hydrate" refers to a compound that is associated with water. Typically, the number of the water molecules contained in a hydrate of a compound is in a definite ratio to the number of the compound molecules in the hydrate. Therefore, a hydrate of a compound may be represented, for example, by the general formula R x H 2 0, wherein R is the compound, and x is a number greater than 0. A given compound may form more than one type of hydrate, including, e.g. , monohydrates (x is 1), lower hydrates (x is a number greater than 0 and smaller than 1 , e.g. , hemihydrates (R-0.5 H 2 0)), and polyhydrates (x is a number greater than 1, e.g. , dihydrates (R-2 H 2 0) and hexahydrates (R-6 H 2 0)).

[0057] The term "tautomers" or "tautomeric" refers to two or more interconvertible compounds resulting from at least one formal migration of a hydrogen atom and at least one change in valency (e.g. , a single bond to a double bond, a triple bond to a single bond, or vice versa). The exact ratio of the tautomers depends on several factors, including temperature, solvent, and pH. Tautomerizations (i.e. , the reaction providing a tautomeric pair) may catalyzed by acid or base. Exemplary tautomerizations include keto-to-enol, amide-to-imide, lactam-to-lactim, enamine-to-imine, and enamine-to-(a different enamine) tautomerizations. [0058] It is also to be understood that compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the nature or sequence of bonding of their atoms or the arrangement of their atoms in space are termed "isomers". Isomers that differ in the arrangement of their atoms in space are termed "stereoisomers".

[0059] Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another are termed "diastereomers" and those that are non-superimpo sable mirror images of each other are termed "enantiomers". When a compound has an asymmetric center, for example, it is bonded to four different groups, a pair of enantiomers is possible. An enantiomer can be characterized by the absolute configuration of its asymmetric center and is described by the R- and S-sequencing rules of Cahn and Prelog, or by the manner in which the molecule rotates the plane of polarized light and designated as dextrorotatory or levorotatory (i.e., as (+) or (-)-isomers respectively). A chiral compound can exist as either individual enantiomer or as a mixture thereof. A mixture containing equal proportions of the enantiomers is called a "racemic mixture".

[0060] The term "polymorphs" refers to a crystalline form of a compound (or a salt, hydrate, or solvate thereof). All polymorphs have the same elemental composition. Different crystalline forms usually have different X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectra, melting points, density, hardness, crystal shape, optical and electrical properties, stability, and solubility. Recrystallization solvent, rate of crystallization, storage temperature, and other factors may cause one crystal form to dominate. Various polymorphs of a compound can be prepared by crystallization under different conditions.

[0061] The term "prodrugs" refers to compounds that have cleavable groups and become by solvolysis or under physiological conditions the compounds described herein, which are pharmaceutically active in vivo. Such examples include, but are not limited to, choline ester derivatives and the like, N-alkylmorpholine esters and the like. Other derivatives of the compounds described herein have activity in both their acid and acid derivative forms, but in the acid sensitive form often offer advantages of solubility, tissue compatibility, or delayed release in the mammalian organism (see, Bundgard, H., Design of Prodrugs, pp. 7-9, 21-24, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1985). Prodrugs include acid derivatives well known to practitioners of the art, such as, for example, esters prepared by reaction of the parent acid with a suitable alcohol, or amides prepared by reaction of the parent acid compound with a substituted or unsubstituted amine, or acid anhydrides, or mixed anhydrides. Simple aliphatic or aromatic esters, amides, and anhydrides derived from acidic groups pendant on the compounds described herein are particular prodrugs. In some cases it is desirable to prepare double ester type prodrugs such as (acyloxy)alkyl esters or ((alkoxycarbonyl)oxy)alkylesters. Ci-Cs alkyl, d-Cs alkenyl, C 2 -C 8 alkynyl, aryl, C7-C12 substituted aryl, and C7-C12 arylalkyl esters of the compounds described herein may be preferred.

[0062] The term "small molecule" refers to molecules, whether naturally-occurring or artificially created (e.g. , via chemical synthesis) that have a relatively low molecular weight. Typically, a small molecule is an organic compound (i.e. , it contains carbon). The small molecule may contain multiple carbon-carbon bonds, stereocenters, and other functional groups (e.g. , amines, hydroxyl, carbonyls, and heterocyclic rings, etc.). In certain

embodiments, the molecular weight of a small molecule is not more than about 1,000 g/mol, not more than about 900 g/mol, not more than about 800 g/mol, not more than about 700 g/mol, not more than about 600 g/mol, not more than about 500 g/mol, not more than about 400 g/mol, not more than about 300 g/mol, not more than about 200 g/mol, or not more than about 100 g/mol. In certain embodiments, the molecular weight of a small molecule is at least about 100 g/mol, at least about 200 g/mol, at least about 300 g/mol, at least about 400 g/mol, at least about 500 g/mol, at least about 600 g/mol, at least about 700 g/mol, at least about 800 g/mol, or at least about 900 g/mol, or at least about 1,000 g/mol. Combinations of the above ranges (e.g. , at least about 200 g/mol and not more than about 500 g/mol) are also possible. In certain embodiments, the small molecule is a therapeutically active agent such as a drug (e.g. , a molecule approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as provided in the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.)). The small molecule may also be complexed with one or more metal atoms and/or metal ions. In this instance, the small molecule is also referred to as a "small organometallic molecule." Preferred small molecules are biologically active in that they produce a biological effect in animals, preferably mammals, more preferably humans. Small molecules include, but are not limited to, radionuclides and imaging agents. In certain embodiments, the small molecule is a drug. Preferably, though not necessarily, the drug is one that has already been deemed safe and effective for use in humans or animals by the appropriate governmental agency or regulatory body. For example, drugs approved for human use are listed by the FDA under 21 C.F.R. §§ 330.5, 331 through 361, and 440 through 460, incorporated herein by reference; drugs for veterinary use are listed by the FDA under 21 C.F.R. §§ 500 through 589, incorporated herein by reference. All listed drugs are considered acceptable for use in accordance with the present invention. [0063] The term "small molecule drug" refers to a small molecule that has been approved by a governmental agency (e.g., FDA) for administering to a subject (e.g., human or non-human animal), or a radical of such a small molecule.

[0064] As used herein the term "inhibit" or "inhibition" in the context of enzymes, for example, in the context of CREB, refers to a reduction in the binding of CREB to CBP. In some embodiments, the term refers to a reduction of the level of binding of CREB to CBP, e.g. , to a level that is statistically significantly lower than an initial level binding of CREB to CBP, which may, for example, be a baseline level of binding of CREB to CBP. In some embodiments, the term refers to a reduction of the level of binding of CREB to CBP, to a level that is less than 75%, less than 50%, less than 40%, less than 30%, less than 25%, less than 20%, less than 10%, less than 9%, less than 8%, less than 7%, less than 6%, less than 5%, less than 4%, less than 3%, less than 2%, less than 1%, less than 0.5%, less than 0.1%, less than 0.01%, less than 0.001%, or less than 0.0001% of an initial level, which may, for example, be a baseline level of binding of CREB to CBP.

[0065] When a compound, pharmaceutical composition, method, use, or kit is referred to as "selectively," "specifically," or "competitively" inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP, the compound, pharmaceutical composition, method, use, or kit inhibits the binding of to a greater extent (e.g. , not less than 2-fold, not less than 5-fold, not less than 10-fold, not less than 30-fold, not less than 100-fold, not less than 1,000-fold, or not less than 10,000-fold; and/or: not more than 2-fold, not more than 5-fold, not more than 10-fold, not more than 30- fold, not more than 100-fold, not more than 1,000-fold, or not more than 10,000-fold) than inhibiting the binding of CREB to a different protein.

[0066] The terms "composition" and "formulation" are used interchangeably.

[0067] A "subject" to which administration is contemplated refers to a human (i.e. , male or female of any age group, e.g. , pediatric subject (e.g. , infant, child, or adolescent) or adult subject (e.g. , young adult, middle-aged adult, or senior adult)) or non-human animal. In certain embodiments, the non-human animal is a mammal (e.g. , primate (e.g. , cynomolgus monkey or rhesus monkey), commercially relevant mammal (e.g. , cattle, pig, horse, sheep, goat, cat, or dog), or bird (e.g. , commercially relevant bird, such as chicken, duck, goose, or turkey)). In certain embodiments, the non-human animal is a fish, reptile, or amphibian. The non-human animal may be a male or female at any stage of development. The non-human animal may be a transgenic animal or genetically engineered animal. A "patient" refers to a human subject in need of treatment of a disease. The subject may also be a plant. In certain embodiments, the plant is a land plant. In certain embodiments, the plant is a non-vascular land plant. In certain embodiments, the plant is a vascular land plant. In certain embodiments, the plant is a seed plant. In certain embodiments, the plant is a cultivated plant. In certain embodiments, the plant is a dicot. In certain embodiments, the plant is a monocot. In certain embodiments, the plant is a flowering plant. In some embodiments, the plant is a cereal plant, e.g. , maize, corn, wheat, rice, oat, barley, rye, or millet. In some embodiments, the plant is a legume, e.g. , a bean plant, e.g. , soybean plant. In some embodiments, the plant is a tree or shrub.

[0068] The term "biological sample" refers to any sample including tissue samples (such as tissue sections and needle biopsies of a tissue); cell samples (e.g. , cytological smears (such as Pap or blood smears) or samples of cells obtained by microdissection); samples of whole organisms (such as samples of yeasts or bacteria); or cell fractions, fragments or organelles (such as obtained by lysing cells and separating the components thereof by centrifugation or otherwise). Other examples of biological samples include blood, serum, urine, semen, fecal matter, cerebrospinal fluid, interstitial fluid, mucous, tears, sweat, pus, biopsied tissue (e.g. , obtained by a surgical biopsy or needle biopsy), nipple aspirates, milk, vaginal fluid, saliva, swabs (such as buccal swabs), or any material containing biomolecules that is derived from a first biological sample.

[0069] The terms "administer," "administering," or "administration" refers to implanting, absorbing, ingesting, injecting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing a compound described herein, or a composition thereof, in or on a subject.

[0070] The terms "treatment," "treat," and "treating" refer to reversing, alleviating, delaying the onset of, or inhibiting the progress of a disease described herein. In some embodiments, treatment may be administered after one or more signs or symptoms of the disease have developed or have been observed. In other embodiments, treatment may be administered in the absence of signs or symptoms of the disease. For example, treatment may be administered to a susceptible subject prior to the onset of symptoms (e.g. , in light of a history of symptoms and/or in light of exposure to a pathogen). Treatment may also be continued after symptoms have resolved, for example, to delay or prevent recurrence.

[0071] The term "prevent," "preventing," or "prevention" refers to a prophylactic treatment of a subject who is not and was not with a disease but is at risk of developing the disease or who was with a disease, is not with the disease, but is at risk of regression of the disease. In certain embodiments, the subject is at a higher risk of developing the disease or at a higher risk of regression of the disease than an average healthy member of a population.

[0072] The terms "condition," "disease," and "disorder" are used interchangeably.

[0073] An "effective amount" of a compound described herein refers to an amount sufficient to elicit the desired biological response. An effective amount of a compound described herein may vary depending on such factors as the desired biological endpoint, the pharmacokinetics of the compound, the condition being treated, the mode of administration, and the age and health of the subject. In certain embodiments, an effective amount is a therapeutically effective amount. In certain embodiments, an effective amount is a prophylactic treatment. In certain embodiments, an effective amount is the amount of a compound described herein in a single dose. In certain embodiments, an effective amount is the combined amounts of a compound described herein in multiple doses.

[0074] A "therapeutically effective amount" of a compound described herein is an amount sufficient to provide a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of a condition or to delay or minimize one or more symptoms associated with the condition. A therapeutically effective amount of a compound means an amount of therapeutic agent, alone or in combination with other therapies, which provides a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of the condition. The term "therapeutically effective amount" can encompass an amount that improves overall therapy, reduces or avoids symptoms, signs, or causes of the condition, and/or enhances the therapeutic efficacy of another therapeutic agent.

[0075] A "prophylactically effective amount" of a compound described herein is an amount effective to prevent a condition, or one or more symptoms associated with the condition or prevent its recurrence. A prophylactically effective amount of a compound means an amount of a therapeutic agent, alone or in combination with other agents, which provides a prophylactic benefit in the prevention of the condition. The term "prophylactically effective amount" can encompass an amount that improves overall prophylaxis or enhances the prophylactic efficacy of another prophylactic agent.

[0076] The term "cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein" or "CREB" refers to a nuclear transcription factor activated by phosphorylation at Serl33 by multiple kinases. Once phosphorylated, CREB enters the nucleus and binds the transcriptional co-activator, CREB- binding protein (CBP), to initiate CREB -dependent transcriptional activation of genes related to the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. [0077] A "proliferative disease" refers to a disease that occurs due to abnormal growth or extension by the multiplication of cells (Walker, Cambridge Dictionary of Biology;

Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1990). A proliferative disease may be associated with: 1) the pathological proliferation of normally quiescent cells; 2) the pathological migration of cells from their normal location (e.g. , metastasis of neoplastic cells); 3) the pathological expression of proteolytic enzymes such as the matrix

metalloproteinases (e.g. , collagenases, gelatinases, and elastases); or 4) the pathological angiogenesis as in proliferative retinopathy and tumor metastasis. Exemplary proliferative diseases include cancers (i.e. , "malignant neoplasms"), benign neoplasms, angiogenesis, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases). "Triple-negative breast cancer" refers to cancer that tests negative for estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).

[0078] The term "cancer" refers to a class of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that proliferate uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissues. See, e.g. , Stedman 's Medical Dictionary, 25th ed.; Hensyl ed.; Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 1990. Exemplary cancers include, but are not limited to, hematological malignancies. Additional exemplary cancers include, but are not limited to, lung cancer (e.g. , bronchogenic carcinoma, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), adenocarcinoma of the lung); kidney cancer (e.g., nephroblastoma, a.k.a. Wilms' tumor, renal cell carcinoma); acoustic neuroma; adenocarcinoma; adrenal gland cancer; anal cancer; angiosarcoma (e.g. , lymphangiosarcoma, lymphangioendotheliosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma); appendix cancer; benign monoclonal gammopathy; biliary cancer (e.g. , cholangiocarcinoma); bladder cancer; breast cancer (e.g. , adenocarcinoma of the breast, papillary carcinoma of the breast, mammary cancer, medullary carcinoma of the breast); brain cancer (e.g. , meningioma, glioblastomas, glioma (e.g. , astrocytoma,

oligodendroglioma), medulloblastoma); bronchus cancer; carcinoid tumor; cervical cancer (e.g. , cervical adenocarcinoma); choriocarcinoma; chordoma; craniopharyngioma; colorectal cancer (e.g. , colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal adenocarcinoma); connective tissue cancer; epithelial carcinoma; ependymoma; endotheliosarcoma (e.g. , Kaposi' s sarcoma, multiple idiopathic hemorrhagic sarcoma); endometrial cancer (e.g. , uterine cancer, uterine sarcoma); esophageal cancer (e.g. , adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, Barrett's

adenocarcinoma); Ewing's sarcoma; ocular cancer (e.g. , intraocular melanoma,

retinoblastoma); familiar hypereosinophilia; gall bladder cancer; gastric cancer (e.g. , stomach adenocarcinoma); gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); germ cell cancer; head and neck cancer (e.g. , head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer (e.g. , oral squamous cell carcinoma), throat cancer (e.g. , laryngeal cancer, pharyngeal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer)); heavy chain disease (e.g. , alpha chain disease, gamma chain disease, mu chain disease; hemangioblastoma; hypopharynx cancer; inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors; immunocytic amyloidosis; liver cancer (e.g. , hepatocellular cancer (HCC), malignant hepatoma); leiomyosarcoma (LMS); mastocytosis (e.g. , systemic mastocytosis); muscle cancer; myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); mesothelioma; myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) (e.g. , polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) a.k.a. myelofibrosis (MF), chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL), hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES)); neuroblastoma; neurofibroma (e.g. , neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 or type 2, schwannomatosis); neuroendocrine cancer (e.g. , gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEP-NET), carcinoid tumor); osteosarcoma (e.g., bone cancer); ovarian cancer (e.g. , cystadenocarcinoma, ovarian embryonal carcinoma, ovarian adenocarcinoma); papillary adenocarcinoma; pancreatic cancer (e.g. , pancreatic andenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), Islet cell tumors); penile cancer (e.g. , Paget' s disease of the penis and scrotum); pinealoma; primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNT); plasma cell neoplasia; paraneoplastic syndromes; intraepithelial neoplasms; prostate cancer (e.g. , prostate adenocarcinoma); rectal cancer; rhabdomyosarcoma; salivary gland cancer; skin cancer (e.g. , squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), keratoacanthoma (KA), melanoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC)); small bowel cancer (e.g. , appendix cancer); soft tissue sarcoma (e.g. , malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), liposarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

(MPNST), chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma); sebaceous gland carcinoma; small intestine cancer; sweat gland carcinoma; synovioma; testicular cancer (e.g. , seminoma, testicular embryonal carcinoma); thyroid cancer (e.g. , papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), medullary thyroid cancer); urethral cancer; vaginal cancer; and vulvar cancer (e.g. , Paget' s disease of the vulva).

[0079] The term "inflammatory disease" refers to a disease caused by, resulting from, or resulting in inflammation. The term "inflammatory disease" may also refer to a dysregulated inflammatory reaction that causes an exaggerated response by macrophages, granulocytes, and/or T-lymphocytes leading to abnormal tissue damage and/or cell death. An inflammatory disease can be either an acute or chronic inflammatory condition and can result from infections or non-infectious causes. Inflammatory diseases include, without limitation, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, autoimmune disorders, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), gouty arthritis, degenerative arthritis, tendonitis, bursitis, psoriasis, pancreatic fibrosis, liver fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, arthrosteitis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, giant cell arteritis, progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), ankylosing spondylitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, pemphigus, pemphigoid, diabetes (e.g. , Type I), myasthenia gravis, Hashimoto' s thyroiditis, Graves' disease, Goodpasture's disease, mixed connective tissue disease, sclerosing cholangitis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn' s disease, ulcerative colitis, pernicious anemia, inflammatory dermatoses, usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP), asbestosis, silicosis, bronchiectasis, berylliosis, talcosis, pneumoconiosis, sarcoidosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, cellular interstitial pneumonia, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, Wegener's granulomatosis and related forms of angiitis (temporal arteritis and polyarteritis nodosa), inflammatory dermatoses, hepatitis, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. , poison ivy dermatitis), pneumonia, respiratory tract inflammation, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), encephalitis, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, asthma, hayfever, allergies, acute anaphylaxis, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, cellulitis, cystitis, chronic cholecystitis, ischemia (ischemic injury), reperfusion injury, appendicitis, arteritis, blepharitis, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, cervicitis, cholangitis, chorioamnionitis, conjunctivitis, dacryoadenitis, dermatomyositis, endocarditis, endometritis, enteritis, enterocolitis, epicondylitis, epididymitis, fasciitis, fibrositis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gingivitis, ileitis, iritis, laryngitis, myelitis, myocarditis, nephritis, omphalitis, oophoritis, orchitis, osteitis, otitis, pancreatitis, parotitis, pericarditis, pharyngitis, pleuritis, phlebitis, pneumonitis, proctitis, prostatitis, rhinitis, salpingitis, sinusitis, stomatitis, synovitis, testitis, tonsillitis, urethritis, urocystitis, uveitis, vaginitis, vasculitis, vulvitis, vulvovaginitis, angitis, chronic bronchitis, osteomyelitis, optic neuritis, temporal arteritis, transverse myelitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. An ocular inflammatory disease includes, but is not limited to, post-surgical inflammation.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0080] FIG. 1 includes diagrams showing activity of putative CREB inhibitors determined bya luciferase reporter assay. . MDA-MB-23 cells were seeded into 12- well plates (1 x 105 cells/well) and transfected with the CRE reporter plasmids (CCS-002L, Qiagen, Valencia, CA) for 48 hours. After 24 hours, cells were treated with ASE (i) and 71 CHW-series compounds at the 5 μΜ for another 48 hours. The pRenilla lucif erase plasmid was used as the internal control for normalization. The transcriptional activity for each compound was determined by adding D-luciferin to cell lysates, and the bioluminescence signal was detected with a microplate luminometer (Promega, Madison, WI). # denotes the lucif erase activity > 150%.

[0081] FIG. 2 is a chart showing in vitro efficacies of representative compounds relative to that of AS-E in inhibiting the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells after 72 hours of treatment by the compounds as indicated in 5% FBS -containing medium determined by MTT assays, of the in vitro derivatives of the compound library, relative to AS-E, in.

[0082] FIG. 3 is a photo showing the ability of ASE versus CHW-10 and CHW-71 to disrupt the association of CREB with CBP as determined by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. 2 x 106 cells of MDA-MB-231 cells were seeding in 15cm culture dish in DMEM culture medium with 10% FBS for 24 hours then treated with DMSO (D*), AS-E (I, 5 μΜ), CHW- 10 (2.5 μΜ), or CHW-71 (2.5 μΜ) for 72 hours. Cells were harvested by using PBS and lysed with lysis buffer (20mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 150mM NaCl, 10% Triton X-100, ImM PMSF, and ImM Na3V04) for 30 minutes at 4 °C. The protein samples were incubated with protein A/G agarose beads (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc, Santa Cruz, CA) to remove nonspecific binding. Equal amount of the protein samples were incubated with agarose beads conjugated with rabbit anti-CBP antibodies (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA) overnight. Agarose beads were washed three times with wash buffer (20mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 150mM NaCl, 0.5% Triton X-100) and resuspended in SDS sample buffer for immunoblotting analysis by using antibodies against CBP, CREB, b-catenin, p53, and β- actin. Nonspecific IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc, Santa Cruz, CA) was used in the immunoprecipitation step as a negative control.

[0083] FIG. 4 is a photo showing the concentration-dependent suppressive effect of CHW-71 (left) versus shRNA-mediated knockdown of CREB or CBP (right) on the

expression/phosphorylation of gpl30, EGFR, c-Jun, Jak2, and Stat3 in MDA-MB-231 cells as determined by Western blot analysis.

[0084] FIG. 5 includes a diagram showing the in vivo efficacy of CHW-71 at indicated doses via oral gavage, relative to vehicle control, in suppressing the growth of MDA-MBA-231 xenograft tumors in nude mice (n = 7). Left panel: a chart showing tumor volume change in the course of treatment. Right panel: a phone showing tumor volumes in mice treated with the compound at the indicated doses.

[0085] FIG. 6 is a photo showing the concentration-dependent suppressive effect of CHW-71 on the expression/phosphorylation of gpl30, EGFR, c-Jun, Jak2, and Stat3 in two lung cancer cell lines as determined by Western blot analysis.

[0086] FIG. 7 is a schematic illustration of an exemplary process for inducing acute pancreatic fibrosis in a mouse model

[0087] FIGs. 8A to 8B include diagrams showing therecovery of intensive cerulean-induction showed mild to severe pancreatic fibrosis in KC mice, but not in the wild type mice or unstimulated KC mice. (FIG. 8A) KC mice treated with or without cerulein resolved fibrosis differently. (FIG. 8B) Wild-type mice treated with cerulein showed maintained pancreatic acinar architecture with no signs of fibrosis.

[0088] FIGs. 9A to 9B include diagrams showing that administration of CHW-71 via 25 mg/kg i.p. (FIG. 9A); and 100 mg/kg p.o. (FIG. 9B) decreased the percentage of area of fibrosis regions in the acute pancreatitis model.

[0089] FIG. 10 is a photo showing that CHW-71 inhibits the CREB and fibroblast makers expression in LX2 cells. Western blot analysis of the dose-dependent effects of CHW-71 the protein expression levels of a-SMA, fibronectin, collagen, p-CREB and CREB in LX2 cells after 48 hours of treatment.

[0090] FIG. 11 is a photo showing that CHW-71 induces LX-2 cells senescence via a STAT3-dependent mechanism. CHW-71 -induced SA-P-Gal activities were as an indication for LX2 senescence as endogenous lysosomal beta-galactosidase exists specifically in senescent cells. Arrow head, CHW-71 -induced senescence as indicated by SA-P-Gal activities.

[0091] FIG. 12 is a photo showing the effects of exemplary compound CHW-71 on the phosphorylation/expression levels of CBP, CREB, gpl30, EGFR, c-jun, JAK2, Stat3 as well as CREB downstream targets CyclinA, Cyclin Dl, and Bcl-2 in tumor lysates from nude mice-bearing MDA-MB-231 subcutaneous tumors and treated with vehicle, compound CHW-71 at 50 mpk, or compound CHW-71 at 100 mpk as determined by Western blot analysis.

[0092] FIGs. 13A and 13B include diagrams showing the effects of compound CHW-71 via 100 mg/kg p.o. (FIGs. 13A and 13B) on mice in an acute pancreatitis model, including decreased percentage of area of fibrosis regions. In this acute pancreatitis model, KC mice that completed acute cerulein-induction (35d of age, n=5) were randomly assigned to receive exemplary compound CHW-71 at 100 mg/kg p.o. (n=3), or equivalent vehicle control for another 21 days 3 times a week for 3 weeks (FIG. 13A and FIG.13B). FIG.13B shows the decreased percentage of area of fibrosis regions.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

[0093] Described herein are compounds of Formula (I), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, hydrates, polymorphs, co-crystals, tautomers, stereoisomers, isotopically labeled derivatives, and prodrugs thereof. In certain embodiments, provided herein are compounds of Formula (I), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. The compounds described herein are inhibitors of CREB binding to CBP and are useful in modulating (e.g. , inhibiting) the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell. The compounds may be useful in treating or preventing a disease (e.g. , proliferative disease, inflammatory disease) in a subject in need thereof, and/or in treating or preventing a disease associated with the binding of CREB to CBP and/or the CREB-CBP pathway in a subject. Also provided are pharmaceutical compositions, kits, and uses including a compound described herein.

Compounds

[0094] One aspect of the present disclosure relates to the compounds described herein. The compounds described herein are inhibitors of CREB.

[0095] In one aspect, the present disclosure provides compounds of Formula (I):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, hydrates, polymorphs, co-crystals, tautomers, stereoisomers, isotopically labeled derivatives, and prodrugs thereof, wherein R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 5 , X, L, A, Ring B, and n are defined herein.

[0096] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, X is -C-. In some embodiments, X is -N-.

[0097] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, R 1 is H. In some embodiments, R 1 is halogen (e.g. , F, CI, Br, or I). In some embodiments, R 1 is alkylhalogen (e.g. , -CH 2 (halogen) (e.g. , - CH 2 C1)). In some embodiments, R 1 is Ci-6 alkyl (e.g. , Me, Et, n-propyl). In some embodiments, R is C 1-6 alkenyl, C 1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, or heterocyclyl. In some embodiments, R 1 is -OH. In some embodiments, R 1 is alkoxyl (e.g. , -OMe). In some embodiments, R 1 is -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -NO2, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -S0 2 NR'R", -OC(0)R' , C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6-membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring.

[0098] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, each of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , and R 5 , is independently H, halogen, alkylhalogen, C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 alkenyl, C 1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -NO2, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -OSO2R, -S0 2 NR'R", -OC(0)R' , C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6-membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring;

[0099] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, R 2 is H. In some embodiments, R 2 is halogen (e.g. , F, CI, Br, or I). In some embodiments, R 2 is alkylhalogen. In some embodiments, R 2 is Ci-6 alkyl (e.g. , Me, Et, n-Propyl). In some embodiments, R 2 is C 1-6 alkenyl, C 1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, or heterocyclyl. In some embodiments, R 2 is -OH. In some embodiments, R 2 is alkoxyl (e.g. , -OMe). In some embodiments, R 2 is -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -NO2, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -S0 2 NR'R", - OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6- membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring.

[00100] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, R 3 is H. In some embodiments, R 3 is halogen (e.g., F, CI, Br, or I). In some embodiments, R 3 is alkylhalogen. In some embodiments, R 3 is Ci-6 alkyl (e.g. , Me, Et, n-propyl). In some embodiments, R 3 is Ci-β alkenyl, C 1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, or heterocyclyl. In some embodiments, R 3 is -OH. In some embodiments, R 3 is alkoxyl (e.g., -OMe). In some embodiments, R 3 is -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -NO2, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -S0 2 NR'R", - OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6- membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring. [00101] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, R 4 is H. In some embodiments, R 4 is halogen (e.g. , F, CI, Br, or I). In some embodiments, R 4 is alkylhalogen. In some embodiments, R 4 is Ci-6 alkyl (e.g. , Me, Et, n-Propyl). In some embodiments, R 4 is Ci-6 alkenyl, Ci-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, or heterocyclyl. In some embodiments, R 4 is -OH. In some embodiments, R 4 is alkoxyl (e.g. , -OMe). In some embodiments, R 4 is -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -N0 2 , trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -S0 2 NR'R", - OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6- membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring.

[00102] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, R 5 is H. In some embodiments, R 5 is halogen (e.g. , F, CI, Br, or I). In some embodiments, R 5 is alkylhalogen. In some embodiments, R 5 is Ci-6 alkyl (e.g. , Me, Et, n-propyl). In some embodiments, R 5 is Ci-6 alkenyl, Ci-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, or heterocyclyl. In some embodiments, R 5 is -OH. In some embodiments, R 5 is alkoxyl (e.g., -OMe). In some embodiments, R 5 is Ci-6 alkoxyl. In some embodiments, R 5 is -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -N0 2 , trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -S0 2 NR'R", -OC(0)R' , C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6-membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring. In some embodiments, R 5 is -C(0)OR. In some embodiments, R 5 is - C(0)OH. In some embodiments, R 5 is -OH, -C(0)OH, or Ci_ 6 alkoxyl.

[00103] In some embodiments, R 5 is -OS0 2 R, where R is optionally substituted Ci-6 alkyl or optionally substituted aryl. In some embodiments, R 5 is -OS0 2 (Me) or -OS0 2 (phenyl). In some embodiments, R 5 is H, halogen, alkylhalogen, Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 alkenyl, Ci-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide,

sulfonamide, urea, -CN, -N0 2 , trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -OS0 2 R, -S0 2 NR'R", - OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R", or two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6- membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring.

[00104] In some embodiments, two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, 5- or 6-membered aryl or optionally substituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring. In some embodiments, R 1 and R 2 , together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted phenyl ring. In some embodiments, R 1 and R 2 , together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an unsubstituted phenyl ring. In some embodiments, R 2 and R 3 , together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted phenyl ring. In some embodiments, R 3 and R 4 , together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted phenyl ring. In some embodiments, R 4 and R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted phenyl ring. In some embodiments, two of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , or R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, heterocyclic or heteroaryl ring. In some embodiments, R 1 and R 2 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, heterocyclic ring. In some embodiments, R 4 and R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, heterocyclic ring. In some embodiments, R 1 and R 2 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, heteroaryl ring, (e.g. , optionally substituted pyridyl ring). In some embodiments, R 4 and R 5 together with the atoms to which they are attached are combined to form an optionally substituted, heteroaryl ring (e.g. , optionally substituted pyridyl ring).

[00105] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, L is -C=0-. In some embodiments, L is - C(=0)NR'-. In some embodiments, L is -C(=0)NH-. In some embodiments, L is - C(=0)NR'CH 2 - (e.g. , -C(=0)NHCH 2 -). In some embodiments, L is - C(=0)NR'NR'C(=0)-. In some embodiments, L is -C(=0)NH-NHC(=0)-. In some embodiments, L is -C(OH)N(R')2- (e.g. , -C(OH)NH(aryl)-). In some embodiments, L is - NR'C(=0)- (e.g. , -NHC(=0)-). In some embodiments, L is -NR'-S(=0) 2 . In some embodiments, L is -NH-S(=0) 2 . In some embodiments, L is -O- or -S(=0) 2 -.

[00106] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, A is -NR'- (e.g. , -NH-). In some

embodiments, A is -0-. In some embodiments, A is -NR'- and n is 1.

[00107] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, n is 0. In some embodiments, n is 1.

[00108] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, A and R 5 are joined together with the atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring. In some embodiments, A and R 5 are joined together with the atoms to which they are attached to form a 6- 10 membered, optionally substituted heterocyclic ring containing oxygen, nitrogen, and/or sulfur heteroatoms. In some embodiments, A and R 5 are joined together with the atoms to which they are attached to form a 6- 10 membered, optionally substituted

heterocyclic ring containing oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms. In some embodiments, A and R 5 are joined together with the atoms to which they are attached to form an optionally

substituted heterocyclic ring of the formula: .

[00109] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, Ring B is aryl (e.g. , phenyl). In some embodiments, Ring B is benzyl. In some embodiments, Ring B is 5- or 6-membered heteroaryl, or monocyclic or bicyclic 5- 10 membered heterocyclyl. In some embodiments, Ring B is optionally substituted pyridine, optionally substituted pyrazine, optionally substituted pyridazine, optionally substituted morpholine, optionally substituted pyrrole, or optionally substituted triazolopyridine. In some embodiments, Ring B is optionally substituted by H, halogen, alkylhalogen, C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 alkenyl, C 1-6 alkynyl, carbocyclyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, -OH, alkoxyl, -NH 2 , alkylamino, amide, sulfonamide, urea, cyano, nitro, trifluoromethyl, aryl, heteroaryl, -SH, -S0 2 NR'R", -OC(0)R', C(0)OR, COR, or CONR'R". In some embodiments, Ring B is optionally substituted by -N0 2 . In some embodiments, Ring B is optionally substituted by -alkylhalogen. In some embodiments, Ring B is o tionally substituted by -CF 3 . In some embodiments, Ring B is of the formula:

[00110] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, R is hydrogen. In some embodiments, R is optionally substituted acyl. In some embodiments, R is optionally substituted alkyl (e.g. , substituted or unsubstituted C 1-6 alkyl). In certain embodiments, R is substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl (e.g., substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -6 alkenyl). In certain

embodiments, R is substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl (e.g. , substituted or unsubstituted C 2 -6 alkynyl). In certain embodiments, R is substituted or unsubstituted carbocyclyl (e.g. , substituted or unsubstituted, 3- to 7-membered, monocyclic carbocyclyl comprising zero, one, or two double bonds in the carbocyclic ring system). In certain embodiments, R is substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl (e.g. , substituted or unsubstituted, 5- to 10- membered monocyclic or bicyclic heterocyclic ring, wherein one or two atoms in the heterocyclic ring are independently nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur). In certain embodiments, R is substituted or unsubstituted aryl (e.g. , substituted or unsubstituted, 6- to 10-membered aryl). In certain embodiments, R is substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl (e.g. , substituted or unsubstituted, 5- to 6-membered, monocyclic heteroaryl, wherein one, two, three, or four atoms in the heteroaryl ring system are independently nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur; or substituted or unsubstituted, 9- to 10-membered, bicyclic heteroaryl, wherein one, two, three, or four atoms in the heteroaryl ring system are independently nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur).

[00111] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, R' is H. In certain embodiments, R' is acyl. In certain embodiments, R' is Ci-β alkyl. In certain embodiments, R' is C 1-6 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, R' is C 1-6 alkynyl.

[00112] In Formula (I), in some embodiments, R" is H. In certain embodiments, R" is acyl. In certain embodiments, R" is C 1-6 alkyl. In certain embodiments, R" is Ci-β alkenyl. In certain embodiments, R" is C 1-6 alkynyl.

Pharmaceutical Compositions and Kits

[00113] The present disclosure provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical

composition described herein comprises a compound described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. The pharmaceutical compositions described herein are useful in treating and/or preventing diseases associated with the binding of CREB to CBP and/or the binding of CREB to CBP (e.g. , proliferative diseases (e.g. , cancer, inflammatory diseases)). In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions described herein are useful in treating and/or preventing cancer or an inflammatory disease.

[00114] In certain embodiments, the compound described herein is provided in an effective amount in the pharmaceutical composition. In certain embodiments, the effective amount is a therapeutically effective amount. In certain embodiments, the effective amount is a prophylactically effective amount. In certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount is an amount effective for inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP. In certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount is an amount effective for treating a disease (e.g. , a disease associated with the CREB-CBP pathway). In certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount is an amount effective for inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP and treating a disease (e.g. , a disease associated with the binding of CREB to CBP and/or the binding of CREB to CBP (e.g. , proliferative disease)). In certain embodiments, a prophylactically effective amount is an amount effective for inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP. In certain embodiments, a prophylactically effective amount is an amount effective for preventing or keeping a subject in need thereof in remission of a disease (e.g. , a disease associated with the binding of CREB to CBP (e.g. , proliferative disease)). In certain embodiments, a prophylactically effective amount is an amount effective for inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP, and preventing a disease (e.g. , a disease associated with binding of CREB to CBP (e.g. , proliferative disease)).

[00115] In certain embodiments, the effective amount is an amount effective for inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 98%. In certain embodiments, the effective amount is an amount effective for inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP by not more than 10%, not more than 20%, not more than 30%, not more than 40%, not more than 50%, not more than 60%, not more than 70%, not more than 80%, not more than 90%, not more than 95%, or not more than 98%.

[00116] In certain embodiments, the subject is an animal. The animal may be of either sex and may be at any stage of development. In certain embodiments, the subject described herein is a human. In certain embodiments, the subject is a non-human animal. In certain embodiments, the subject is a mammal. In certain embodiments, the subject is a non-human mammal. In certain embodiments, the subject is a domesticated animal, such as a dog, cat, cow, pig, horse, sheep, or goat. In certain embodiments, the subject is a companion animal, such as a dog or cat. In certain embodiments, the subject is a livestock animal, such as a cow, pig, horse, sheep, or goat. In certain embodiments, the subject is a zoo animal. In another embodiment, the subject is a research animal, such as a rodent (e.g. , mouse, rat), dog, pig, or non-human primate. In certain embodiments, the animal is a genetically engineered animal. In certain embodiments, the animal is a transgenic animal (e.g. , transgenic mice and transgenic pigs). In certain embodiments, the subject is a fish or reptile.

[00117] In certain embodiments, the cell is present in vitro. In certain embodiments, the cell is present in vivo.

[00118] Pharmaceutical compositions described herein can be prepared by any method known in the art of pharmacology. In general, such preparatory methods include bringing the compound described herein (i.e. , the "active ingredient") into association with a carrier or excipient, and/or one or more other accessory ingredients, and then, if necessary and/or desirable, shaping, and/or packaging the product into a desired single- or multi-dose unit.

[00119] Pharmaceutical compositions can be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in bulk, as a single unit dose, and/or as a plurality of single unit doses. A "unit dose" is a discrete amount of the pharmaceutical composition comprising a predetermined amount of the active ingredient. The amount of the active ingredient is generally equal to the dosage of the active ingredient which would be administered to a subject and/or a convenient fraction of such a dosage, such as one-half or one-third of such a dosage.

[00120] Relative amounts of the active ingredient, the pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, and/or any additional ingredients in a pharmaceutical composition described herein will vary, depending upon the identity, size, and/or condition of the subject treated and further depending upon the route by which the composition is to be administered. The composition may comprise between 0.1% and 100% (w/w) active ingredient.

[00121] Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients used in the manufacture of provided pharmaceutical compositions include inert diluents, dispersing and/or granulating agents, surface active agents and/or emulsifiers, disintegrating agents, binding agents, preservatives, buffering agents, lubricating agents, and/or oils. Excipients such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes, coloring agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring, and perfuming agents may also be present in the composition.

[00122] Exemplary diluents include calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate lactose, sucrose, cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, kaolin, mannitol, sorbitol, inositol, sodium chloride, dry starch, cornstarch, powdered sugar, and mixtures thereof.

[00123] Exemplary granulating and/or dispersing agents include potato starch, corn starch, tapioca starch, sodium starch glycolate, clays, alginic acid, guar gum, citrus pulp, agar, bentonite, cellulose, and wood products, natural sponge, cation-exchange resins, calcium carbonate, silicates, sodium carbonate, cross-linked poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) (crospovidone), sodium carboxymethyl starch (sodium starch glycolate), carboxymethyl cellulose, cross- linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (croscarmellose), methylcellulose, pregelatinized starch (starch 1500), microcrystalline starch, water insoluble starch, calcium carboxymethyl cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum), sodium lauryl sulfate, quaternary ammonium compounds, and mixtures thereof.

[00124] Exemplary surface active agents and/or emulsifiers include natural emulsifiers (e.g. , acacia, agar, alginic acid, sodium alginate, tragacanth, chondrux, cholesterol, xanthan, pectin, gelatin, egg yolk, casein, wool fat, cholesterol, wax, and lecithin), colloidal clays (e.g. , bentonite (aluminum silicate) and Veegum (magnesium aluminum silicate)), long chain amino acid derivatives, high molecular weight alcohols (e.g. , stearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, triacetin monostearate, ethylene glycol distearate, glyceryl monostearate, and propylene glycol monostearate, polyvinyl alcohol), carbomers (e.g. , carboxy polymethylene, polyacrylic acid, acrylic acid polymer, and carboxyvinyl polymer), carrageenan, cellulosic derivatives (e.g. , carboxymethylcellulose sodium, powdered cellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose), sorbitan fatty acid esters (e.g. , polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween ® 20), polyoxyethylene sorbitan (Tween ® 60), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween ® 80), sorbitan monopalmitate (Span ® 40), sorbitan monostearate (Span ® 60), sorbitan tristearate (Span ® 65), glyceryl monooleate, sorbitan monooleate (Span ® 80), polyoxyethylene esters (e.g. , polyoxyethylene monostearate (Myrj ® 45), polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil, polyethoxylated castor oil, polyoxymethylene stearate, and Solutol ® ), sucrose fatty acid esters, polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters (e.g. , Cremophor ® ), polyoxyethylene ethers, (e.g. , polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij ® 30)), poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone), diethylene glycol monolaurate, triethanolamine oleate, sodium oleate, potassium oleate, ethyl oleate, oleic acid, ethyl laurate, sodium lauryl sulfate, Pluronic ® F-68, poloxamer P-188, cetrimonium bromide, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, docusate sodium, and/or mixtures thereof.

[00125] Exemplary binding agents include starch (e.g. , cornstarch and starch paste), gelatin, sugars (e.g. , sucrose, glucose, dextrose, dextrin, molasses, lactose, lactitol, mannitol, etc.), natural and synthetic gums (e.g. , acacia, sodium alginate, extract of Irish moss, panwar gum, ghatti gum, mucilage of isapol husks, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose,

ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl

methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone), magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum ® ), and larch arabogalactan), alginates, polyethylene oxide, polyethylene glycol, inorganic calcium salts, silicic acid, polymethacrylates, waxes, water, alcohol, and/or mixtures thereof.

[00126] Exemplary preservatives include antioxidants, chelating agents, antimicrobial preservatives, antifungal preservatives, antiprotozoan preservatives, alcohol preservatives, acidic preservatives, and other preservatives. In certain embodiments, the preservative is an antioxidant. In other embodiments, the preservative is a chelating agent.

[00127] Exemplary antioxidants include alpha tocopherol, ascorbic acid, acorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, monothioglycerol, potassium

metabisulfite, propionic acid, propyl gallate, sodium ascorbate, sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and sodium sulfite. [00128] Exemplary chelating agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and salts and hydrates thereof (e.g. , sodium edetate, disodium edetate, trisodium edetate, calcium disodium edetate, dipotassium edetate, and the like), citric acid and salts and hydrates thereof (e.g. , citric acid monohydrate), fumaric acid and salts and hydrates thereof, malic acid and salts and hydrates thereof, phosphoric acid and salts and hydrates thereof, and tartaric acid and salts and hydrates thereof. Exemplary antimicrobial preservatives include benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, bronopol, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, cresol, ethyl alcohol, glycerin, hexetidine, imidurea, phenol, phenoxyethanol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylmercuric nitrate, propylene glycol, and thimerosal.

[00129] Exemplary antifungal preservatives include butyl paraben, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, potassium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, and sorbic acid.

[00130] Exemplary alcohol preservatives include ethanol, polyethylene glycol, phenol, phenolic compounds, bisphenol, chlorobutanol, hydroxybenzoate, and phenylethyl alcohol.

[00131] Exemplary acidic preservatives include vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta- carotene, citric acid, acetic acid, dehydroacetic acid, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, and phytic acid.

[00132] Other preservatives include tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, deteroxime mesylate, cetrimide, butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluened (BHT),

ethylenediamine, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, potassium sulfite, potassium metabisulfite, Glydant ® Plus, Phenonip ® , methylparaben, Germall ® 115, Germaben ® II, Neolone ® , Kathon ® , and Euxyl ® .

[00133] Exemplary buffering agents include citrate buffer solutions, acetate buffer solutions, phosphate buffer solutions, ammonium chloride, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium glubionate, calcium gluceptate, calcium gluconate, D-gluconic acid, calcium glycerophosphate, calcium lactate, propanoic acid, calcium levulinate, pentanoic acid, dibasic calcium phosphate, phosphoric acid, tribasic calcium phosphate, calcium hydroxide phosphate, potassium acetate, potassium chloride, potassium gluconate, potassium mixtures, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium phosphate mixtures, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium lactate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic sodium phosphate, sodium phosphate mixtures, tromethamine, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, alginic acid, pyro gen- free water, isotonic saline, Ringer' s solution, ethyl alcohol, and mixtures thereof.

[00134] Exemplary lubricating agents include magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid, silica, talc, malt, glyceryl behanate, hydrogenated vegetable oils, polyethylene glycol, sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, sodium chloride, leucine, magnesium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and mixtures thereof.

[00135] Exemplary natural oils include almond, apricot kernel, avocado, babassu, bergamot, black current seed, borage, cade, camomile, canola, caraway, carnauba, castor, cinnamon, cocoa butter, coconut, cod liver, coffee, corn, cotton seed, emu, eucalyptus, evening primrose, fish, flaxseed, geraniol, gourd, grape seed, hazel nut, hyssop, isopropyl myristate, jojoba, kukui nut, lavandin, lavender, lemon, litsea cubeba, macademia nut, mallow, mango seed, meadowfoam seed, mink, nutmeg, olive, orange, orange roughy, palm, palm kernel, peach kernel, peanut, poppy seed, pumpkin seed, rapeseed, rice bran, rosemary, safflower, sandalwood, sasquana, savoury, sea buckthorn, sesame, shea butter, silicone, soybean, sunflower, tea tree, thistle, tsubaki, vetiver, walnut, and wheat germ oils. Exemplary synthetic oils include, but are not limited to, butyl stearate, caprylic triglyceride, capric triglyceride, cyclomethicone, diethyl sebacate, dimethicone 360, isopropyl myristate, mineral oil, octyldodecanol, oleyl alcohol, silicone oil, and mixtures thereof.

[00136] Liquid dosage forms for oral and parenteral administration include pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups and elixirs. In addition to the active ingredients, the liquid dosage forms may comprise inert diluents commonly used in the art such as, for example, water or other solvents, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, dimethylformamide, oils (e.g. , cottonseed, groundnut, corn, germ, olive, castor, and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof. Besides inert diluents, the oral compositions can include adjuvants such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, sweetening, flavoring, and perfuming agents. In certain embodiments for parenteral administration, the conjugates described herein are mixed with solubilizing agents such as Cremophor ® , alcohols, oils, modified oils, glycols, polysorbates, cyclodextrins, polymers, and mixtures thereof.

[00137] Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions can be formulated according to the known art using suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation can be a sterile injectable solution, suspension, or emulsion in a nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent, for example, as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution, U.S. P., and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono- or di-glycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid are used in the preparation of injectables.

[00138] The injectable formulations can be sterilized, for example, by filtration through a bacterial -retaining filter, or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions which can be dissolved or dispersed in sterile water or other sterile injectable medium prior to use.

[00139] In order to prolong the effect of a drug, it is often desirable to slow the absorption of the drug from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This can be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material with poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the drug then depends upon its rate of dissolution, which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and crystalline form. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered drug form may be accomplished by dissolving or suspending the drug in an oil vehicle.

[00140] Compositions for rectal or vaginal administration are typically suppositories which can be prepared by mixing the conjugates described herein with suitable non-irritating excipients or carriers such as cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol, or a suppository wax which are solid at ambient temperature but liquid at body temperature and therefore melt in the rectum or vaginal cavity and release the active ingredient.

[00141] Solid dosage forms for oral administration include capsules, tablets, pills, powders, and granules. In such solid dosage forms, the active ingredient is mixed with at least one inert, pharmaceutically acceptable excipient or carrier such as sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate and/or (a) fillers or extenders such as starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and silicic acid, (b) binders such as, for example, carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidinone, sucrose, and acacia, (c) humectants such as glycerol, (d)

disintegrating agents such as agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate, (e) solution retarding agents such as paraffin, (f) absorption accelerators such as quaternary ammonium compounds, (g) wetting agents such as, for example, cetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate, (h) absorbents such as kaolin and bentonite clay, and (i) lubricants such as talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate, and mixtures thereof. In the case of capsules, tablets, and pills, the dosage form may include a buffering agent.

[00142] Solid compositions of a similar type can be employed as fillers in soft and hard-filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugar as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like. The solid dosage forms of tablets, dragees, capsules, pills, and granules can be prepared with coatings and shells such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the art of pharmacology. They may optionally comprise opacifying agents and can be of a composition that they release the active ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain part of the intestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Examples of encapsulating compositions which can be used include polymeric substances and waxes. Solid compositions of a similar type can be employed as fillers in soft and hard- filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugar as well as high molecular weight polethylene glycols and the like.

[00143] The active ingredient can be in a micro-encapsulated form with one or more excipients as noted above. The solid dosage forms of tablets, dragees, capsules, pills, and granules can be prepared with coatings and shells such as enteric coatings, release controlling coatings, and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical formulating art. In such solid dosage forms the active ingredient can be admixed with at least one inert diluent such as sucrose, lactose, or starch. Such dosage forms may comprise, as is normal practice, additional substances other than inert diluents, e.g. , tableting lubricants and other tableting aids such a magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose. In the case of capsules, tablets and pills, the dosage forms may comprise buffering agents. They may optionally comprise opacifying agents and can be of a composition that they release the active ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain part of the intestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner.

Examples of encapsulating agents which can be used include polymeric substances and waxes.

[00144] Dosage forms for topical and/or transdermal administration of a compound described herein may include ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, powders, solutions, sprays, inhalants, and/or patches. Generally, the active ingredient is admixed under sterile conditions with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient and/or any needed preservatives and/or buffers as can be required. Additionally, the present disclosure contemplates the use of transdermal patches, which often have the added advantage of providing controlled delivery of an active ingredient to the body. Such dosage forms can be prepared, for example, by dissolving and/or dispensing the active ingredient in the proper medium. Alternatively or additionally, the rate can be controlled by either providing a rate controlling membrane and/or by dispersing the active ingredient in a polymer matrix and/or gel.

[00145] Suitable devices for use in delivering intradermal pharmaceutical compositions described herein include short needle devices. Intradermal compositions can be administered by devices which limit the effective penetration length of a needle into the skin. Alternatively or additionally, conventional syringes can be used in the classical mantoux method of intradermal administration. Jet injection devices which deliver liquid formulations to the dermis via a liquid jet injector and/or via a needle which pierces the stratum corneum and produces a jet which reaches the dermis are suitable. Ballistic powder/particle delivery devices which use compressed gas to accelerate the compound in powder form through the outer layers of the skin to the dermis are suitable.

[00146] Formulations suitable for topical administration include, but are not limited to, liquid and/or semi-liquid preparations such as liniments, lotions, oil-in-water and/or water-in-oil emulsions such as creams, ointments, and/or pastes, and/or solutions and/or suspensions. Topically administrable formulations may, for example, comprise from about 1% to about 10% (w/w) active ingredient, although the concentration of the active ingredient can be as high as the solubility limit of the active ingredient in the solvent. Formulations for topical administration may further comprise one or more of the additional ingredients described herein.

[00147] A pharmaceutical composition described herein can be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in a formulation suitable for pulmonary administration via the buccal cavity. Such a formulation may comprise dry particles which comprise the active ingredient and which have a diameter in the range from about 0.5 to about 7 nanometers, or from about 1 to about 6 nanometers. Such compositions are conveniently in the form of dry powders for

administration using a device comprising a dry powder reservoir to which a stream of propellant can be directed to disperse the powder and/or using a self-propelling

solvent/powder dispensing container such as a device comprising the active ingredient dissolved and/or suspended in a low-boiling propellant in a sealed container. Such powders comprise particles wherein at least 98% of the particles by weight have a diameter greater than 0.5 nanometers and at least 95% of the particles by number have a diameter less than 7 nanometers. Alternatively, at least 95% of the particles by weight have a diameter greater than 1 nanometer and at least 90% of the particles by number have a diameter less than 6 nanometers. Dry powder compositions may include a solid fine powder diluent such as sugar and are conveniently provided in a unit dose form.

[00148] Low boiling propellants generally include liquid propellants having a boiling point of below 65 °F at atmospheric pressure. Generally the propellant may constitute 50 to 99.9% (w/w) of the composition, and the active ingredient may constitute 0.1 to 20% (w/w) of the composition. The propellant may further comprise additional ingredients such as a liquid non-ionic and/or solid anionic surfactant and/or a solid diluent (which may have a particle size of the same order as particles comprising the active ingredient).

[00149] A pharmaceutical composition described herein can be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in a formulation for ophthalmic administration. Such formulations may, for example, be in the form of eye drops including, for example, a 0.1-1.0% (w/w) solution and/or suspension of the active ingredient in an aqueous or oily liquid carrier or excipient. Such drops may further comprise buffering agents, salts, and/or one or more other of the additional ingredients described herein. Other opthalmically-administrable formulations which are useful include those which comprise the active ingredient in microcrystalline form and/or in a liposomal preparation. Ear drops and/or eye drops are also contemplated as being within the scope of this disclosure.

[00150] Although the descriptions of pharmaceutical compositions provided herein are principally directed to pharmaceutical compositions which are suitable for administration to humans, it will be understood by the skilled artisan that such compositions are generally suitable for administration to animals of all sorts. Modification of pharmaceutical

compositions suitable for administration to humans in order to render the compositions suitable for administration to various animals is well understood, and the ordinarily skilled veterinary pharmacologist can design and/or perform such modification with ordinary experimentation .

[00151] Compounds provided herein are typically formulated in dosage unit form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. It will be understood, however, that the total daily usage of the compositions described herein will be decided by a physician within the scope of sound medical judgment. The specific therapeutically effective dose level for any particular subject or organism will depend upon a variety of factors including the disease being treated and the severity of the disorder; the activity of the specific active ingredient employed; the specific composition employed; the age, body weight, general health, sex, and diet of the subject; the time of administration, route of administration, and rate of excretion of the specific active ingredient employed; the duration of the treatment; drugs used in combination or coincidental with the specific active ingredient employed; and like factors well known in the medical arts.

[00152] The compounds and compositions provided herein can be administered by any route, including enteral (e.g. , oral), parenteral, intravenous, intramuscular, intra-arterial,

intramedullary, intrathecal, subcutaneous, intraventricular, transdermal, interdermal, rectal, intravaginal, intraperitoneal, topical (as by powders, ointments, creams, and/or drops), mucosal, nasal, bucal, sublingual; by intratracheal instillation, bronchial instillation, and/or inhalation; and/or as an oral spray, nasal spray, and/or aerosol. Specifically contemplated routes are oral administration, intravenous administration (e.g. , systemic intravenous injection), regional administration via blood and/or lymph supply, and/or direct

administration to an affected site. In general, the most appropriate route of administration will depend upon a variety of factors including the nature of the agent (e.g. , its stability in the environment of the gastrointestinal tract), and/or the condition of the subject (e.g. , whether the subject is able to tolerate oral administration). In certain embodiments, the compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein is suitable for topical administration to the eye of a subject.

[00153] The exact amount of a compound required to achieve an effective amount will vary from subject to subject, depending, for example, on species, age, and general condition of a subject, severity of the side effects or disorder, identity of the particular compound, mode of administration, and the like. An effective amount may be included in a single dose (e.g. , single oral dose) or multiple doses (e.g. , multiple oral doses). In certain embodiments, when multiple doses are administered to a subject or applied to a biological sample, tissue, or cell, any two doses of the multiple doses include different or substantially the same amounts of a compound described herein. In certain embodiments, when multiple doses are administered to a subject or applied to a biological sample, tissue, or cell, the frequency of administering the multiple doses to the subject or applying the multiple doses to the biological sample, tissue, or cell is three doses a day, two doses a day, one dose a day, one dose every other day, one dose every third day, one dose every week, one dose every two weeks, one dose every three weeks, or one dose every four weeks. In certain embodiments, the frequency of administering the multiple doses to the subject or applying the multiple doses to the biological sample, tissue, or cell is one dose per day. In certain embodiments, the frequency of administering the multiple doses to the subject or applying the multiple doses to the biological sample, tissue, or cell is two doses per day. In certain embodiments, the frequency of administering the multiple doses to the subject or applying the multiple doses to the biological sample, tissue, or cell is three doses per day. In certain embodiments, when multiple doses are administered to a subject or applied to a biological sample, tissue, or cell, the duration between the first dose and last dose of the multiple doses is one day, two days, four days, one week, two weeks, three weeks, one month, two months, three months, four months, six months, nine months, one year, two years, three years, four years, five years, seven years, ten years, fifteen years, twenty years, or the lifetime of the subject, tissue, or cell. In certain embodiments, the duration between the first dose and last dose of the multiple doses is three months, six months, or one year. In certain embodiments, the duration between the first dose and last dose of the multiple doses is the lifetime of the subject, tissue, or cell. In certain embodiments, a dose (e.g. , a single dose, or any dose of multiple doses) described herein includes independently between 0.1 μg and 1 μg, between 0.001 mg and 0.01 mg, between 0.01 mg and 0.1 mg, between 0.1 mg and 1 mg, between 1 mg and 3 mg, between 3 mg and 10 mg, between 10 mg and 30 mg, between 30 mg and 100 mg, between 100 mg and 300 mg, between 300 mg and 1,000 mg, or between 1 g and 10 g, inclusive, of a compound described herein. In certain embodiments, a dose described herein includes independently between 1 mg and 3 mg, inclusive, of a compound described herein. In certain embodiments, a dose described herein includes independently between 3 mg and 10 mg, inclusive, of a compound described herein. In certain embodiments, a dose described herein includes independently between 10 mg and 30 mg, inclusive, of a compound described herein. In certain embodiments, a dose described herein includes independently between 30 mg and 100 mg, inclusive, of a compound described herein.

[00154] Dose ranges as described herein provide guidance for the administration of provided pharmaceutical compositions to an adult. The amount to be administered to, for example, a child or an adolescent can be determined by a medical practitioner or person skilled in the art and can be lower or the same as that administered to an adult.

[00155] A compound or composition, as described herein, can be administered in

combination with one or more additional pharmaceutical agents (e.g. , therapeutically and/or prophylactically active agents). The compounds or compositions can be administered in combination with additional pharmaceutical agents that improve their activity (e.g. , activity (e.g. , potency and/or efficacy) in treating a disease in a subject in need thereof, in preventing a disease in a subject in need thereof, in inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell), improve bioavailability, improve safety, reduce drug resistance, reduce and/or modify metabolism, inhibit excretion, and/or modify distribution in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell. It will also be appreciated that the therapy employed may achieve a desired effect for the same disorder, and/or it may achieve different effects. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition described herein including a compound described herein and an additional pharmaceutical agent shows a synergistic effect that is absent in a pharmaceutical composition including one of the compound and the additional pharmaceutical agent, but not both.

[00156] The compound or composition can be administered concurrently with, prior to, or subsequent to one or more additional pharmaceutical agents, which may be useful as, e.g. , combination therapies. Pharmaceutical agents include therapeutically active agents.

Pharmaceutical agents also include prophylactically active agents. Pharmaceutical agents include small organic molecules such as drug compounds (e.g. , compounds approved for human or veterinary use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as provided in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)), peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, nucleoproteins, mucoproteins, lipoproteins, synthetic polypeptides or proteins, small molecules linked to proteins, glycoproteins, steroids, nucleic acids, DNAs, RNAs, nucleotides, nucleosides, oligonucleotides, antisense oligonucleotides, lipids, hormones, vitamins, and cells. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is a pharmaceutical agent useful for treating and/or preventing a disease (e.g. , proliferative disease, inflammatory disease). Each additional pharmaceutical agent may be administered at a dose and/or on a time schedule determined for that pharmaceutical agent. The additional pharmaceutical agents may also be administered together with each other and/or with the compound or composition described herein in a single dose or administered separately in different doses. The particular combination to employ in a regimen will take into account compatibility of the compound described herein with the additional

pharmaceutical agent(s) and/or the desired therapeutic and/or prophylactic effect to be achieved. In general, it is expected that the additional pharmaceutical agent(s) in combination be utilized at levels that do not exceed the levels at which they are utilized individually. In some embodiments, the levels utilized in combination will be lower than those utilized individually. [00157] The additional pharmaceutical agents include, but are not limited to, antiproliferative agents, anti-cancer agents, anti-angiogenesis agents, anti-inflammatory agents, immunosuppressants, anti-bacterial agents, anti-viral agents, cardiovascular agents, cholesterol-lowering agents, anti-diabetic agents, anti-allergic agents, contraceptive agents, pain-relieving agents, and a combination thereof. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is an anti-proliferative agent (e.g. , anti-cancer agent). In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is an anti-leukemia agent. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is ABITREXATE (methotrexate), ADE, Adriamycin RDF (doxorubicin hydrochloride), Ambochlorin (chlorambucil), ARRANON (nelarabine), ARZERRA (ofatumumab), BOSULIF (bosutinib), BUSULFEX (busulfan), CAMPATH (alemtuzumab), CERUBIDINE (daunorubicin hydrochloride), CLAFEN

(cyclophosphamide), CLOFAREX (clofarabine), CLOLAR (clofarabine), CVP, CYTOSAR- U (cytarabine), CYTOXAN (cyclophosphamide), ERWINAZE (Asparaginase Erwinia Chrysanthemi), FLUDARA (fludarabine phosphate), FOLEX (methotrexate), FOLEX PFS (methotrexate), GAZYVA (obinutuzumab), GLEEVEC (imatinib mesylate), Hyper-CVAD, ICLUSIG (ponatinib hydrochloride), IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib), LEUKERAN (chlorambucil), LINFOLIZIN (chlorambucil), MARQIBO (vincristine sulfate liposome), METHOTREXATE LPF (methorexate), MEXATE (methotrexate), MEXATE-AQ (methotrexate), mitoxantrone hydrochloride, MUSTARGEN (mechlorethamine hydrochloride), MYLERAN (busulfan), NEOSAR (cyclophosphamide), ONCASPAR (Pegaspargase), PURINETHOL

(mercaptopurine), PURIXAN (mercaptopurine), Rubidomycin (daunorubicin hydrochloride), SPRYCEL (dasatinib), SYNRIBO (omacetaxine mepesuccinate), TARABINE PFS

(cytarabine), TASIGNA (nilotinib), TREANDA (bendamustine hydrochloride), TRISENOX (arsenic trioxide), VINCASAR PFS (vincristine sulfate), ZYDELIG (idelalisib), or a combination thereof. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is an anti- lymphoma agent. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is

ABITREXATE (methotrexate), ABVD, ABVE, ABVE-PC, ADCETRIS (brentuximab vedotin), ADRIAMYCIN PFS (doxorubicin hydrochloride), ADRIAMYCIN RDF

(doxorubicin hydrochloride), AMBOCHLORIN (chlorambucil), AMBOCLORIN

(chlorambucil), ARRANON (nelarabine), BEACOPP, BECENUM (carmustine),

BELEODAQ (belinostat), BEXXAR (tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab), BICNU (carmustine), BLENOXANE (bleomycin), CARMUBRIS (carmustine), CHOP, CLAFEN (cyclophosphamide), COPP, COPP-ABV, CVP, CYTOXAN (cyclophosphamide), DEPOCYT (liposomal cytarabine), DTIC-DOME (dacarbazine), EPOCH, FOLEX

(methotrexate), FOLEX PFS (methotrexate), FOLOTYN (pralatrexate), HYPER-CVAD, ICE, IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib), INTRON A (recombinant interferon alfa-2b), ISTODAX (romidepsin), LEUKERAN (chlorambucil), LINFOLIZIN (chlorambucil), Lomustine, MATULANE (procarbazine hydrochloride), METHOTREXATE LPF (methotrexate), MEXATE (methotrexate), MEXATE-AQ (methotrexate), MOPP, MOZOBIL (plerixafor), MUSTARGEN (mechlorethamine hydrochloride), NEOSAR (cyclophosphamide), OEPA, ONTAK (denileukin diftitox), OPPA, R-CHOP, REVLIMID (lenalidomide), RITUXAN (rituximab), STANFORD V, TREANDA (bendamustine hydrochloride), VAMP, VELBAN (vinblastine sulfate), VELCADE (bortezomib), VELSAR (vinblastine sulfate), VINCASAR PFS (vincristine sulfate), ZEVALIN (ibritumomab tiuxetan), ZOLINZA (vorinostat), ZYDELIG (idelalisib), or a combination thereof. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is REVLIMID (lenalidomide), DACOGEN (decitabine ), VIDAZA (azacitidine ), CYTOSAR-U (cytarabine), IDAMYCIN (idarubicin ), CERUBIDINE

(daunorubicin), LEUKERAN (chlorambucil), NEOSAR (cyclophosphamide), FLUDARA (fludarabine), LEUSTATIN (cladribine), or a combination thereof. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is ABITREXATE (methotrexate), ABRAXANE

(paclitaxel albumin- stabilized nanoparticle formulation), AC, AC-T, ADE, ADRIAMYCIN PFS (doxorubicin hydrochloride), ADRUCIL (fluorouracil), AFINITOR (everolimus), AFINITOR DISPERZ (everolimus), ALDARA (imiquimod), ALIMTA (pemetrexed disodium), AREDIA (pamidronate disodium), AREVIIDEX (anastrozole), AROMAS IN (exemestane), AVASTIN (bevacizumab), BECENUM (carmustine), BEP, BICNU

(carmustine), BLENOXANE (bleomycin), CAF, CAMPTOSAR (irinotecan hydrochloride), CAPOX, CAPRELSA (vandetanib), CARBOPLATIN-TAXOL, CARMUBRIS (carmustine), CASODEX (bicalutamide), CEENU (lomustine), CERUBIDINE (daunorubicin

hydrochloride), CERVARIX (recombinant HPV bivalent vaccine), CLAFEN

(cyclophosphamide), CMF, COMETRIQ (cabozantinib-s-malate), COSMEGEN

(dactinomycin), CYFOS (ifosfamide), CYRAMZA (ramucirumab), CYTOSAR-U

(cytarabine), CYTOXAN (cyclophosphamide), DACOGEN (decitabine), DEGARELIX, DOXIL (doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome), DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE, DOX-SL (doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome), DTIC-DOME (dacarbazine), EFUDEX (fluorouracil), ELLENCE (epirubicin hydrochloride), ELOXATIN (oxaliplatin), ERBITUX (cetuximab), ERIVEDGE (vismodegib), ETOPOPHOS (etoposide phosphate), EVACET (doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome), FARESTON (toremifene), FASLODEX (fulvestrant), FEC, FEMARA (letrozole), FLUOROPLEX (fluorouracil), FOLEX (methotrexate), FOLEX PFS (methotrexate), FOLFIRI , FOLFIRI-BEVACIZUMAB, FOLFIRI-CETUXIMAB, FOLFIRINOX, FOLFOX, FU-LV, GARDASIL (recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine), GEMCITABINE-CISPLATIN, GEMCITABINE-OXALIPLATIN, GEMZAR (gemcitabine hydrochloride), GILOTRIF (afatinib dimaleate), GLEEVEC

(imatinib mesylate), GLIADEL (carmustine implant), GLIADEL WAFER (carmustine implant), HERCEPTIN (trastuzumab), HYCAMTIN (topotecan hydrochloride), IFEX (ifosfamide), IFOSFAMIDUM (ifosfamide), INLYTA (axitinib), INTRON A (recombinant interferon alfa-2b), IRESSA (gefitinib), IXEMPRA (ixabepilone), JAKAFI (ruxolitinib phosphate), JEVTANA (cabazitaxel), KADCYLA (ado-trastuzumab emtansine),

KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab), KYPROLIS (carfilzomib), LIPODOX (doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome), LUPRON (leuprolide acetate), LUPRON DEPOT (leuprolide acetate), LUPRON DEPOT-3 MONTH (leuprolide acetate), LUPRON DEPOT-4 MONTH (leuprolide acetate), LUPRON DEPOT-PED (leuprolide acetate), MEGACE (megestrol acetate), MEKINIST (trametinib), METHAZOLASTONE (temozolomide),

METHOTREXATE LPF (methotrexate), MEXATE (methotrexate), MEXATE-AQ

(methotrexate), MITOXANTRONE HYDROCHLORIDE, MITOZYTREX (mitomycin c), MOZOBIL (plerixafor), MUSTARGEN (mechlorethamine hydrochloride), MUTAMYCIN (mitomycin c), MYLOSAR (azacitidine), NAVELBINE (vinorelbine tartrate), NEOSAR (cyclophosphamide), NEXAVAR (sorafenib tosylate), NOLVADEX (tamoxifen citrate), NOVALDEX (tamoxifen citrate), OFF, PAD, PARAPLAT (carboplatin), PARAPLATIN (carboplatin), PEG-INTRON (peginterferon alfa-2b), PEMETREXED DISODIUM,

PERJETA (pertuzumab), PLATINOL (cisplatin), PLATINOL-AQ (cisplatin), POMALYST (pomalidomide), prednisone, PROLEUKIN (aldesleukin), PROLIA (denosumab),

PROVENGE (sipuleucel-t), REVLIMID (lenalidomide), RUBIDOMYCIN (daunorubicin hydrochloride), SPRYCEL (dasatinib), STIVARGA (regorafenib), SUTENT (sunitinib malate), SYLATRON (peginterferon alfa-2b), SYLVANT (siltuximab), SYNOVIR

(thalidomide), TAC, TAFINLAR (dabrafenib), TARABINE PFS (cytarabine), TARCEVA (erlotinib hydrochloride), TASIGNA (nilotinib), TAXOL (paclitaxel), TAXOTERE

(docetaxel), TEMODAR (temozolomide), THALOMID (thalidomide), TOPOSAR

(etoposide), TORISEL (temsirolimus), TPF, TRISENOX (arsenic trioxide), TYKERB (lapatinib ditosylate), VECTIBIX (panitumumab), VEIP, VELBAN (vinblastine sulfate), VELCADE (bortezomib), VELSAR (vinblastine sulfate), VEPESID (etoposide), VIADUR (leuprolide acetate), VIDAZA (azacitidine), VINCASAR PFS (vincristine sulfate),

VOTRIENT (pazopanib hydrochloride), WELLCOVORIN (leucovorin calcium), XALKORI (crizotinib), XELODA (capecitabine), XELOX, XGEVA (denosumab), XOFIGO (radium 223 dichloride), XTANDI (enzalutamide), YERVOY (ipilimumab), ZALTRAP (ziv- aflibercept), ZELBORAF (vemurafenib), ZOLADEX (goserelin acetate), ZOMETA

(zoledronic acid), ZYKADIA (ceritinib), ZYTIGA (abiraterone acetate), ENMD-2076, PCI- 32765, AC220, dovitinib lactate (TKI258, CHIR-258), BIBW 2992 (TOVOK™), SGX523, PF-04217903, PF-02341066, PF-299804, BMS-777607, ABT-869, MP470, BIBF 1120 (VARGATEF®), AP24534, JNJ-26483327, MGCD265, DCC-2036, BMS-690154, CEP- 11981, tivozanib (AV-951), OSI-930, MM- 121, XL- 184, XL-647, and/or XL228), proteasome inhibitors (e.g., bortezomib (Velcade)), mTOR inhibitors (e.g., rapamycin, temsirolimus (CCI-779), everolimus (RAD-001), ridaforolimus, AP23573 (Ariad), AZD8055 (AstraZeneca), BEZ235 (Novartis), BGT226 (Norvartis), XL765 (Sanofi Aventis), PF- 4691502 (Pfizer), GDC0980 (Genetech), SF1126 (Semafoe) and OSI-027 (OSI)), oblimersen, gemcitabine, carminomycin, leucovorin, pemetrexed, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, procarbizine, prednisolone, dexamethasone, campathecin, plicamycin, asparaginase, aminopterin, methopterin, porfiromycin, melphalan, leurosidine, leurosine, chlorambucil, trabectedin, procarbazine, discodermolide, carminomycin,, aminopterin, and hexamethyl melamine, or a combination thereof. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is a binder or inhibitor of the binding of CREB to CBP. In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is a protein kinase inhibitor (e.g. , tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor). In certain embodiments, the additional pharmaceutical agent is selected from the group consisting of epigenetic or transcriptional modulators (e.g. , DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors), lysine methyltransferase inhibitors), antimitotic drugs (e.g. , taxanes and vinca alkaloids), hormone receptor

modulators (e.g. , estrogen receptor modulators and androgen receptor modulators), cell signaling pathway inhibitors (e.g. , tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors), modulators of protein stability (e.g. , proteasome inhibitors), Hsp90 inhibitors, glucocorticoids, all-trans retinoic acids, and other agents that promote differentiation. In certain embodiments, the compounds described herein or pharmaceutical compositions can be administered in combination with an anti-cancer therapy including, but not limited to, surgery, radiation therapy, transplantation (e.g. , stem cell transplantation, bone marrow transplantation), immunotherapy, and chemotherapy.

[00158] Also encompassed by the disclosure are kits (e.g. , pharmaceutical packs). The kits provided may comprise a pharmaceutical composition or compound described herein and a container (e.g. , a vial, ampule, bottle, syringe, and/or dispenser package, or other suitable container). In some embodiments, provided kits may optionally further include a second container comprising a pharmaceutical excipient for dilution or suspension of a

pharmaceutical composition or compound described herein. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition or compound described herein provided in the first container and the second container are combined to form one unit dosage form.

[00159] Thus, in one aspect, provided are kits including a first container comprising a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein. In certain embodiments, the kits are useful for treating a disease (e.g. , proliferative disease, inflammatory disease) in a subject in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the kits are useful for preventing a disease (e.g. , proliferative disease, inflammatory disease) in a subject in need thereof. In certain

embodiments, the kits are useful for inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell.

[00160] In certain embodiments, a kit described herein further includes instructions for using the compound or pharmaceutical composition included in the kit. A kit described herein may also include information as required by a regulatory agency such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In certain embodiments, the information included in the kits is prescribing information. In certain embodiments, the kits and instructions provide for treating a disease (e.g. , proliferative disease, inflammatory disease) in a subject in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the kits and instructions provide for preventing a disease (e.g. , proliferative disease, inflammatory disease) in a subject in need thereof. In certain

embodiments, the kits and instructions provide for modulating (e.g. , inhibiting) the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell. A kit described herein may include one or more additional pharmaceutical agents described herein as a separate composition.

Methods of Treatment and Uses

[00161] The compounds described herein are capable of modulating (e.g. , reversibly modulating or irreversibly modulating) the binding of CREB to CBP. The present disclosure thus also provides methods of modulating (e.g. , inhibiting) the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell. The present disclosure further provides methods for the treatment of a wide range of diseases, such as diseases associated with the binding of CREB to CBP and/or diseases associated with the binding of CREB to CBP, proliferative diseases, and inflammatory diseases in a subject in need thereof.

[00162] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides methods of modulating (e.g. , inhibiting) the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject in need thereof, the methods comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein. In some embodiments, provided are methods of interfering with the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, the method comprising: contacting cells expressing CREB to CBP with an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein. In some embodiments, the contacting step is performed by administering the compound or the pharmaceutical composition to a subject in need thereof. In some embodiments, the subject has, is suspected of having, or is at risk for a disease associated with the CREB-CBP pathway.

[00163] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides methods of modulating (e.g. , inhibiting) the binding of CREB to CBP in a biological sample, tissue, or cell, the methods comprising contacting the biological sample, tissue, or cell with an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein.

[00164] In certain embodiments, the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell is inhibited by a compound, pharmaceutical composition, kit, use, or method described herein by at least 1%, at least 3%, at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, or at least 90%. In certain embodiments, the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell is inhibited by a compound, pharmaceutical composition, kit, use, or method described herein by not more than 1%, not more than 3%, not more than 10%, not more than 20%, not more than 30%, not more than 40%, not more than 50%, not more than 60%, not more than 70%, not more than 80%, or not more than 90%. In some embodiments, the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell is selectively inhibited by the compound, pharmaceutical composition, kit, use, or method. In some embodiments, the binding of CREB in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell is selectively inhibited by the compound, pharmaceutical composition, kit, use, or method, compared to the binding of a different protein. In some embodiments, the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell is selectively inhibited by the compound, pharmaceutical composition, kit, use, or method, compared to the binding of CREB to a different protein. In some embodiments, the binding of CREB to CBP described herein in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell is reversibly inhibited by the compound, pharmaceutical composition, kit, use, or method. In some embodiments, the binding of CREB to CBP described herein in a subject, biological sample, tissue, or cell is irreversibly inhibited by the compound, pharmaceutical composition, kit, use, or method.

[00165] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to methods of inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP in a subject in need thereof, the methods comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein.

[00166] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to methods of inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP in a biological sample, tissue, or cell, the methods comprising contacting the biological sample, tissue, or cell with an effective amount of a compound or

pharmaceutical composition described herein (e.g. , contacting the biological sample, tissue, or cell in vivo or in vitro). In certain embodiments, the contacting of the biological sample, tissue, or cell with an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein is in vitro.

[00167] Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to methods of treating a disease (e.g. , a proliferative disease or inflammatory disease) in a subject in need thereof, the methods comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein. In certain embodiments, a disease to be treated with a compound or pharmaceutical composition described herein is a disease associated with the binding of CREB to CBP. In certain embodiments, the disease is associated with the CREB-CBP pathway. In certain embodiments, the disease is a proliferative disease. In certain embodiments, the proliferative disease is cancer. In certain embodiments, the proliferative disease is lung cancer. In certain embodiments, the proliferative disease is non- small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, or cervical cancer. In certain embodiments, the disease is lung cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, Burkitt' s lymphoma, melanoma, multiple myeloma, Ewing' s sarcoma, osteosarcoma, brain cancer, ovarian cancer, neuroblastoma, or colorectal cancer. In certain embodiments, the proliferative disease is triple-negative breast cancer. In certain embodiments, the disease is an inflammatory disease. In certain

embodiments, the inflammatory disease is pancreatic fibrosis or liver fibrosis. [00168] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides the compounds described herein for use in a method described herein (e.g., a method of inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP, a method of interfering with the binding of CREB to CBP, a method of treating a disease (e.g., a proliferative disease), or a method of preventing a disease (e.g., a proliferative disease)).

[00169] In another aspect, the present disclosure provides the compounds described herein for use in treating or preventing a proliferative disease in a subject. In another aspect, the present disclosure provides the compounds described herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, co-crystal, tautomer, stereoisomer, solvate, hydrate, polymorph, isotopically enriched derivative, or prodrug thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition thereof, for use in treating or preventing a proliferative disease in a subject.

[00170] In still another aspect, the present disclosure provides the pharmaceutical compositions described herein for use in a method described herein (e.g., a method of inhibiting the binding of CREB to CBP, a method of interfering with the binding of CREB to CBP, a method of treating a disease (e.g., a proliferative disease), or a method of preventing a disease (e.g., a proliferative disease).

EXAMPLES

[00171] In order that the present disclosure may be more fully understood, the following examples are set forth. The synthetic and biological examples described in this application are offered to illustrate the compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and methods provided herein and are not to be construed in any way as limiting their scope.

Example 1. Identification of exemplary CREB inhibitor compounds via screening of a focused compound library

[00172] An exemplary compound library consisting of 71 compounds was developed (CHW- 1 - CHW71; Table 1) for assessing their abilities to inhibit CREB-mediated transcription. Exemplary compounds of Formula (I) include, but are not limited to, the compounds of Table 1: Table 1. Structures of CHWl - CHW71 in the compound library

[00173] These derivatives, each at 5 μΜ, were then subjected to screening by using a cAMP response element (CRE) luciferase reporter assay to identify CREB inhibitors, which led to the identification of 3 putative agents, i.e., CHW-10, CHW-52, and CHW-71 (FIG. 1).

[00174] MTT assays indicate that CHW-71, CHW-52, CHW-10, and CHW-23 exhibited higher potencies relative to the positive control AS-E (i) in suppressing the viability of MDA- MB-231 cells (FIG. 2). The ICso values were: CHW-71, 2 μΜ; CHW-52, 2 μΜ; CHW-10, 2.5 μΜ; AS-E (i), 5 μΜ.

[00175] Based on these two sets of data, CHW-10, CHW-52, and CHW-71 were chosen for further testing of whether they were CREB inhibitors.

Preparation of the compounds described herein

[00176] The compounds provided herein can be prepared from readily available starting materials using the following general methods and procedures. For example, compounds of Formula (I) can be prepared according to Schemes 1-2 below. Where typical or preferred process conditions {i.e., reaction temperatures, times, mole ratios of reactants, solvents, pressures, etc.) are given, other process conditions can also be used unless otherwise stated. Optimum reaction conditions may vary with the particular reactants or solvents used, but such conditions can be determined by those skilled in the art by routine optimization procedures.

[00177] All commercial chemicals and solvents are reagent grade and were used without further treatment unless otherwise noted. All reactions were carried out under an atmosphere of dry nitrogen. Reactions were monitored by TLC using Merck 60 F254 silica gel glass backed plates; zones were detected visually under ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) or by spraying with phosphomolybdic acid or potassium permanganate reagent (Aldrich), followed by heating at 80 °C. Flash column chromatography was done using silica gel (Merck

Kieselgel 60, no. 9385, 230-400 mesh). 1H NMR spectra were obtained with a Burker AV 300 MHz NMR, Burker AV 300 MHz NMR, or Burker AV 500 MHz NMR spectrometer. Samples were dissolved in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (d 6 -DMSO) or deuterated chloroform (CDCI3) and tetramethylsilane (TMS) used as a reference. High-resolution mass spectra (HRMS) were measured using a JMS-700 from JEOL (Akishima, Japan) or a Premier from Waters Corporation (Massachusetts, USA). Microwave assisted synthesis was carried out in sealed tubes with a CEM Discover SP system (CEM Corporation, Matthews, NC, USA). Purity of the final compounds were determined with an Hitachi 2000 series HPLC system using C-18 column (Luca 5μ-08(2) 100A μιη. 4.60 mm x 250 mm) using mobile phase A-water containing 0.1% formic acid 10 mmol NH 4 OAc and mobile phase B- methanol. Elution condition, at 0 min phase A 40% + phase B 60%; at 20 min phase A 0% + phase B 100%; at 60 min phase A 0% + phase B 100%. The flow-rate was 0.75 mL/min, and the injection volume was 5 μh. The system operated at 25 °C. Peaks were detected at 210 nm. Purity of all the tested compounds was found to be >95% by HPLC analysis unless otherwise stated.

[00178] General procedure for the synthesis o hydroxy I N -phenyl naphthamide

Scheme 1. [00179] In Scheme 1, 2-hydroxy-l -naphthoic acid (188 mg, 1 mmol) and aniline (1 mmol) were suspended in chlorobenzene (2 ml), and phosphorus trichloride (137 mg, 1 mmol) was added. The reaction was concentrated and the residue was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and concentrated, and the crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography, eluting with ethyl acetate/hexanes.

Scheme 2

[00180] In Scheme 2, 2-hydroxy-l -naphthoic acid (1,88 g, 10 mmol) was dissolved in acetone (5 ml), and HO Ac (1 ml) was added. The mixture was cooled to -78 °C and then 0.1 cone. H 2 S0 4 was added. The reaction was allowed to warm up to room temperature, followed by stirring for further 12 hours. The crude was neutralized with sodium bicarbonate, concentrated and the residue was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and concentrated, and the crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography, eluting with ethyl acetate/hexanes (1: 10). White solid (2.1 g) was obtained (yield: 92.3%). Substituted aniline (1.1 mmol) was in anhydrous THF at 0 °C, and n-butyl lithium (2.5 M in hexane, 0.4 ml) was added. After stirring for 30 min, 3,3- dimethyl-lH-naphtho[2,l-<i][l,3]dioxin-l-one (228 mg, 1 mmol) was added to the solution and stirred for further 2 hours. The crude was concentrated and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate (3 portions). The organic layer was dried over Na 2 S0 4 , concentrated, and purified by silica gel column chromatography, eluting with ethyl acetate/hexanes or methanol/methylene chloride.

00181] CHW-1

[00182] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 11.72 (s, 1H), 10.47 (s, 1H), 7.91 (d, J=2.6 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (d, = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.47 -7.40 (m, 3H), 7.01 (d, = 8.8 Hz, 1H). 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 164.9, 156.6, 137.0, 133.0, 128.6, 128.3, 127.8, 122.7, 122.2, 119.7, 119.0; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C13H10NO2C12 [M+H] + : 282.0089, found 282.0096; HPLC purity 99.99%. 00183] CHW-2

[00184] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 13.11-12.97 (br, 1H), 10.47 (s, 1H), 7.88 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (d, =8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.66 ~ 7.53 (m, 3H), 7.38 (d, =8.8 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 167.8, 167.7, 138.9, 138.8, 132.0, 130.2, 129.9, 129.8, 128.8, 128.1, 127.2, 121.3; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C14H9N03C1 [M-H] " : 274.0271, found 274.0271; HPLC purity 99.99%. 00185] CHW-3

[00186] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 13.88 (s, 1H), 10.57 (s, 1H), 8.30 (d, =8.2 Hz, 1H), 8.10 (d, =8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.91 (d, =8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, =8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.67 (dt, J= 1.0 Hz, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (dt, =0.8 Hz, 7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.47 (d, =8.8 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C17H13N02C1 [M+H] + : 298.0635, found 298.0631; HPLC purity 99.99%. 187] CHW-4

[00188] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 10.57 (s, 1H), 10.15 (s, 1H), 7.87-7.82 (m, 4H), 7.67 (d, =8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.48 -7.39 (m, 3H), 7.32 (t, =7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (d, =8.9 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.8, 151.6, 138.5, 131.3, 130.2, 128.5, 127.9, 127.3, 127.0, 126.7, 123.3, 123.0, 120.7, 118.3, 118.2; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C17H13N02C1 [M+H] + : 298.0635, found 298.0641; HPLC purity 99.99%.

[00189] CHW-5

[00190] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 9.56 (s, 2H), 7.96 (d, =8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.67-7.55 (m, 5H), 7.40 (t, =7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (t, =7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.05 (d, = 8.9 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 151.9, 140.7, 136.8, 133.5, 128.8, 128.7, 128.5, 128.0, 127.4, 126.0, 122.8, 122.7, 118.0, 114.3; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C16H11N03SC1 [M-H] " : 332.0148, found 332.0144. 00191] CHW-6

[00192] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 10.72 (s, 1H), 8.19-8.16 (m, 1H), 8.09 (d, =8.1 Hz, 1H), 8.04-8.01 (m, 1H), 7.85 (d, =8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.76 (d, =6.4 Hz, 1H), 7.64-7.58 (m, 3H), 7.44 (d, =8.8 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 167.3, 138.2, 134.4, 133.1, 130.2, 129.5, 128.6, 128.3, 127.2, 127.0, 126.3, 125.5, 125.0, 125.0, 121.3; HRMS (ACPI) m/z calcd. for C17H13NOC1 [M+H] + : 282.0686, found 282.0681; HPLC purity 73.21%. 00193] CHW-7

[00194] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 9.89 ~ 9.76 (brs, 2H), 8.11 (d, =8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.83 (d, =8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (d, =8.9 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (d, =8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (d, =8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.42 (t, 7=7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (t, 7= 6.9 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (d, 7= 8.8 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.0, 151.0, 136.2, 133.2, 131.9, 129.7, 128.3, 128.1, 128.0, 127.8, 126.2, 122.7, 121.9, 118.7, 116.4; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C17H11N02C1 [M-H] " : 296.0478, found 296.0470; HPLC purity 85.48%. 00195] CHW-8

[00196] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.6 (s, 1H), 8.06 (d, 7= 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (d, 7= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.85 (d, 7= 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.68 (d, 7= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (d, 7= 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (t, 7= 5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.43 -7.43 (m, 3H), 3.93 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 165.3, 153.1, 138.3, 130.6, 130.6, 128.6, 128.0, 128.0, 127.3, 126.9, 123.9, 123.4, 121.0, 120.7, 113.8, 56.4; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 18H14N02NaCl [M+Na] + : 334.0611, found 334.0609; HPLC purity 99.99%. 00197] CHW-9

[00198] HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C19H16N02NaCl [M+Na] + : 348.0767, found 348.0776. HPLC purity 99.99%. -10

[00200] l H NMR (CDCh, 300 MHz): δ 9.16 (d, 7= 9.0 Hz, 1H), 8.00 (d, 7= 9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (d, 7= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.63 ~ 7.55 (m, 2H), 7.44 -7.39 (m, 1H), 7.31 (d, 7= 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.09 - 7.02 (m, 4H), 7.18 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 156.7, 137.2, 136.2, 131.0, 129.0, 128.8, 128.6, 128.5, 127.2, 124.1, 123.2, 120.2, 118.4, 113.6, 57.0; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C17H15N03SC1 [M+H] + : 348.0461, found 348.0462; HPLC purity 99.99%. -11

[00202] l H NMR (CDCb, 300 MHz): δ 10.25 (br, 1H), 8.47 (d, 7= 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (d, 7= 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, 7= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (t, 7=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.10 (d, 7= 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.04 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, 2H), 6.78 d, 7= 8.8 Hz, 2H). HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C16H11N03SC1 [M-H] " : 332.0148, found 332.0143; HPLC purity 99.99%. 00203] CHW-12

[00204] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 10.54 (br, 1H), 10.27 (br, 1H), 8.34 (s, 1H), 8.03 (d, 7= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.95 -7.78 (m, 4H), 7.50 (t, 7=7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (t, 7=7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.25 (d, 7= 8.8 Hz, 1H). 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 166.0, 152.8, 139.0, 131.7, 131.4, 128.1, 127.7, 127.2, 126.5, 126.5, 126.0, 125.9, 125.7, 125.2, 124.8, 124.6, 123.8, 123.1, 122.1, 118.3, 116.0, HRMS (FAB) m/z calcd. for C18H12N02C1F3 [M+H] + : 366.0509, found 366.0512; HPLC purity 98.46%. 00205] CHW-13

[00206] HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C17H11N204 [M-H] " : 307.0719, found 307.0721; HPLC purity 86.07%. [00207] CHW-14

[00208] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.45 (br, IH), 10.12 (br, IH), 7.87 -7.84 (m, 4H), 7.69 (d, 7= 8.4 Hz, IH), 7.46 (t, 7=7.6 Hz, IH), 7.33 (d, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.26 (d, 7= 8.8 Hz, IH), 7.20 (d, 7= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 165.5, 159.2, 156.8, 151.6, 136.0, 136.0, 131.4, 130.1, 127.9, 127.3, 126.9, 123.3, 123.0, 120.9, 120.9, 118.4, 118.3, 115.3, 115.1, HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C17H13N02F [M+H] + : 282.0930, found 282.0936; HPLC purity 99.99% -15

[00210] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.27 (s, IH), 9.23 (s, IH), 8.00 (d, 7= 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.83 (t, 7= 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.47 (t, 7=7.5 Hz, IH), 7.32 (t, 7=7.3 Hz, IH), 7.23 (d, 7= 8.8 Hz, IH), 6.67 (d, 7= 1.9 Hz, IH), 6.58 (dd, 7= 8.6, 2.0 Hz, IH), 3.82 (s, 3H), 3.78 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.1, 156.9, 152.0, 151.4, 131.7, 130.5, 127.9, 127.6, 126.8, 124.0, 123.2, 122.9, 120.7, 118.3, 117.4, 104.1, 98.9, 55.8, 55.3; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C 19H18N04 [M+H] + : 324.1236, found 324.1234, HPLC purity 99.99%. -16

[00212] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.54 (s, IH), 10.20 (s, IH), 8.01 (d, 7=8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.86 (t, 7=9.5 Hz, 2H), 7.72 (d, 7=8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.68 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.46 (t, 7=7.6 Hz, IH), 7.33 (t, 7=7.3 Hz, IH), 7.25(d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH). 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.3, 151.8, 143.1, 131.3, 130.4, 128.0, 127.3, 127.1, 126.0, 126.0, 125.9, 125.5, 123.4, 123.3, 123.2, 123.1, 123.0, 119.1, 118.3, 117.9. HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C 18H13N02F3 [M+H] + : 322.0898 found 332.0902; HPLC purity 99.99%. -17

[00214] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.08 (s, IH), 8.85 (t, 7=5.6 Hz, IH), 7.81 (d, 7=8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.66 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.49 (d, 7=8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.42 (d, 7=8.2 Hz, 3H), 7.30 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.21 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, IH), 4.54 (d, 7=5.7 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 167.0, 151.6, 138.8, 131.5, 131.1, 129.9, 129.0, 128.1, 127.8, 127.4, 126.6, 123.6, 122.8, 118.2, 118.0, 41.7 ; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 18H13N02C1 [M-H] " : 310.0635, found 310.0636, HPLC purity 99.99%. -18

[00216] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.64 (s, IH), 10.22 (s, IH), 8.12 (s, IH), 7.87 (dd, 7=11.1, 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.72 (dd, 7=12.1, 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.48 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.40 (t, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 7.34 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.30 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, IH), 7.18 (dd, 7=7.8, 0.9 Hz, IH), 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.1, 151.8, 141.0, 133.1, 131.3, 130.4, 128.0, 127.4, 127.1, 123.3, 123.1, 123.0, 118.7, 118.3, 118.2, 117.7; HRMS (ESI) m z calcd. for C17H11N02C1 [M-H] " : 296.0478, found 296.0485. -19

[00218] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.43 (s, IH), 9.99 (s, IH), 8.06 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 8.02 (d, 7=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.89 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 7.86 (d, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 7.56 (d, 7=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.51 (t, 7=7.5 Hz, IH), 7.43 (t, 7=7.5 Hz, IH), 7.35 (t, 7=7.3 Hz, IH), 7.29 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 7.25 (d, 7=7.4 Hz, IH) ; 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.8, 152.3, 135.1, 131.7, 130.8, 129.5, 128.0, 127.6, 127.5, 127.0, 126.8, 126.3, 126.2, 123.8, 123.0, 118.3, 117.0; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C17H13N02C1 [M+H] + : 298.0635, found 298.0641 ; HPLC purity 99.03%. -20

[00220] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 9.06 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 8.16 (d, 7=8.7 Hz, IH), 7.97 (d, 7=7.9 Hz, IH), 7.63 (t, 7=7.3 Hz, IH), 7.50-7.46 (m, 5H), 7.33 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, IH), 5.72 (s, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 161.0, 158.7, 138.1, 136.0, 131.4, 130.4, 129.7, 128.6, 128.6, 128.3, 127.1, 125.5, 124.8, 116.9, 110.4, 79.2; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C18H13N02C1 [M-H] " : 310.0635, found 310.0638; HPLC purity 98.91%. -21

[00222] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.74 (s, IH), 8.35 (d, 7=8.2 Hz, IH), 8.32 (dd, 7=4.6, 0.8 Hz, IH), 7.87 -7.82 (m, 3H), 7.75 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.44 (dd, 7=11.1, 1.1 Hz, IH), 7.30 (dd, 7=11.1, 0.9 Hz, IH), 7.22 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 7.14 (dd, 7=7.2, 4.9 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 166.5, 152.2, 152.1 , 148.0, 138.0, 131.5, 130.4, 127.9, 127.4, 126.8, 123.4, 122.8, 119.5, 118.3, 117.6, 114.0; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 16H13N202 [M+H] + : 265.0977, found 265.0970. -22

[00224] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.63 (s, IH), 8.93 (d, 7=1.8 Hz, IH), 8.31 (d, 7=4.1 Hz, IH), 8.27 (d, 7=8.2 Hz, IH), 7.86 (t, 7=8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.71 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.47 (t, 7=7.3 Hz, IH), 7.40 (dd, 7=8.2, 4.7 Hz, IH), 7.33 (t, 7=7.3 Hz, IH), 7.26 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 166.2, 151.8, 144.2, 140.8, 136.2, 131.3, 130.4, 127.9, 127.3, 127.0, 126.0, 123.6, 123.3, 123.0, 118.3, 117.9; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 16H13N202 [M+H] + : 265.0977, found 265.0971. -23

[00226] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.56 (s, IH), 8.27 (d, =8.3 Hz, IH), 8.24 (d, =8.1 Hz, IH), 7.84 (d, =8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.77 (d, =8.0 Hz, IH), 7.61 (t, =7.1 Hz, IH), 7.56 (t, =7.1 Hz, IH), 7.42 (d, =8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.06 (d, =8.0 Hz, IH), 4.04 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 167.2, 156.5, 138.4, 131.0, 128.5, 127.4, 127.2, 127.0, 126.3, 125.7, 125.1, 124.7, 121.7, 121.2, 103.1, 55.9; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C18H13N02C1 [M-H] " : 310.0635, found 310.0634; HPLC purity 99.99%. -24

[00228] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 9.50 (s, IH), 8.13 (d, =8.3 Hz, IH), 7.95 (d, =7.2 Hz, 2H), 7.83 (d, =8.1 Hz, IH), 7.55 (t, =7.3 Hz, IH), 7.50-7.45 (m, 2H), 7.35 (d, =7.9 Hz, 2H), 6.94 -6.92 (m, 3H), 6.61 (d, =7.5 Hz, 2H), 3.95 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 155.3, 154.5, 149.3, 140.1, 130.8, 128.2, 127.8, 127.7, 127.3, 125.5, 125.4, 125.2, 125.0, 124.8, 124.3, 123.2, 121.7, 120.8, 103.3, 55.7.

[00229] CHW-25

[00230] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.73 (s, IH), 8.31 - 8.29 (m, IH), 8.16- 8.14 (m, IH), 7.87 -7.81 (m, 3H), 7.71 (d, 7=4.1 Hz, IH), 7.69 (d, 7=6.4 Hz, IH), 7.48 -7.43 (m, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 166.5, 160.1, 157.5, 138.1, 131.4, 131.4, 130.9, 130.8, 128.6, 128.2, 127.3, 127.1, 127.1, 126.4, 126.3, 125.4, 125.3, 122.9, 122.7, 121.3, 120.2, 120.1, 108.8, 108.6; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C 17H12NOFC1 [M+H] + : 300.0591, found 300.0596.

[00231] CHW-26

[00232] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.90 (s, IH), 9.16 (s, IH), 8.46 (s, IH), 8.40 (d, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 8.29 (d, 7=8.5 Hz, IH), 7.88 ~ 7.79 (m, 4H), 7.46 (d, 7=8.5 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.2, 143.8, 137.7, 136.0, 132.1, 132.0, 131.0, 130.8, 128.6, 128.4, 127.7, 126.4, 125.3, 121.6, 118.3; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 17H10N2O3C1 [M-H] " : 325.0380, found 325.0386. -27

[00234] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.64 (s, IH), 7.85 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.83 (d, 7=8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.58 (d, 7=8.2 Hz, IH), 7.42 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.32 (t, 7=7.2 Hz, IH), 7.16-7.14 (m, 2H), 6.95 (d, 7=1.8 Hz, IH), 5.57 (s, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 167.5, 145.6, 138.2, 135.3, 128.6, 127.1, 126.2, 125.6, 124.8, 122.7, 121.8, 121.19, 117.6, 107.8; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 17H14N20C1 [M+H] + : 297.0795, found 297.0793. [00235] CHW-28

[00236] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.91 (s, IH), 8.18 (d, 7=9.1 Hz, IH), 8.09 (d, 7=7.5 Hz, IH), 7.87 (d, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 7.80-7.77 (m, 2H), 7.69-7.63 (m, 3H), 7.47 -7.44 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 163.2, 143.0, 137.6, 131.3, 131.0, 130.0, 128.8, 128.2, 128.1, 127.7, 127.4, 126.9, 124.8, 121.3, 120.9, 38.3; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 18H14N04SC1 [M+Na] + : 398.0230, found 398.0238. -29

[00238] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.88 (s, IH), 8.15 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 8.08 (d, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 8.02 (d, 7=8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.89 (d, 7=8.0 Hz, IH), 7.73 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.67 -7.60 (m, 3H), 7.38 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.06 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, 2H), 3.83 (s,3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 163.8, 163.7, 163.6, 144.8, 137.6, 131.8, 130.9, 130.2, 130.1, 128.6, 128.2, 127.6, 127.4, 126.5, 126.1, 124.6, 122.0, 121.2, 120.4, 114.2, 55.6; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C25H18N04NaCl [M+Na] + : 454.0822, found 454.0823. -30

[00240] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.72 (s, IH), 8.13 (d, 7=9.1 Hz, IH), 8.06 (dd, 7=6.9, 1.8 Hz, IH), 7.86 (t, 7=9.4 Hz, 3H), 7.73 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.68 (d, 7=8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.64 -7.62 (m, 2H), 7.56 (t, 7=7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.47 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 7.43 (d, 7=8.7 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 162.3, 142.8, 137.6, 134.9, 134.8, 131.3, 131.0, 130.1, 129.6, 128.6, 128.2, 128.1, 127.8, 127.4, 127.4, 126.8, 125.0, 121.1, 120.4; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C23H16N04NaSCl [M+Na] + : 460.0386, found 460.0380. -31

[00242] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 9.38 (d, 7=8.6 Hz, IH), 8.46 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 8.13 (d, 7=7.9 Hz, IH), 7.80-7.77 (m, IH), 7.68 -7.61 (m, 4H), 7.54-7.52 (m, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 161.4, 154.3, 147.3, 137.9, 134.3, 133.3, 130.7, 130.4, 129.9, 129.8, 129.1, 126.4, 124.5, 116.3, 106.8; -32

[00244] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 9.19 (d, 7=8.5 Hz, IH), 8.45 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 8.13 (d, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 7.81 -7.75 (m, IH), 7.70-7.64 (m, 3H), 7.61 -7.60 (m, 2H), 7.58 (d, 7=1.2 Hz, IH); -33

[00246] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.60 (s, IH), 8.56 (d, 7=8.35 Hz, IH), 8.31 (d, 7=8.2 Hz, IH), 8.16 (d, 7=7.2 Hz, IH), 8.08 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 8.06- 8.02 (m, 2H), 7.77 - 7.75 (m, IH), 7.63 -7.53 (m, 5H), 7.39 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 7.37 (d, 7=8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.29 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 162.1, 142.8, 137.4, 136.3, 133.7, 131.3, 130.9, 130.6, 130.5, 130.1, 129.1, 128.8, 128.3, 128.1, 128.0, 127.5, 127.5, 127.2, 127.1, 126.8, 124.9, 124.4, 123.9, 120.8, 120.8; -34

[00248] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.66 (s, IH), 8.57 (d, 7=0.9 Hz, IH), 8.13 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 8.06 - 8.04 (m, 2H), 8.03 -7.99 (m, 2H), 7.81 -7.79 (m, 2H), 7.75 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.67 (t, 7=7.5 Hz, IH), 7.63 -7.61 (m, 2H), 7.53 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 7.51 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.26 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 162.3, 142.9, 137.4, 135.0, 131.9, 131.4, 131.3, 131.1, 130.1, 129.9, 129.9, 129.7, 129.5, 128.4, 128.2, 128.0, 127.8, 127.8, 127.4, 126.8, 125.0, 122.1, 120.8, 120.7; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C27H17N04SC1 [M-H] " : 486.0567, found 486.0563. -35

[00250] HRMS (ESI) S caled, for C23H16N02 [M-H] " : 338.1181, found 338.1177. [00251] CHW-36

[00252] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.58 (s, IH), 10.17 (brs, IH), 8.18 (d, 7=6.8 Hz, IH), 7.84 (d, 7=4.0 Hz, IH), 7.82 (d, J=2.9 Hz, IH), 7.77-7.72 (m, 2H), 7.45 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.31 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.23 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 7.00 (d, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 2.39 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.4, 156.5, 151.9, 151.5, 138.3, 131.5, 130.4, 127.9, 127.4, 126.8, 123.5, 122.8, 118.7, 118.3, 117.7, 110.9, 40.0; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C17H15N202 [M+H] + : 279.1134, found 279.1140. -37

[00254] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 11.53 (brs, IH), 9.61 (s, IH), 8.40 (d, 7=11.1 Hz, 2H), 7.90 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.83 (t, 7=9.7 Hz, 2H), 7.45 (t, 7=7.0 Hz, IH), 7.30 (t, 7=7.3 Hz, IH), 7.21 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.9, 153.8, 149.2, 142.7, 139.6, 136.7, 131.7, 130.9, 128.0, 127.2, 127.0, 123.4, 122.7, 119.0, 116.1; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C15H12N302 [M+H] + : 266.0930, found 266.0934. -38

[00256] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 11.37 (s, IH), 10.27 (s ,1H), 9.01 (dd, 7=4.6, 1.3 Hz, IH), 8.57 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 7.86 (d, 7=7.4 Hz, 2H), 7.79 -7.73 (m, 2H), 7.48 -7.43 (m, IH), 7.33 (t, 7=7.1 Hz, IH), 7.24 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH); HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C15Hl lN302Na [M+Na] + : 288.0749, found 288.0744.

[00257] CHW-39

[00258] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.40 (s, IH), 12.12 (brs, IH), 7.88 -7.85 (m, 4H), 7.74 (d, =8.4 Hz, IH), 7.47 (t, =7.5 Hz, IH), 7.37 (t, =7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.34 (t, =7.7 Hz, IH), 7.28 (d, =8.9 Hz, IH), 7.11 (t, =7.3 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.7, 151.6, 139.6, 131.4, 130.1, 128.6, 127.9, 127.4, 126.9, 123.4, 123.3, 122.9, 1 19.3, 118.6, 118.4; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C17H14N02 [M+H] + : 264.1025, found 264.1018. -40

[00260] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.08 (s, IH), 7.82 (d, =3.4 Hz, IH), 7.80 (d, =4.3 Hz, IH), 7.53 (d, =8.2 Hz, IH), 7.45 (td, =7.5, 0.9 Hz, IH), 7.31 (t, =7.0 Hz, IH), 7.19 (d, =8.9 Hz, IH), 3.87 -3.83 (m, IH), 3.69 ~ 3.67 (m, IH), 3.52 ~ 3.34 (m, 4H), 3.19 -3.08 (m, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 166.1, 150.7, 131.0, 129.9, 128.0, 127.5, 126.9, 123.2, 123.0, 118.0, 115.9, 66.5, 66.2, 46.4, 41.4; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C15H16N03 [M+H] + : 258.1130, found 258.1135. -41 -42 [00263] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.52 (s, IH), 7.98 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 7.90 (d, 7=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.46 -7.43 (m, IH), 7.36 ~ 7.33 (m, 2H), 7.29 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 6.30 (s, 2H); HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C15H12N02 [M+H] + : 238.0868, found 238.0861. -43

[00265] HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C16H11N03SC1 [M-H]-: 322.0148, found 322.0156. -44

-45

[00268] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 9.76 (s, IH), 8.94 (s, IH), 8.00 (s, IH), 7.83 (d, 7=8.5 Hz, IH), 7.80 (d, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 7.69 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, IH), 7.44 (td, 7=11.5, 1.1 Hz, IH), 7.35 (d, 7=8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.30 (t, 7=7.1 Hz, IH), 7.20 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, IH), 7.07 (d, 7=8.2 Hz, 2H), 2.24 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 154.4, 149.7, 137.4, 131.5, 130.3, 129.1, 128.1, 127.7, 126.9, 125.9, 122.7, 122.1, 118.9, 118.0, 117.3, 20.3; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 18H15N202 [M-H] " : 291.1134, found 291.1128.

[00269] CHW-46

[00270] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 9.75 (s, IH), 8.86 (s, IH), 7.97 (s, IH), 7.85 (d, 7=8.5 Hz, IH), 7.80 (d, 7=8.0 Hz, IH), 7.68 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, IH), 7.44 (td, 7=11.5, 1.0 Hz, IH), 7.39-7.36 (m, 2H), 7.30 (t, 7=7.1 Hz, IH), 7.20 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, IH), 6.88 -6.85 (m, 2H), 3.71 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 154.6, 154.3, 149.5, 133.0, 131.3, 128.1, 127.6, 126.8, 125.8, 122.6, 122.0, 119.7, 118.9, 117.3, 113.9, 55.1, ; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C18H15N203 [M+-H] " : 307.1083, found 307.1078. 00271] CHW-47

[00272] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.50 (s, IH), 10.10 (s, IH), 7.85 (t, 7=8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.80 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.69 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.54 (d, 7=8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.46 (td, 7=7.6, 0.9 Hz, IH), 7.33 (td, 7=7.4, 0.6 Hz, IH), 7.26 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.8, 151.6, 138.9, 131.4, 131.3, 130.2, 127.9, 127.3, 126.9, 123.2, 122.9, 121.1, 118.3, 118.2, 114.7; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C17Hl lN02Br [M-H] " : 339.9973, 341.9953 (Br pattern), found 339.9978, 341.9940. 00273] CHW-48

[00274] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.63 (s, IH), 10.35 (s, IH), 8.43 (t, 7=7.7 Hz, IH), 7.92 (d, 7=10.7 Hz, IH), 7.88 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 7.85 (d, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 7.82 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.77 (d, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 7.48 (t, 7=7.2 Hz, IH), 7.33 (t, 7=7.2 Hz, IH), 7.24 (d, 7=8.8 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.4, 153.3, 152.4, 151.4, 131.6, 131.5, 131.5, 130.9, 129.3, 128.0, 127.4, 127.1, 123.9, 123.3, 123.0, 119.6, 119.4, 118.3, 117.9, 116.8, 106.5, 106.4; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C18H10N2O2F [M-H]-: 305.0726, found 305.0730; HPLC purity 99.72%. [00275] CHW-49

[00276] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.74 (s, IH), 10.16 (s, IH), 8.38 (s, IH), 8.27 (s, IH), 8.12 (d, 7=8.2 Hz, IH), 7.92 (d, 7=8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.85 (d, 7=8.0 Hz, IH), 7.51 (t, 7=7.5 Hz, IH), 7.35 (t, 7=7.3 Hz, IH), 7.28 (d, 7=8.3 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.9, 153.0, 140.9, 136.3, 133.4, 132.3, 131.8, 128.1, 127.7, 127.3, 124.5, 123.8, 123.2, 118.2, 117.5, 115.5, 113.4, 108.0; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C18H10N2O2Br [M-H] " : 364.9926, found 364.9922, HPLC purity 95.61%. -50

[00278] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.55 (s, IH), 10.12 (s, IH), 8.21 (s, IH), 7.86 (t, 7=9.0 Hz, 2H), 7.77 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.43 (t, 7=7.5 Hz, IH), 7.35 -7.33 (m, IH), 7.32- 7.28 (m, 2H), 7.26 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.0, 151.7, 141.1, 131.2, 130.6, 130.3, 127.9, 127.3, 127.0, 125.8, 123.2, 123.0, 121.5, 121.5, 118.3, 118.1, 118.0; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C17Hl lN02Br [M-H] " : 339.9973, 341.9953 (Br pattern), found 339.9973, 341.9955; . -51

[00280] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.38 (s, IH), 9.81 (s, IH), 8.12 (d, 7= 8.0 Hz, IH), 8.02 (s, IH), 7.89 (d, 7= 8.8 Hz, IH), 7.85 (d, 7= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.71 (d, 7= 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.51 (t, 7=7.6 Hz, IH), 7.47 (s, IH), 7.35 (t, 7= 7.4 Hz, IH), 7.28 (d, 7=8.7 Hz, IH), 7.18 (t, 7= 6.8 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.9, 152.4, 136.5, 132.8, 131.7, 130.9, 128.1, 128.1, 127.6, 127.1, 127.0, 126.7, 123.9, 123.1, 118.3, 117.7, 116.9; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 17Hl lN02Br [M-H] " : 339.9973, 341,9953 (Br pattern), found 339.9969, 341.9953. 00281] CHW-52

[00282] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 11.22 (s, IH), 10.36 (s, IH), 8.55 (s, IH), 8.20 (d, 7= 8.0 Hz, IH), 8.15 (d, 7= 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.91 (d, 7= 8.8 Hz, IH), 7.87 (d, 7= 7.9 Hz, IH), 7.72 (d, 7= 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.48 (t, 7= 7.3 Hz, IH), 7.35 (t, 7= 7.2 Hz, IH), 7.30 (d, 7= 8.8 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 167.0, 152.2, 144.0, 136.5, 132.2, 132.0, 131.7, 131.5, 131.1, 131.0, 128.1, 127.4, 127.3, 125.8, 123.6, 123.2, 123.1, 122.1, 121.4, 119.2, 118.3, 117.3, 116.6, 116.5, 115.9, 101.7; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C 19H10N2O2F3 [M-H] " : 355.0694, found 355.0697; HPLC purity 99.46%. 00283] CHW-53

[00284] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 11.12 (s, IH), 8.28 (s, IH), 8.27 (d, 7=1.1 Hz, IH), 7.94 (d, 7=8.6 Hz, IH), 7.89 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH), 7.85 (d, 7=8.0 Hz, IH), 7.80 (dd, 7=8.7, 1.2 Hz, IH), 7.69 (d, 7=8.4 Hz, IH), 7.46 (t, 7=7.5 Hz, IH), 7.33 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 7.25 (d, 7=8.9 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 166.8, 152.4, 144.7, 136.0, 135.2, 131.2, 130.9, 128.0, 127.2, 123.1, 119.1, 118.4, 117.8, 117.1, 116.3, 105.4; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C18H11N202 [M-H] " : 287.0821, found 287.0829; HPLC purity 99.99%. 00285] CHW-54

[00286] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.96 (s, IH), 7.99 (d, 7= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.86 (d, 7= 13.0, 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.82 (d, 7= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.71 (d, 7= 8.4 Hz, IH), 7.46 (t, 7= 7.5 Hz, IH), 7.32 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, IH), 7.25 (d, J= 8.9 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.5, 152.3, 143.7, 133.2, 131.3, 130.6, 128.0, 127.3, 127.1, 123.1, 123.0, 119.2, 119.1, 118.5, 117.5, 104.9;; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 18H10N2O2C1 [M-H] " : 321.0431, found 321.0437. -55

[00288] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.76 (s, IH), 10.37 (s, IH), 8.36 (d, =8.4 Hz, IH), 8.05 - 8.02 (m, 3H), 7.91 (d, =8.1 Hz, IH), 7.62 (d, =8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.57 -7.50 (m, 2H), 7.41 (t, =7.3 Hz, IH), 3.92 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 165.8, 164.7, 153.4, 136.6, 131.3, 131.2, 130.7, 129.5, 128.5, 128.0, 127.6, 126.9, 124.7, 123.8, 119.4, 113.7, 56.3; 00289] CHW-56

[00290] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.95 (s, IH), 8.08 (d, = 9.1 Hz, IH), 8.00 (d, = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.95 (d, = 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.84 (d, = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.77 (d, = 8.5 Hz, IH), 7.57 (d, = 9.1 Hz, IH), 7.539 (t, = 7.6 Hz, IH), 7.42 (t, = 7.4 Hz, IH), 3.94 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.0, 153.3, 143.5, 133.3, 130.9, 130.5, 128.7, 128.0, 127.5, 124.0, 123.3, 120.5, 119.3, 119.1, 113.8, 105.2, 56.4; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C19H13N202 [M- H] " : 301.0977, found 301.0974. 00291] CHW-57

[00292] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 11.31 (s, IH), 8.52 (s, IH), 8.19 (d, = 8.6 Hz, IH), 8.15 (d, = 8.5 Hz, IH), 8.11 (d, = 9.1 Hz, IH), 7.97 (d, = 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.74 (d, = 8.4.1 Hz, IH), 7.59 (d, 7= 9.1 Hz, IH), 7.54 (t, 7= 7.6 Hz, IH), 7.43 (t, 7= 7.4 Hz, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.6, 153.4, 143.8, 136.6, 132.3, 132.0, 131.8, 131.5, 131.3, 130.4, 128.1, 128.0, 127.7, 125.7, 124.1, 123.5, 123.3, 122.1, 121.3, 119.9, 119.2, 116.6, 116.5, 116.5, 116.5, 115.8, 113.7, 101.9, 101.9, 56.5; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C20H12N2O2F3 [M-H] " : 369.0851, found 369.0845. 00293] CHW-58

[00294] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.73 (s, IH), 8.40 (t, 7=8.1 Hz, IH), 8.07 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, IH), 7.95 -7.92 (m, 2H), 7.75 (t, 7=8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.56 -7.51 (m, 2H), 7.41 (t, 7=7.4 Hz, IH), 3.94 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 166.1, 153.7, 153.5, 151.2, 131.3, 131.2, 130.9, 130.6, 129.3, 129.3, 128.0, 128.0, 127.4, 124.2, 124.2, 123.8, 123.4, 120.1, 119.8, 119.5, 117.8, 117.8, 113.8, 106.8, 106.7, 56.5; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 19H12N202F [M-H] " : 319.0883, found 319.0876. 295] CHW-59

[00296] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.23 (s, IH), 8.29 (s, IH), 8.16 (d, 7= 7.9 Hz, IH), 8.08 (d, 7= 9.0 Hz, IH), 7.93 (dd, 7= 11.5, 8.5 Hz, 3H), 7.57-7.54 (m, 2H), 7.46 (d, 7= 7.2 Hz, IH), 3.99 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 165.6, 153.7, 140.8, 136.5, 132.1, 131.2, 130.7, 128.1, 128.0, 127.4, 126.4, 123.9, 123.7, 119.6, 117.4, 117.0, 113.8, 108.8, 56.6; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 19H12N202Br [M-H] " : 379.0082, 381.0062 (Br pattern), found 379.0081, 381.0056. -60

[00298] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.88 (s, IH), 9.04 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, IH), 8.20 (d, = 9.19 Hz, IH), 7.96 (d, = 8.0 Hz, IH), Ί .10-1.66 (m, IH), 7.59 (d, = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 1.52-1 Al (m, 2H), 7.18 (d, = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 3.96 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 156.9, 142.8, 136.5, 133.3, 130.7, 129.1, 128.8, 128.5, 124.2, 123.0, 118.6, 118.2, 117.5, 113.7, 104.6, 57.1; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C18H13N203S [M-H] " : 337.0647, found 337.0648. -61

[00300] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 11.25 (s, 2H), 8.83 (d, = 8.8 Hz, IH), 8.01 (d, = 9.0 Hz, IH), 7.87 (d, = 7.9 Hz, IH), 7.64-7.58 (m, 3H), 7.42 (t, = 7.4 Hz, IH), 7.17 (d, = 9.0 Hz, IH), 7.14 (d, = 8.6 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 156.6, 143.3, 136.1, 133.3, 130.4, 129.0, 128.5, 127.9, 123.7, 122.9, 118.8, 117.5, 114.4, 113.4, 104.1; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C17H11N203S [M-H] " : 323.0490, found 323.0485. -62

[00302] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.71 (s, IH), 8.67 (d, = 8.6 Hz, IH), 8.23 (d, = 8.2 Hz, IH), 8.19 (d, = 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.73 (dd, = 4.2, 1.0 Hz, IH), 7.61 (t, = 7.4 Hz, IH), 7.19-7.17 (m, 2H), 7.04-7.01 (m, 3H), 3.99 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 159.1, 136.7, 132.2, 128.9, 128.5, 128.5, 127.3, 126.3, 125.2, 125.1, 124.1, 122.4, 120.2, 102.7, 56.2; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C17H13N03SC1 [M-H] " : 346.0305, found 346.0298. -63

[00304] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 11.28 (s, IH), 8.62 (d, = 8.7 Hz, IH), 8.30 (d, = 8.4 Hz, IH), 8.25 (d, = 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.75 (t, = 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.63 (t, = 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.59 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.15 (d, J= 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.10 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, IH), 4.04 (s, 3H); HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 18H13N203S [M-H] " : 337.0647, found 337.0652. 00305] CHW-64

[00306] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 9.77 (s, IH), 9.59 (s, IH), 8.02-7.95 (m, 2H), 7.96 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, IH), 7.85 -7.81 (m, 2H), 7.77 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.70 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, IH), 7.45 -7.40 (m, IH), 7.31 -7.26 (m, IH), 7.03 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 152.0, 146.0, 133.6, 132.7, 129.1, 128.1, 127.6, 127.6, 126.3, 122.9, 122.7, 118.1, 117.9, 114.5, 114.0; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C17H11N203S [M-H] " : 323.0490, found 323.0497. 00307] CHW-65

[00308] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 9.90 (s, IH), 8.07 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.93 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.90 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, IH), 7.82 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.78 (d, J= 8.9 Hz, IH), 7.51 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, IH), 7.34 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, IH), 7.09 (d, J= 8.9 Hz, IH), 3.23 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 152.7, 143.8, 133.5, 132.9, 130.0, 128.1, 128.1, 127.8, 127.0, 123.1, 122.1, 118.8, 118.4, 117.8, 114.9, 36.9; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C18H13N203S [M-H] " : 337.0647, found 337.0638. 00309] CHW-66

[00310] l H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ ;HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C 19H13N204S [M-H] " : 365.0596, found 365.0603. [00311] CHW-67

[00312] l H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 8.97 (dd, = 4.5, 1.2 Hz, IH), 8.79 (d, = 8.4, 1.2 Hz, IH), 8.35 (d, = 9.2 Hz, IH), 8.19 (d, = 8.5 Hz, IH), 8.08 (d, = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.78 - 7.69 (m, 3H), 7.55 (t, = 7.5 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 163.8, 156.8, 152.9, 140.0, 135.1, 134.5, 130.4, 129.9, 129.1, 128.8, 127.8, 124.8, 122.4, 121.8, 113.6, 108.6, 57.1 ; -68

[00314] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 8.97 (dd, = 4.0, 0.1 Hz, IH), 8.78 (dd, = 8.3, 0.1 Hz, IH), 8.34 (d, = 9.1 Hz, IH), 8.19 (d, = 8.4 Hz, IH), 8.07 (d, = 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.75 (t, = 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.74-7.69 (m, 2H), 7.54 (t, = 7.43 Hz, IH), 4.12 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 163.7, 156.8, 152.9, 140.0, 135.1, 134.5, 130.4, 129.9, 129.1, 128.8, 127.8, 124.7, 122.4, 121.8, 113.6, 108.6, 57.1 ; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C 17H13N403 [M+H] + : 321.0988, found 321.0981. 00315] CHW-69

[00316] l H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz): δ 10.77 (s, IH), 10.20 (s, IH), 8.02 (d, = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.87 (t, = 9.8 Hz, 2H), 7.73 (d, = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.68 (d, = 8.5 Hz, IH), 7.46 (t, = 7.5 Hz, IH), 7.33 (t, = 7.4 Hz, IH), 7.26 (d, = 8.9 Hz, IH); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 125 MHz): δ 166.3, 151.8, 143.1, 131.2, 130.4, 128.0, 127.3, 127.1, 126.0, 126.0, 126.0, 125.5, 123.4, 123.3, 123.2, 123.2, 123.0, 119.1, 118.3, 118.0; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C18H13N02F3 [M+H] + : 322.0898, found 322.0898; HPLC purity 96.10%.

[00317] CHW-70

[00318] l H NMR (500 MHz, d 6 DMSO): δ 11.01 (s, 1H), 10.29 (s, 1H), 8.27 (d, 7 =1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.98 (d, 7 = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.90 (d, 7 = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (d, 7 = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.80 (dd, 7 = 8.6, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, 7 = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.49 ~ 7.45 (m, 1H), 7.36 ~ 7.32 (m, 1H), 7.26 (d, 7 = 8.9 Hz, 1H); HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd. for C18H10N2O2C1 [M-H]-: 321.0431, found 321.0433; HPLC purity 56.90%. 00319] CHW-71

[00320] l H NMR (500 MHz, d 6 DMSO): δ 10.79 (s, 1H), 10.48 (s, 1H), 8.60 (dd, 7 = 8.9, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (d, 7 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.39 (d, 7 = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 8.06 (d, 7 = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.93 (d, 7 = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (d, 7 = 8.10 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (t, 7 = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (d, 7 = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, 7 = 8.9 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (DMSO, 100 MHz): δ 166.6, 153.2, 143.7, 143.6, 141.7, 131.9, 131.7, 128.2, 127.7, 127.3, 126.6, 123.9, 123.7, 123.3, 122.4, 122.3, 122.3, 122.2, 122.1, 121.2, 118.5, 118.2, 115.2, 115.2; HRMS (APCI) m/z calcd. for C18H12N204F3 [M+H] + : 377.0749, found 377.0758; HPLC purity 97.84%.

Biological assays of exemplary compounds described herein

Example 1. Evidence that CHW-10 and CHW-71 are CREB inhibitors - Validation of the ability of CHW-10 and CHW-71 to disrupt the complex formation of CREB with CBP

[00321] Co-immunoprecipitation analysis was employed to validate the suppressive effect of CHW-10 and CHW-71, each at 2.5 μΜ, vis-a-vis AS-E (I) at 5 μΜ on the interaction of CBP with CREB, and other CBP binding partners, including β-catenin and p53. As shown, CHW- 10, and especially, CHW-71 were more effective than AS-E in inhibiting the complex formation (FIG. 3). It is also noteworthy that treatment with these compounds reduced expression of CBP.

Example 2. Clinical applications

1. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)

[00322] Evidence was obtained that CHW-71 was effective in inhibiting the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, in part, by blocking the expression of glycoprotein 130 (gpl30) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), leading the inhibition of the IL-6-Jak2-Stat3 signaling pathway (FIG. 4, left). This down-regulation was mediated via a CREB/CBP- dependent mechanism as shRNA-mediated knockdown of CREB or CBP mimicked the effect of CHW-71 on all relevant biomarkers (right).

[00323] In light of the dependency of TNBC cells on the IL-6-Jak-Stat3 pathway for survival, the ability of CHW-71 to block this signaling pathway is noteworthy. The proof-of-concept of using these CREB inhibitors for the treatment of TNBC is further demonstrated by the in vivo efficacy of CHW-71 [50 and 100 mg per gram (mpg) daily] via oral gavage in suppressing the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors in nude mice after 28 days of treatment (FIG. 5).

2. The effect of CHW-71 on signaling targets is not cell line- or cell type-specific

[00324] In addition to TNBC cells, CHW-71 was also effective in suppressing the expression of the aforementioned key biomarkers, including CREB, CBP, EGFR, gpl30, p-Stat3, and cyclin Al, in H1975 and A549 lung cancer cells (FIG. 6). This finding indicates that the effect of these CREB inhibitors on signaling targets was not cell line- or cell type-specific.

3. Pancreatic fibrosis

[00325] 3.1. Cerulein treatment in KRAS G12D/+ ;Pdx-l-Cre mice induced acute pancreatitis at high dose. Wild type mice and KRAS G12D/+ ;Pdx-l-Cre mice (30 days of age) were stimulated with 250 μg/kg cerulein by daily intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) for 5 days followed by another 21 days of recovery, and then sacrifice of each mice (FIG. 7). To quantify the extent of fibrosis in the stroma, the pancreas tissue were collected for H&E and Maison's trichrome staining. In cerulean-treated KRAS G12D/+ ;Pdx-l-Cre (KC) mice, the pancreas tissue developed from mild (7 days), moderate (14 days), to severe (21 days) pancreatic fibrosis, but not in other littermate controls or unstimulated KC mice (FIG. 8). The data suggested that cerulein treatment was able to trigger fibrogenesis in the genetic background of mutant KRAS expression in the epithelial and acinar cells.

[00326] 3.2. CREB inhibitor blocked acute pancreatitis associated pancreatic fibrosis.

[00327] To examine whether pancreatic fibrosis could be inhibited by small molecule CREB inhibitor, KC mice completed acute cerulein-induction (35d of age, n=5) were randomly assigned to receive CHW-71 at 25 mg/kg i.p. (n=3), 100 mg/kg p.o. (n=3), or equivalent vehicle control for another 21 days 3 times a week for 3 weeks (FIGs. 10A and 10B, respectively). At the end of the last cycle of CHW-71 treatment, the mice were sacrificed. Our data showed that both dose regimens decreased the extent and the area of fibrosis (FIG. 9). Consistently, independent replication of this experiment showed significantly decreased level of pancreatic fibrosis via 100 mg/kg p.o. CHW-71 based on the murine acute pancreatitis model (Fig. 13). In this acute pancreatitis model, KC mice that completed acute cerulein-induction (35d of age, n=5) were randomly assigned to receive exemplary compound CHW-71 at 100 mg/kg p.o. (n=3), or equivalent vehicle control for another 21 days 3 times a week for 3 weeks (Fig. 13A and Fig. l3B, respectively).

[00328] 4. Liver fibrosis

[00329] CHW-71 inhibits the CREB and fibroblast makers expression in LX2 hepatic stellate cells.

[00330] Western blot analysis of the dose-dependent effects of CHW-71 on the protein expression levels of a-SMA, fibronectin, cllagen, p-CREB and CREB in LX2 hepatic stellate cells after 48 hours of treatment (FIG. 10).

[00331] CHW-71-induced LX-2 cells senescence could be mediated via a STAT3- dependent mechanism.

[00332] LX2 cells were exposed to with CHW-71 at 2.5 μΜ for 3 and 7 days. CHW-71- induced LX2 cell senescence was determined by senescence-associated β-galactosidase analysis (FIG. 11).

Example 3. In vivo efficacy of Compound CHW-71 in nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 xenografts via oral gavage.

[00333] MDA-MB-231 cells (1 x 10 6 ) were transplanted subcutaneously into the nude mice. After 7 days, nude mice-bearing MDA-MB-231 subcutaneous tumors were treated with different doses of compound CHW-71 (50 or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle were given via oral gavage everyday for 4 weeks. Weights and tumor volumes of mice were measured were measured after tumor cell inoculation every 7 days for a period of 4 weeks. Data are expressed as mean + SD (n = 7), ***P < 0.005. C. Western blot analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of treatment using exemplary compound CHW-71 on the

phosphorylation/expression levels of CBP, CREB, gpl30, EGFR, c-jun, JAK2, Stat3 as well as CREB downstream targets CyclinA, Cyclin Dl, and Bcl-2 in tumor ly sates from different treatment groups, including in nude mice-bearing DA -MB -231 subcutaneous tumors. (Figure 12).

EQUIVALENTS AND SCOPE

[00334] In the claims articles such as "a," "an," and "the" may mean one or more than one unless indicated to the contrary or otherwise evident from the context. Claims or descriptions that include "or" between one or more members of a group are considered satisfied if one, more than one, or all of the group members are present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process unless indicated to the contrary or otherwise evident from the context. The disclosure includes embodiments in which exactly one member of the group is present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process. The disclosure includes embodiments in which more than one, or all of the group members are present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process.

[00335] Furthermore, the disclosure encompasses all variations, combinations, and permutations in which one or more limitations, elements, clauses, and descriptive terms from one or more of the listed claims is introduced into another claim. For example, any claim that is dependent on another claim can be modified to include one or more limitations found in any other claim that is dependent on the same base claim. Where elements are presented as lists, e.g., in Markush group format, each subgroup of the elements is also disclosed, and any element(s) can be removed from the group. It should it be understood that, in general, where the disclosure, or aspects described herein, is/are referred to as comprising particular elements and/or features, certain embodiments described herein or aspects described herein consist, or consist essentially of, such elements and/or features. For purposes of simplicity, those embodiments have not been specifically set forth in haec verba herein. It is also noted that the terms "comprising" and "containing" are intended to be open and permits the inclusion of additional elements or steps. Where ranges are given, endpoints are included. Furthermore, unless otherwise indicated or otherwise evident from the context and understanding of one of ordinary skill in the art, values that are expressed as ranges can assume any specific value or sub-range within the stated ranges in different embodiments described herein, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit of the range, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[00336] This application refers to various issued patents, published patent applications, journal articles, and other publications, all of which are incorporated herein by reference. If there is a conflict between any of the incorporated references and the instant specification, the specification shall control. In addition, any particular embodiment of the present disclosure that falls within the prior art may be explicitly excluded from any one or more of the claims. Because such embodiments are deemed to be known to one of ordinary skill in the art, they may be excluded even if the exclusion is not set forth explicitly herein. Any particular embodiment described herein can be excluded from any claim, for any reason, whether or not related to the existence of prior art.

[00337] Those skilled in the art will recognize or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation many equivalents to the specific embodiments described herein. The scope of the present embodiments described herein is not intended to be limited to the above Description, but rather is as set forth in the appended claims. Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that various changes and modifications to this description may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the present disclosure, as defined in the following claims.