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Title:
INHIBITORS OF SHORT-CHAIN DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY FOR TREATING CORONARY DISORDERS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/187810
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method of treating preventing, minimizing, and/or reversing congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction in a subject in need thereof includes administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a 15-PGDH inhibitor.

Inventors:
MARKOWTIZ SANFORD (US)
HO WON JIN (US)
YUAN YIYUAN (US)
JAIN MUKESH (US)
SABEH MOHAMED (US)
READY JOSEPH (US)
WILLIAMS NOELLE (US)
Application Number:
US2018/026739
Publication Date:
October 11, 2018
Filing Date:
April 09, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIV CASE WESTERN RESERVE (US)
BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIVERISTY OF TEXAS (US)
International Classes:
A61K31/4365; A61K31/437; A61K31/444; A61K31/495; A61K31/496; A61K31/519
Domestic Patent References:
WO2016168472A12016-10-20
WO2017152044A12017-09-08
Foreign References:
US20030096823A12003-05-22
US20110269954A12011-11-03
Other References:
OLSON ET AL.: "Protection from Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Mice with a Null Allele of Carbonyl Reductase 1", CANCER RESEARCH, vol. 63, 15 October 2003 (2003-10-15), pages 6602 - 6606, XP055543719
MORDENTE ET AL.: "Human Heart Cytosolic Reductases and Anthracycline Cardiotoxicity", IUBMB LIFE, vol. 52, 2001, pages 83 - 88, XP055543725
PISKA ET AL.: "Metabolic carbonyl reduction of anthracyclines role in cardiotoxicity and cancer resistance: Reducing enzymes as putative targets for novel cardioprotective and chemosensitizing agents", INVEST NEW DRUGS, vol. 35, no. 3, 10 March 2017 (2017-03-10), pages 375 - 385, XP055543727
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SUTKUS, Richard A. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
The following is claimed: 1. A method of treating preventing, minimizing, and/or reversing congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a 15-PGDH inhibitor. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction is induced by treatment of the subject with a chemotherapeutic. 3. The method of claim 2, wherein the chemotherapeutic comprises an anthracycline. 4. The method of claim 3, wherein the anthracycline is selected from the group consisting of doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, valrubicin, pirarubicin, amrubicin, aclarubicin, and zorubicin. 5. The method of claim 2, wherein the chemotherapeutic comprises an anti-ErB2 or anti-HER2 antibody. 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula (V):

wherein n is 0-2

X6 is independently is N or CRc R1, R6, R7, and Rc are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, C2-C24 alkenyl, C2-C24 alkynyl, C3-C20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, C6-C24 alkaryl, C6-C24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C1-C3 alkyl)3, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2- C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl, C6-C20

aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C24 alkylcarbonato, C6-C20 arylcarbonato, carboxy, carboxylato, carbamoyl, C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl, arylcarbamoyl, thiocarbamoyl, carbamido, cyano, isocyano, cyanato, isocyanato, isothiocyanato, azido, formyl, thioformyl, amino, C1-C24 alkyl amino, C5-C20 aryl amino, C2-C24 alkylamido, C6-C20 arylamido, imino, alkylimino, arylimino, nitro, nitroso, sulfo, sulfonato, C1-C24 alkylsulfanyl, arylsulfanyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl, C5-C20 arylsulfinyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfonyl, C5-C20 arylsulfonyl, sulfonamide, phosphono, phosphonato, phosphinato, phospho, phosphino, polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R6 and R7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U1 is N, C-R2, or C-NR3R4, wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH2)n1OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF3, CH2-CH2X, O-CH2- CH2X, CH2-CH2-CH2X, O-CH2-CH2X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R1 and R2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R3 and R4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH2)n1OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF3, CH2-CH2X, CH2-CH2-CH2X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R3 or R4 may be absent;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula (VI):

wherein n = 0-2;

X6 is N or CRc;

R1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including– (CH2)n1CH3 (n1=0-7), wherein n2=0-6 and X is any of the following: CFyHz (y + z = 3), CClyHz (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R71, OR72, CN, N(R73)2, (n3=0-5, m=1-5), and (n4=0-5).

R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Cl, F, NH2, and N(R76)2;

R6 and R7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from

the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, C2-C24 alkenyl, C2-C24 alkynyl, C3-C20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, C6-C24 alkaryl, C6-C24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C1-C3 alkyl)3, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2-C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl, C6-C20 aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C24 alkylcarbonato, C6-C20 arylcarbonato, carboxy, carboxylato, carbamoyl, C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl, arylcarbamoyl, thiocarbamoyl, carbamido, cyano, isocyano, cyanato, isocyanato, isothiocyanato, azido, formyl, thioformyl, amino, C1-C24 alkyl amino, C5-C20 aryl amino, C2-C24 alkylamido, C6-C20 arylamido, imino, alkylimino, arylimino, nitro, nitroso, sulfo, sulfonato, C1-C24 alkylsulfanyl, arylsulfanyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl, C5-C20 arylsulfinyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfonyl, C5-C20 arylsulfonyl, sulfonamide, phosphono, phosphonato, phosphinato, phospho, phosphino, polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and

pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula following formula:

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 9. A method of preventing or reducing the risk of acute or delayed cardiotoxic events to a subject treated with a chemotherapeutic agent, the method comprising:

administering to the subject having or at risk of the cardiotoxic event a therapeutically effective amount of a 15-PGDH inhibitor. 10. The method of claim 9, wherein the chemotherapeutic comprises an anthracycline. 11. The method of claim 10, wherein the anthracycline is selected from the group consisting of doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, valrubicin, pirarubicin, amrubicin, aclarubicin, and zorubicin. 12. The method of claim 10, wherein the chemotherapeutic comprises an anti- ErB2 or anti-HER2 antibody.

13. The method of claim 9, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula (V):

wherein n is 0-2

X6 is independently is N or CRc

R1, R6, R7, and Rc are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, C2-C24 alkenyl, C2-C24 alkynyl, C3-C20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, C6-C24 alkaryl, C6-C24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C1-C3 alkyl)3, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2- C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl, C6-C20

aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C24 alkylcarbonato, C6-C20 arylcarbonato, carboxy, carboxylato, carbamoyl, C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl, arylcarbamoyl, thiocarbamoyl, carbamido, cyano, isocyano, cyanato, isocyanato, isothiocyanato, azido, formyl, thioformyl, amino, C1-C24 alkyl amino, C5-C20 aryl amino, C2-C24 alkylamido, C6-C20 arylamido, imino, alkylimino, arylimino, nitro, nitroso, sulfo, sulfonato, C1-C24 alkylsulfanyl, arylsulfanyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl, C5-C20 arylsulfinyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfonyl, C5-C20 arylsulfonyl, sulfonamide, phosphono, phosphonato, phosphinato, phospho, phosphino, polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R6 and R7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U1 is N, C-R2, or C-NR3R4, wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH2)n1OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF3, CH2-CH2X, O-CH2- CH2X, CH2-CH2-CH2X, O-CH2-CH2X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R1 and R2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R3 and R4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH2)n1OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF3, CH2-CH2X, CH2-CH2-CH2X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R3 or R4 may be absent;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 14. The method of claim 9, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula (VI):

wherein n = 0-2;

X6 is N or CRc;

R1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including– (CH2)n1CH3 (n1=0-7), wherein n2=0-6 and X is any of the following: CFyHz (y + z = 3), CClyHz (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R71, OR72, CN, N(R73)2, (n3=0-5, m=1-5),

and (n4=0-5).

R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Cl, F, NH2, and N(R76)2;

R6 and R7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from

the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, C2-C24 alkenyl, C2-C24 alkynyl, C3-C20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, C6-C24 alkaryl, C6-C24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C1-C3 alkyl)3, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2-C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl, C6-C20 aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C24 alkylcarbonato, C6-C20 arylcarbonato, carboxy, carboxylato, carbamoyl, C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl, arylcarbamoyl, thiocarbamoyl, carbamido, cyano, isocyano, cyanato, isocyanato, isothiocyanato, azido, formyl, thioformyl, amino, C1-C24 alkyl amino, C5-C20 aryl amino, C2-C24 alkylamido, C6-C20 arylamido, imino, alkylimino, arylimino, nitro, nitroso, sulfo, sulfonato, C1-C24 alkylsulfanyl, arylsulfanyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl, C5-C20 arylsulfinyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfonyl, C5-C20 arylsulfonyl, sulfonamide, phosphono, phosphonato, phosphinato, phospho, phosphino, polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and

pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 15. The method of claim 9, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula following formula:

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 16. A method of treating cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising:

administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a chemotherapeutic and an amount of 15-PGDH inhibitor effective to reduce cardiotoxicity of the administered chemotherapeutic. 17. The method of claim 16, wherein the chemotherapeutic comprises an anthracycline.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the anthracycline is selected from the group consisting of doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, valrubicin, pirarubicin, amrubicin, aclarubicin, and zorubicin. 19. The method of claim 16, wherein the chemotherapeutic comprises an anti- ErB2 or anti-HER2 antibody. 20. The method of claim 16, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula (V):

wherein n is 0-2

X6 is independently is N or CRc

R1, R6, R7, and Rc are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, C2-C24 alkenyl, C2-C24 alkynyl, C3-C20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, C6-C24 alkaryl, C6-C24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C1-C3 alkyl)3, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2- C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl, C6-C20

aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C24 alkylcarbonato, C6-C20 arylcarbonato, carboxy, carboxylato, carbamoyl, C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl, arylcarbamoyl, thiocarbamoyl, carbamido, cyano, isocyano, cyanato, isocyanato, isothiocyanato, azido, formyl, thioformyl, amino, C1-C24 alkyl amino, C5-C20 aryl amino, C2-C24 alkylamido, C6-C20 arylamido, imino, alkylimino, arylimino, nitro, nitroso, sulfo, sulfonato, C1-C24 alkylsulfanyl, arylsulfanyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl, C5-C20 arylsulfinyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfonyl, C5-C20 arylsulfonyl, sulfonamide, phosphono, phosphonato, phosphinato, phospho, phosphino, polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R6 and R7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U1 is N, C-R2, or C-NR3R4, wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH2)n1OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF3, CH2-CH2X, O-CH2- CH2X, CH2-CH2-CH2X, O-CH2-CH2X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R1 and R2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R3 and R4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH2)n1OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF3, CH2-CH2X, CH2-CH2-CH2X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R3 or R4 may be absent;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 21. The method of claim 16, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula (VI):

wherein n = 0-2;

X6 is N or CRc;

R1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including– (CH2)n1CH3 (n1=0-7), wherein n2=0-6 and X is any of the following: CFyHz (y + z = 3), CClyHz (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R71, OR72, CN, N(R73)2, (n3=0-5, m=1-5),

and (n4=0-5).

R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Cl, F, NH2, and N(R76)2;

R6 and R7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, C2-C24 alkenyl, C2-C24 alkynyl, C3-C20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, C6-C24 alkaryl, C6-C24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C1-C3 alkyl)3, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2-C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl, C6-C20 aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C24 alkylcarbonato, C6-C20 arylcarbonato, carboxy, carboxylato, carbamoyl, C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl, arylcarbamoyl, thiocarbamoyl, carbamido, cyano, isocyano, cyanato, isocyanato, isothiocyanato, azido, formyl, thioformyl, amino, C1-C24 alkyl amino, C5-C20 aryl amino, C2-C24 alkylamido, C6-C20 arylamido, imino, alkylimino, arylimino, nitro, nitroso, sulfo, sulfonato, C1-C24 alkylsulfanyl, arylsulfanyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl, C5-C20 arylsulfinyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfonyl, C5-C20 arylsulfonyl, sulfonamide, phosphono, phosphonato, phosphinato, phospho, phosphino, polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and

pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 22. The method of claim 16, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula following formula:

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 23. A method of promoting cardiomyocyte survival, viability, and/or regeneration in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a

therapeutically effective amount of a 15-PGDH inhibitor.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula (V):

wherein n is 0-2

X6 is independently is N or CRc

R1, R6, R7, and Rc are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, C2-C24 alkenyl, C2-C24 alkynyl, C3-C20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, C6-C24 alkaryl, C6-C24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C1-C3 alkyl)3, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2- C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl, C6-C20

aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C24 alkylcarbonato, C6-C20 arylcarbonato, carboxy, carboxylato, carbamoyl, C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl, arylcarbamoyl, thiocarbamoyl, carbamido, cyano, isocyano, cyanato, isocyanato, isothiocyanato, azido, formyl, thioformyl, amino, C1-C24 alkyl amino, C5-C20 aryl amino, C2-C24 alkylamido, C6-C20 arylamido, imino, alkylimino, arylimino, nitro, nitroso, sulfo, sulfonato, C1-C24 alkylsulfanyl, arylsulfanyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl, C5-C20 arylsulfinyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfonyl, C5-C20 arylsulfonyl, sulfonamide, phosphono, phosphonato, phosphinato, phospho, phosphino, polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R6 and R7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U1 is N, C-R2, or C-NR3R4, wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH2)n1OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF3, CH2-CH2X, O-CH2- CH2X, CH2-CH2-CH2X, O-CH2-CH2X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R1 and R2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R3 and R4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH2)n1OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF3, CH2-CH2X, CH2-CH2-CH2X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R3 or R4 may be absent;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 25. The method of claim 23, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula (VI):

wherein n = 0-2;

X6 is N or CRc;

R1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including– (CH2)n1CH3 (n1=0-7), wherein n2=0-6 and X is any of the following: CFyHz (y + z = 3), CClyHz (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R71, OR72, CN, N(R73)2, (n3=0-5, m=1-5), and (n4=0-5).

R5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Cl, F, NH2, and N(R76)2;

R6 and R7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from

the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C24 alkyl, C2-C24 alkenyl, C2-C24 alkynyl, C3-C20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, C6-C24 alkaryl, C6-C24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C1-C3 alkyl)3, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2-C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl, C6-C20 aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C24 alkylcarbonato, C6-C20 arylcarbonato, carboxy, carboxylato, carbamoyl, C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl, arylcarbamoyl, thiocarbamoyl, carbamido, cyano, isocyano, cyanato, isocyanato, isothiocyanato, azido, formyl, thioformyl, amino, C1-C24 alkyl amino, C5-C20 aryl amino, C2-C24 alkylamido, C6-C20 arylamido, imino, alkylimino, arylimino, nitro, nitroso, sulfo, sulfonato, C1-C24 alkylsulfanyl, arylsulfanyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl, C5-C20 arylsulfinyl, C1-C24 alkylsulfonyl, C5-C20 arylsulfonyl, sulfonamide, phosphono, phosphonato, phosphinato, phospho, phosphino, polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and

pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. 26. The method of claim 23, wherein the 15-PGDH inhibitor has the following formula following formula:

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

Description:
INHIBITORS OF SHORT-CHAIN DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY FOR

TREATING CORONARY DISORDERS RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Application

No.62/483,177, filed April 7, 2017, the subject matter of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

GOVERNMENT FUNDING

[0002] This invention was made with government support under Grant

No. P50CA150964, and 5F32DK107156 awarded by The National Institutes of Health. The United States government has certain rights in the invention.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Congestive heart failure, one of the leading causes of death in industrialized nations, results from an increased workload on the heart and a progressive decrease in its pumping ability. Initially, the increased workload that results from high blood pressure or loss of contractile tissue induces compensatory cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and thickening of the left ventricular wall, thereby enhancing contractility and maintaining cardiac function. However, over time, the left ventricular chamber dilates, systolic pump function deteriorates, cardiomyocytes undergo apoptotic cell death, and myocardial function progressively deteriorates.

[0004] Factors that underlie congestive heart failure include high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, exposure to cardiotoxic compounds, such as anthracyclines, and genetic defects known to increase the risk of heart failure.

[0005] Short-chain dehydrogenases (SCDs) are a family of dehydrogenases that share only 15% to 30% sequence identity, with similarity predominantly in the coenzyme binding domain and the substrate binding domain. In addition to their role in detoxification of ethanol, SCDs are involved in synthesis and degradation of fatty acids, steroids, and some prostaglandins, and are therefore implicated in a variety of disorders, such as lipid storage disease, myopathy, SCD deficiency, and certain genetic disorders.

[0006] The SCD, 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH),

(hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide); 15-PGDH; Enzyme Commission number 1.1.1.141; encoded by the HPGD gene), represents the key enzyme in the inactivation of a number of active prostaglandins, leukotrienes and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) (e.g., by catalyzing oxidation of PGE 2 to 15-keto- prostaglandin E2, 15k-PGE). The human enzyme is encoded by the HPGD gene and consists of a homodimer with subunits of a size of 29 kDa. The enzyme belongs to the evolutionarily conserved superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzymes (SDRs), and according to the recently approved nomenclature for human enzymes, it is named SDR36C1. Thus far, two forms of 15-PGDH enzyme activity have been identified, NAD+-dependent type I 15-PGDH that is encoded by the HPGD gene, and the type II NADP-dependent 15- PGDH, also known as carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1, SDR21C1). However, the preference of CBR1 for NADP and the high Km values of CBR1 for most prostaglandin suggest that the majority of the in vivo activity can be attributed to type I 15-PGDH encoded by the HPGD gene, that hereafter, and throughout all following text, simply denoted as 15-PGDH.

SUMMARY

[0007] Embodiments described herein relate to compositions and methods for treating preventing, minimizing, and/or reversing congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction. The methods can include administering to a subject having or at risk of congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction, a therapeutically effective or prophylactic amount of an inhibitor of 15- PGDH activity. The therapeutically effective or prophylactic amount of the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be an amount effective to prevent, minimize, and/or reverse congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction as well as to promote cardiomyocyte survival, viability, and/or regeneration.

[0008] In some embodiments, the congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction can result from underlying factors, such as

hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiotoxicity (e.g., cocaine, alcohol, an anti-ErbB2 antibody or anti-HER2 antibody, such as trastuzumab, pertuzumab, or lapatinib, or an anthracycline antibiotic, such as doxorubicin or daunomycin), myocarditis, thyroid disease, viral infection, gingivitis, drug abuse; alcohol abuse, periocarditis, atherosclerosis, vascular disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction or previous myocardial infarction, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, coronary bypass surgery, starvation, an eating disorder, or a genetic defect. [0009] Other embodiments described herein relate to methods of preventing or reducing the risk of any type of acute or delayed cardiotoxic events that are common to subjects or patients treated with chemotherapeutic agents. The method can include administering to a subject treated with a chemotherapeutic agent a therapeutically effective amount of a 15-PGDH inhibitor. The cardiotoxic event that is prevented or reduced can include, for example, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathy, which is indicated by a reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (e.g., tachycardia, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, dependent edema, cardiomegaly,

hepatomegaly, oliguria, ascites, pleural effusion, and arrhythmias).

[0010] Chemotherapeutic agents that may cause cardiotoxic events may include, but are not limited to, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, anti-tumor antibiotics (e.g., anthracyclines), topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors hormone therapy, targeted therapeutics and immunotherapeutics. In certain embodiments, anthracyclines may be responsible for causing cardiomyopathy and other cardiotoxic events when administered as a cancer therapy, and may be optimally administered alone or in combination with one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents according to the embodiments described herein.

[0011] A strong dose-dependent association between anthracyclines and

cardiomyopathy limits the therapeutic potential of this effective class of therapeutic agents. Administration of a 15-PGDH inhibitor in combination with anthracycline can prevent or reduce the risk of any type of acute or delayed cardiotoxic events associated with

anthracycline exposure allowing the treatment to be tailored to maximize the efficacy of these drugs.

[0012] Examples of anthracyclines that may be administered according to the embodiments described herein include, but are not limited to, doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, valrubicin, pirarubicin, amrubicin, aclarubicin, zorubicin, either administered as a single agent or in combination with other agents. Examples of additional chemotherapeutic agents that can be administered to the subject before, during, or after anthracycline administration include an anti-ErB2 or anti-HER2 antibody, such as trastuzumab, pertuzumab, or lapatinib.

[0013] The methods described herein may be used to prevent cardiotoxicity during the treatment of any type of cancer including, but not limited to, bone cancer, bladder cancer, brain cancer, neuroblastoma, breast cancer, cancer of the urinary tract, carcinoma, cervical cancer, childhood cancers (e.g., astrocytoma, brain stem glioma, NCS atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, CNS embryonal tumor, CNS Germ Cell tumors, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, kidney tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and other types of leukemia; Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone, rhabdomyosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and Wilms' tumor), colon cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, head and neck cancer, hepatocellular cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma and leukemia, melanoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, pituitary cancer, prostate cancer, rectal cancer, renal cancer, sarcoma, stomach cancer, testicular cancer, thyroid cancer, and uterine cancer.

[0014] In some embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of the 15-PGDH inhibitor administered to a subject in need thereof can be an amount effective to increase or improve left ventrical ejection fraction, left ventricular end systolic volume, wall motion score index, and/or six minute walk distance at least about 30 meters by at least about 2%, at least about 3%, at least about 4%, at least about 5%, at least about 6%, at least about 7%, at least about 8%, at least about 9%, at least about 10%, at least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, or at least about 50%.

[0015] In other embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of the 15-PGDH inhibitor administered to a subject in need thereof can be amount effective to mitigate decreases in left ventrical ejection fraction, left ventricular end systolic volume, wall motion score index, and/or six minute walk distance at least about 30 meters caused by cardiotoxic compounds by at least about 2%, at least about 3%, at least about 4%, at least about 5%, at least about 6%, at least about 7%, at least about 8%, at least about 9%, at least about 10%, at least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, or at least about 50%.

[0016] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered before, during, or after exposure to a cardiotoxic compound. In yet other embodiments, the 15- PGDH inhibitor can be administered during two, or all three, of these periods.

[0017] In still other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered either prior to or after the diagnosis of congestive heart failure in the mammal. [0018] In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered to a subject at an amount effective to increase prostaglandin levels in the subject. The 15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having formula (I):

wherein n is 0-2;

Y 1 , Y 2 , and R 1 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O) (C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C 1 -C 3 alkyl) 3 , hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C1-C24 alkoxy, C2-C24 alkenyloxy, C2-C24 alkynyloxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl

(-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), phosphono (-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), combinations thereof, and wherein Y 1 and Y 2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U 1 is N, C-R 2 , or C-NR 3 R 4 , wherein R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 - CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 -CH 2 X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R 1 and R 2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R 3 and R 4 are same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R 3 or R 4 may be absent;

X 1 and X 2 are independently N or C, and wherein when X 1 and/or X 2 are N, Y 1 and/or Y 2 , respectively, are absent;

Z 1 is O, S, CR a R b or NR a , wherein R a and R b are independently H or a C1-8 alkyl, which is linear, branched, or cyclic, and which is unsubstituted or substituted;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[0019] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having the following formula (V):

wherein n is 0-2

X 6 is independently is N or CR c

R 1 , R 6 , R 7 , and R c are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O)(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C 1 -C 3 alkyl) 3 , hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24

alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy

(-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl

(-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C1-C24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C5-C20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH2, -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono

(-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R 6 and R 7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U 1 is N, C-R 2 , or C-NR 3 R 4 , wherein R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 - CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 -CH 2 X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R 1 and R 2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R 3 and R 4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R 3 or R 4 may be absent;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[0020] In some embodiments, R 1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including–(CH 2 )n 1 CH 3 (n 1 =0-7), wherein n 2 =0-6 and X is any of the following: CF y H z (y + z = 3), CCl y H z (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R 71 , OR 72 , CN, N(R 73 ) 2 , (n3=0-5, m=1-5), and (n4=0-5).

[0021] In other embodiments, R 6 and R 7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from the

group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O)(C 1 - C 6 alkyl), O, and S), heteroaryl or heterocyclyl containing from 5-14 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-6 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 3 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, silyl, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O- alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)--NH2), C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH(C1-C24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), sulfanamido (-SO 2 N(R) 2 where R is independently H, alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH 2 , -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono (-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkyl ethers (-[(CH 2 ) n O] m ), phosphates, phosphate esters [-OP(O)(OR) 2 where R = H, methyl or other alkyl], groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[0022] In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can inhibit the enzymatic activity of recombinant 15-PGDH at an IC 50 of less than 1 µM, or preferably at an IC 50 of less than 250 nM, or more preferably at an IC 50 of less than 50 nM, or more preferably at an IC 50 of less than 10 nM, or more preferably at an IC 50 of less than 5 nM at a recombinant 15-PGDH concentration of about 5 nM to about 10 nM.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0023] Fig.1 illustrates schematically the design of a study in which male C57bl6J mice received 15 mpk cumulative dose of doxorubicin in 7 doses of 2.15 mpk administered daily over study days 1-7. Cardiac ejection fraction was determined by echocardiography on study days 14 and 28.

[0024] Fig.2 illustrates a graph showing cardiac ejection fraction at study day 1, at the start of the experiment, at study day 14 and at study day 28 of control mice receiving either oral saline or oral vehicle, doxorubicin treated mice receiving oral vehicle, doxorubicin treated mice also receiving (+) SW033291.

[0025] Fig.3 illustrates representative echocardiograms on study day 14 of doxorubicin treated mice receiving either oral vehicle (upper panel) or oral (+) SW033291 (lower panel).

[0026] Fig.4 illustrates induction of DNA damage in cardiac myocytes of doxorubicin treated mice as visualized by immunostaining for gamma-H2AX.

[0027] Fig.5 illustrates images and graphs showing that doxorubicin induces equal levels of DNA damage in mice receiving oral (+) SW033291 as in mice receiving oral vehicle, as assayed by gamma-H2AX immunostaining. [0028] Fig.6 illustrates schematically the design of a second follow on study (Set B) in which mice were treated with 2 consecutive cycles of doxorubicin.

[0029] Fig.7 graphs showing the results for the ejection fraction (EF%) of the first cohort of mice (Set A) graphed in Fig.2, but with follow-up now extended to day 56.

[0030] Fig.8 illustrates a plot and graph showing ventricular weight and lung weight of mice from Set B treated with two cycles of two cycles of doxorubicin and (+)-SW033291 or control vehicle.

[0031] Fig.9 illustrates graph showing atrial natriuretic factor (as measured by real- time PCR in cardiac tissue) of mice from Set B treated with two cycles of two cycles of doxorubicin and (+)-SW033291 or control vehicle.

[0032] Fig.10 illustrates a graph showing levels of expression of connective tissue growth factor (as measured by real-time PCR in cardiac tissue) of mice from Set B treated with two cycles of doxorubicin and (+)-SW033291 or control vehicle.

[0033] Fig.11 illustrates graphs showing activity of cardiac 15-PGDH and cardiac PGE2 of mice treated with cardiac PGE2 with (+)-SW033291.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0034] For convenience, certain terms employed in the specification, examples, and appended claims are collected here. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this application belongs.

[0035] The articles "a" and "an" are used herein to refer to one or to more than one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article. By way of example, "an element" means one element or more than one element.

[0036] The terms "comprise," "comprising," "include," "including," "have," and "having" are used in the inclusive, open sense, meaning that additional elements may be included. The terms "such as", "e.g.", as used herein are non-limiting and are for illustrative purposes only. "Including" and "including but not limited to" are used interchangeably.

[0037] The term "or" as used herein should be understood to mean "and/or", unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

[0038] As used herein, the term "about" or "approximately" refers to a quantity, level, value, number, frequency, percentage, dimension, size, amount, weight or length that varies by as much as 15%, 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2% or 1% to a reference quantity, level, value, number, frequency, percentage, dimension, size, amount, weight or length. In one embodiment, the term "about" or "approximately" refers a range of quantity, level, value, number, frequency, percentage, dimension, size, amount, weight or length ± 15%, ± 10%, ± 9%, ± 8%, ± 7%, ± 6%, ± 5%, ± 4%, ± 3%, ± 2%, or ± 1% about a reference quantity, level, value, number, frequency, percentage, dimension, size, amount, weight or length.

[0039] It will be noted that the structure of some of the compounds of the application include asymmetric (chiral) carbon or sulfur atoms. It is to be understood accordingly that the isomers arising from such asymmetry are included herein, unless indicated otherwise. Such isomers can be obtained in substantially pure form by classical separation techniques and by stereochemically controlled synthesis. The compounds of this application may exist in stereoisomeric form, therefore can be produced as individual stereoisomers or as mixtures.

[0040] The term "isomerism" means compounds that have identical molecular formulae but that differ in the nature or the sequence of bonding of their atoms or in the arrangement of their atoms in space. Isomers that differ in the arrangement of their atoms in space are termed "stereoisomers". Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another are termed "diastereoisomers", and stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images are termed "enantiomers", or sometimes optical isomers. A carbon atom bonded to four nonidentical substituents is termed a "chiral center" whereas a sulfur bound to three or four different substitutents, e.g. sulfoxides or sulfinimides, is likewise termed a“chiral center”.

[0041] The term "chiral isomer" means a compound with at least one chiral center. It has two enantiomeric forms of opposite chirality and may exist either as an individual enantiomer or as a mixture of enantiomers. A mixture containing equal amounts of individual enantiomeric forms of opposite chirality is termed a "racemic mixture". A compound that has more than one chiral center has 2n-1 enantiomeric pairs, where n is the number of chiral centers. Compounds with more than one chiral center may exist as either an individual diastereomer or as a mixture of diastereomers, termed a "diastereomeric mixture". When one chiral center is present, a stereoisomer may be characterized by the absolute configuration (R or S) of that chiral center. Alternatively, when one or more chiral centers are present, a stereoisomer may be characterized as (+) or (-). Absolute configuration refers to the arrangement in space of the substituents attached to the chiral center. The substituents attached to the chiral center under consideration are ranked in accordance with the Sequence Rule of Cahn, Ingold and Prelog. (Cahn et al, Angew. Chem. Inter. Edit.1966, 5, 385; errata 511; Cahn et al., Angew. Chem.1966, 78, 413; Cahn and Ingold, J Chem. Soc.1951 (London), 612; Cahn et al., Experientia 1956, 12, 81; Cahn, J., Chem. Educ.1964, 41, 116).

[0042] The term "geometric Isomers" means the diastereomers that owe their existence to hindered rotation about double bonds. These configurations are differentiated in their names by the prefixes cis and trans, or Z and E, which indicate that the groups are on the same or opposite side of the double bond in the molecule according to the Cahn-Ingold- Prelog rules. Further, the structures and other compounds discussed in this application include all atropic isomers thereof.

[0043] The term "atropic isomers" are a type of stereoisomer in which the atoms of two isomers are arranged differently in space. Atropic isomers owe their existence to a restricted rotation caused by hindrance of rotation of large groups about a central bond. Such atropic isomers typically exist as a mixture, however as a result of recent advances in

chromatography techniques, it has been possible to separate mixtures of two atropic isomers in select cases.

[0044] The terms "crystal polymorphs" or "polymorphs" or "crystal forms" means crystal structures in which a compound (or salt or solvate thereof) can crystallize in different crystal packing arrangements, all of which have the same elemental composition. Different crystal forms usually have different X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectral, melting points, density hardness, crystal shape, optical and electrical properties, stability and solubility. Recrystallization solvent, rate of crystallization, storage temperature, and other factors may cause one crystal form to dominate. Crystal polymorphs of the compounds can be prepared by crystallization under different conditions.

[0045] The term "derivative" refers to compounds that have a common core structure, and are substituted with various groups as described herein.

[0046] The term "bioisostere" refers to a compound resulting from the exchange of an atom or of a group of atoms with another, broadly similar, atom or group of atoms. The objective of a bioisosteric replacement is to create a new compound with similar biological properties to the parent compound. The bioisosteric replacement may be physicochemically or topologically based. Examples of carboxylic acid bioisosteres include acyl sulfonimides, tetrazoles, sulfonates, and phosphonates. See, e.g., Patani and LaVoie, Chem. Rev.96, 3147- 3176 (1996). [0047] The phrases "parenteral administration" and "administered parenterally" are art-recognized terms, and include modes of administration other than enteral and topical administration, such as injections, and include, without limitation, intravenous, intramuscular, intrapleural, intravascular, intrapericardial, intraarterial, intrathecal, intracapsular, intraorbital, intracardiac, intradermal, intraperitoneal, transtracheal, subcutaneous, subcuticular, intra-articular, subcapsular, subarachnoid, intraspinal and intrastemal injection and infusion.

[0048] The term "treating" is art-recognized and includes inhibiting a disease, disorder or condition in a subject, e.g., impeding its progress; and relieving the disease, disorder or condition, e.g., causing regression of the disease, disorder and/or condition. Treating the disease or condition includes ameliorating at least one symptom of the particular disease or condition, even if the underlying pathophysiology is not affected. For example, the term "treating" can refer to the administration of a short chain dehydrogenase inhibitor

(e.g., 15-PGDH inhibitor) to slow or inhibit the progression of congestive heart failure during the treatment, relative to the disease progression that would occur in the absence of treatment, in a statistically significant manner. Well known indicia such as left ventricular ejection fraction, exercise performance, and other clinical tests as enumerated below, as well as survival rates and hospitalization rates may be used to assess disease progression. Whether or not a treatment slows or inhibits disease progression in a statistically significant manner may be determined by methods that are well known in the art.

[0049] The term "preventing" is art-recognized and includes stopping a disease, disorder or condition from occurring in a subject, which may be predisposed to the disease, disorder and/or condition but has not yet been diagnosed as having it. Preventing a condition related to a disease includes stopping the condition from occurring after the disease has been diagnosed but before the condition has been diagnosed. For example, the term "preventing" can refer to minimizing or partially or completely inhibiting the development of congestive heart failure in a mammal at risk for developing congestive heart failure (as defined in "Consensus recommendations for the management of chronic heart failure." Am. J. Cardiol., 83(2A):1A-38-A, 1999).

[0050] The term "pharmaceutical composition" refers to a formulation containing the disclosed compounds in a form suitable for administration to a subject. In a preferred embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is in bulk or in unit dosage form. The unit dosage form is any of a variety of forms, including, for example, a capsule, an IV bag, a tablet, a single pump on an aerosol inhaler, or a vial. The quantity of active ingredient (e.g., a formulation of the disclosed compound or salts thereof) in a unit dose of composition is an effective amount and is varied according to the particular treatment involved. One skilled in the art will appreciate that it is sometimes necessary to make routine variations to the dosage depending on the age and condition of the patient. The dosage will also depend on the route of administration. A variety of routes are contemplated, including oral, pulmonary, rectal, parenteral, transdermal, subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intranasal, inhalational, and the like. Dosage forms for the topical or transdermal administration of a compound described herein includes powders, sprays, ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, solutions, patches, nebulized compounds, and inhalants. In a preferred embodiment, the active compound is mixed under sterile conditions with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and with any preservatives, buffers, or propellants that are required.

[0051] The term "flash dose" refers to compound formulations that are rapidly dispersing dosage forms.

[0052] The term "immediate release" is defined as a release of compound from a dosage form in a relatively brief period of time, generally up to about 60 minutes. The term "modified release" is defined to include delayed release, extended release, and pulsed release. The term "pulsed release" is defined as a series of releases of drug from a dosage form. The term "sustained release" or "extended release" is defined as continuous release of a compound from a dosage form over a prolonged period.

[0053] The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is art-recognized. In certain embodiments, the term includes compositions, polymers and other materials and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

[0054] The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" is art-recognized, and includes, for example, pharmaceutically acceptable materials, compositions or vehicles, such as a liquid or solid filler, diluent, excipient, solvent or encapsulating material, involved in carrying or transporting any subject composition from one organ, or portion of the body, to another organ, or portion of the body. Each carrier must be "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of a subject composition and not injurious to the patient. In certain embodiments, a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is non-pyrogenic. Some examples of materials which may serve as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include: (1) sugars, such as lactose, glucose and sucrose; (2) starches, such as corn starch and potato starch; (3) cellulose, and its derivatives, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate; (4) powdered tragacanth; (5) malt; (6) gelatin; (7) talc; (8) excipients, such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes; (9) oils, such as peanut oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil; (10) glycols, such as propylene glycol; (11) polyols, such as glycerin, sorbitol, mannitol and polyethylene glycol; (12) esters, such as ethyl oleate and ethyl laurate; (13) agar; (14) buffering agents, such as magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide; (15) alginic acid; (16) pyrogen-free water; (17) isotonic saline; (18) Ringer's solution; (19) ethyl alcohol; (20) phosphate buffer solutions; and (21) other non-toxic compatible substances employed in pharmaceutical formulations.

[0055] The compounds of the application are capable of further forming salts. All of these forms are also contemplated herein.

[0056] "Pharmaceutically acceptable salt" of a compound means a salt that is pharmaceutically acceptable and that possesses the desired pharmacological activity of the parent compound. For example, the salt can be an acid addition salt. One embodiment of an acid addition salt is a hydrochloride salt. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be synthesized from a parent compound that contains a basic or acidic moiety by conventional chemical methods. Generally, such salts can be prepared by reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent, or in a mixture of the two; generally, non-aqueous media like ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol, or acetonitrile being preferred. Lists of salts are found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th ed. (Mack Publishing Company, 1990).

[0057] The compounds described herein can also be prepared as esters, for example pharmaceutically acceptable esters. For example, a carboxylic acid function group in a compound can be converted to its corresponding ester, e.g., a methyl, ethyl, or other ester. Also, an alcohol group in a compound can be converted to its corresponding ester, e.g., an acetate, propionate, or other ester. [0058] The compounds described herein can also be prepared as prodrugs, for example pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs. The terms "pro-drug" and "prodrug" are used interchangeably herein and refer to any compound, which releases an active parent drug in vivo. Since prodrugs are known to enhance numerous desirable qualities of pharmaceuticals (e.g., solubility, bioavailability, manufacturing, etc.) the compounds can be delivered in prodrug form. Thus, the compounds described herein are intended to cover prodrugs of the presently claimed compounds, methods of delivering the same and compositions containing the same. "Prodrugs" are intended to include any covalently bonded carriers that release an active parent drug in vivo when such prodrug is administered to a subject. Prodrugs are prepared by modifying functional groups present in the compound in such a way that the modifications are cleaved, either in routine manipulation or in vivo, to the parent compound. Prodrugs include compounds wherein a hydroxy, amino, sulfhydryl, carboxy, or carbonyl group is bonded to any group that may be cleaved in vivo to form a free hydroxyl, free amino, free sulfhydryl, free carboxy or free carbonyl group, respectively. Prodrugs can also include a precursor (forerunner) of a compound described herein that undergoes chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming an active or more active pharmacological agent or active compound described herein.

[0059] Examples of prodrugs include, but are not limited to, esters (e.g., acetate, dialkylaminoacetates, formates, phosphates, sulfates, and benzoate derivatives) and carbamates (e.g., N,N-dimethylaminocarbonyl) of hydroxy functional groups, ester groups (e.g., ethyl esters, morpholinoethanol esters) of carboxyl functional groups, N-acyl derivatives (e.g., N-acetyl) N-Mannich bases, Schiff bases and enaminones of amino functional groups, oximes, acetals, ketals and enol esters of ketone and aldehyde functional groups in compounds, and the like, as well as sulfides that are oxidized to form sulfoxides or sulfones.

[0060] The term "protecting group" refers to a grouping of atoms that when attached to a reactive group in a molecule masks, reduces or prevents that reactivity. Examples of protecting groups can be found in Green and Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry, (Wiley, 2.sup.nd ed.1991); Harrison and Harrison et al., Compendium of Synthetic Organic Methods, Vols.1-8 (John Wiley and Sons, 1971-1996); and Kocienski, Protecting Groups, (Verlag, 3 rd ed.2003). [0061] The term "amine protecting group" is intended to mean a functional group that converts an amine, amide, or other nitrogen-containing moiety into a different chemical group that is substantially inert to the conditions of a particular chemical reaction. Amine protecting groups are preferably removed easily and selectively in good yield under conditions that do not affect other functional groups of the molecule. Examples of amine protecting groups include, but are not limited to, formyl, acetyl, benzyl, t-butyldimethylsilyl, t-butyldiphenylsilyl, t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc), p-methoxybenzyl, methoxymethyl, tosyl, trifluoroacetyl, trimethylsilyl (TMS), fluorenyl-methyloxycarbonyl, 2-trimethylsilyl- ethyoxycarbonyl, 1-methyl-1-(4-biphenylyl) ethoxycarbonyl, allyloxycarbonyl,

benzyloxycarbonyl (CBZ), 2-trimethylsilyl-ethanesulfonyl (SES), trityl and substituted trityl groups, 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), nitro-veratryloxycarbonyl (NVOC), and the like. Those of skill in the art can identify other suitable amine protecting groups.

[0062] Representative hydroxy protecting groups include those where the hydroxy group is either acylated or alkylated such as benzyl, and trityl ethers as well as alkyl ethers, tetrahydropyranyl ethers, trialkylsilyl ethers and allyl ethers.

[0063] Additionally, the salts of the compounds described herein, can exist in either hydrated or unhydrated (the anhydrous) form or as solvates with other solvent molecules. Non-limiting examples of hydrates include monohydrates, dihydrates, etc. Nonlimiting examples of solvates include ethanol solvates, acetone solvates, etc.

[0064] The term "solvates" means solvent addition forms that contain either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric amounts of solvent. Some compounds have a tendency to trap a fixed molar ratio of solvent molecules in the crystalline solid state, thus forming a solvate. If the solvent is water the solvate formed is a hydrate, when the solvent is alcohol, the solvate formed is an alcoholate. Hydrates are formed by the combination of one or more molecules of water with one of the substances in which the water retains its molecular state as H 2 O, such combination being able to form one or more hydrate.

[0065] The compounds, salts and prodrugs described herein can exist in several tautomeric forms, including the enol and imine form, and the keto and enamine form and geometric isomers and mixtures thereof. Tautomers exist as mixtures of a tautomeric set in solution. In solid form, usually one tautomer predominates. Even though one tautomer may be described, the present application includes all tautomers of the present compounds. A tautomer is one of two or more structural isomers that exist in equilibrium and are readily converted from one isomeric form to another. This reaction results in the formal migration of a hydrogen atom accompanied by a switch of adjacent conjugated double bonds. In solutions where tautomerization is possible, a chemical equilibrium of the tautomers will be reached. The exact ratio of the tautomers depends on several factors, including temperature, solvent, and pH. The concept of tautomers that are interconvertable by tautomerizations is called tautomerism.

[0066] Of the various types of tautomerism that are possible, two are commonly observed. In keto-enol tautomerism a simultaneous shift of electrons and a hydrogen atom occurs.

[0067] Tautomerizations can be catalyzed by: Base: 1. deprotonation; 2. formation of a delocalized anion (e.g., an enolate); 3. protonation at a different position of the anion; Acid: 1. protonation; 2. formation of a delocalized cation; 3. deprotonation at a different position adjacent to the cation.

[0068] The term "analogue" refers to a chemical compound that is structurally similar to another but differs slightly in composition (as in the replacement of one atom by an atom of a different element or in the presence of a particular functional group, or the replacement of one functional group by another functional group). Thus, an analogue is a compound that is similar or comparable in function and appearance, but not in structure or origin to the reference compound.

[0069] A "patient," "subject," or "host" to be treated by the subject method may mean either a human or non-human animal, such as a mammal, a fish, a bird, a reptile, or an amphibian. Thus, the subject of the herein disclosed methods can be a human, non-human primate, horse, pig, rabbit, dog, sheep, goat, cow, cat, guinea pig or rodent. The term does not denote a particular age or sex. Thus, adult and newborn subjects, as well as fetuses, whether male or female, are intended to be covered. In one aspect, the subject is a mammal. A patient refers to a subject afflicted with a disease or disorder.

[0070] The terms "prophylactic” and“therapeutic" treatment is art-recognized and includes administration to the host of one or more of the subject compositions. If it is administered prior to clinical manifestation of the unwanted condition (e.g., disease or other unwanted state of the host animal) then the treatment is prophylactic, i.e., it protects the host against developing the unwanted condition, whereas if it is administered after manifestation of the unwanted condition, the treatment is therapeutic (i.e., it is intended to diminish, ameliorate, or stabilize the existing unwanted condition or side effects thereof).

[0071] The terms "therapeutic agent", "drug", "medicament" and "bioactive substance" are art-recognized and include molecules and other agents that are biologically,

physiologically, or pharmacologically active substances that act locally or systemically in a patient or subject to treat a disease or condition. The terms include without limitation pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof and prodrugs. Such agents may be acidic, basic, or salts; they may be neutral molecules, polar molecules, or molecular complexes capable of hydrogen bonding; they may be prodrugs in the form of ethers, esters, amides and the like that are biologically activated when administered into a patient or subject.

[0072] The terms "therapeutically effective amount" and“pharmaceutically effective amount” are an art-recognized term. In certain embodiments, the term refers to an amount of a therapeutic agent that produces some desired effect at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio applicable to any medical treatment. In certain embodiments, the term refers to that amount necessary or sufficient to eliminate, reduce or maintain a target of a particular therapeutic regimen. The effective amount may vary depending on such factors as the disease or condition being treated, the particular targeted constructs being administered, the size of the subject or the severity of the disease or condition. One of ordinary skill in the art may empirically determine the effective amount of a particular compound without necessitating undue experimentation. In certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of a therapeutic agent for in vivo use will likely depend on a number of factors, including: the rate of release of an agent from a polymer matrix, which will depend in part on the chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer; the identity of the agent; the mode and method of administration; and any other materials incorporated in the polymer matrix in addition to the agent.

[0073] The term "ED50" is art-recognized. In certain embodiments, ED50 means the dose of a drug, which produces 50% of its maximum response or effect, or alternatively, the dose, which produces a pre-determined response in 50% of test subjects or preparations. The term "LD50" is art-recognized. In certain embodiments, LD50 means the dose of a drug, which is lethal in 50% of test subjects. The term "therapeutic index" is an art-recognized term, which refers to the therapeutic index of a drug, defined as LD50/ED50. [0074] The terms "IC 50 ," or“half maximal inhibitory concentration” is intended to refer to the concentration of a substance (e.g., a compound or a drug) that is required for 50% inhibition of a biological process, or component of a process, including a protein, subunit, organelle, ribonucleoprotein, etc.

[0075] With respect to any chemical compounds, the present application is intended to include all isotopes of atoms occurring in the present compounds. Isotopes include those atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. By way of general example and without limitation, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium, and isotopes of carbon include C-13 and C-14.

[0076] When a bond to a substituent is shown to cross a bond connecting two atoms in a ring, then such substituent can be bonded to any atom in the ring. When a substituent is listed without indicating the atom via which such substituent is bonded to the rest of the compound of a given formula, then such substituent can be bonded via any atom in such substituent. Combinations of substituents and/or variables are permissible, but only if such combinations result in stable compounds.

[0077] When an atom or a chemical moiety is followed by a subscripted numeric range (e.g., C 1-6 ), it is meant to encompass each number within the range as well as all intermediate ranges. For example, "C 1-6 alkyl" is meant to include alkyl groups with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1-6, 1-5, 1-4, 1-3, 1-2, 2-6, 2-5, 2-4, 2-3, 3-6, 3-5, 3-4, 4-6, 4-5, and 5-6 carbons.

[0078] The term "alkyl" is intended to include both branched (e.g., isopropyl, tert-butyl, isobutyl), straight-chain e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl), and cycloalkyl (e.g., alicyclic) groups (e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl), alkyl substituted cycloalkyl groups, and cycloalkyl substituted alkyl groups. Such aliphatic hydrocarbon groups have a specified number of carbon atoms. For example, C 1-6 alkyl is intended to include C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , and C 6 alkyl groups. As used herein, "lower alkyl" refers to alkyl groups having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms in the backbone of the carbon chain. "Alkyl" further includes alkyl groups that have oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorous atoms replacing one or more hydrocarbon backbone carbon atoms. In certain embodiments, a straight chain or branched chain alkyl has six or fewer carbon atoms in its backbone (e.g., C 1 -C 6 for straight chain, C 3 -C 6 for branched chain), for example four or fewer. Likewise, certain cycloalkyls have from three to eight carbon atoms in their ring structure, such as five or six carbons in the ring structure. [0079] The term "substituted alkyls" refers to alkyl moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the hydrocarbon backbone. Such substituents can include, for example, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, halogen, hydroxyl,

alkylcarbonyloxy, arylcarbonyloxy, alkoxycarbonyloxy, aryloxycarbonyloxy, carboxylate, alkylcarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, alkylaminocarbonyl, dialkylaminocarbonyl, alkylthiocarbonyl, alkoxyl, phosphate, phosphonato, phosphinato, cyano, amino (including alkylamino, dialkylamino, arylamino, diarylamino, and

alkylarylamino), acylamino (including alkylcarbonylamino, arylcarbonylamino, carbamoyl and ureido), amidino, imino, sulfhydryl, alkylthio, arylthio, thiocarboxylate, sulfates, alkylsulfinyl, sulfonato, sulfamoyl, sulfonamido, nitro, trifluoromethyl, cyano, azido, heterocyclyl, alkylaryl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety. Cycloalkyls can be further substituted, e.g., with the substituents described above. An "alkylaryl" or an "aralkyl" moiety is an alkyl substituted with an aryl (e.g., phenylmethyl (benzyl)). If not otherwise indicated, the terms "alkyl" and "lower alkyl" include linear, branched, cyclic, unsubstituted, substituted, and/or heteroatom-containing alkyl or lower alkyl, respectively.

[0080] The term "alkenyl" refers to a linear, branched or cyclic hydrocarbon group of 2 to about 24 carbon atoms containing at least one double bond, such as ethenyl, n-propenyl, isopropenyl, n-butenyl, isobutenyl, octenyl, decenyl, tetradecenyl, hexadecenyl, eicosenyl, tetracosenyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl, cyclooctenyl, and the like. Generally, although again not necessarily, alkenyl groups can contain 2 to about 18 carbon atoms, and more particularly 2 to 12 carbon atoms. The term "lower alkenyl" refers to an alkenyl group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms, and the specific term "cycloalkenyl" intends a cyclic alkenyl group, preferably having 5 to 8 carbon atoms. The term "substituted alkenyl" refers to alkenyl substituted with one or more substituent groups, and the terms "heteroatom-containing alkenyl" and "heteroalkenyl" refer to alkenyl or heterocycloalkenyl (e.g., heterocylcohexenyl) in which at least one carbon atom is replaced with a heteroatom. If not otherwise indicated, the terms "alkenyl" and "lower alkenyl" include linear, branched, cyclic, unsubstituted, substituted, and/or heteroatom-containing alkenyl and lower alkenyl, respectively.

[0081] The term "alkynyl" refers to a linear or branched hydrocarbon group of 2 to 24 carbon atoms containing at least one triple bond, such as ethynyl, n-propynyl, and the like. Generally, although again not necessarily, alkynyl groups can contain 2 to about 18 carbon atoms, and more particularly can contain 2 to 12 carbon atoms. The term "lower alkynyl" intends an alkynyl group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms. The term "substituted alkynyl" refers to alkynyl substituted with one or more substituent groups, and the terms

"heteroatom-containing alkynyl" and "heteroalkynyl" refer to alkynyl in which at least one carbon atom is replaced with a heteroatom. If not otherwise indicated, the terms "alkynyl" and "lower alkynyl" include linear, branched, unsubstituted, substituted, and/or heteroatom- containing alkynyl and lower alkynyl, respectively.

[0082] The terms "alkyl", "alkenyl", and "alkynyl" are intended to include moieties which are diradicals, i.e., having two points of attachment. A nonlimiting example of such an alkyl moiety that is a diradical is --CH 2 CH 2 --, i.e., a C 2 alkyl group that is covalently bonded via each terminal carbon atom to the remainder of the molecule.

[0083] The term "alkoxy" refers to an alkyl group bound through a single, terminal ether linkage; that is, an "alkoxy" group may be represented as --O-alkyl where alkyl is as defined above. A "lower alkoxy" group intends an alkoxy group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and includes, for example, methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, isopropoxy, t-butyloxy, etc. Preferred substituents identified as "C 1 -C 6 alkoxy" or "lower alkoxy" herein contain 1 to 3 carbon atoms, and particularly preferred such substituents contain 1 or 2 carbon atoms (i.e., methoxy and ethoxy).

[0084] The term "aryl" refers to an aromatic substituent containing a single aromatic ring or multiple aromatic rings that are fused together, directly linked, or indirectly linked (such that the different aromatic rings are bound to a common group such as a methylene or ethylene moiety). Aryl groups can contain 5 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferred aryl groups can contain 5 to 14 carbon atoms. Examples of aryl groups include benzene, phenyl, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, thiazole, isothiazole, imidazole, triazole, tetrazole, pyrazole, oxazole, isooxazole, pyridine, pyrazine, pyridazine, and pyrimidine, and the like. Furthermore, the term "aryl" includes multicyclic aryl groups, e.g., tricyclic, bicyclic, e.g., naphthalene, benzoxazole, benzodioxazole, benzothiazole, benzoimidazole,

benzothiophene, methylenedioxyphenyl, quinoline, isoquinoline, napthridine, indole, benzofuran, purine, benzofuran, deazapurine, or indolizine. Those aryl groups having heteroatoms in the ring structure may also be referred to as "aryl heterocycles",

"heterocycles," "heteroaryls" or "heteroaromatics". The aromatic ring can be substituted at one or more ring positions with such substituents as described above, as for example, halogen, hydroxyl, alkoxy, alkylcarbonyloxy, arylcarbonyloxy, alkoxycarbonyloxy, aryloxycarbonyloxy, carboxylate, alkylcarbonyl, alkylaminocarbonyl, aralkylaminocarbonyl, alkenylaminocarbonyl, alkylcarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, aralkylcarbonyl, alkenylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, alkylthiocarbonyl, phosphate, phosphonato, phosphinato, cyano, amino (including alkylamino, dialkylamino, arylamino, diaryl amino, and al kylaryl amino), acylamino (including alkylcarbonylamino, arylcarbonylamino, carbamoyl and ureido), amidino, imino, sulfhydryl, alkylthio, arylthio, thiocarboxylate, sulfates,

alkylsulfinyl, sulfonato, sulfamoyl, sulfonamido, nitro, trifluoromethyl, cyano, azido, heterocyclyl, alkylaryl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety. Aryl groups can also be fused or bridged with alicyclic or heterocyclic rings, which are not aromatic so as to form a multicyclic system (e.g., tetralin, methylenedioxyphenyl). If not otherwise indicated, the term "aryl" includes unsubstituted, substituted, and/or heteroatom-containing aromatic substituents.

[0085] The term "alkaryl" refers to an aryl group with an alkyl substituent, and the term "aralkyl" refers to an alkyl group with an aryl substituent, wherein "aryl" and "alkyl" are as defined above. Exemplary aralkyl groups contain 6 to 24 carbon atoms, and particularly preferred aralkyl groups contain 6 to 16 carbon atoms. Examples of aralkyl groups include, without limitation, benzyl, 2-phenyl-ethyl, 3-phenyl-propyl, 4-phenyl-butyl, 5-phenyl-pentyl, 4-phenylcyclohexyl, 4-benzylcyclohexyl, 4-phenylcyclohexylmethyl,

4-benzylcyclohexylmethyl, and the like. Alkaryl groups include, for example, p- methylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, p-cyclohexylphenyl, 2,7-dimethylnaphthyl, 7- cyclooctylnaphthyl, 3-ethyl-cyclopenta-1,4-diene, and the like.

[0086] The terms "heterocyclyl" and "heterocyclic group" include closed ring structures, e.g., 3- to 10-, or 4- to 7-membered rings, which include one or more heteroatoms. "Heteroatom" includes atoms of any element other than carbon or hydrogen. Examples of heteroatoms include nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus.

[0087] Heterocyclyl groups can be saturated or unsaturated and include pyrrolidine, oxolane, thiolane, piperidine, piperazine, morpholine, lactones, lactams, such as azetidinones and pyrrolidinones, sultams, and sultones. Heterocyclic groups such as pyrrole and furan can have aromatic character. They include fused ring structures, such as quinoline and isoquinoline. Other examples of heterocyclic groups include pyridine and purine. The heterocyclic ring can be substituted at one or more positions with such substituents as described above, as for example, halogen, hydroxyl, alkylcarbonyloxy, arylcarbonyloxy, alkoxycarbonyloxy, aryloxycarbonyloxy, carboxylate, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, alkylthiocarbonyl, alkoxyl, phosphate, phosphonato, phosphinato, cyano, amino (including alkyl amino, dialkylamino, arylamino, diarylamino, and alkylarylamino), acylamino (including alkylcarbonylamino, arylcarbonylamino, carbamoyl and ureido), amidino, imino, sulfhydryl, alkylthio, arylthio, thiocarboxylate, sulfates, sulfonato, sulfamoyl, sulfonamido, nitro, trifluoromethyl, cyano, azido, heterocyclyl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety. Heterocyclic groups can also be substituted at one or more constituent atoms with, for example, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkoxy, a lower alkylthio, a lower alkylamino, a lower alkylcarboxyl, a nitro, a hydroxyl, --CF 3 , or --CN, or the like.

[0088] The terms "halo" and "halogen" refers to fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo. "Counterion" is used to represent a small, negatively charged species such as fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, hydroxide, acetate, and sulfate. The term sulfoxide refers to a sulfur attached to 2 different carbon atoms and one oxygen and the S-O bond can be graphically represented with a double bond (S=O), a single bond without charges (S-O) or a single bond with charges [S(+)-O(-)].

[0089] The term "substituted" as in "substituted alkyl", "substituted aryl", and the like, as alluded to in some of the aforementioned definitions, is meant that in the alkyl, aryl, or other moiety, at least one hydrogen atom bound to a carbon (or other) atom is replaced with one or more non-hydrogen substituents. Examples of such substituents include, without limitation: functional groups such as halo, hydroxyl, silyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (-CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato

(-O-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH 2 ), mono-(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)-substituted carbamoyl (-(CO)- NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), di-(C 1 -C 4 alkyl)-substituted carbamoyl (-(CO)--N(C 1 -C 24 alkyl) 2 ), mono-substituted arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O--CN), isocyanato (-ON + C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (-(CO)--H), thioformyl (-(CS)-H), amino (-NH 2 ), mono- and di-(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)-substituted amino, mono- and di-(C 5 -C 20 aryl)- substituted amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), imino (-CR=NH where R=hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (--CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed

"alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (--(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), phosphono (-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), and phosphino (-PH 2 ); and the hydrocarbyl moieties C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, and C 6 -C 24 aralkyl.

[0090] In addition, the aforementioned functional groups may, if a particular group permits, be further substituted with one or more additional functional groups or with one or more hydrocarbyl moieties such as those specifically enumerated above. Analogously, the above-mentioned hydrocarbyl moieties may be further substituted with one or more functional groups or additional hydrocarbyl moieties such as those specifically enumerated.

[0091] When the term "substituted" appears prior to a list of possible substituted groups, it is intended that the term apply to every member of that group. For example, the phrase "substituted alkyl, alkenyl, and aryl" is to be interpreted as "substituted alkyl, substituted alkenyl, and substituted aryl." Analogously, when the term "heteroatom- containing" appears prior to a list of possible heteroatom-containing groups, it is intended that the term apply to every member of that group. For example, the phrase "heteroatom- containing alkyl, alkenyl, and aryl" is to be interpreted as "heteroatom-containing alkyl, substituted alkenyl, and substituted aryl.

[0092] "Optional" or "optionally" means that the subsequently described circumstance may or may not occur, so that the description includes instances where the circumstance occurs and instances where it does not. For example, the phrase "optionally substituted" means that a non-hydrogen substituent may or may not be present on a given atom, and, thus, the description includes structures wherein a non-hydrogen substituent is present and structures wherein a non-hydrogen substituent is not present.

[0093] The terms "stable compound" and "stable structure" are meant to indicate a compound that is sufficiently robust to survive isolation, and as appropriate, purification from a reaction mixture, and formulation into an efficacious therapeutic agent. [0094] The term "free compound" is used herein to describe a compound in the unbound state.

[0095] Throughout the description, where compositions are described as having, including, or comprising, specific components, it is contemplated that compositions also consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited components. Similarly, where methods or processes are described as having, including, or comprising specific process steps, the processes also consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited processing steps. Further, it should be understood that the order of steps or order for performing certain actions is immaterial so long as the compositions and methods described herein remains operable. Moreover, two or more steps or actions can be conducted simultaneously.

[0096] The term "small molecule" is an art-recognized term. In certain embodiments, this term refers to a molecule, which has a molecular weight of less than about 2000 amu, or less than about 1000 amu, and even less than about 500 amu.

[0097] All percentages and ratios used herein, unless otherwise indicated, are by weight.

[0098] The terms "gene expression" and "protein expression" include any information pertaining to the amount of gene transcript or protein present in a sample, as well as information about the rate at which genes or proteins are produced or are accumulating or being degraded (e.g., reporter gene data, data from nuclear runoff experiments, pulse-chase data etc.). Certain kinds of data might be viewed as relating to both gene and protein expression. For example, protein levels in a cell are reflective of the level of protein as well as the level of transcription, and such data is intended to be included by the phrase "gene or protein expression information". Such information may be given in the form of amounts per cell, amounts relative to a control gene or protein, in unitless measures, etc.; the term

"information" is not to be limited to any particular means of representation and is intended to mean any representation that provides relevant information. The term "expression levels" refers to a quantity reflected in or derivable from the gene or protein expression data, whether the data is directed to gene transcript accumulation or protein accumulation or protein synthesis rates, etc.

[0099] The terms "healthy" and "normal" are used interchangeably herein to refer to a subject or particular cell or tissue that is devoid (at least to the limit of detection) of a disease condition. [00100] The term "nucleic acid" refers to polynucleotides such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and, where appropriate, ribonucleic acid (RNA). The term should also be understood to include analogues of either RNA or DNA made from nucleotide analogues, and, as applicable to the embodiment being described, single-stranded (such as sense or antisense) and double-stranded polynucleotides. In some embodiments, "nucleic acid" refers to inhibitory nucleic acids. Some categories of inhibitory nucleic acid compounds include antisense nucleic acids, RNAi constructs, and catalytic nucleic acid constructs. Such categories of nucleic acids are well-known in the art.

[00101] The term "congestive heart failure" refers to impaired cardiac function that renders the heart unable to maintain the normal blood output at rest or with exercise, or to maintain a normal cardiac output in the setting of normal cardiac filling pressure. A left ventricular ejection fraction of about 40% or less is indicative of congestive heart failure (by way of comparison, an ejection fraction of about 60% percent is normal). Patients in congestive heart failure display well-known clinical symptoms and signs, such as tachypnea, pleural effusions, fatigue at rest or with exercise, contractile dysfunction, and edema.

Congestive heart failure is readily diagnosed by well known methods (see, e.g., "Consensus recommendations for the management of chronic heart failure." Am. J. Cardiol., 83(2A):1A- 38-A, 1999).

[00102] Relative severity and disease progression are assessed using well known methods, such as physical examination, echocardiography, radionuclide imaging, invasive hemodynamic monitoring, magnetic resonance angiography, and exercise treadmill testing coupled with oxygen uptake studies.

[00103] The term "ischemic heart disease" refers to any disorder resulting from an imbalance between the myocardial need for oxygen and the adequacy of the oxygen supply. Most cases of ischemic heart disease result from narrowing of the coronary arteries, as occurs in atherosclerosis or other vascular disorders.

[00104] The term "myocardial infarction" refers to a process by which ischemic disease results in a region of the myocardium being replaced by scar tissue.

[00105] The term "cardiotoxic compound" refers a compound that decreases heart function by directing or indirectly impairing or killing cardiomyocytes. [00106] The term "hypertension" refers blood pressure that is considered by a medical professional (e.g., a physician or a nurse) to be higher than normal and to carry an increased risk for developing congestive heart failure.

[00107] The term "at risk for congestive heart failure" refers to an individual who smokes, is obese (i.e., 20% or more over their ideal weight), has been or will be exposed to a cardiotoxic compound (such as an anthracycline antibiotic), or has (or had) high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, a myocardial infarct, a genetic defect known to increase the risk of heart failure, a family history of heart failure, myocardial hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, coronary bypass surgery, vascular disease, atherosclerosis, alcoholism, periocarditis, a viral infection, gingivitis, or an eating disorder (e.g., anorexia nervosa or bulimia), or is an alcoholic or cocaine addict.

[00108] The term "inhibits myocardial apoptosis" is meant that the treatment inhibits death of cardiomyocytes by at least 10%, by at least 15%, by at least 25%, by at least 50%, by at least 75%, or by at least 90%, compared to untreated cardiomyocytes.

[00109] Embodiments described herein relate to compositions and methods for treating preventing, minimizing, and/or reversing congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction. The methods can include administering to a subject having or at risk of congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction, a therapeutically effective or prophylactic amount of an inhibitor of 15-PGDH activity. The therapeutically effective or prophylactic amount of the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be an amount effective to prevent, minimize, and/or reverse congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction as well as inhibit myocardial apoptosis.

[00110] In some embodiments, the congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and/or reduction of cardiac ejection fraction can result from underlying factors, such as

hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiotoxicity (e.g., cocaine, alcohol, an anti-ErbB2 antibody or anti-HER2 antibody, such as trastuzumab, pertuzumab, or lapatinib, or an anthracycline antibiotic, such as doxorubicin or daunomycin), myocarditis, thyroid disease, viral infection, gingivitis, drug abuse; alcohol abuse, periocarditis, atherosclerosis, vascular disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction or previous myocardial infarction, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, coronary bypass surgery, starvation, an eating disorder, or a genetic defect. [00111] Other embodiments described herein relate to methods of preventing or reducing the risk of any type of acute or delayed cardiotoxic events that are common to subjects or patients treated with chemotherapeutic agents. The method can include administering to a subject treated with a chemotherapeutic agent a therapeutically effective amount of a 15-PGDH inhibitor. The cardiotoxic event that is prevented or reduced can include, for example, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathy, which is indicated by a reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (e.g., tachycardia, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, dependent edema, cardiomegaly,

hepatomegaly, oliguria, ascites, pleural effusion, and arrhythmias).

[00112] Chemotherapeutic agents that may cause cardiotoxic events may include, but are not limited to, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, anti-tumor antibiotics (e.g., anthracyclines), topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors hormone therapy, targeted therapeutics and immunotherapeutics. In certain embodiments, anthracyclines may be responsible for causing cardiomyopathy and other cardiotoxic events when administered as a cancer therapy, and may be optimally administered alone or in combination with one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents according to the embodiments described herein.

[00113] A strong dose-dependent association between anthracyclines and

cardiomyopathy limits the therapeutic potential of this effective class of therapeutic agents. Administration of a 15-PGDH inhibitor in combination with anthracycline can prevent or reduce the risk of any type of acute or delayed cardiotoxic events associated with

anthracycline exposure allowing the treatment to be tailored to maximize the efficacy of these drugs.

[00114] Examples of anthracyclines that may be administered according to the embodiments described herein include, but are not limited to, doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, valrubicin, pirarubicin, amrubicin, aclarubicin, zorubicin, either administered as a single agent or in combination with other agents. Examples of additional chemotherapeutic agents that can be administered to the subject before, during, or after anthracycline administration include an anti-ErB2 or anti-HER2 antibody, such as trastuzumab, pertuzumab, or lapatinib.

[00115] Cancer patients are typically administered a maximum safe dosage of a particular cancer treatment or combination treatment, including chemotherapeutics and targeted cancer therapies. A "maximum safe dosage," "maximum tolerated dosage" or "maximum recommended therapeutic dosage" is the highest amount of a therapeutic agent that can be given that minimizes complications or side effects to a patient while maintaining its efficacy as a treatment. Such a dose can be adjusted to consider the patient's overall heath and any extenuating factors that could hamper the patient's recovery. Due to the severity and potential lethal outcome of the cancer being treated, a maximum safe dosage tolerated in cancer treatment may be an amount that causes considerable and severe side effects, including cardiotoxic effects.

[00116] In some embodiments, the maximum safe dosage is represented by a cumulative dose of the therapeutic agent, which is the total amount of the therapeutic agent given to a patient over the course of treatment. For example, anthracyclines such as doxorubicin are typically administered at a dosage of 60-75 mg/m 2 every three to four weeks when administered as a single agent and 25-60 mg/m 2 every three to four weeks when administered in combination with one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents. However, according to the package insert for doxorubicin hydrochloride injection (Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.), the risk of developing cardiotoxicity that manifests as potentially fatal congestive heart failure (CHF) increases rapidly with increasing total cumulative doses of doxorubicin in excess of 400 mg/m 2 .

[00117] The 15-PGDH inhibitors described herein when administered to subject in combination with a chemotherapeutic agnet can prevent or reduce the risk of cardiomyopathy arising in cancer patients receiving a maximum safe dosage or maxium tolerable dosage as well as increase or extend the maximum safe dosage or maxium tolerable dosage that cancer patients can receive. This allows cancer patients to continue to receive effective

chemotherapeutic agents when the total chemotherapeutic agent dose reaches the current cardiotoxicity based dose limit.

[00118] In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered before, during, or after exposure to a cardiotoxic compound. In yet other embodiments, the

15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered during two, or all three, of these periods.

[00119] In still other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered either prior to or after the diagnosis of congestive heart failure in the mammal.

[00120] The methods described herein may be used to prevent cardiotoxicity during the treatment of any type of cancer including, but not limited to, bone cancer, bladder cancer, brain cancer, neuroblastoma, breast cancer, cancer of the urinary tract, carcinoma, cervical cancer, childhood cancers (e.g., astrocytoma, brain stem glioma, NCS atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, CNS embryonal tumor, CNS Germ Cell tumors, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, kidney tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and other types of leukemia; Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone, rhabdomyosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and Wilms' tumor,), colon cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, head and neck cancer, hepatocellular cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma and leukemia, melanoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, pituitary cancer, prostate cancer, rectal cancer, renal cancer, sarcoma, stomach cancer, testicular cancer, thyroid cancer, and uterine cancer.

[00121] In some embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of the 15-PGDH inhibitor administered to a subject in need thereof can be an amount effective to increase or improve left ventrical ejection fraction, left ventricular end systolic volume, wall motion score index, and/or six minute walk distance at least about 30 meters by at least about 2%, at least about 3%, at least about 4%, at least about 5%, at least about 6%, at least about 7%, at least about 8%, at least about 9%, at least about 10%, at least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, or at least about 50%.

[00122] In other embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of the 15-PGDH inhibitor administered to a subject in need thereof can be amount effective to mitigate decreases in left ventrical ejection fraction, left ventricular end systolic volume, wall motion score index, and/or six minute walk distance at least about 30 meters caused by cardiotoxic compounds by at least about 2%, at least about 3%, at least about 4%, at least about 5%, at least about 6%, at least about 7%, at least about 8%, at least about 9%, at least about 10%, at least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, or at least about 50%.

[00123] 15-PGDH inhibitors can be identified using assays in which putative inhibitor compounds are applied to cells expressing 15-PGDH and then the functional effects on 15-PGDH activity are determined. Samples or assays comprising 15-PGDH that are treated with a potential inhibitor are compared to control samples without the inhibitor to examine the extent of effect. Control samples (untreated with modulators) are assigned a relative 15-PGDH activity value of 100%. Inhibition of 15-PGDH is achieved when the 15-PGDH activity value relative to the control is about 80%, optionally 50% or 25%, 10%, 5% or 1%. [00124] Agents tested as inhibitors of SCD (e.g., 15-PGDH) can be any small chemical molecule or compound. Typically, test compounds will be small chemical molecules, natural products, or peptides. The assays are designed to screen large chemical libraries by automating the assay steps and providing compounds from any convenient source to assays, which are typically run in parallel (e.g., in microtiter formats on microtiter plates in robotic assays).

[00125] In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having the following formula (I):

wherein n is 0-2;

Y 1 , Y 2 , and R 1 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O) (C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C 1 -C 3 alkyl) 3 , hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C2-C24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C6-C20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl

(-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH2, -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, arlyl or alkyl), phosphono

(-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein Y 1 and Y 2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U 1 is N, C-R 2 , or C-NR 3 R 4 , wherein R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 -CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 -CH 2 X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’)2, O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R 1 and R 2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R 3 and R 4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R 3 or R 4 may be absent;

X 1 and X 2 are independently N or C, and wherein when X 1 and/or X 2 are N, Y 1 and/or Y 2 , respectively, are absent;

Z 1 is O, S, CR a R b or NR a , wherein R a and R b are independently H or a C 1-8 alkyl, which is linear, branched, or cyclic, and which is unsubstituted or substituted;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00126] Examples of 15-PGDH inhibitors having formulas (I) include the following compounds:

and pharmaceutically

acceptable salts thereof.

[00127] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having the following formula (II):

wherein n is 0-2

X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , and X 7 are independently N or CR c ;

R 1 , R 6 , R 7 , and R c are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O)(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C 1 -C 3 alkyl) 3 , hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl

(-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH2, -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono

(-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R 6 and R 7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U 1 is N, C-R 2 , or C-NR 3 R 4 , wherein R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 - CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 -CH 2 X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R 1 and R 2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R 3 and R 4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R 3 or R 4 may be absent;

Z 1 is O, S, CR a R b or NR a , wherein R a and R b are independently H or a C 1-8 alkyl, which is linear, branched, or cyclic, and which is unsubstituted or substituted;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. [00128] Examples of 15-PGDH inhibitors having formulas (II) include the following compounds:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00129] In yet other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having the following formula (III) or (IV):

wherein n is 0-2 X 6 is independently is N or CR c ;

R 1 , R 6 , R 7 , and R c are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O)(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C 1 -C 3 alkyl) 3 , hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24

alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy

(-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl

(-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C6-C20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH2, -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono

(-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R 6 and R 7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U 1 is N, C-R 2 , or C-NR 3 R 4 , wherein R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 - CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 -CH 2 X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R 1 and R 2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R 3 and R 4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R 3 or R 4 may be absent;

Z 1 is O, S, CR a R b or NR a , wherein R a and R b are independently H or a C 1-8 alkyl, which is linear, branched, or cyclic, and which is unsubstituted or substituted;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00130] In some embodiments, R 1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including–(CH 2 )n 1 CH 3 (n 1 =0-7), wherein n 2 =0-6 and X is any of the following: CF 2

yH z (y + z = 3), CCl y H z (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R 71 , OR 7 , CN, N(R 73 ) 2 , (n 3 =0-5, m=1-5), and (n 4 =0-5).

[00131] In other embodiments, R 6 and R 7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from the

group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O) (C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), heteroaryl or heterocyclyl containing from 5-14 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-6 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 3 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, silyl, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O- alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), sulfanamido (-SO 2 N(R) 2 where R is independently H, alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH 2 , -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono (-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkyl ethers (-[(CH 2 ) n O] m ), phosphates, phosphate esters [-OP(O)(OR) 2 where R = H, methyl or other alkyl], groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00132] In still other embodiments, R 6 and R 7 can independently be a group that improves aqueous solubility, for example, a phosphate ester (-OPO3H2), a phenyl ring linked to a phosphate ester (-OPO 3 H 2 ), a phenyl ring substituted with one or more methoxyethoxy groups, or a morpholine, or an aryl or heteroaryl ring substituted with such a group.

[00133] Examples of 15-PGDH inhibitors having formulas (III) or (IV) include the following compounds:

pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00134] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having the following formula (V):

wherein n is 0-2

X 6 is independently is N or CR c

R 1 , R 6 , R 7 , and R c are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O)(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C 1 -C 3 alkyl) 3 , hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24

alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy

(-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl

(-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH2, -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono

(-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R 6 and R 7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl;

U 1 is N, C-R 2 , or C-NR 3 R 4 , wherein R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 -CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, O-CH 2 -CH 2 X, X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , O(CO)R’, COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and wherein R 1 and R 2 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein R 3 and R 4 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of H, a lower alkyl group, O, (CH 2 ) n1 OR’ (wherein n1=1, 2, or 3), CF 3 , CH 2 -CH 2 X, CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 X, (wherein X=H, F, Cl, Br, or I), CN, (C=O)-R’, (C=O)N(R’) 2 , COOR’ (wherein R’ is H or a lower alkyl group), and R 3 or R 4 may be absent;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00135] In some embodiments, R 1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including–(CH 2 )n 1 CH 3 (n 1 =0-7), wherein n 2 =0-6 and X is any of the following: CF y H z (y + z = 3), CCl y H z (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R 71 , OR 72 , CN, N(R 73 ) 2 , (n 3 =0-5, m=1-5), and (n 4 =0-5).

[00136] In other embodiments, R 6 and R 7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from the

group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O)(C 1 - C 6 alkyl), O, and S), heteroaryl or heterocyclyl containing from 5-14 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-6 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 3 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, silyl, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O- alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH2), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH2), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), sulfanamido (-SO 2 N(R) 2 where R is independently H, alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH 2 , -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono (-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkyl ethers (-[(CH 2 ) n O] m ), phosphates, phosphate esters [-OP(O)(OR) 2 where R = H, methyl or other alkyl], groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. [00137] In still other embodiments, R 6 and R 7 can independently be a group that improves aqueous solubility, for example, a phosphate ester (-OPO 3 H 2 ), a phenyl ring linked to a phosphate ester (-OPO 3 H 2 ), a phenyl ring substituted with one or more methoxyethoxy groups, or a morpholine, or an aryl or heteroaryl ring substituted with such a group.

[00138] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having the following formula (VI):

wherein n = 0-2;

X 6 is N or CR c ;

R 1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including– (CH 2 )n 1 CH 3 (n 1 =0-7), wherein n 2 =0-6 and X is any of the following: CF y H z (y + z = 3), CCl y H z (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R 71 , OR 72 , CN, N(R 73 ) 2 , (n 3 =0-5, m=1-5), and (n 4 =0-5).

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Cl, F, NH 2 , and N(R 76 ) 2;

R 6 and R 7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O) (C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), heteroaryl or heterocyclyl containing from 5-14 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-6 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 3 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, silyl, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O- alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), sulfanamido (-SO 2 N(R) 2 where R is independently H, alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH 2 , -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono (-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkyl ethers (-[(CH 2 ) n O] m ), phosphates, phosphate esters [-OP(O)(OR) 2 where R = H, methyl or other alkyl], groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00139] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having the following formula (VII):

wherein n = 0-2;

X 6 is N or CR c ;

R 1 is selected from the group consisting of branched or linear alkyl including –(CH 2 )n 1 CH 3 (n 1 =0-7), wherein n 2 =0-6 and X is any of the following: CF y H z (y + z = 3), CCl y H z (y + z = 3), OH, OAc, OMe, R 71 , OR 72 , CN, N(R 73 ) 2 , (n 3 =0-5, m=1-5), and (n 4 =0-5).

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of H, Cl, F, NH 2 , and N(R 76 ) 2;

R 7 can each independently be one of the following:

are the same or different and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O) (C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), heteroaryl or heterocyclyl containing from 5-14 ring atoms, (wherein from 1-6 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 3 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, silyl, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O- alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl-carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), sulfanamido (-SO 2 N(R) 2 where R is independently H, alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH 2 , -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono (-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkyl ethers (-[(CH 2 ) n O] m ), phosphates, phosphate esters [-OP(O)(OR) 2 where R = H, methyl or other alkyl], groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00140] Examples of compounds having formulas (V), (VI), or (VII) are selected from the group consisting of:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00141] In certain embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (I), (II), (III), (IV), (V), (VI), and (VII) can be selected that can ia) at 2.5 µM concentration, stimulate a Vaco503 reporter cell line expressing a 15-PGDH luciferase fusion construct to a luciferase output level of greater than 70 (using a scale on which a value of 100 indicates a doubling of reporter output over baseline); iia) at 2.5 µM concentration stimulate a V9m reporter cell line expressing a 15-PGDH luciferase fusion construct to a luciferase output level of greater than 75; iiia) at 7.5 µM concentration stimulate a LS174T reporter cell line expressing a 15-PGDH luciferase fusion construct to a luciferase output level of greater than 70; and iva) at 7.5 µM concentration, does not activate a negative control V9m cell line expressing TK-renilla luciferase reporter to a level greater than 20; and va) inhibits the enzymatic activity of recombinant 15-PGDH protein at an IC 50 of less than 1 µM.

[00142] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can ib) at 2.5 µM concentration, stimulate a Vaco503 reporter cell line expressing a 15-PGDH luciferase fusion construct to increase luciferase output; iib) at 2.5 µM concentration stimulate a V9m reporter cell line expressing a 15-PGDH luciferase fusion construct to increase luciferase output; iiib) at 7.5 µM concentration stimulate a LS174T reporter cell line expressing a 15-PGDH luciferase fusion construct to increase luciferase output; ivb) at 7.5 µM concentration, does not activate a negative control V9m cell line expressing TK-renilla luciferase reporter to a luciferase level greater than 20% above background; and vb) inhibits the enzymatic activity of recombinant 15-PGDH protein at an IC 50 of less than 1 µM.

[00143] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can inhibit the enzymatic activity of recombinant 15-PGDH at an IC 50 of less than 1 µM, or preferably at an IC 50 of less than 250 nM, or more preferably at an IC 50 of less than 50 nM, or more preferably at an IC 50 of less than 10 nM, or more preferably at an IC 50 of less than 5 nM at a recombinant 15-PGDH concentration of about 5 nM to about 10 nM.

[00144] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can increase the cellular levels of PGE-2 following stimulation of an A459 cell with an appropriate agent, for example IL1- beta.

[00145] In some embodiments, a15-PGDH inhibitor can include a compound having the following formula (VIII):

wherein n is 0-2;

R 1 , R 6 , and R 7 are the same or different and are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 2 -C 24 alkenyl, C 2 -C 24 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 aryl, heteroaryl, heterocycloalkenyl containing from 5-6 ring atoms (wherein from 1-3 of the ring atoms is independently selected from N, NH, N(C 1 -C 6 alkyl), NC(O) (C 1 -C 6 alkyl), O, and S), C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, halo, -Si(C 1 -C 3 alkyl) 3 , hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, C 1 -C 24 alkoxy, C 2 -C 24 alkenyloxy, C 2 -C 24 alkynyloxy, C 5 -C 20 aryloxy, acyl (including C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonyl (--CO-alkyl) and C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl)), acyloxy (-O-acyl), C 2 -C 24 alkoxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl), C 2 -C 24 alkylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylcarbonato (-O-(CO)-O-aryl), carboxy (-COOH), carboxylato (-COO-), carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH2), C1-C24 alkyl-carbamoyl

(-(CO)-NH(C 1 -C 24 alkyl)), arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl), thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH 2 ), carbamido (-NH-(CO)-NH 2 ), cyano(-CN), isocyano (-N + C-), cyanato (-O-CN), isocyanato (-O-N + =C-), isothiocyanato (-S-CN), azido (-N=N + =N-), formyl (--(CO)--H), thioformyl (--(CS)--H), amino (--NH 2 ), C 1 -C 24 alkyl amino, C 5 -C 20 aryl amino, C 2 -C 24 alkylamido (-NH-(CO)-alkyl), C 6 -C 20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl), imino (-CR=NH where R is hydrogen, C 1 -C 24 alkyl, C 5 -C 20 aryl, C 6 -C 24 alkaryl, C 6 -C 24 aralkyl, etc.), alkylimino (-CR=N(alkyl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, aralkyl, etc.), arylimino (-CR=N(aryl), where R=hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.), nitro (-NO 2 ), nitroso (-NO), sulfo (-SO 2 -OH), sulfonato (-SO 2 -O-), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl; also termed "alkylthio"), arylsulfanyl (-S-aryl; also termed "arylthio"), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfinyl (-(SO)-alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfinyl (-(SO)-aryl), C 1 -C 24 alkylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -alkyl), C 5 -C 20 arylsulfonyl (-SO 2 -aryl), sulfonamide (-SO 2 -NH2, -SO 2 NY 2 (wherein Y is independently H, aryl or alkyl), phosphono

(-P(O)(OH) 2 ), phosphonato (-P(O)(O-) 2 ), phosphinato (-P(O)(O-)), phospho (-PO 2 ), phosphino (--PH 2 ), polyalkylethers, phosphates, phosphate esters, groups incorporating amino acids or other moieties expected to bear positive or negative charge at physiological pH, combinations thereof, and wherein R 6 and R 7 may be linked to form a cyclic or polycyclic ring, wherein the ring is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, and a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00146] 15-PGDH inhibitors having formula (VIII) can be synthesized as shown:

[00147] Any reaction solvent can be used in the above preparation process as long as it is not involved in the reaction. For example, the reaction solvent includes ethers such as diethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran and dioxane; halogenized hydrocarbons, such as dichloromethane and chloroform; amines such as pyridine, piperidine and triethylamine; alkylketones, such as acetone, methylethylketone and methylisobutyl; alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol and propanol; non-protonic polar solvent, such as N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N- dimethylacetamide, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethyl phosphoric acid triamide. Among non-reactive organic solvents that are ordinarily used in the organic synthesis, preferable solvents are those from which water generated in the reaction can be removed by a Dean-Stark trap. The examples of such solvents include, but are not limited to benzene, toluene, xylene and the like. The reaction product thus obtained may be isolated and purified by condensation, extraction and the like, which is ordinarily conducted in the field of the organic synthesis, if desired, by silica gel column chromatography. The individual enantiomers of PGDH inhibitors having the formula III can be separated by a preparative HPLC using chromatography columns containing chiral stationary phases.

[00148] Further, embodiments of this application include any modifications for the preparation method of the 15-PGDH inhibitors described above. In this connection, any intermediate product obtainable from any step of the preparation method can be used as a starting material in the other steps. Such starting material can be formed in situ under certain reaction conditions. Reaction reagents can also be used in the form of their salts or optical isomers.

[00149] Depending on the kinds of the substituents to be used in the preparation of the 15-PGDH inhibitors, and the intermediate product and the preparation method selected, novel 15-PGDH inhibitors can be in the form of any possible isomers such as substantially pure geometrical (cis or trans) isomers, optical isomers (enantiomers) and racemates.

[00150] In some embodiments, a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (VIII) can include a compound with the following formula (IX):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00151] Advantageously, the 15-PDGH inhibitor having formula (IX) was found to: i) inhibit recombinant 15-PGDH at 1 nM concentration; ii) inhibit 15-PGDH in cell lines at 100 nM concentration, iii) increase PGE 2 production by cell lines; iv) is chemically stable in aqueous solutions over broad pH range; v) is chemically stable when incubated with hepatocyte extracts, vi) is chemically stable when incubated with hepatocyte cell lines; vii) shows 253 minutes plasma half-life when injected IP into mice; and viii) shows no immediate toxicity over 24 hours when injected IP into mice at 0.6 µmole/per mouse and at

1.2 µmole/per mouse and also no toxicity when injected IP into mice at 0.3 µmole/per mouse twice daily for 21 days.

[00152] In other embodiments, a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) can include a compound with the following formula (IXa):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00153] In still other embodiments, a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) can include a compound with the following formula (IXb):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00154] In other embodiments, the 15-PDHG inhibitor can comprise a (+) or (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX). In still other embodiments, the 15-PDHG inhibitor can comprise a mixture at least one of a (+) or (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX). For example, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can comprise a mixture of: less than about 50% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) and greater than about 50% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX), less than about 25% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) and greater than about 75% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX), less than about 10% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) and greater than about 90% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX), less than about 1% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) and greater than about 99% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX), greater than about 50% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) and less than about 50% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX), greater than about 75% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) and less than about 25% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX), greater than about 90% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) and less than about 10% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX), or greater than about 99% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX) and less than about 1% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX).

[00155] In a still further embodiment, the 15-PDGH inhibitor can consist essentially of or consist of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX). In yet another embodiment, the PDGH inhibitor can consist essentially of or consist of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (IX).

[00156] In other embodiments, a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (VIII) can include a compound with the following formula (X):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00157] Advantageously, the 15-PDGH inhibitor having formula (X) was found to: i) inhibit recombinant 15-PGDH at 3 nM concentration; ii) increase PGE 2 production by cell lines at 20nM; iii) is chemically stable in aqueous solutions over broad pH range; iv) is chemically stable when incubated with mouse, rat and human liver extracts, v) shows 33 minutes plasma half-life when injected IP into mice; viii) shows no immediate toxicity over 24 hours when injected IP into mice at 50 mg/kg body weight, and ix) is soluble in water (pH=3) at 1 mg/mL.

[00158] In other embodiments, a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) can include a compound with the following formula (Xa):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00159] In still other embodiments, a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) can include a compound with the following formula (Xb):

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

[00160] In other embodiments, the 15-PDHG inhibitor can comprise a (+) or (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X). In still other embodiments, the

15-PDHG inhibitor can comprise a mixture at least one of a (+) or (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X). For example, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can comprise a mixture of: less than about 50% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) and greater than about 50% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X), less than about 25% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) and greater than about 75% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X), less than about 10% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) and greater than about 90% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X), less than about 1% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) and greater than about 99% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X), greater than about 50% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) and less than about 50% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X), greater than about 75% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) and less than about 25% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X), greater than about 90% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) and less than about 10% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X), or greater than about 99% by weight of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X) and less than about 1% by weight of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X).

[00161] In a still further embodiment, the 15-PDGH inhibitor can consist essentially of or consist of the (+) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X). In yet another embodiment, the PDGH inhibitor can consist essentially of or consist of the (-) optical isomer of a 15-PGDH inhibitor having formula (X).

[00162] It will be appreciated that the other 15-PGDH inhibitors can be used in the methods described herein. These other 15-PGDH inhibitors can include known 15-PGDH inhibitors including, for example, tetrazole compounds of formulas (I) and (II),

2-alkylideneaminooxyacetamidecompounds of formula (I), heterocyclic compounds of formulas (VI) and (VII), and pyrazole compounds of formula (III) described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No.2006/0034786 and U.S. Patent No.7,705,041; benzylidene-1,3- thiazolidine compounds of formula (I) described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No.2007/0071699; phenylfurylmethylthiazolidine-2,4-dione and

phenylthienylmethylthiazolidine-2,4-dione compounds described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No.2007/0078175; thiazolidenedione derivatives described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No.2011/0269954; phenylfuran, phenylthiophene, or

phenylpyrrazole compounds described in U.S. Patent No.7,294,641, 5-(3,5-disubstituted phenylazo)-2-hydroxybenzene-acetic acids and salts and lactones described in U.S. Patent No.4,725,676, and azo compounds described in U.S. Patent No.4,889,846.

[00163] Still other examples are described in the following publications: Seo SY et al. Effect of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitor on wound healing.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.2015;97:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2015.03.005. PubMed PMID: 25899574; Piao YL et al. Wound healing effects of new 15- hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitors. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2014;91(6):325-32. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2014.09.011. PubMed PMID: 25458900; Choi D et al. Control of the intracellular levels of prostaglandin E(2) through inhibition of the 15- hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase for wound healing. Bioorg Med Chem.

2013;21(15):4477-84. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.05.049. PubMed PMID: 23791868; Wu Y et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thiazolidinedione analogues as 15- hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitors. J Med Chem.2011;54(14):5260-4. Epub 2011/06/10. doi: 10.1021/jm200390u. PubMed PMID: 21650226; Duveau DY et al.

Structure-activity relationship studies and biological characterization of human NAD(+)- dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014;24(2):630-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.11.081. PubMed PMID: 24360556; PMCID: PMC3970110; Duveau DY et al. Discovery of two small molecule inhibitors, ML387 and ML388, of human NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. Probe Reports from the NIH Molecular Libraries Program. Bethesda (MD)2010; Wu Y et al.

Synthesis and SAR of thiazolidinedione derivatives as 15-PGDH inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem.2010;18(4):1428-33. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.01.016. PubMed PMID: 20122835; Wu Y et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thiazolidinedione analogues as 15- hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitors. J Med Chem.2011;54(14):5260-4. Epub 2011/06/10. doi: 10.1021/jm200390u. PubMed PMID: 21650226; Jadhav A et al. Potent and selective inhibitors of NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD). Probe Reports from the NIH Molecular Libraries Program. Bethesda (MD)2010; Niesen FH et al. High-affinity inhibitors of human NAD-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase: mechanisms of inhibition and structure-activity relationships. PLoS One. 2010;5(11):e13719. Epub 2010/11/13. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013719. PubMed PMID: 21072165; PMCID: 2970562; Michelet, J. et al. Composition comprising at least one 15- PGDH inhibitor. US20080206320 A1, 2008; and Rozot, R et al. Care/makeup compositions comprising a 2-alkylideneaminooxyacetamide compound for stimulating the growth of the hair or eyelashes and/or slowing loss thereof. US7396525 B2, 2008.

[00164] The 15-PGDH inhibitors described herein can be provided in a pharmaceutical composition. A pharmaceutical composition containing the 15-PGDH inhibitors described herein as an active ingredient may be manufactured by mixing the derivative with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier(s) or an excipient(s) or diluting the 15-PGDH inhibitors with a diluent in accordance with conventional methods. The pharmaceutical composition may further contain fillers, anti-cohesives, lubricants, wetting agents, flavoring agents, emulsifying agents, preservatives and the like. The pharmaceutical composition may be formulated into a suitable formulation in accordance with the methods known to those skilled in the art so that it can provide an immediate, controlled or sustained release of the 15-PGDH inhibitors after being administered into a mammal.

[00165] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition may be formulated into a parenteral or oral dosage form. The solid dosage form for oral administration may be manufactured by adding excipient, if necessary, together with binder, disintegrants, lubricants, coloring agents, and/or flavoring agents, to the 15-PGDH inhibitors and shaping the resulting mixture into the form of tablets, sugar-coated pills, granules, powder or capsules. The additives that can be added in the composition may be ordinary ones in the art. For example, examples of the excipient include lactose, sucrose, sodium chloride, glucose, starch, calcium carbonate, kaolin, microcrystalline cellulose, silicate and the like. Exemplary binders include water, ethanol, propanol, sweet syrup, sucrose solution, starch solution, gelatin solution, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl starch, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, shellac, calcium phosphonate and polypyrrolidone.

Examples of the disintegrant include dry starch, sodium arginate, agar powder, sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, sodium lauryl sulfate, stearic monoglyceride and lactose. Further, purified talc, stearates, sodium borate, and polyethylene glycol may be used as a lubricant; and sucrose, bitter orange peel, citric acid, tartaric acid, may be used as a flavoring agent. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition can be made into aerosol formulations (e.g., they can be nebulized) to be administered via inhalation.

[00166] The 15-PGDH inhibitors described herein may be combined with flavoring agents, buffers, stabilizing agents, and the like and incorporated into oral liquid dosage forms such as solutions, syrups or elixirs in accordance with conventional methods. One example of the buffers may be sodium citrate. Examples of the stabilizing agents include tragacanth, acacia and gelatin.

[00167] In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitors described herein may be incorporated into an injection dosage form, for example, for a subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous route by adding thereto pH adjusters, buffers, stabilizing agents, relaxants, topical anesthetics. Examples of the pH adjusters and the buffers include sodium citrate, sodium acetate and sodium phosphate. Examples of the stabilizing agents include sodium pyrosulfite, EDTA, thioglycolic acid and thiolactic acid. The topical anesthetics may be procaine HCl, lidocaine HCl and the like. The relaxants may be sodium chloride, glucose and the like.

[00168] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitors described herein may be incorporated into suppositories in accordance with conventional methods by adding thereto pharmaceutically acceptable carriers that are known in the art, for example, polyethylene glycol, lanolin, cacao butter or fatty acid triglycerides, if necessary, together with surfactants such as Tween.

[00169] The pharmaceutical composition may be formulated into various dosage forms as discussed above and then administered through various routes including an oral, inhalational, transdermal, subcutaneous, intravenous or intramuscular route. The dosage can be a pharmaceutically or therapeutically effective amount.

[00170] Therapeutically effective dosage amounts of the 15-PGDH inhibitor may be present in varying amounts in various embodiments. For example, in some embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of the 15-PGDH inhibitor may be an amount ranging from about 10-1000 mg (e.g., about 20 mg-1,000 mg, 30 mg-1,000 mg, 40 mg-1,000 mg, 50 mg- 1,000 mg, 60 mg-1,000 mg, 70 mg-1,000 mg, 80 mg-1,000 mg, 90 mg-1,000 mg, about 10- 900 mg,

10-800 mg, 10-700 mg, 10-600 mg, 10-500 mg, 100-1000 mg, 100-900 mg, 100-800 mg, 100-700 mg, 100-600 mg, 100-500 mg, 100-400 mg, 100-300 mg, 200-1000 mg, 200-900 mg, 200-800 mg, 200-700 mg, 200-600 mg, 200-500 mg, 200-400 mg, 300-1000 mg, 300- 900 mg, 300-800 mg, 300-700 mg, 300-600 mg, 300-500 mg, 400 mg-1,000 mg, 500 mg- 1,000 mg, 100 mg-900 mg, 200 mg-800 mg, 300 mg-700 mg, 400 mg-700 mg, and 500 mg- 600 mg). In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor is present in an amount of or greater than about 10 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg, 300 mg, 350 mg, 400 mg, 450 mg, 500 mg, 550 mg, 600 mg, 650 mg, 700 mg, 750 mg, 800 mg. In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor is present in an amount of or less than about 1000 mg, 950 mg, 900 mg, 850 mg, 800 mg, 750 mg, 700 mg, 650 mg, 600 mg, 550 mg, 500 mg, 450 mg, 400 mg, 350 mg, 300 mg, 250 mg, 200 mg, 150 mg, or 100 mg.

[00171] In other embodiments, a therapeutically effective dosage amount may be, for example, about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 500 mg/kg weight, e.g., from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 400 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 300 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 200 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to

100 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 90 mg/kg weight, from about

0.001 mg/kg weight to 80 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 70 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 60 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 50 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 40 mg/kg weight, from about

0.001 mg/kg weight to 30 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 25 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 20 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 15 mg/kg weight, from about 0.001 mg/kg weight to 10 mg/kg weight.

[00172] In still other embodiments, a therapeutically effective dosage amount may be, for example, about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.1 mg/kg weight, e.g. from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.09 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.08 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.07 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.06 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.05 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to about 0.04 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.03 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.02 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.019 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to

0.018 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.017 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.016 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to

0.015 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.014 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.013 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to

0.012 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.011 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.01 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.009 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.008 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.007 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.006 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.005 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.004 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.003 mg/kg weight, from about 0.0001 mg/kg weight to 0.002 mg/kg weight. In some embodiments, the therapeutically effective dose may be 0.0001 mg/kg weight, 0.0002 mg/kg weight, 0.0003 mg/kg weight, 0.0004 mg/kg weight, 0.0005 mg/kg weight, 0.0006 mg/kg weight, 0.0007 mg/kg weight, 0.0008 mg/kg weight, 0.0009 mg/kg weight, 0.001 mg/kg weight, 0.002 mg/kg weight, 0.003 mg/kg weight, 0.004 mg/kg weight, 0.005 mg/kg weight, 0.006 mg/kg weight, 0.007 mg/kg weight, 0.008 mg/kg weight, 0.009 mg/kg weight, 0.01 mg/kg weight,

0.02 mg/kg weight, 0.03 mg/kg weight, 0.04 mg/kg weight, 0.05 mg/kg weight, 0.06 mg/kg weight, 0.07 mg/kg weight, 0.08 mg/kg weight, 0.09 mg/kg weight, or 0.1 mg/kg weight. The effective dose for a particular individual can be varied (e.g., increased or decreased) over time, depending on the needs of the individual.

[00173] In some embodiments, a therapeutically effective dosage may be a dosage of 10 µg/kg/day, 50 µg/kg/day, 100 µg/kg/day, 250 µg/kg/day, 500 µg/kg/day, 1000 µg/kg/day or more. In various embodiments, the amount of the 15-PGDH inhibitor or pharmaceutical salt thereof is sufficient to provide a dosage to a patient of between 0.01 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg; 0.1 µg/kg and 5 µg/kg; 0.1 µg/kg and 1000 µg/kg; 0.1 µg/kg and 900 µg/kg; 0.1 µg/kg and 900 µg/kg; 0.1 µg/kg and 800 µg/kg; 0.1 µg/kg and 700 µg/kg; 0.1 µg/kg and 600 µg/kg; 0.1 µg/kg and 500 µg/kg; or 0.1 µg/kg and 400 µg/kg.

[00174] Particular doses or amounts to be administered in accordance with the present invention may vary, for example, depending on the nature and/or extent of the desired outcome, on particulars of route and/or timing of administration, and/or on one or more characteristics (e.g., weight, age, personal history, genetic characteristic, lifestyle parameter, severity of cardiac defect and/or level of risk of cardiac defect, etc., or combinations thereof). Such doses or amounts can be determined by those of ordinary skill. In some embodiments, an appropriate dose or amount is determined in accordance with standard clinical techniques. For example, in some embodiments, an appropriate dose or amount is a dose or amount sufficient to reduce a disease severity index score by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100% or more. For example, in some embodiments, an appropriate dose or amount is a dose or amount sufficient to reduce a disease severity index score by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100%.

Alternatively or additionally, in some embodiments, an appropriate dose or amount is determined through use of one or more in vitro or in vivo assays to help identify desirable or optimal dosage ranges or amounts to be administered.

[00175] Various embodiments may include differing dosing regimen. In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered via continuous infusion. In some embodiments, the continuous infusion is intravenous. In other embodiments, the continuous infusion is subcutaneous. Alternatively or additionally, in some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered bimonthly, monthly, twice monthly, triweekly, biweekly, weekly, twice weekly, thrice weekly, daily, twice daily, or on another clinically desirable dosing schedule. The dosing regimen for a single subject need not be at a fixed interval, but can be varied over time, depending on the needs of the subject.

[00176] For topical application, the composition can be administered in the form of aqueous, alcoholic, aqueous-alcoholic or oily solutions or suspensions, or of a dispersion of the lotion or serum type, of emulsions that have a liquid or semi-liquid consistency or are pasty, obtained by dispersion of a fatty phase in an aqueous phase (O/W) or vice versa (W/O) or multiple emulsions, of a free or compacted powder to be used as it is or to be incorporated into a physiologically acceptable medium, or else of microcapsules or microparticles, or of vesicular dispersions of ionic and/or nonionic type. It may thus be in the form of a salve, a tincture, milks, a cream, an ointment, a powder, a patch, an impregnated pad, a solution, an emulsion or a vesicular dispersion, a lotion, aqueous or anhydrous gels, a spray, a suspension, a shampoo, an aerosol or a foam. It may be anhydrous or aqueous. It may also comprise solid preparations constituting soaps or cleansing cakes.

[00177] Pharmaceutical compositions including the 15-PGDH inhibitor described herein can additionally contain, for example, at least one compound chosen from prostaglandins, in particular prostaglandin PGE 1 , PGE 2 , their salts, their esters, their analogues and their derivatives, in particular those described in WO 98/33497, WO 95/11003, JP 97-100091, JP 96-134242, in particular agonists of the prostaglandin receptors. It may in particular contain at least one compound such as the agonists (in acid form or in the form of a precursor, in particular in ester form) of the prostaglandin F 2 α receptor, such as for example latanoprost, fluprostenol, cloprostenol, bimatoprost, unoprostone, the agonists (and their precursors, in particular the esters such as travoprost) of the prostaglandin E 2 receptors such as 17-phenyl PGE 2 , viprostol, butaprost, misoprostol, sulprostone, 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 , 11-deoxy PGE 1 , 1-deoxy PGE 1 , the agonists and their precursors, in particular esters, of the prostacycline (IP) receptor such as cicaprost, iloprost, isocarbacycline, beraprost, eprostenol, treprostinil, the agonists and their precursors, in particular the esters, of the prostaglandin D 2 receptor such as BW245C ((4S)-(3-[(3R,S)-3-cyclohexyl-3-isopropyl]-2,5-dioxo)-4- imidazolidinehept- anoic acid), BW246C ((4R)-(3-[(3R,S)-3-cyclohexyl-3-isopropyl]-2,5- dioxo)-4-imidazolidinehept- anoic acid), the agonists and their precursors, in particular the esters, of the receptor for the thromboxanes A2 (TP) such as I-BOP ([1S-[1a,2a(Z),

3b(1E,3S),4a]]-7-[3-[3-hydroxy-4-[4-(iodophenoxy)-1-buten yl]-7-oxabicyclo- [2.2.1]hept-2- yl]-5-heptenoic acid).

[00178] Advantageously, the composition can include at least one 15-PGDH inhibitor as defined above and at least one prostaglandin or one prostaglandin derivative such as for example the prostaglandins of series 2 including in particular PGF and PGE 2 in saline form or in the form of precursors, in particular of the esters (example isopropyl esters), their derivatives such as 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 , 17-phenyl PGE 2 and 16,16-dimethyl PGF 17-phenyl PGF , prostaglandins of series 1 such as 11-deoxyprostaglandin E1, 1- deoxyprostaglandin E1 in saline or ester form, is their analogues, in particular latanoprost, travoprost, fluprostenol, unoprostone, bimatoprost, cloprostenol, viprostol, butaprost, misoprostol, their salts or their esters.

[00179] In other embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered with one or more additional chemotherapeutic or cardioprotective agents or treatments or in combination with one or more chemotherapeutic regimens known in the field of oncology. "In combination" or "in combination with," as used herein, means in the course of treating the same disease in the same patient using two or more agents, drugs, treatment regimens, treatment modalities or a combination thereof, in any order. This includes simultaneous administration, as well as in a temporally spaced order of up to several days apart. Such combination treatment may also include more than a single administration of any one or more of the agents, drugs, treatment regimens or treatment modalities. Further, the administration of the two or more agents, drugs, treatment regimens, treatment modalities or a combination thereof may be by the same or different routes of administration.

[00180] Examples of cardioprotective agents or treatments that may be used in accordance with the methods described herein include, but are not limited to, cardioprotective drugs (e.g., dexrazoxane, ACE-inhibitors, diuretics, cardiac glycosides) cholesterol lowering drugs, revascularization drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, cardioprotective diets,

cardioprotective nutrients, cardioprotective herbs, cardioprotective vitamins (e.g., folic acid, B vitamin family), and cardioprotective hormone treatments.

[00181] In some embodiments, the 15-PGDH inhibitor can be administered in combination with a therapeutically amount of SDF-1. The SDF-1 can be administered by injecting a solution comprising SDF-1 expressing plasmid in the heart of a subject in need of treatment. The SDF-1 can be expressed from the heart at an amount effective to improve left ventrical ejection fraction.

[00182] In an aspect of the application, the SDF-1 plasmid can be administered to the heart in multiple injections of the solution with each injection comprising about 0.33 mg/ml to about 5 mg/ml of SDF-1 plasmid solution. In one example, the SDF-1 plasmid can be administered to a weakened, ischemic, and/or peri-infarct region of the heart in at least about 10 injections. Each injection administered to the heart can have a volume of at least about 0.2 ml. The SDF-1 can be expressed in the heart for greater than about three days.

[00183] The invention is further illustrated by the following example, which is not intended to limit the scope of the claims.

Example

[00184] This example shows results from a study in which (+) SW033291, a 15-PGDH inhibitor, prevented doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy in mice. Doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy limits the total doxorubicin dose that can be administered to cancer patients. Preventing this effect would directly reduce risk of cardiomyopathy arising in cancer patients receiving doxorubicin containing regimes, and would also mean that cancer patients would not have to discontinue receiving effective doxorubicin based therapies when the total doxorubicin dose reaches the current cardiotoxicity based dose limit.

[00185] Fig.1 illustrates schematically the design of a study in which male C57bl6J mice received 15 mpk cumulative dose of doxorubicin in 7 doses of 2.15 mpk administered daily over study days 1-7. A 15-PGDH inhibitor, (+) SW033291, was administered by oral gavage at a dose of 25 mpk twice daily over study days 1-14, as a solution in a vehicle of 10% ethanol and 90% soybean oil. Cardiac ejection fraction was determined by

echocardiography on study days 14 and 28. [00186] Fig.2 illustrates a graph showing cardiac ejection fraction at study day 1, at the start of the experiment, at study day 14 and at study day 28. Black bars show measurement in control mice receiving either oral saline or oral vehicle. Blue bars show results in doxorubicin treated mice receiving oral vehicle. Red bars show results in doxorubicin treated mice also receiving (+) SW033291. Doxorubicin treated mice receiving oral vehicle (blue bars) show a 10% decrease in ejection fraction on day 14 and day 28 as compared to non- doxorubicin treated control mice receiving vehicle only for 14 days. In contrast, mice treated with both doxorubicin and (+) SW033291 only a 2% (day 14) or 1.5% (day 28) decrease in ejection fraction. The difference in ejection fraction in doxorubicin treated mice receiving or not receiving (+) SW033291 was statiscally significant (P<0.05) on both days 14 and 28.

[00187] Fig.3 illustrates representative echocardiograms on study day 14 of doxorubicin treated mice receiving either oral vehicle (upper panel) or oral (+) SW033291 (lower panel), showing the markedly greater cardiac contractility in the (+) SW033291 treated mouse.

[00188] Fig.4 illustrates induction of DNA damage in cardiac myocytes of doxorubicin treated mice as visualized by immunostaining for gamma-H2AX.

[00189] Fig.5 illustrates images and graphs showing that doxorubicin induces equal levels of DNA damage in mice receiving oral (+) SW033291 as in mice receiving oral vehicle, as assayed by gamma-H2AX immunostaining.

[00190] Fig.6 shows the design of a second follow on study (Set B) in which mice were treated with 2 consecutive cycles of doxorubicin.

[00191] Fig.7 shows results for the ejection fraction (EF%) of the first cohort of mice (Set A) graphed in Fig.2, but with follow-up now extended to day 56, showing maintenance of improvement in ejection fraction in mice that had received treatment with (+)-SW033291. Fig.7 also shows the improvement of ejection fraction in (+)-SW033291 treated mice from Set B demonstrated both at day 14, following one the first cycle of treatment with doxorubicin, and at day 42 following the second cycle of treatment with doxorubicin.

[00192] Fig.8 shows further analysis of mice from Set B, showing that on day 42, after two cycles of doxorubicin, (+)-SW033291 treated mice have greater total body weight than vehicle treated mice, (+)-SW033291 treated mice have lesser ventricular weight than vehicle control treated mice, and (+)-SW033291 treated mice have lesser lung weight than vehicle control treated mice, all of which metrics accord with the improved cardiac function of the (+)-SW033291 treated mice. [00193] Fig.9 shows further analysis of mice from Set B, showing that on day 42, after two cycles of doxorubicin, (+)-SW033291 treated mice have lower levels of atrial natriuretic factor (as measured by real-time PCR in cardiac tissue) than do vehicle control treated mice, consistent with the improved cardiac function of these mice.

[00194] Fig.10 shows further analysis of mice from Set B, showing that on day 42, after two cycles of doxorubicin, (+)-SW033291 treated mice have lower levels of expression of connective tissue growth factor (as measured by real-time PCR in cardiac tissue) than do vehicle control treated mice, consistent with development of lesser cardiac fibrosis in the (+)- SW033291 treated mice.

[00195] Fig.11 shows that administering 25 mpk of oral (+)-SW033291 inhibits activity of cardiac 15-PGDH by approximately 80% starting at 30 minutes after drug treatment and persisting for 3 hours following drug administration. Mice treated with (+)-SW033291 also showed increased cardiac PGE2 at 6 hours after drug treatment, presumably reflecting the time required for PGE2 to accumulate in the tissue following inhibition of 15-PGDH.

[00196] These results demonstrate that the 15-PGDH inhibitor (+) SW033291 protects from doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy by modifying the effects of cardiac injury.

Moreover, the data indicate that 15-PGDH inhibition does not compromise the

chemotherapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin.

[00197] While this invention has been particularly shown and described with references to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention encompassed by the appended claims. All patents, publications and references cited in the foregoing specification are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.