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Title:
INSECTICIDAL COMPOSITION COMPRISING MORE THAN ONE ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1986/004216
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A synergistic insecticidal composition containing more than one active ingredients and being harmless to environment characterized by comprising in an amount of from 0.001 to 99% by weight a synthetic pyrethroide of the formula (I) - namely substantially only the 1RtransS and 1StransR enantiomer-pair (Ib) out from the possible eight isomers - optionally in admixture with an amount of up to 100% by weight of one or more activator(s) and auxiliary agent(s), particularly antioxidants, stabilising agents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, dispersing agents, antifoam agents, diluents and/or fillers. The enantiomer-pair Ib consisting of the 1RtransS and 1StransR isomers is new and the invention also relates to the said new enantiomer-pair and a process for the preparation thereof. The advantage of the insecticidal composition of the present invention is that it is less toxical towards warm-blooded animals and useful parasites and is therefore much less harmful to the environment.

Inventors:
Hidasi
Gy�rgy, Sz�kely
Istv�n, Berto"k
B�la, Zoltan
S�ndor, Nagy
Lajos, Gajari
Antal, Somfai
�va, Heged�s
Agnes, Pap
L�szl�, Soos
Rudolf, Radvany
Erzs�bet, Botar
S�ndor, Szabolcsi
Tam�s
Application Number:
PCT/HU1986/000004
Publication Date:
July 31, 1986
Filing Date:
January 16, 1986
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Chinoin, Gyogyszer �S Vegy�szeti Term�kek Gyara R.
Hidasi, Gy�rgy Sz�kely Istv�n Berto"k B�la Zoltan S�ndor Nagy Lajos Gajari Antal Somfai �va HEGED�S Agnes Pap L�szl� Soos Rudolf Radvany Erzs�bet Botar S�ndor Szabolcsi Tam�s
International Classes:
C07C69/747; A01N37/34; A01N53/00; A01N53/08; A01P7/04; C07B57/00; C07B61/00; C07B63/04; C07C67/52; C07C69/743; C07C253/30; C07C253/34; C07C255/00; C07C255/37; C07C255/39; A01N; C07B; C07C; (IPC1-7): A01N53/00; C07C121/75; C07B57/00
Foreign References:
EP0128571A11984-12-19
DE3044391A11981-08-27
GB1582596A1981-01-14
EP0107296A11984-05-02
EP0150006A11985-07-31
EP0022382A11981-01-14
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Claims:
What we claim is ,
1. A synergistic insecticidal composition containing more than one active ingredients and being harmless to environment characterized by comprising in an amount of from 0.001 to 99 % by weight a synthetic pyrethroide of the Formula (I) (I) namely substantially only the IRtransS and IStransS enantiomerpair (lb) out from the possible eight isomers optionally in admixture with an amount of Up to 100 % by weight of one or more activator(s) and auxiliary agent(s), particularly antioxidants, stabi¬ lising agents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, dispersing agents, antifom agents, diluents and/or fillers. (Priority: 16th January 1985).
2. Isomer mixture of the Formula (I) con¬ sisting substantially of enantiomerpair IRtransS and IStransR having a purity of at least 95 % and the following IR and NMR data: IR (KBr) \?c=0 = 1735 cm"1 NMR (CDC13) (ppm) = 1.22, 1.27, CMe2; 1.69, d, IH cl; 2.32 m, IH C3; 5.6, d, IH Cl'; 6.39, s, IH, C alphaproton 5 (Priority: 16th January 1985).
3. Isomer mixture of the Formula (I) consisting substantially of the IRtransS and IStransR enantiomerpair having a melting point of 80.581.5 C and the IR and NMR data according to Claim 2. ° (Priority: 8th January 1986).
4. A process for the preparation of an isomer mixture lb cov.sisting substantially of only the enantiomerpair IRtransS and IStransR i.e. substantially only two out of the eight possible 5 isomers of the compounds of the Formula (I) (I) 5 from mixtures comprising also other isomers of the Formula (I) which comprises a) preparing a saturated solution from a mixture comprising the desired isomers in admixture with further possible isomers with a protic or apolar aprotic inert organic solvent, seeding the solution with a seeding crystal consisting of the enantiomerpair IRtransS + IStransR and isolating the precipitated crystals at a tem¬ perature between +30 °C and 30 C; or b) seeding a melt of a mixture comprising the de¬ sired isomers in admixture with further possible isomers at a temperature between 10 C and 60 °C with a seeding crystal consisting of the IRtransS + IStransR enantiomerpair, crystalliz¬ ing at a temperature between 30 °C and 10 °C, and if desired suspending the mixture thus ob tained in a protic or apolar aprotic organic solvent at a temperature between 10 °C and 20 °C and isolating the separated crystals; or c) subjecting a mixture comprising the desired isomerpair lb in admixture with further possible isomers to chromatography in an organic solvent preferably on a silica gel or Kieselguhr adsor¬ bent; or d) dissolving a mixture comprising trans isomers of the compounds of the Formula (I) in a protic or apolar aprotic solvent, seeding the solution with a seeding crystal consisting of the enantiomer pair IRtransS + IStransR (lb), isolating the precipitated crystalline product lb, and there after if desired epimerising the mixture com¬ prising lb + Id being present in the motherlye with an organic or inorganic base and if desired repeating the said step and/or the crystallizing step; or e) dissolving the mixture comprising the trans iso¬ mers in a secondary or tertiary organic amine base comprising 49 carbon atoms optionally by adding an organic solvent and seeding the solution thus obtained with a seeding crystal consisting of IRtransS + IStransR isomers and thereafter isolating the precipitated crystals. • (Priority: 8th January 1986).
5. Process according to variant a) or e) of Claim 4 which comprises using as organic solvent a C, _, 2 hydrocarbon, a C, _g chlorinated hydrocarbon, a Ci c dialkyl ether or a 0, ., alcohol, wherein the said solvents may be straight or branched chained and cyclic or alicyclic, respectively. (Priority: 16th January 1985).
6. Process according to variant a) of Claim 4 which comprises carrying out the seeding operation with the seeding crystal in the presence of an antioxidant preferably tertiary butyl hydr oxy toluene or 2,2,4trimethylquirιoline and using ethanol, isopropanol or hexane as solvent. (Priority: 16th January 1985).
7. Process according to variant a) of Claim 4 which comprises using a C._ slkane, C ηQ cycloalkane, Cτ__g alkanol and/or Cc o cycloalkanol or a mixture thereof preferably hexane, petrolether, cyclohexane, methanol, ethanol or isopropanol as solvent. (Priority: 8th January 1986).
8. Process according to variant c) of Claim 4 which comprises carrying out epimerisation by adding ammonia, a secondary or tertiary alkyl amine or a cyclic amine as basic substance. (Priority: 8th January 1986).
9. Process according to variant a) of Claim 4 which comprises using methanol, ethanol or isopropanol as solvent. (Priority: 8th January 1986).
10. Process according to variant d) of Claim 4 which comprises using triethyl amine, morpholine, pyrrolidine, piperidine, diisopropyl amine, ephedrine or secondary butyl amine as organic amine base. (Priority: 8th January 1986).
Description:
INSECTICIDAL COMPOSITION COMPRISING MORE THAU ONE AC¬ TIVE INGREDIENTS

Technical field

This invention relates to insecticidal com¬ positions comprising more than one pyrettiroide active ingredients of the Formula (I)

the use thereof, the active ingredients and a process for the preparation of the same.

Background Art

In the present specification the spatial configuration of the substi uents related to the chiral carbon atom denoted with "cc" is characterized by "S" and "R" , respectively. The designations "cis" and "trans", respectively, mark the position of the

substituents attached to carbon atom "3" of the cyclo¬ propane ring related to the spatial configuration of the substituents of carbon atom "1". The absolute spatial configuration of the substituent attached to carbon atom "1" is denoted with the prefix "IR" and "IS", respectively.

In the present specification the various enantiomers and enantiomer-pairs are designated with the following abbreviations: la mixture of IReisS and IScisR lb mixture of IRtransS and IStransR Ic mixture of IReisR and IScisS Id mixture of IStransR and IStransS If IReisS Ig IRtransS Ih IScisR Ii IStranszR

It is known that pyrethroides of the For¬ mula (I) (known under the generic name "cypermethrine") belong to the valuable family of synthetic pyrethroides and are useful as insecticide (Hungarian patent No. 170,866). These compounds may be prepared by reacting m-phenoxy-bengaldehyde cyanohydrine with the corresponding cyclopropane carboxylic acid chloride in the presence of a base [Pestic. Sci. 6, 537-... (1975)1. The product thus obtained consists of eight stereoisomers i.e. of a mixture of four enantiomer- -pairs. If a 60:40 mixture of the corresponding trans

and cis cyclopropane carboxylic acid chlorides is used, the mixture contains 18-19 of enantiomer- -pair la, 21-22 % of enantiomer-pair Ic, 26-27 % of enantiomer-pair lb and 33-34 % of enantiomer-pair Id.

According to prior art the stereoisomers of cypermetrine show different biological activity. It is generally accepted that the activity of mole¬ cules comprising cis cyclopropane carboxylic acids is superior to that of the corresponding trans de¬ rivatives CPest. Sci. 7, 273 (1976)].

In the comparative biological tests of various pyrethroides [Pest. Sci. 9, 112-116 (1978)] the cis and trans stereoisomers - including the cypermetrine stereoisomer-pairs - were evaluated together.

The comparative tests were carried out on Musca domestica L. and Phaedon cochleariae Fab species. Concerning the chloro derivatives from the trans isomers activity data of IRtransS (Ie) and IRtransR were disclosed. The said data show that - while the IRtransS isomer possesses a strong acti¬ vity - the IRtransR isomer is considerably less ac¬ tive [according to the test the activity related to bioresmetrine (100) amounts to 1400 and 81, respec¬ tively, on Musca domestica and to 2200 and 110, res¬ pectively, on Phaedon cochleariae] . It was disclosed furtheron that the activity of a mixture of both

tested isomers was lower than the calculated value. Thus the isomers showed an antagonism rather than the expected synergism and the rate of antagonism amounted to 1.42 and 1.46 on house fly and mustard beetle, respectively.

As a result of the said tests and publi¬ cations the trans isomers and mixtures thereof were pushed to the background of biological interest and research was focused to active cis derivatives and

- - mixtures thereof. This lead to the development of alphame rine (isomer mixture of IReisS and IScisR (la) of the chloro derivatives) and decametrine . [com- prising the IReisS isomer (If) of the bromo deriva¬ tives] . Similar data were set forth for the bromo derivative; on mustard beetle the rate of antagonism amounts to 1.48.

Disclosure of Invention

According to an aspect of the present in¬ vention there is provided a synergistic insecticidal composition containing more thaa one active ingredients and being harmless to environment characterized by comprising in an amount of from 0.001 to 99 % by weight a synthetic pyrethroide of the Formula (I) - namely substantially only the IRtransS and IStransR enantiomer-paire (lb) out from the possible eight

isomers - optionally in admixture with an amount of up to 100 % by weight of one or more activator(s) and auxiliary agent(s), particularly antiosicants, stabi¬ lising agents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, dispersing agents, antifoam agents, diluents and/or fillers.

According to a preferred embodiment of this aspect of the present invention there are provided insecticidal compositions comprising an isomer mixture having a purity of at least 95 % *

The said isomer mixture is a new crystal¬ line substance, the physicochemical data thereof being disclosed in the Examples.

The present invention is based on the re- cognition that isomer-mixture lb possesses useful and advantageous biological properties. This is sur¬ prising even if it is taken into consideration that in the field of pyrethroides of the Formula (I) ex¬ tended experimental work was accomplished and a num- ber of publications and patents were published.

Thus the present invention is based on the recognition that when using a combination of the IRtransS isomer Ig (being the most active trans isomer of the compounds of the Formula (I)) and the IStransR isomer li (being ranged among the less ac¬ tive isomers from the remaining seven isomers) no antagonism characteristic of the earlier published isomer-pairs is observed.

Moreover a synergistic effect occurs over the additive effect of the pure Ig and li isomers when used per se.

The above recognition enables a new type of selection from the isomers of synthetic pyrethroides in order to develop a new active ingredient type having outstanding properties. The said new active ingredient shows various advantages over hitherto known isomer selections: - lower toxicity on warm-blooded species and humans;

- more economical manufacturing process;

- smaller damages caused to useful para¬ sites and bees. A significant and decisive advantage of the isomer-mixture lb of the present invention is that it causes no allergy and skin diseases which were generally observed on the use of the correspond¬ ing cis cypermethrine isomers of similar activity. The synergistic activity of the components of the isomer-mixture lb is so much the more surpris¬ ing as no similar synergism takes place between the components of"the isomer mix1?ure la.

According to aspects of the present inven- tion there is provided the selected isomer pair, at in¬ secticidal composition comrising the same and a process for the preparation and the use thereof.

According to a still further aspect of the

present invention there is provided a process for the preparation of the said new isomer pair. According to a particularly important aspect of the present inven¬ tion there is provided a process for the preparation of the cypermethrine isomer-pair lb which enables the highly economical preparation of an active ingredient having the same order of activity as the active in¬ gredient which was hitherto available only be means of the very expensive isolation procedure of a pure and single cis isomer.

According to a further aspect of the pre¬ sent invention there is provided a synergistic insec- ticidal composition containing more than one active ingredients and being harmless to environment cha- racterized by comprising in an amount of from 0.001 to 99 % by weight a synthetic pyrethroide of the Formula (I) - namely substantially only the IRtransS and IStransR enantiomer-pair (lb) out from the possible eight isomers - optionally in admixture with an amount of up to 100 % by weight of one or more activator(s) and auxiliary agent(s), particularly antioxidants, stabilising agents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, dispersing agents, antifoam agents, diluents and/or fillers. According to a further aspect of the pre¬ sent invention there is provided an isomer mixture lb having a purity of at least 95 % and comprising the IRtransS and IStransR enantiomer-pair of the Formula

(I).

The physical constants of the said enan¬ tiomer-pair are as follows: IR(KBr) \? c=0 = 1735 cm "1 NMR (CDC1 3 ) tf (ppm) = 1.22, 1.27 CMe 2 ; 1.69d 1H Cl; 2.32 m 1H C3; 5.6,d. 1H Cl; 6.39 s 1H alfaproton.

The said pure enantiomer-pair is a white crystalline material, never described in prior art according to our best knowledge. The melting point of the 1:1 mixture of the isomers amounts to 81.0- -81.5 °C. It is to be noted that the components Ig and li of the isomer-pair are not crystalline per se. Accordingly in addition to biological and economical advantages the combination of the present invention facilitates the process of manufacture, the formula¬ tion procedure, storing and method of treatment as well.

The isomer-pair lb of the present inven¬ tion is superior to the known combinations from the point of view of side effects, too. The new isomer- -pair of the present invention has a very low toxi- city on bees and does not damage useful entomophages and parasites (see biological Examples 4 and 5). This is due to the repellant effect, preferable persistence and suitable inherent activity of the active ingredi¬ ent. As a result of the above advantageous properties the insecticidal composition of the present invention may be useful in integrated plant protecting technolo-

gy (IPM = Integrated Pest Management).

The present invention is based on the further recognition that the enantiomer-pair of the present invention has substantially the same insec- ticidal activity as the enantiomer-pair la but is significantly less toxical on warm-blooded species. This is clearly substantiated by the selectivity in¬ dex ( 7800) being the quotient of approximative LD-- 0 toxicity values on rats ( 5000 mg/kg) and house fly (O.64 mg/kg). The said selectivity index of the en¬ antiomer-pair la amounts to 50/0.45 = 111.

The isomer-pair lb is less toxical on pa¬ rasites than the isomer-pair la and this is of par¬ ticular importance. For this reason the insecticidal composition of the present invention may be used more safely, because on the edge of the sprayed area and after treatment (i.e. in area treated with a small concentration of the active ingredient) the parasites and bees are not killed. The repellant effect of the isomer-pair lb is outstandingly good, too.

The insecticidal compositions of the pre¬ sent invention comprising the isomer-pair lb in ad¬ mixture with known additives may be formulated in forms suitable for direct use. The composition of the present invention may be ULV (ultra-low-volume) compositions, spray, dispersible powders, granules, wettable and other powders, stable emulsions etc. The said compositions

are suitable for the pesticidal treatment of vegetables, orchards, fields of cereals and other large scale cul¬ tures. Due to the low toxicity the compositions of the present invention are particularly suitable for com- bating .flying insects and pests having a hidden mode of life in households, stables and also for use in bathing of domestic animals and for the treatment of pasture.

According to a further aspect of the pre- sent invention there is provided the use of the said insecticidal compositions. It is preferred to use the said compositions , under field conditions at a rate of 2-25 g of active ingredient per hectare.

The insecticidal compositions of the pre- sent invention may comprise in addition to the isomer- -pair lb activators and further synergists, e.g. pipe- ronyl butoxide. The said additives strengthen the efficiency of the active ingredient without increas¬ ing the toxicity on warm-blooded species. According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention ' there are provided dispersible gra¬ nules comprising 1-99 by weight of the active in¬ gredient in admixture with 99-1 % by weight of suit¬ able additives. As auxiliary agent _e_-g. 0.1-1 % by weight of anionic and/or non-ionic surfactants may be used, such as alkalisalts of alkyl-aryl sulfonic acids, alkali salts of condensation products of alkyl aryl sul¬ fonic acids and formaldehyde, alkyl-aryl-polyglycol

ether, sulfatated long-chained alcohols, polyethylene oxides, sulfatated fatty alcohols, fatty acid poly- glycol esters and various other commercially avail¬ able surfactants. The insecticidal compositions of the pre¬ sent invention may also be formulated in the form of concentrates comprising preferably 5-50 % by weight of the active ingredient in admixture with 50-95 % by weight of additives which enable the formation of a stable emulsion when emulsifying the emulsion con¬ centrate in or in the presence of water.

As additive 1-20 % by weight of a tensid and/or 0.1-5 % by weight of a stabiliting agent may be used and the mixture may be preferably filled up to 100 % with an organic solvent.

It is preferred to use as tenside a mixture of anionic and non-ionic tensides having a HLB-value of 8-14. The following tensides may be preferably applied: calcium salts of alkyl aryl sulfonic acids, mono and diesters of phosphoric acid, nonyl and tri- butyl phenol polyglycol ethers, adducts of fatty al¬ cohols and ethylene oxide, fatty acid polyglycol es¬ ters, ethylene oxide-propylene oxide block polymers etc. As solvent preferably mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. xylenes), cyclohexanol, butanol, methyl ethyl ketone, isopropanol etc. may be used.

The compositions of the present invention

may also comprise further synergists which enable the reduction of the amount of the active ingredient. For this purpose preferably piperonyl butoxide may be applied. According to a further aspect of the present invention there is provided a process for the preparation of a product comprising substantially only the enantiomer-pair IRtransS + IStransR (lb) out of the eight possible isomers of the compounds of the Formula (I) from mixtures comprising other isomers of further components, too.

The enrichment of dypermethrine mixtures in isomers having presumably a higher activity is described in several patent specifications. Accord- ing to a patent publication [C.A. Vol. 95., (1981), Japanese Pat. KOKAI No. 57755/81] a crystalline cypermethrine isomeric mixture comprising 86.9 % of Ic, 9.5 % of la and 5.6 % of Ib+Id is prepared by seeding a mixture comprising 53•5 % of Ic, 38.7 % of ia and 7.8 % of Ib+Id. In this case it was expected that the biological activity of the compounds remain¬ ing in the mother-lye would be higher.

It is the object of the other known procedures, too, to prepare cis isomer-pairs or sub- stances enriched in cis isomer-pairs. According to a known process a mixture of enantio er-pairs Ia and Ic is subjected to epimerisation to convert the Ic enan¬ tiomer-pair into Ia enantiomer-pair and to produce

the known alphametrine and decametrine, respectively, by assymmetrical transformation [Chem. and Ind., March 19, 1985, 199-204; British patent application No. 80 13308; EP No. 0 067461; Dutch patent No. 888431, see Derwent 79766D] .

Prior art is silent in teaching any methods directed to the preparation of trans isomers. According to a further aspect of the pre¬ sent invention there is provided a process for the preparation of an isomer mixture lb consisting sub¬ stantially of only the enantiomer-pair IRtransS and IStransR - i.e. substantially only two out of the eight possible isomers of the compounds of the For¬ mula (I) - from mixtures comprising also other iso- mers of the Formula (I) which comprises a) preparing a saturated solution from a mixture comprising the desired isomers in admixture with further possible isomers with a protic or apolar inert organic solvent, seeding the sol- ution with a seeding crystal consisting of the enantiomer-pair IRtransS + IStransR and isolat¬ ing the precipitated crystals at a temperature between +30 °C and -30 °C; or b) seeding a melt of a mixture comprising the de- sired isomers in admixture with further possible isomers at a temperature between 10 °C and 60 °C with a seeding crystal consisting of the lRtransS+ -.IStransR enantiomer-pair, crystallizing at a

temperature between 30 °C and -10 °C, and if desired suspending the mixture thus obtained in a protic or apolar aprotic organic solvent at a temperature between -10 °C and -20 °C and isolat- ing the separated crystals; or c) subjecting a mixture comprising the desired iso¬ mer-pair lb in admixture with further possible isomers to chromatography in an organic solvent preferably on a silica gel or Kieselguhr adsor- bent; or d) dissolving a mixture comprising trans isomers of the compounds of the Formula CD in a protic or apolar aprotic solvent, seeding the solution with a seeding crystal consisting of the enan- tiomer-pair IRtransS + IStransR (lb), isolating the precipitated crystalline product lb, and thereafter if desired epimerising the mixture comprising lb + Id being present in the mother- -lye with an organic or inorganic base and if desired repeating the said step and/or the crystallizing step; or e) dissolving the mixture comprising the trans isomers in a secondary or tertiary organic amine base comprising 4-9 carbon atoms - op- tionally by adding an organic solvent - and seeding the solution thus obtained with a seed¬ ing crystal consisting of IRtransS + IStransR isomers and thereafter isolating the precipi-

tated crystals.

According to variants a) and e) of the process of the present invention one may preferably proceed by using a C-, , 2 hydrocarbon, C^_ , g chlorinat- ed hydrocarbon, C-, e dialkyl ether or C-J ^Q alcohol as organic solvent. The said solvents may be straight or branched chained, and cyclic and alicyclic, res¬ pectively.

It is preferred to carry out seeding with a seeding crystal in the presence of an antioxidant - particularly tertiary butyl hydroxy toluene or 2,2,4-trimethyl-quinoline - and to use ethanol, iso- propanol petrolether or hexane as solvent.

According to variant d) of the process of the present invention it is preferred to use a C4-IO alkane, C -io cycloalkane, C-, g alkanol and/or Or a cycloalkanol or a mixture thereof as solvent. One may particularly advantageously use hexane, petrolether, cyclohexane, methanol, ethanol or iso- propanol.

In the epimerisation step ammonia, secon¬ dary or tertiary alkyl amines or cyclic amines may be used as basic substance. Thus one may preferably use triethyl amine, diethyl amine, morpholine, pyrrolidine. piperidine, diisopropyl amine, ephedrine, triethylene diamine, benzyl amine, N-butyl amine, secondary butyl amine, tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium tertiary butylate, sodium isopropylate or an

ion-exchanging resin comprising a quaternary ammonium compound or a catalytic amount of an amine having a large molecular weight.

As solvent it is preferred to use methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, petrolether or hexane.

The said reaction variants may be particu¬ larly economically used if the total manufacturing line comprises the use and preparation of isomers of the Formula (I) other than lb, too. If synthetic cypermethrine manufacturing process makes it possible and if it is the aimed ob¬ ject of the invention to manufacture only a mixture of trans cypermethrines by means of one of the esteri- fying procedures, variant e) of the* 1 process of the present invention is particularly suitable for the economical manufacture of isomer-pair lb. According to the said variant e) namely the complete amount of the trans mixture is converted into the desired en¬ antiomer-pair lb. According to variant e) it is preferred to use triethyl amine, morpholine, pyrrolidine, piperi¬ dine, diisopropyl amine, ephedrine or secondary butyl amine as organic amine base.

It was a pre-condition of the feasibility of variant e) to provide and prepared highly pure seeding crystals having a purity over 95 % and melt¬ ing above 80 °C from the non-crystallizing pure iso¬ mers li and Id. This enables the aimed directed

asymmetrical transformation.

One may proceed furtheron preferably by dissolving the mixture in the amine in the presence of an organic solvent. For this purpose the solvents enumerated by variant a) may be used.

According to variant a) one may proceed by dissolving the isomer mixture of trans cypermeth- rines - comprising the IRtransS, IStransR, IRtransR and IStransS isomers - in triethyl amine. Crystalline starting materials are dissolved at a temperature between 40 °C and 70 °C and the solution obtained may be filtered. An oily cypermethrine mixture may be dissolved at room temperature as well.

Crystallization of the IRtransS + IStransR isomer-pair may be carried out by seeding the solution at room temperature with crystals of a 1:1 mixture of the IRtransS and IStransR isomers (recommended purity 99.8 %) and thereafter subjecting the mixture thus obtained to crystallization at a temperature between 0 °C and 20 °C with or without stirring. The precipi¬ tated crystals are separated by filtration or centri- fuging and the mother-lye adhered to the surface of the crystals is washed off with an alkane (prefer¬ ably a solvent of the cycloalkane type particularly petrolether). The united mother-lyes are completely concentrated. The said crystallization procedure may be repeated. The asymmetrical transformation may be preferably accomplished in a dry inert gas (prefer-

ably nitrogen) atmosphere.

According to the above process a IRtransS + IStransR isomer-mixture having a purity of about 95 % may be prepared with a yield of 80 % per step. The purity may be increased to 99-99.5 % by means of further recrystallization from an alco¬ hol, particularly isopropanol.

If the base serves as solvent, too, it is preferred to use an amine base having a water content not higher than 0,2-0.4 %• Cis isomer conta¬ minations of the trans cypermethrine mixture used as starting material may decrease the yield.

Industrial applicability

The insecticidal compositions of the pre¬ sent invention are harmless to environment and can be used particularly in household and stables for combating flying insects and pests having a hidden mode of life and also for bathing domestic animals and for the treatment of pasture.

Modes of Carrying out the Invention

Further details of the present invention are to be found in the following chemical and bio¬ logical examples without limiting the scope of pro¬ tection to the said Examples.

Chemical Examples

Example 1

10 g of a cypermethrine mixture consisting of 18.2 % of Ia, 21.8 % of Ic, 26.8 % of lb and 33.2 % of Id are dissolved in 50 ml of a 95:5 mixture of n-hexane and tetrahydrofurane. The solution is sub¬ jected to chroma ography on a column comprising 500 g of silica gel G. 25 ml fractions are collected by using a 95:5 mixture of n-hexane and tetrahydrofurane as eluting agent. Fractions corresponding to an R» value of 0.2 are collected (as TLC running mixture a 95:5 mixture of n-hexane and tetrahydrofurane is used). The said fractions are evaporated in vacuo. The residue thus obtained (2.9 g) is dissolved in ' 29 ml of ethanol at 45 °C and crystallized at 0 °C. The precipitated product is filtered off, washed twice with 10 ml of icecold ethanol each and dried in vacuo. Thus 2.6 g of a white crystalline product are obtained, mp: 80.2 °C.

Analytical characteristic data:

R * = 0.2 (Kieselguhr G plate, 95:5 mixture of n-

-hexane and tetrahydrofurane)

IR (KBr) \? c=0 = 1735 cm "1 NMR (CDC1 3 ) £ (ppm) = 1.22, 1.27, CMe 2 ; 1.69, d, 1H Cl; 2.32, m, 1H C3; 5.6, d, 1H Cl'; 6.39, s, 1H, C alfaproton.

Example 2

To . 10 g of a crystalline trans cyper¬ methrine mixture (comprising 53 * 9 % of IRtransR and IStransS isomers and 43.3 % of Ig isomers ac- 5 cording to gas chromatography) 15 ml of anhydrous trie hyl amine are added. The mixture is heated un¬ der nitrogen and under constant stirring to 60 °C, whereupon the solution is quickly filtered and cool¬ ed to 30 °C. The clear colourless solution thus ob- ■L0 tained is seeded with a seeding crystal of a 1:1 mix¬ ture of lb isomers, cooled to room temperature and allowed to crystallize for a day. The mixture is fil- . tered cold. The product is dried at room temperature. Thus 8.4 g of a snow-white crystalline product are 5 obtained. Mp.: 79.5-80.5 °C. According to gas chroma- tography analysis the product comprises 95 % of a 1:1 mixture of the desired lb isomers. The mother-lye is evaporated. On repeating the above steps 1.05 g of white crystalline product are obtained as second 0 crops, mp.: 79-80 °C.

The united product is recrystallized from 50 ml of isopropanol. 8.5 g of a snow-white crystal¬ line product are obtained as first crops, mp.: 80.5 °C, active ingredient content 98 %, On further recrystal- lization 7-5 g of a crystalline product are obtained, mp.: 81.5 C, active ingredient content above 99.5 % •

IR (KBr) < >c—o = 1735 cm "1

NMR (CDC1 3 ) <T (ppm) = 1.22, 1.27 CMe 2 ; 1.69, d, 1H Cl;

2.32, m, 1H C3; 5.6, d, 1H Cl'; 6.39, s, 1H, C alphaproton.

Example 3 100 g of an oily crude (purity 95 %) trans cypermethrine mixture (comprising 48 % of IRtransR and IStransS isomers and 47 % of lb iso¬ mers according to gas chromatography) are dissolved in a solution of 150 ml of anhydrous triethyl amine and 0.2 g of tertier butyl hydroxy toluene under stirring. The solution is quickly filtered, seeded, twice crystallized and recrystallized in an analo- guous manner to Example 2. Thus 82 g of snow-white crystalline isomer pair lb are obtained, mp.: 80-80.5 °c, active ingredient content 97.5 %.

Example 4

10 g of oily trans cypermethrine mixture (comprising 85 % of IRtrnasR and IStransS isomers and 14 % of lb isomers) are dissolved in 15 ml of an¬ hydrous triethyl amine under stirring at room tempera¬ ture, whereupon the solution is filtered and crystal¬ lized as described in Example 2. Thus 8 g of snow- -white crystalline isomer mixture lb are obtained, mp.: 79-80.5 °C.

Example 5

10 g of crystalline trans-cypermethrine

(comprising 52 % of IRtransR and IStransS isomers and 47 % of lb isomer-pair) are dissolved in 15 ml of tri-n-propyl amine at 50 °C. The solution is il¬ tered, cooled to 30 °C and seeded with a seeding crystal consisting of a 1:1 mixture of the lb iso¬ mers. The mixture is allowed to crystallize for 48 hours. Thus 8.2 g of a snow-white crystalline product are obtained, mp.: 78-80 °C. Purity 95 % (according to gas chromatography analysis).

Example 6

One proceeds according to Example 5 ex- cept that 15 ml of tributyl amine are used as base. Thus 7.5 g of snow-white crystalline isomer-pair lb are obtained, mp.: 77-79 °C, purity 93 .

Example 7

One proceeds according to Example 5 except that 15 ml of triisopropyl amine are used as base. Thus 7.5 g of snow-white crystalline isomer-pair lb are ob¬ tained, mp.: 78-80 °C, purity 95.5 %-

Example 8

One proceeds according to Example 5 except that 15 ml of diisopropyl amine are used as base.

Thus 8.0 g snow-white crystalline isomer-pair lb are obtained, mp.: 78-80 °C, purity 95.5 % *

Example 9

10 g of trans cypermethrine (comprising 48 % of IRtransS and IStransR isomers and 49 % of lb isomer-pair) are dissolved in 50 ml of isopropanol under stirring and heating whereupon 2 ml of an aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution are added (spe¬ cific weight 0.880 g/ml). The solution is seeded with seeding crystals of the isomer-mixture lb, stirred at 20 °C for 24 hours, cooled to 0 - 5 °C, and stirring is continued at this temperature. The suspension is filtered, the product is washed with isopropanol and petrolether and dried. Thus 6 g of white crystalline isomer-pair lb (1:1) are obtained, mp.: 78-79 °C, purity 92 % (GC analysis). From the mother-lye 1.5 g of white crystalline product are obtained as second crops. Mp.: 78-79 C. The composi¬ tion of the second crops is identical with that of the crystals of the first generation.

Example 10

10 g of trans cypermethrine (comprising 54 % of IRtransS and IStransR isomers and 45 % of isomers lb) are dissolved in 100 ml of petrolether (b.p.: 60-80 °C) whereupon 1 ml of a 0.5 molar sodium carbonate solution and a 1:1 vol. mixture of water and methanol comprising 10 w/v of tetrabutyl ammonium bromide are added. The solution is seeded with a seeding crystal according to Example 2, allowed to crystallize

for 4 days, filtered, washed with petrolether and dried. Thus 6.8 g of white crystalline isomer-pair lb are obtained, mp.: 78-80 °C, purity 95 %, (GC analysis) . 5

Example 11

10 g of crystalline trans cypermethrine (comprising 52 of IRtransS and IStransR isomers and 47 % of IRtransR and IStransS isomers) are dis- ° solved in 100 ml of petrolether at 50-60 °C. To the solution 0.02 g 2,6-di-tertiary butyl-4-methyl-phenol is added. After filtration the filtrate is seeded at 30 °C with seeding crystals consisting of a 1:1 mix¬ ture of the lb isomers. Crystallization is accomplish- 5 ed as disclosed above. Thus 3.8 g of snow-white crystalline isomer-pair lb (1:1) are obtained, mp.: 77-79 °C, purity 93 %• On recrystallization from petrolether the melting point rises 80.5 °C. The crystallization mother-lye is epimerised in a 0 separate step.

Example 12

10 g of crystalline trans cypermethrine (comprising 45 % of IRtransS and IStransR isomers 5 and 53 % of IRtransR and IStransS isomers) are dis¬ solved in 75 ml of isopropanol air 50-60 °C. The sol¬ ution is treated in an analoguous manner to Example 11. Thus 3.6 g snow-white crystalline isomer-pair lb

are obtained. According to gas chromatography analysis the purity of the 1:1 mixture amounts to 94 % * > Mp.: 80 °C. Further recrystallization is accomplished as described in Example 2. Thus a product having an ac- tive ingredient content above 99 % is obtained. The crystallization mother-lye is epimerised in a separate step.

Example 13 Into an apparatus equipped with a stirrer the mother-lye obtained according to Example 11 (a solution enriched in isomer Id) is introduced and 1 g of Dowex Type 2x4 mesh (serva) basical ion-ex¬ changing resin are added. The heterogenous suspension is stirred at 40 °C for 12 hour.*.:, filtered, washed twice with 2 ml of isopropanol each. According to gas chromatography the solition comprises 41 of lb isomer-pair and 46 % of Id isomer. The solution is evaporated and crystallized as described in Example 11.

Example 14

One proceeds according to Example 13 ex¬ cept that petrolether is used as solvent. According to gas chromatography analysis the solution comprises

39 % of lb isomer and 56 % of the IR transR and IStransS isomer .

Example 15

10 g of colourless oily cypermethrine (comprising 30 of lb, 31 % of Id, 18 % of Ia and 21 % of Ic) are seeded with seeding crystals of a 1:1 mixture of the lb isomers and allowed to crys¬ tallize at 7 °C for a week. The viscous crystalline oil obtained is cooled to -15 °C, suspended in 10 ml of a 1:1 mixture of isopropanol and diisopropyl ether cooled to -15 °C and filtered cold. The crystals thus obtained are washed with 5 ml of icecold isopropanol and dried at room temperature. Thus 2 g of white crystalline product lb are obtained, mp.: 78-80 °C, purity 96 % (GC). On recrystallization from 13 ml of hexane 2.25 g of a snow-white crystalline product are obtained, mp.: 80-81 C, active ingredient con¬ tent 99 .

Example 16

10 g of cypermethrine (comprising 30 % of lb, 31 % of Id, 18 % of Ia and 21 % of Ic) are dissolved in 100 ml of warm isopropanol whereupon 0.02 g of 2,5-di-tertiary butyl-4-methyl-phenol is added. The solution is clarified with 0.2 g of char¬ coal, filtered warm and the filtrate is seeded at 30 C with a seeding crystal consisting of a 1:1 mixture of the lb isomers. The mixture is allowed to crystallize at 10 °C for 24 hours, at 0 °C for 48 hours and finally at -5 °C for 24 hours (crys-

tallization is accomplished so that an oily separa¬ tion of the product should be avoided). The crystals are filtered cold, washed with isopropanol and dried at room temperature. Thus 2.6 g of snow-white crys¬ talline lb isomer-pair (1:1) are obtained, mp.: 78-80 °C, purity 95 • On recrystallization from hexane 2.3 g of a snow-white crystalline product are obtained, mp.: 80-81 °C, active ingredient content 99 .

Formulation examples

Emulsifiable concentrates (EC) are pre¬ pared by admixing the following components:

10 EC Component Amount, kg/kg

Isomer-pair lb 0.105

Cyclohexanol 0.290

Atlox 3386 B 0.020

Atlox 3400 B 0.045 Odourless mineral oil 0.540

5 EC

Component A j n°Ha_i „ _.__{_-_\ Isomer-pair lb 0.050 Cyclohexanol 0.290 Atlox 3386 B 0.020 Atlox 3400 B 0.045 Colourless mineral oil 0.595

In a dose of 20 g of active ingredient/ha the composition 5 EC gives the same protection against Colorado beetle as a preparation of identical composi¬ tion but comprising isomer Ia (alphametrine composi- tion).

Example 18

A solution of 1.5 g of isomer-pair lb and 1.5 g of fatty alcohol polyglycol ether is homogenized in a powder homogenizer with 30 g of synthetic silicic acid (Wessalon S), 60 g of talc (pH 7.1), 5 g of saccharose and 3.35 g of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid. Thus a thin flowing powder is obtained.

Example 19

20 g of isomer-pair lb are diluted with 2 g of ethanol. The solution is admixed in a powder homogenizer with 5 g of calcium lignosulphonate, 5 g of nonyl-phenyl polyglycol ether (E0=20) and 70 g of calcium carbonate. The product thus obtained is ground in an Alpine 100 type mill. According to CIPAC the floatability amounts to 81 % wetting- time = 18 seconds.

Biological Examples

Example 20

The comparative activity tests of enan- tiomer-pairs Ia and lb on bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus), fluor-beetle (Tribolium confosum) and sheep maggot fly (Lucilia sericata) show that enantiomer- -pair lb is more active than enantiomer-pair Ia. The results are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

Species . Enantiomer Dose (mg/disc) pair 0.02 0.07 0.22 0.67 2.0 6.0 mortality %

A. obtectus Ia 10 37 63 100 100 100 (imago) lb 32 55 87 100 100 100

T. confusum Ia 0 18 51 100 100 100 (imago) lb 14 73 100 100 100 100

L. sericata Ia 0 30 29 57 60 65 (imago) lb 22 55 70 75 100 100

The test is carried out as follows: The stereoisomers are dissolved in a 1:2 mixture of mineral oil and acetone and filter paper discs (Whatman No. 1., diameter 9 cm) are impregnated with the corresponding dosage of the solution of the active ingredient. The acetone is allowed to evapor¬ ate and the insects are examined on filter paper discs placed into Petri-dishes. Three parallels are used for each dose and 15 animals are placed in each Petri- -dish. Mortality rate is determined after 24 hours. The corrected mortality % data are calculated by means of the Abbot formula.

Example 21 In Table 2 the synergism between the stereoisomers of the enantiomer-pair lb is proved. The test is carried out on T. confusom and the fol¬ lowing results are obtained by the contact method for various active ingredient doses.

Table 2

Dose (mg/disc) 0.11 0.33 1.00 3.00 mortality %

IStransR li 0 0 71 90 IRtransS Ig 80 94 100 100 lb enantiomer-pair 90 100 100 100

The test is carried out according to the method described in Example 1. '

Example 22 In Table 3 the ID values of the Ig and li isomers and those of the lb isomer-pair are dis¬ closed. The data are topically measured.

Table_

LDΓ- Q (mg/insect) LDp- 0 (mg/insec ) T. confusum Musca domestica

cypermethrine measured expected synerg. measured expected synerg. stereoisomers factor factor

Ig IRtransS 73.6 13.4 li StransR 1291.8 141.9 lb 51.9 139.3 2.68 12.8 24.5 1.9

The above data prove the synergism between the trans isomers on both species.

The tests are carried out as follows:

a) Musca domestica

The active ingredients are dissolved in 2- -ethoxyethanol (cellosolve) and 0.3 /ul droplets of the solutions are applied onto the dorsal cuticulum of 3-5 days * old female house flies. 10 animals are used and 2 parallels are carried out for each dose. " The tests are carried out for 5 dose levels between activity limits of 0 % and 100 %, After treatment the flies are placed into glass vials. Mortality is determined after 24 hours. Data are transformed to log-, Q dosage and probit mortality. LD-- Q and confi¬ dence interval values are calculated by linear re¬ gression analysis of the log-probit data. The ex¬ pected values required for the calculation of syner¬ gism are obtained by means of harmonic average. The synergistic factor is the quotient of the expected and measured values.

b) T. confusum "*

The active ingredients are dissolved in 2- -ethoxyethanol and 0.3 /Ul droplets of the solutions are applied onto the abdominal side of 1-2 weaks * old images. Treatment is carried out with 2 parallels and 20 animals for each dose by using 5 dose levels in

the range between activity limits of 0 % and 100 %. Evaluation and deteimination of -LDCQ values and synergistic factors are carried out as described in Example 21.

Example 23

Residual contact test on adults of

Aphidinus matricanae

Adults of A. matricariae are exposed to

&•* - residues of the active ingredients freshly applied on glass plates forming cages then the survivors are counted.

Treatments: test product(s) and control treated with water. Replicates: at least 3. Plot size (net):

1 cage.

Parasites of known age 24 hours are used. The products are applied at 5-1 ppm con¬ centration, to each of the glass plates. ιo females of A. matricariae are intro¬ duced into each cage and supplied with honey as food. The number of females surviving exposure is determined after 1.5 and 24 hours, in independent runs. Total number αf survivors is calculated for each cage. The results are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4

Concentration 5 ppm 1 ppm

lh Ih 5h 24h hours

m o r t a l i t y %

Ia 100 100 100 96 lb 100 0 75 88 control 0 0 1.5

Example 24

Direct contact test on pupae of A. matricariae Mature pupae of A. matricariae on paprika leaves in Petri dishes are exposed to a direct spray of the active ingredients.

Two or three days before emergence paprika leaves with parasitized pupae are used. The leaves are laid on filter paper in a plastic Petri dish. The filter paper is moistened.

Application of treatment: see Example 23.

The pieces of leaf are transferred after -.treatment to clean Petri dish bottems. The trays are stored in a climatic chamber at 20 C temperature, 70 % relative humidity and a light-dark . cycle of 16-8 h. Surviving pupae hatch after 2-3 days. The num¬ bers of hatched and dead pupae are counted. Results

are shown in Table 5.

Table 5

ccmcentration (ppm) 30 nJortalitv _ ^ 1

lb 61.0 0 0 0 deltametrin 75.0 33.0 0 0 control 0 0 0 0

Example 25

The active ingredients are dissolved in 2-ethoxyethanol and 0.3 /ul droplets of the solutions are applied onto the abdominal target of Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) images. The treat¬ ments are carried out by using two parallels and 10 insects for each dose. After treatment the insects are placed into Petri-dishes and mortality is deter- mined after 48 hours. The results are set forth in Table 6.

Table 6

cypermethrine Dose (/ug/insect) enantiomers 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.40 24 hours' mortality % lb 0 25 75 85 cypermethrine 0 20 45 75

Example 26

T. confusum (small flour-beetle) images are treated according to Example 20 and percental mortality is determined after 24 hours. The dose of piperonyl butoxide (referred to furtheron as "PBO") amounts to 0.5 mg/disc. The results are disclosed in Table 7. It c a *^ be seen that enantiomer-pair lb can be synergized at a higher level than isomer pair Ia.

Table 7

Active Dose (mg/disc) ingredient 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.025 24 hours' mortality %

la 96 53 12 0 0

Ia + PBO 100 58 16 0 0 lb 100 85 51 10 0 lb + PBO 100 91 68 39 9

Example 27

The active ingredients are dissolved in 2-ethoxyethanol and the solutions are applied in the form of 0.2 ul droplets onto the back of target fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) of L^-L Q larvae stage, The treated worms are placed on strawberry leaves in Petri-dishes. The test is carried out by using 5 doses; 2 parallels and 10 insects for each dose. The killed worms are counted after 24 hours and the per-

cental mortality rate is calculated. The results are summarized in Table 8.

Table 8

Dose (/Ug/larvae) cypermethrine 0.023 0.047 0.094 0.188 0.375 stereoisomers 24 hours' mortality

lb 10 15 30 70 80 cypermethrine 0 0 25 50 75

Example 28

From a 5 EC formulation according to Example 17 50-, 100-, 200-, 400-, 800- and 1600- -fold diluted emulsions are prepared by diluting with water. 0.5 ml of the emulsions are sprayed onto glass plates whereupon after drying 10 Colorado beetles (L. decemlineata) imagos are placed on each glass plate and the insects are covered. The tests are carried out with 6 doses by carrying out 3 parallels for each dose. The killed insects are counted after 48 hours and the percental mortality rate is calculated. The results are shown in Table 9.

Table 9

Dilution

5 EC l600x 800x 400x ; 200x lOOx 50x formulation mortality %

cypermethrine 0 17 33 50 67 83 lb 0 13 37 57 87 100

Example 29

The insecticidal effect is tested on dried beetle (Acanthoscelides obtectus) imagos. The killed insects are counted after 24 hours and the percental mortality rate is calculated. The results are shown in Table 10.

Table 10

Diluation

5 EC l600x 800x 400x 200x lOOx 50x formulation mortality %

cypermethrine 0 3 10 20 43 60 lb 3 10 20 37 53 67