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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
INSERTS AND METHODS OF MAKING THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/207551
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An insert (10) includes a core portion (14) having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion external diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads (16); and external threads (18); wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter, preferably greater than or equal to 160% greater than the core portion external diameter. Methods of making the insert include milling a steel block or injection molding a polymeric material.

Inventors:
KONING, Tom (Plasticslaan 1, 4612 PX Bergen op Zoom, 4612 PX, NL)
KRIJGER, Jerry Cornelis (Plasticslaan 1, 4612 PX Bergen op Zoom, 4612 PX, NL)
Application Number:
IB2019/053462
Publication Date:
October 31, 2019
Filing Date:
April 26, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SABIC GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES B.V. (Plasticslaan 1, 4612 PX Bergen op Zoom, 4612 PX, NL)
International Classes:
F16B37/12; F16B25/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2012146283A12012-11-01
WO2012146283A12012-11-01
WO2016142786A12016-09-15
Foreign References:
DE102016000088A12017-07-13
US20140366482A12014-12-18
US20060013671A12006-01-19
GB1482624A1977-08-10
DE102016000088A12017-07-13
US20140366482A12014-12-18
US20060013671A12006-01-19
DE102016000088A12017-07-13
Other References:
MILLER ET AL., POLYMERS & POLYMER COMPOSITES, vol. 4, no. 7, 1996
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An insert, comprising:

a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion external diameter, wherein the core portion comprises

internal threads; and

external threads;

wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter, preferably greater than or equal to 160% greater than the core portion external diameter;

wherein a pitch between external threads is less than or equal 4 mm; and

wherein an external thread surface area is greater than or equal to 500 mm2 per 4.25 mm of length.

2. The insert of Claim 1, wherein the pitch of the external threads is 1 mm to 4 mm, preferably 2 mm to 4 mm, or 1 mm to 3 mm.

3. The insert of Claim 1 or Claim 2, wherein an external thread surface area is greater than or equal to 500 mm2 per 4 mm of length, preferably 500 mm2 per 3.75 mm of length.

4. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein adjacent external threads are disposed to one another by an angle of 0° to 45°, preferably less than 2°, or less than or equal to 1

5. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein a top portion of the insert comprises an annular, lipped portion having an annular, lipped portion diameter that is greater than the external thread diameter.

6. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein the core portion comprises an opening extending through a length thereof, wherein the opening is configured to accept a tool head.

7. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein the insert comprises metal, polymeric material, composite material, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, preferably wherein the metal comprises steel, preferably, galvanized or zinc plated steel, preferably wherein the polymeric material comprises glass fiber filled polymeric material.

8. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein a space between adjacent external threads is greater than or equal to a thickness of skin layer of the sandwich panel to which the insert will attach.

9. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein the external threads have an opening extending through the thread, preferably wherein the opening extends from an edge of the thread to the core, or comprising 1 to 3 openings, preferably 2 - 3 openings.

10. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein a width of each individual external thread is constant extending from the core portion to an edge of the external thread, preferably wherein the width is greater than or equal to 2 mm.

11. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein a thickness of each individual external thread tapers extending from the core portion to an edge of the external thread, preferably wherein the thickness at the edge of the external thread is greater than or equal to 0.25 mm, preferably, 0.4 mm, more preferably, greater than or equal to 0.5 mm, even more preferably, greater than or equal to 0.6 mm.

12. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein a pull-out force of the insert when attached to a panel, is greater than or equal to 2,500 N, preferably, greater than or equal to 3,500 N, more preferably greater than or equal to 4,000 N, more preferably, greater than or equal to 4,200 N, and even more preferably, greater than or equal to 4,400 N.

13. The insert of any of the preceding claims, wherein the external threads are noncontiguous, preferably wherein the external threads are noncontiguous near the bottom of the insert.

14. A method of making an insert, comprising:

milling a steel block forming the insert, wherein the insert comprises a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion externa diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads; and external threads; wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter.

15. A method of making an insert, comprising:

injection molding a glass-filled polymeric material forming the insert, wherein the insert comprises a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion external diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads; and external threads; wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter.

16. A panel with an auxiliary component attached thereto, comprising:

the insert of any of the preceding claims extending through the panel;

the auxiliary component attached to the panel via the insert;

wherein the panel is a composite panel, preferably a sandwich panel with a foam core; preferably wherein the auxiliary component is at least one of a sidewall, a pole, or a seat.

17. The panel of Claim 16, wherein a pull-out force of the insert is greater than or equal to 2,500 N, preferably greater than or equal to 3,500 N, more preferably greater than or equal to 4,000 N, more preferably greater than or equal to 4,200 N, and even more preferably greater than or equal to 4,400 N.

18. The panel of Claims 16 or 17, wherein no adhesive is located between the insert and the panel.

19. The panel of any of Claims 16-18, wherein the composite panel is a sandwich panel with a skin layer on each side of a core, and wherein a space between adjacent external threads at the core is greater than or equal to a thickness of the skin layer.

Description:
INSERTS AND METHODS OF MAKING THEREOF

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present application claim priority to EP Application No. 18169963.8, filed April 27, 2019, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Traditional railway floor panels are made from plywood, which is heavy and can create strong fixation or attachment points for attaching various auxiliary equipment in the railway car. Due to the strength of traditional railway floor panels, fixation points are relatively easy to create and therefore, commercially available inserts can be widely used. However, when wooden floor panels are replaced with composite panels, the mechanical strength of the panel is lower, making it difficult to create a fixation point that can withstand a desired pull out force. Accordingly, the use of commercially available inserts in composite panels is not a viable option from a mechanical integrity or safety standpoint.

[0003] DE 10 2016 000 088 (Al) is directed to a screw anchor for arrangement in a wooden profile of a window or door frame for the attachment of fitting units. The screw anchor (1) for screwing into the surfaces (2) consisting of a wooden profile frame (3) of windows or doors for the attachment of fitting units are characterized in that the screw anchor length (L) with one on the female thread ( 4) provided area, the thread length (LG), clearly surmounted on both sides, wherein the screw anchor (1) on the one hand the inner threaded base (9) by a centering pin length (LB) superior centering pins (10), and on the other hand a centering pin (10) arranged opposite , the thread length (LG) about a mounting head length (LK) superior mounting head (8), wherein in the interior of the mounting head (8) a hexagon socket (11) is arranged and that the frontal free end of the centering pin (10) as positioning lug (12) , without trapezoidal external thread (6) with a positioning length (LP) and a middle positioning diameter (DP) is formed.

[0004] WO 2012/146283 is directed to a method for fastening an object in a fiber- reinforced composite material, comprising the steps of arranging a hole in the material for receiving a device having a body, an external thread extending from said body and an axial bore with an internal thread, wherein the diameter of the hole is arranged larger than the diameter of the body to form a gap between the material in the hole and the body when the device is inserted in the hole, applying an adhesive on the external thread of the device and/or on the material in the hole, screwing the device into the hole. [0005] US 2014/366482 is directed to a repair system and method for re-securing doors to their respective door frames when a screw fastener that originally used to secure the door to the respective door frame no longer engages and secures to the screw fastener's original screw hole in the door or frame, comprising a fastener anchor comprising a double open-ended hollow cylinder having a threaded exterior side and a hollow interior, the hollow interior forming a threaded lengthwise center channel that is continuously connected to the two open ends, one open end being tapered while the remaining other open end being shaped to receive a portion of a rotating instrument; a securing fastener having a threaded portion that can removably engage the threaded lengthwise center channel;; wherein the threaded exterior side is capable of engaging and securing to the respective screw hole after the screw hole has been enlarged.

[0006] US 2006/013671 is directed to a threaded insert having a cylindrical body with an open end, an outer surface, and an internal channel having an inner surface. The threaded insert includes an outer thread on the outer surface for engagement with a piece of machinery and an inner thread on the inner surface for engagement with a threaded fastener. The threaded insert also includes a multi-lobed broach at the open end for receiving a removal tool. The threaded insert also typically includes a closed end opposite the open end. A typical broach includes six lobes.

[0007] Thus, there is a need for inserts that can provide the desired pull-out force in composite panels.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0008] Disclosed, in various embodiments, are inserts and methods of making thereof.

[0009] An insert includes a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion external diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads; and external threads; wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter, preferably greater than or equal to 160% greater than the core portion external diameter.

[0010] A method of making an insert includes milling a steel block forming the insert, wherein the insert comprises a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion external diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads; and external threads; wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter.

[0011] A method of making an insert includes injection molding a glass-filled polymeric material forming the insert, wherein the insert comprises a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion external diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads; and external threads; wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter.

[0012] The above described and other features are exemplified by the following figures and detailed description.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0013] The following is a brief description of the drawings wherein like elements are numbered alike and which are presented for the purposes of illustrating the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein and not for the purposes of limiting the same.

[0014] FIG. 1 is an isometric view of an insert as described herein.

[0015] FIG. 2 is a side profile view of the insert of FIG. 1.

[0016] FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 3-3 in FIG. 2.

[0017] FIG. 4 is a detailed view of the section identified in FIG. 3.

[0018] FIG. 5 is a top view of the insert of FIG. 1.

[0019] FIG. 6 is an isometric view of an insert as described herein.

[0020] FIG. 7 is an isometric view of an insert as described herein.

[0021] FIG. 8 is an isometric view of an insert as described herein.

[0022] FIG. 9 is a side profile view of the insert of FIG. 8.

[0023] FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 10-10 in FIG. 9.

[0024] FIG. 11 is a detailed view of the section identified in FIG. 10.

[0025] FIG. 12 is a top view of the insert of FIG. 8.

[0026] FIG. 13 is an isometric view of an insert as described herein.

[0027] FIG. 14 is an isometric view of an insert as described herein.

[0028] FIG. 15 is a graphical view of the pull out force for the various inserts tested in the example.

[0029] FIG. 16 is an isometric view of a commercially available insert as used in Example 1.

[0030] FIG. 17 is an isometric view of another commercially available insert as used in Example 1.

[0031] FIG. 18 is a top view of the inventive insert tested in Example 1.

[0032] FIG. 19 is a side profile view of the inventive insert tested in Example 1. [0033] FIG. 20 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 20-20 of the inventive insert of FIG. 19 and tested in Example 1.

[0034] FIG. 21 is a detailed view of the section identified in FIG. 20 of the inventive insert of FIG. 20.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0035] Disclosed herein is an insert with a unique design that can be used as a fixation or attachment point in various composite panels, while providing the desired mechanical integrity and ability to withstand a desired pull out force. The insert includes a core portion having an internal thread and an external thread. The core portion includes a core external diameter and a core internal diameter. Generally, inserts have a small difference between a core external diameter and an external thread diameter (i.e., thread width). It was surprisingly discovered with the present design that an insert having a much larger thread width as compared to the core external diameter can provide the desired pull out force used as an attachment point in a composite panel. For example, the thread width can be increased by greater than or equal to 130%, for example, greater than or equal to 140%, for example, greater than or equal to 155%, for example, greater than or equal to 160%, for example, greater than or equal to 175%, for example, greater than or equal to 200%. The thread width can be increased by greater than or equal to 100%, for example, greater than or equal to 200%, for example, greater than or equal to 300%, for example, greater than or equal to 500% as compared to commercially available inserts. The inserts disclosed herein can also include a smaller pitch between external threads than commercially available inserts. Desirably, the pitch is at least the thickness of the skin layer of the composite panel which will receive the insert. For example, a pitch between external threads can be 0.5 millimeters (mm) to 6 mm, for example, 1 mm to 5 mm, or 1 mm to 4 mm, or 2 mm to 4 mm.

[0036] With the increased thread width and reduced pitch, the inserts can have an increased surface area as compared to commercially available inserts. For example, the disclosed inserts can have a surface that is greater than 200% of the commercially available inserts, for example, greater than 300%, greater than 400%, and even greater than 500%. The disclosed inserts can have an external thread surface area that is greater than or equal to 500 square millimeters (mm 2 ) per 4.25 mm of length of the insert. In other words, for an insert length of 17 mm, the insert can have an external thread surface area that is greater than or equal to 2,000 mm 2 , preferably greater than or equal to 2,500 mm 2 . Preferably, the external thread surface area is greater than or equal to 500 mm 2 per 4 mm of length, for example, greater than or equal to 500 mm 2 per 3.75 mm of length, for example, greater than or equal to 500 mm 2 per 3.25 mm of length, for example, greater than or equal to 500 mm 2 per 2.5 mm of length. The external thread surface area can be, for example, greater than or equal to 2,500 mm 2 , greater than or equal to 3,000 mm 2 , greater than or equal to 3,500 mm 2 , or greater than or equal to 5,000 mm 2 over a length of 17 mm. The increased surface area can assist in allowing the inserts to attach to a larger portion of the composite panel, thereby assisting in obtaining the desired pull out force when installed in a composite panel, since the overall density of composite panels is lower than traditional plywood panels.

[0037] As noted, the insert can include external threads. These external threads can be disposed to one another at various angles. For example, adjacent external threads can be disposed to one another by an angle of 0° to 45°, for example, 10°. The core of the insert can comprise internal threads. The internal threads can be chosen from any type of internal thread and are not to be limited by those described herein. For example, the internal threads can include straight threads, metric threads, tapered threads, coarse threads, fine threads, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing. The core portion can include an opening that extends the length of insert allowing the internal threads to accept a tool head to attach the insert to a composite panel. The opening can be configured to be any complimentary shape to the tool head.

[0038] Each individual external thread can have a width. The width of each individual external thread can be constant, extending from the core portion to an edge of the external thread. The width of each external thread can be greater than or equal to 2 mm, for example, for example, greater than or equal to 3 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 4 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 4.5 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 5 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 7.5 mm, for example, less than or equal to 10 mm.

[0039] Each individual external thread can have a thickness. For example, a thickness of each individual external thread can taper where the external thread extends from the core portion to an edge of the external thread. For example, the thickness at the edge of the external thread can be greater than or equal to 0.25 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.4 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.5 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.6 mm.

[0040] The inserts themselves can be of various designs. For example, an insert can have an annular, lipped portion on a top portion of the insert. A diameter of the annular, lipped portion can be greater than the core external diameter and/or can be greater than the external thread diameter. The annular, lipped portion can be such that an underside of the annular, lipped portion rests against a top surface of the composite panel when the insert and panel are assembled together. The top portion of the insert can have a flat design. A bottom portion of the insert can have a flat design, a pointed design, a conical design, a rounded design, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

[0041] The inserts can be configured to attach to a composite panel, such as a sandwich panel with a foam core. The composite panel can include a porous thermoplastic core, a first laminate (also referred to as the first skin layer), and a second laminate (also referred to as the second skin layer). The first laminate and the second laminate can be made of one ply or multiple plies (e.g., greater than 1). For example, the first laminate and the second laminate can be made of greater than or equal to 2 plies, e.g., 2 to 10 plies, or 3 to 6 plies. The compositions of the first laminate and the second laminate can be the same or different.

[0042] In some embodiments, composite can include an adherent layer (also referred to as an interlayer). The adherent layer can be used to improve the adhesion between plies and/or laminates and the core. When more than one adherent layer is used, the adherent layers can have the same or different adherent composition. In some embodiments, only one adherent layer is used. The adherent layers can include adherent (adhesive) compositions and other components. Non-limiting examples of adherents include ethylene vinyl acetate, polypropylene, polypropylene -polyethylene terephthalate blends, acrylics, nitriles, silicone rubbers, styrene- butadiene-styrene copolymers, styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene copolymers, styrene- ethylene/propylene copolymers, styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymers, a combination thereof, or blend thereof. In a preferred instance, ethylene vinyl acetate is used. In another embodiment, no adhesives are used. In some embodiments, the adherent is mixed with other additives including antioxidants, heat stabilizers, flow modifiers, colorants, etc., or any combinations thereof.

Adherents and other additives are available from commercial chemical suppliers such as, for example, Sigma-Aldrich™ (U.S.A.), ExxonMobil Chemical (U.S.A.), LyondellBassell (U.S.A.), and the like.

[0043] The composite can be dimensioned and shaped according to respective applications. The overall thickness of the composite can be up to and even exceeding several millimeters. More specifically, the composite can have a thickness of 1 to 100 mm, 0.4 to 50 mm, 0.6 to 25 mm. The thickness of the composite can vary depending on the desired weight percent of each laminate. The thickness of the composite can be obtained by controlling the thickness of the plies used to make the laminate. The composite can be rectangular; however, other embodiments of the present laminates can be triangular, square, or otherwise polygonal (whether having sharp and/or rounded corners), circular, elliptical, or otherwise rounded, or can have an irregular shape. Some embodiments of the present composites can include one or more openings, notches, and/or the like, which can facilitate incorporation of the composite into a structure.

[0044] In some embodiments, the composite and/or laminates can be decorated. In use, a surface of the composite or laminates can be subjected to printing with ink. In an embodiment, an exposed surface of the composite or a laminate surface opposite the surface adjacent to the core can be subsequently decorated, in particular printed with markings such as alphanumerics, graphics, symbols, indicia, logos, aesthetic designs, multicolored regions, and a combination including at least one of the foregoing. In some embodiments, each ply can be decorated. In some embodiments, one of the exposed (or outer) surfaces of the composite can be subjected to common curing and/or surface modification processes. Non-limiting examples of such processes can include heat-setting, texturing, calendaring, embossing, corona treatment, flame treatment, plasma treatment, and vacuum deposition.

[0045] In some embodiments, the composite can include a cap layer material. The cap layer can be a film laminate made from a different polymer and process than the composite laminates. By way of example, it can be an extruded film material, which is for example chemical resistant to cleaning agents. Film materials used can include polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), multilayered combinations and blends thereof. These film materials can be applied by roller lamination or double belt press lamination equipment. Also aesthetic film materials can be used to produce, for example, a wood grain or metallic surface. The cap layer can be created by co-extrusion (single or multi-manifold). In some embodiments, an anti-microbial surface can be created by co-extrusion of film materials with silver. In some embodiments, the cap layer can be made by screen-printing an aesthetic or functional ink layer. In most instances, these cap layers will be thermoformable.

[0046] The composites can be made using known panel consolidation techniques. By way of example, the composite can be made using continuous systems that include one or more machines capable of cutting, cooling, stacking, wrapping, or the like (for example, static heated presses, double belt presses and the like).

[0047] The composites can be used in transportation components. Non-limiting examples of transportation components can include floor panels, claddings, covers, and tray tables for train interiors. Non-limiting examples of claddings include: interior vertical surfaces, such as side walls, front walls, end-walls, partitions, room dividers, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; interior doors and linings for internal and external doors; window insulations; kitchen interior surfaces; interior horizontal surfaces, such as ceiling paneling, flaps, boxes, hoods and louvres; luggage storage areas, such as overhead and vertical luggage racks, luggage containers and compartments; driver’s desk applications, such as paneling and surfaces of driver’s desk; interior surfaces of gangways, such as interior sides of gangway membranes (bellows) and interior linings; window frames (including sealants and gaskets); (folding) tables with downward facing surface; interior and exterior surface of air ducts, and devices for passenger information (such as information display screens) and the like.

[0048] The porous thermoplastic core can have an open-cell foam structure, a closed-cell foam structure, a honeycomb structure, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the porous thermoplastic core has a honeycomb structure that is filled with foamed thermoplastic material. The density of the core can be greater than or substantially equal to any one of, or between any two of: 20, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, 325, 350, 357, 400 kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m 3 ), e.g., 20 to 400 kg/m 3 , or 75 to 357 kg/m 3 , or 100 to 325 kg/m 3 . Polymers used for the sandwich panel core can be linear (non-crosslinked), partially cross! inked or fully cross! inked depending on the final application. Crosslinking of core material can be done during core manufacturing or be an additional processing operation. Core materials can include additional fillers and/or fire-retardant compositions. Fillers can include fiber or particles such as, for example, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nano-fibrillated fibers, inorganic fiber-particles, and the like. The amount and composition of the filler can include halogenated materials as long as the materials are not detrimental to the overall performance of the composite.

[0049] Core materials can include a polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a fire-retardant polypropylene (PP), a polycarbonate (PC), a polyimide, a polyethersulfone (PES), a

polyurethane (PU), or a poly(phenylene ether)/styrene blend, or a blend thereof.

“Polypropylene” as used herein includes polypropylene and co-polymers thereof.

“Polycarbonate polymers” as used herein include polycarbonate polymers and co-polymers thereof and are described in more detail below.“Polyimides” as used herein include polyimides and polyetherimides. Thermoplastic cores can be produced or are available from various commercial sources. By way of example, a PET core can be obtained from commercial sources such as Armacell Benelux S.A. (Beligum) under the tradename of ArmaFORM, or from Diab Group (Sweden) under the tradename of Divinylcell P. In a preferred embodiment, the core is a PET foam. Fire-retardant polypropylene honeycomb cores can be obtained from EconCore N.V. (Belgium.) under the tradename Therm Ffex. Polyimide cores can be obtained from commercial suppliers such as DuPont (U.S.A.), Flexcel Corporation (U.S.A.), and the like. [0050] Polycarbonate polymers for use in the present disclosure can have any desirable structure. For example, such a polycarbonate polymer can include a linear polycarbonate polymer, a branched polycarbonate polymer, a polyester carbonate polymer, or a combination thereof. Such a polycarbonate polymer can include a polycarbonate-polyorganosiloxane copolymer, a polycarbonate-based urethane resin, a polycarbonate polyurethane resin, or a combination thereof. The polycarbonate polymer can include an aromatic polycarbonate resin. For example, such aromatic polycarbonate resins can include the divalent residue of dihydric phenols bonded through a carbonate linkage and can be represented by the formula:

ft

O-C-O-Ar l·,

where Ar is a divalent aromatic group. The divalent aromatic group can be represented by the formula:— An— Y— An— , where An and An each represent a divalent carbocyclic or heterocyclic aromatic group having from 5 to 30 carbon atoms (or a substituent therefor) and Y represents a divalent alkane group having from 1 to 30 carbon atoms. For example, in some embodiments,— An— Y— An— is An-C(CH3)-An, where An and An are the same. As used herein,“carbocyclic” means having, relating to, or characterized by a ring composed of carbon atoms. As used herein,“heterocyclic” means having, relating to, or characterized by a ring of atoms of more than one kind, such as, for example, a ring of atoms including a carbon atom and at least one atom that is not a carbon atom.“Heterocyclic aromatic groups” are aromatic groups having one or more ring nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur atoms. In some embodiments, Ari and Ar 2 can each be substituted with at least one substituent that does not affect the polymerization reaction. Such a substituent can include, for example, a halogen atom, an alkyl group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms, an alkoxy group having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms, a phenyl group, a phenoxy group, a vinyl group, a cyano group, an ester group, an amide group, or a nitro group. Aromatic polycarbonate resins suitable for use in the present disclosure can be commercially available, such as, for example, LEXAN HF1110, commercially available from SABIC, or can be synthesized using any method known by those skilled in the art. Polycarbonate polymers for use in the present disclosure can have any suitable molecular weight; for example, an average molecular weight of such a polycarbonate polymer can be from approximately 5,000 to approximately 40,000 grams per mole (g/mol).

[0051] One or multiple plies (e.g., 2 to 10 plies, or 3 to 6 plies) can include a thermoplastic polymer, and a reinforcement, e.g., can include thermoplastic polymer, a fire retardant composition, fibers, and optionally a coupling agent. Thermoplastic polymers for use in making the first or second laminate can include thermoplastic polymers that are the same or different from the thermoplastic polymers used for the core. Non-limiting examples of thermoplastic polymers include a polypropylene, a polycarbonate (described above), or a polyimide (described above), or a blend thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the ply includes polypropylene, more specifically polypropylene homopolymer. Polypropylene can be obtained from various commercial suppliers. Non-limiting examples of commercial polypropylene include Achieve 6936G2 resin by ExxonMobil (U.S.A.), Braskem CP1220B by Songhan Plastic Technology Co., Ltd. (China), Moplen HP500V by LyondellBasell Industries Holding, B.V. (the Netherlands), PP FPC100 by SABIC (Saudi Arabia), and the like. In some embodiments, the polypropylene can be a high flow polypropylene, which has a melt flow rate of 210 to 240 or about 230 °C/2.l6 kilograms (kg) as determined by ISO 1133 at about 120 g/lO min). Polyimides can be obtained from commercial suppliers such as RTP Co. (U.S.A.), DuPont (U.S.A.), or the like. In some embodiments, a ply includes thermoplastic polymer in an amount of greater than or equal to any one of, or between any two of: 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 wt%, based on the total weight of the ply, for example, greater than or equal to 15 wt% thermoplastic polymer, or 15 wt% to 25 wt%.

[0052] In some embodiments, ply can optionally include additives such as antioxidants, heat stabilizers, flow modifiers, fillers, fibers, flame retardants, colorants, etc., or any combinations thereof. An amount of additives range from 0.01 to 0.1 wt%, or 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, or 0.1 wt% or any range or value therebetween, such as 0.01 to 0.07 wt%, or 0.03 to 0.08 wt%.

[0053] Plies used to produce the laminates can be obtained from commercial sources or manufactured. By way of example, one or more of the plies can be made by dispersing fibers in a polymer matrix as described in International Application Publication No. WO 2016/142786 to Prins et al. In such a method, a sheet or film that includes thermoplastic polymer and/or the fire-retardant composition can be supplied between a first and a second spreaded fiber layers. Heat can be applied to the fiber layer/polymer composition/fiber layer material, followed by pressing the fiber layers into the polymer composition. In some embodiments, after pressing is completed, the first or second fiber layers can be rubbed. In some embodiments, the fibers are not spread prior to heating. In another embodiment, the plies can be made by using known impregnation techniques. For example, Miller et al. in Polymers & Polymer Composites, 1996, Vol. 4, No. 7 describes impregnation techniques for thermoplastic matrix composites. One such method can include providing suppling fibers to one or more solution baths (e.g., thermoplastic polymer and/or fire retardant composition in one or two baths) to form resin impregnated fibers, drying the fibers, and then pressing the fibers to produce a ply (e.g., prepreg sheets). In another embodiment, the polymer and fibers can be stacked together, heated, and then pressed causing the resin to flow transverse to the fibers to from prepreg sheets of reinforced thermoplastic materials.

[0054] Each of the plies can have a length and a width that is perpendicular to and smaller than the length, where the length and the width are each a distance between outer edges of the ply measured along a straight line. The length can be, but need not be, the largest such distance. Each of the plies can have a shape and dimensions that correspond to the shape and dimensions of laminate and/or composite. To further illustrate, the largest face of each of the plies can have a surface area that is substantially equal to a surface area of the largest face of laminate. To yet further illustrate, each of the plies can be rectangular. In other embodiments, one or more plies of a laminate can have a shape and/or dimensions that differ from the shape and/or dimensions of the laminate; such plies can, for example, be used to add stiffness and strength to a portion of the laminate that is smaller than the entirety of the laminate.

[0055] The laminates can be prepared using known lamination methods. It should be understood that laminates can be made of plies having the same or different compositions. One or all of the plies can include fibers dispersed within a matrix material or pressed into the polymer matrix material. By way of example, the laminates can be prepare using a double belt press with integrated contact heating and cooling supplied by, for example MEYER

(Maschinenfabrik, Herber Meyer GmbH, Germany). The different plies can enter the heat press unit in a defined stacking sequence at a rate of 1.5 meters per minute (m/min). The ply stack can be pressed together in a first zone at a pressure of 0.1 to 0.4 Newtons per square centimeter (N/cm 2 ), or (1 to 4 kiloPascals (kPa), or 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4 kPa, or any value or range there between, such as 1.5 to 3.5 kPa, or 2 to 4 kPa) and then heated to a temperature of 170 to l85°C, (e.g., about 180 °C). The pressed stack can enter a second zone, pressed, and the heated to 190 to 200 °C (e.g., about 195 °C). The pressed stack can enter a third zone, be pressed at a lower temperature of 185 to 195 °C (e.g., about 190 °C) to form the laminate. Heating and cooling can be maintained without release of pressure. In some embodiments, a static heated press can be used.

[0056] Once the insert has been attached to the composite panel, any various auxiliary panel components can then be attached to the insert. For example, the auxiliary panel components can include sidewalls, poles, and/or seats. A pull out force of the insert when attached to a panel can be greater than or equal to 2,000 Newtons (N), for example, greater than or equal to 3,000 N, for example, greater than or equal to 3,500 N, for example, greater than or equal to 4,000 N, for example, greater than or equal to 4,200 N, for example, greater than or equal to 4,400 N.

[0057] The inserts disclosed herein can comprise any material that will provide the desired mechanical integrity. For example, the inserts can comprise metal, polymeric material, composite material, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing. When the insert comprises metal, the metal can comprise steel, for example, galvanized or zinc plated steel. If polymeric material is utilized, the polymeric material can include glass fiber filled polymeric material.

[0058] The polymeric material can comprise a polycarbonate, a polyester (such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(butylene terephthalate), and poly(lactic acid)), a polyamide (such as aliphatic polyamides including nylon 6, semi-aromatic polyphthalamides, and aromatic polyamides), a polyimide (such as polyetherimide), a polyketone (such as poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), poly(ether ketone), and poly(aryl ether ketone)), a polysulfide (such as poly(phenylene sulfide)), a polysulfone (such as poly(ether sulfone)), a polyacrylate (such as poly(methyl methacrylate)), a polyacetal (such as poly(oxymethylene)), a polyacetate (such as poly( vinyl acetate)), a fluoro plastic (such as polytetrafluoroethylene), a chloro plastic (such as poly( vinyl chloride) and poly(vinylidene chloride)), a polyethylene (such as high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene), a polyurethane, polypropylene, an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer, a styrene acrylonitrile copolymer, polyphenylene, polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polycaprolactone, polybutylene, polybutadiene, a copolymer comprising at least one or more of the foregoing, or a blend comprising at least one or more of the foregoing.

[0059] For example, the polymeric material can comprise a polycarbonate/ABS blend (CYCOLOY™ resins commercially available from SABIC), a copolycarbonate -polyester, acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA) (GELOY™ resins commercially available from SABIC), a blend of polyphenylene ether/polyamide (NORYL GTX™ resins from SABIC), a blend of polycarbonate/polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polybutylene terephthalate and impact modifier (XENOY™ resins commercially available from SABIC), polycarbonate (LEXAN™ and Ϊ FIX AN™ EXL resins commercially available from), poly(methyl)meth acrylate (PMMA) capped polycarbonate, polyetherimide (ULTEM™ polyetherimide resin (e.g., EC006PXQ™ and/or EC008PXQ™) or SILTEM™, both commercially available SABIC).

[0060] The polymeric material can be filled with glass fibers. Useful glass fibers can be formed from any type of fiberizable glass composition known to those skilled in the art, and include those prepared from fiberizable glass compositions commonly known as "E-glass," "A- glass," "C-glass," "D-glass," "R-glass," "S-glass," as well as E-glass derivatives that are fluorine- free and/or boron-free. Such compositions and methods of making glass filaments therefrom are well known to those skilled in the art and a more detailed description is not necessary.

[0061] A more complete understanding of the components, processes, and apparatuses disclosed herein can be obtained by reference to the accompanying drawings. These figures (also referred to herein as“FIG.”) are merely schematic representations based on convenience and the ease of demonstrating the present disclosure, and are, therefore, not intended to indicate relative size and dimensions of the devices or components thereof and/or to define or limit the scope of the exemplary embodiments. Although specific terms are used in the following description for the sake of clarity, these terms are intended to refer only to the particular structure of the embodiments selected for illustration in the drawings, and are not intended to define or limit the scope of the disclosure. In the drawings and the following description below, it is to be understood that like numeric designations refer to components of like function.

[0062] Turning now to Figures 1 to 5, an insert 10 is shown. It is noted that Figure 3 is a sectional view of line A-A taken in Figure 2 and that Figure 4 is a detailed view of the circled portion D in Figure 3. The insert 10 has a core portion 14 (Figure 2) which includes internal threads 16 and external threads 18. A top 21 of the insert 10 has a lip 12. The lip 12 is has an annular shape and a lip diameter, DL (Figure 5), which is greater than an external thread diameter, DET (Figure. 2). The external thread diameter DET can be greater than or equal to 130% larger than the core portion external diameter CED, for example, greater than or equal to 150% greater, or greater than or equal to 155% greater, for example, greater than or equal to 160% greater, or greater than or equal to 170% greater, or greater than or equal to 200% greater.

[0063] The lip 12 has a length F L as shown in Figure 2. The length F L can be less than or equal to 10 mm, for example, less than or equal to 5.5 mm, for example, less than or equal to 4 mm, for example, less than or equal to 2 mm, for example, less than or equal to 1.5 mm, for example, less than or equal to 1.25 mm, for example, less than or equal to 1.0 mm, for example, less than or equal to 0.5 mm. The lip 12 can have a length F L of greater than or equal to 0.25 mm, preferably greater than or equal to 0.5 mm, or greater than or equal to 1.0 mm. A nominal distance or space 28 between the lip 12 and the first external thread 18 can be present. This distance 28 can be less than or equal to 5 mm, for example, less than or equal to 3 mm, for example, less than or equal to 2 mm, for example, less than or equal to 1.75 mm, for example, less than or equal to 1.5 mm, for example, less than or equal to 1.0 mm. The insert 10 has a total length, Li, as seen in Figure 2. The total length, Li, extends from the top 21 to a bottom 20 of the insert 10. The total length Li can be greater than or equal to 5 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 10 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 15 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 20 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 25 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 50 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 75 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 100 mm.

[0064] An opening 22 extends along the total length, Li, of the insert 10. The opening 22 is configured to accept a tool head. The opening 22 corresponds to the core internal diameter C ID . The C ID can have a diameter of greater than or equal to 2 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 4 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 6 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 8 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 10 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 12 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 15 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 20 mm. The C ID can be less than or equal to 75 mm, or less than or equal to 50 mm, for example less than or equal to 30 mm, preferably less than or equal to 20 mm, or less than or equal to 15 mm.

[0065] The distance between each external thread 18 is shown as pitch 24 in Figures 2 and 4. The pitch 24 can vary depending on whether the external threads 18 are tapered along a length, LET, of the external thread. Generally, the pitch 24 between adjacent external threads 18 can be less than or equal to 10 mm, for example, less than or equal to 6 mm, for example, less than or equal to 3 mm, for example, less than or equal to 2.5 mm. Adjacent external threads 18 can be disposed an angle, Q, to one another. For example, the angle, Q, can be 0° to 45°, for example, 10°.

[0066] A width, WET, of each individual external thread 18 can be constant extending from the core portion 14 to an edge 26 of the external thread 18. For example, the width, WET, of each external thread 18 can be greater than or equal to 1 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 2 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 3 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 4 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 5 mm. A thickness, TEET, of each individual external thread 18 can taper extending from the core portion 14 to an edge 26 of the external thread 18. For example, the thickness TEET can be greater than or equal to 0.25 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.4 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.5 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.6 mm. A space between adjacent external threads, at the core portion, TBET, can be greater than or equal to the skin layer thickness of the panel (T Skm ). For example, TBET can be greater than or equal to 1. l(T skin ), or greater than or equal to l.2(T Skm ), or greater than or equal to l.25(Tskin).

[0067] An attachment mechanism 26 can be seen in the cross-sectional view shown in Figure 3, where the attachment mechanism 26 is configured to be placed into the core portion internal diameter CID and rotated to install the insert into a panel, for example, a composite panel.

[0068] Figures 6 and 7 show inserts 32, 34 with different bottoms. For example, as shown in Figure 6, a bottom portion 38 of the insert 32 include an opening 40 with a boring feature 42 attached thereto. The boring feature 42 can assist in attaching the insert 32 to a panel or attaching the insert to subflooring or another structure located beneath the panel. As shown in Figure 7, a bottom portion 44 of the insert 34 can have a circular closed shape with a boring feature 46 attached thereto. The boring feature 46 can assist in attaching the insert 34 to a panel or attaching the insert to subflooring or another structure located beneath the panel.

[0069] Figure 6 also illustrates a thread opening 88. Optionally, the insert can comprise one or more thread openings located near the bottom of the insert. In other words, the thread can be noncontiguous. The noncontiguous threads enable a more facile grip of the insert to the panel. These noncontiguous threads make it easier to cut through the panel during insertion of the insert. The threads can have one opening, or more than one opening, for example 1 to 3 openings.

[0070] Turning now to Figures 8 to 12, an insert 50 is shown. It is noted that Figure 10 is a sectional view of line A-A taken in Figure 9 and that Figure 11 is a detailed view of the circled portion B in Figure 10. The insert 50 has a core portion 60 (Figure 9) which includes internal threads 58 and external threads 54. A top 62 of the insert 50 has an extension 52 that protrudes from the top 62 of the insert 50. The extension 52 can cover a portion of an external thread diameter DET as shown in Figure 8. The external thread diameter DET can be greater than or equal to 130% larger than a core portion external diameter CED, for example, greater than or equal to 150% greater, for example, greater than or equal to 155% greater, for example, greater than or equal to 170% greater, for example, greater than or equal to 185% greater, or greater than or equal to 200% greater. The core portion 60 also has a core internal diameter CID shown in Figure 12. The insert 50 has a total length, Li, as seen in Figure 9. The total length, Li, extends from the top 62 to a bottom 64 of the insert 50. The total length Li can be greater than or equal to 5 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 10 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 15 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 20 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 25 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 50 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 75 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 100 mm. An opening 56 extends along the total length, Li, of the insert 50. The opening 56 is configured to accept a tool head. The opening 56 corresponds to the core internal diameter CID. The CID can have a diameter of greater than or equal to 2 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 4 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 6 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 8 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 10 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 12 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 15 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 20 mm. The C ID can be less than or equal to 30 mm, preferably less than or equal to 20 mm, or less than or equal to 15 mm.

[0071] The distance between each external thread 54 is shown as pitch 66 in Figure 9. The pitch 66 can vary depending on whether the external threads 54 are tapered along a length, LET, of the external thread. Generally, the pitch 24 between adjacent external threads 18 can be less than or equal to 10 mm, for example, less than or equal to 6 mm, for example, less than or equal to 3 mm, for example, less than or equal to 2.5 mm. Adjacent external threads 54 can be disposed an angle, Q, to one another. For example, the angle, Q, can be 0° to 45°, for example, 10°.

[0072] A width, WET, of each individual external thread 54 can be constant extending from the core portion 60 to an edge 68 of the external thread 54. For example, the width, WET, of each external thread 54 can be greater than or equal to 1 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 2 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 3 mm, for example, greater than or equal to

4 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 5 mm. A thickness, TEET, of each individual external thread 54 can taper extending from the core portion 60 to an edge 68 of the external thread 54. For example, the thickness TEET can be greater than or equal to 0.25 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.4 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.5 mm, for example, greater than or equal to 0.6 mm.

[0073] An attachment mechanism 70 can be seen in the cross-sectional view shown in Figure 3, where the attachment mechanism 70 is configured to be placed into the core portion internal diameter CID and rotated to install the insert into a panel, for example, a composite panel. An end portion 72 of the insert 50 can be tapered in the last 10 mm, for example, the last

5 mm, for example, the last 2 mm, for example, the last 1 mm. The taper angle b can be 1° to 75°, for example, 5° to 55°, for example, 10° to 50°, for example, 65°, for example, 45°.

[0074] Figures 13 and 14 show inserts 80, 82 with different bottoms. For example, as shown in Figure 13, a bottom portion 84 of the insert 80 has a rounded shape. As shown in Figure 7, a bottom portion 86 of the insert 82 can have a pointed conical shape.

[0075] Each insert comprised steel. The commercially available inserts typically have a smaller pitch and larger thread width as compared to the present inventive inserts, e.g., as illustrated in Figures 8-12. Commercially available inserts include Rampa Insert of the type SKD: Standard M8, Standard M10, Standard M12, Ml2-Mod. 1, Ml2-Mod. 2. as well as Rampa Insert of the Type B: Standard M8, Standard M10, Standard M12, Ml2-Mod. 1, and M12 - Mod 2. Dimensions for these are given in Table 1. Rampa Type SKD is shown in Figure 16 and Rampa type B is shown in Figure 17.

[0076] This disclosure is further illustrated by the following examples, which are non limiting.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

[0077] An insert having the design as shown in Figures 8 to 12 was produced and compared against various commercially available inserts for pull-out force from a rail floor sandwich panel. The sandwich panel comprised 1 mm thick skin layer on each side of a 15 mm thick PET foam core, with an interlayer between each skin layer and the core. Therefore, the layer structure, from top to bottom, was skin layer/interlayer/core/inter layer/skin layer. The skin layers were glass fiber, flame retardant, polypropylene laminates of unidirectional fiber tapes. The PET foam core had a density of 150 grams per liter (g/l). The interlayer was 0.45 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer.

[0078] For each insert tested, a 13 mm hole was drilled in the rail floor sandwich panel. The insert was positioned in the pre-drilled hole. The insert was then inserted into the panel. A screw was inserted into the opening in the core of each insert. Each panel was positioned in a tensile machine and the pull-out tests were performed, recording the maximum force. In order to conduct the test, a force on the internal thread of the insert was applied. By applying this force, the pullout force can be measured. A ZWICK-ROEL Z020 tensile machine was used to apply a load on the various inserts. The types of inserts tested are set forth in Table 2. Results are shown in Figure 15.

[0079] Inserts 1 to 10 in Figure 15 are commercially available inserts, while Sample 11 is the design according to Figures 8-12 and 18-21, and the dimensions according to Figures 18- 21, where dimensions are listed in millimeters and angles in degrees. As can be seen in Figure 15, Samples 1-10 had a pull-out force significantly below the target force of 3,700 N. Actually, their pull-out force was always below 2,500 N, and nearly always below 2,000 N.

[0080] Unlike samples 1 - 10, Sample 11 had pull out force values of greater than 3,000 N, even greater than 3,500 N, and actually greater than 4,000 N. The test was repeated several times and the inventive inserts (design of Figures 8-12; 18-21) consistently achieved a pull-out force of over 4,000 N, indicating that the designs described herein can provide the desired pull out force when attached a panel.

[0081] Generally, inserts have a conical overall external thread shape, e.g., to aid in inserting the insert into the desired medium, such that the threads grip the medium and assist in pulling the insert into the medium. As a result of this shape, however, the insert will have very low external thread surface area near the bottom of the insert. Consequently, the pull out force on a rail floor sandwich panel as discussed above, can be low, e.g., less than 2,000 N.

[0082] It has been discovered that with an external thread surface area of greater than or equal to 500 mm 2 per 4.25 mm of length of the insert (e.g., especially in the area of insert that extends through the second side of the panel), the insert can attain a pull out force of greater than 2,500 N on the rail floor sandwich panel. Surprisingly, these pull-out forces were achieved without adhesive between the insert and the panel. Other inserts did not exhibit the 2,500 N pull-out force. Such a surface area is unusual. For example, the surface area for the insert disclosed in DE 10 2016 000 088 was calculated to be 950 mm 2 , and the surface area of the insert disclosed in WO 2012/146283 was calculated to be 1,760 mm 2 .

[0083] Desirably, an overall external thread shape is cylindrical, e.g., at least for a length that is greater than the thickness of the panel to which it will be attached. In other words, the external thread diameter can change by less than or equal to 10% between the thread closest to the top of the insert and the thread closest to the bottom of the insert, preferably the external thread diameter changes by 0% to 5%. This allows the threads to grip the second side of the panel and inhibit withdrawal.

[0084] This disclosure further encompasses the following aspects.

[0085] Aspect 1: An insert, comprising: a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion external diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads; and external threads; wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 130% greater than the core portion external diameter, preferably greater than or equal to 150% greater than the core portion external diameter.

[0086] Aspect 2: The insert of Aspect 1, wherein a pitch between external threads is 1 mm to 4 mm, preferably 2 mm to 4 mm, or 1 mm to 3 mm.

[0087] Aspect 3: The insert of Aspect 1 or Aspect 2, wherein an external thread surface area is greater than or equal to greater than or equal to 500 mm 2 per 4.25 mm of length, or 500 mm 2 per 4 mm of length, preferably 500 mm 2 per 3.75 mm of length.

[0088] Aspect 4: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein adjacent external threads are disposed to one another by an angle of 0° to 45°.

[0089] Aspect 5: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein a top portion of the insert comprises an annular, lipped portion having an annular, lipped portion diameter that is greater than the external thread diameter.

[0090] Aspect 6: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the internal threads comprise straight threads, metric threads, tapered threads, coarse threads, fine threads, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing.

[0091] Aspect 7: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the core portion comprises an opening extending through a length thereof, wherein the opening is configured to accept a tool head.

[0092] Aspect 8: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the insert comprises metal, polymeric material, composite material, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, preferably wherein the metal comprises steel, preferably, galvanized or zinc plated steel, preferably wherein the polymeric material comprises glass fiber filled polymeric material.

[0093] Aspect 9: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein sidewalls, poles, and/or seats are attached to the insert.

[0094] Aspect 10: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein a width of each individual external thread is constant extending from the core portion to an edge of the external thread, preferably wherein the width is greater than or equal to 2 millimeters.

[0095] Aspect 11: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein a thickness of each individual external thread tapers extending from the core portion to an edge of the external thread, preferably wherein the thickness at the edge of the external thread is greater than or equal to 0.25 millimeters, preferably, 0.4 millimeters, more preferably, greater than or equal to 0.5 millimeters, even more preferably, greater than or equal to 0.6 millimeters.

[0096] Aspect 12: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein a pull-out force of the insert when attached to a panel, is greater than or equal to 2,500 N, or greater than or equal to 3,500 N, preferably, greater than or equal to 4,000 N, more preferably, greater than or equal to 4,200 N, and even more preferably, greater than or equal to 4,400 N, as measured using a ZWICK-ROEL Z020 tensile machine recording the maximum force to pull the insert from a sandwich panel, e.g., a sandwich panel comprising 1 mm thick skin layer on each side of a 15 mm thick PET foam core having a density of 150 g/l, with a 0.45 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer interlayer between each skin layer and the core, wherein each skin layer comprised four laminated unidirectional fiber tapes comprising glass fiber and polypropylene.

[0097] Aspect 13: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the external thread diameter changes by less than or equal to 10% between a thread closest to a top of the insert and a thread closest to the bottom of the insert.

[0098] Aspect 14: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the external thread diameter changes by 0% to 5%.

[0099] Aspect 15: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the external threads have a cylindrical shape at least for a length that is greater than a thickness of a panel to which the insert will be attached.

[0100] Aspect 16: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the external threads have an overall shape is cylindrical.

[0101] Aspect 17: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the external threads are noncontiguous, preferably wherein the external threads are noncontiguous near the bottom of the insert, more preferably, wherein the external threads are noncontiguous in a last 20% of the external threads closest to the bottom of the insert.

[0102] Aspect 18: The insert of any of the preceding aspects, wherein the external threads have an opening extending through the thread, preferably wherein the opening extends from an edge of the thread to the core.

[0103] Aspect 19: The insert of Aspect 18, comprising 1 to 3 openings, preferably 2 - 3 openings.

[0104] Aspect 20: A method of making an insert, comprising: milling a steel block forming the insert, wherein the insert comprises a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion externa diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads; and external threads; wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter.

[0105] Aspect 21: A method of making an insert, comprising: injection molding a glass- filled polymeric material forming the insert, wherein the insert comprises a core portion having a core portion internal diameter and a core portion external diameter, wherein the core portion comprises internal threads; and external threads; wherein the external threads have an external thread diameter, wherein the external thread diameter is at least 155% greater than the core portion external diameter.

[0106] Aspect 22: The method of Aspect 20 or Aspect 21, wherein a pull-out force of the insert when attached to a panel, is greater than or equal to 2,500 N, preferably, greater than or equal to 3,500 N, more preferably, greater than or equal to 4,000 N, and even more preferably, greater than or equal to 4,2 00 N.

[0107] Aspect 23: A panel with auxiliary components, comprising: the insert of any of the preceding aspects extending through the panel; the auxiliary components attached to the panel via the insert; wherein the panel is a composite panel, preferably a sandwich panel with a foam core; and preferably wherein the auxiliary components comprise at least one of sidewalls, poles, or seats.

[0108] Aspect 24: The panel of Aspect 23, wherein a pull-out force of the insert is greater than or equal to 2,500 N, preferably, greater than or equal to 3,500 N, more preferably greater than or equal to 4,000 N, more preferably, greater than or equal to 4,200 N, and even more preferably, greater than or equal to 4,400 N.

[0109] Aspect 25: The panel of Aspects 23 or 24, wherein panel is free of adhesive between the insert and the panel. [0110] Aspect 26: The panel of any of Aspects 23-25, wherein the composite panel is a sandwich panel with a skin layer on each side of a core, and wherein a space, TBET, between adjacent external threads is greater than or equal to a thickness (T skin ) of the skin layer, preferably greater than or equal to l.l(T skin ), or greater than or equal to l.2(T Skm ), or greater than or equal to l.25(T Skm ).

[0111] Aspect 27: A vehicle, preferably a rail car, comprising: a composite panel, preferably a sandwich panel with a foam core; the insert of any of Aspects 1-22 extending through the panel; an auxiliary component attached to the panel via the insert; and preferably wherein the auxiliary component is at least one of sidewalls, poles, or seats.

[0112] Aspect 28: The vehicle of Aspect 27, wherein the composite panel is a sandwich panel with a skin layer on each side of a core, and wherein a space between adjacent external threads is greater than or equal to a thickness of the skin layer. The compositions, methods, and articles can alternatively comprise, consist of, or consist essentially of, any appropriate materials, steps, or components herein disclosed. The compositions, methods, and articles can additionally, or alternatively, be formulated so as to be devoid, or substantially free, of any materials (or species), steps, or components, that are otherwise not necessary to the achievement of the function or objectives of the compositions, methods, and articles.

[0113] All ranges disclosed herein are inclusive of the endpoints, and the endpoints are independently combinable with each other (e.g., ranges of“up to 25 wt%, or, more specifically, 5 wt% to 20 wt%”, is inclusive of the endpoints and all intermediate values of the ranges of“5 wt% to 25 wt%,” etc.).“Combinations” is inclusive of blends, mixtures, alloys, reaction products, and the like. The terms“first,”“second,” and the like, do not denote any order, quantity, or importance, but rather are used to distinguish one element from another. The terms “a” and“an” and“the” do not denote a limitation of quantity, and are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context.“Or” means“and/or” unless clearly stated otherwise. Reference throughout the specification to“some embodiments”,“an embodiment”, and so forth, means that a particular element described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment described herein, and may or may not be present in other embodiments. In addition, it is to be understood that the described elements may be combined in any suitable manner in the various embodiments.

[0114] Unless specified to the contrary herein, all test standards are the most recent standard in effect as of the filing date of this application, or, if priority is claimed, the filing date of the earliest priority application in which the test standard appears. [0115] Unless defined otherwise, technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of skill in the art to which this application belongs. All cited patents, patent applications, and other references are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. However, if a term in the present application contradicts or conflicts with a term in the incorporated reference, the term from the present application takes precedence over the conflicting term from the incorporated reference.

[0116] The modifier“about” used in connection with a quantity is inclusive of the stated value and has the meaning dictated by the context (e.g., includes the degree of error associated with measurement of the particular quantity). The notation“+ 10%” means that the indicated measurement can be from an amount that is minus 10% to an amount that is plus 10% of the stated value. The terms“front”,“back”,“bottom”, and/or“top” are used herein, unless otherwise noted, merely for convenience of description, and are not limited to any one position or spatial orientation.“Optional” or“optionally” means that the subsequently described event or circumstance can or cannot occur, and that the description includes instances where the event occurs and instances where it does not. Unless defined otherwise, technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of skill in the art to which this invention belongs. A“combination” is inclusive of blends, mixtures, alloys, reaction products, and the like.

[0117] Compounds are described using standard nomenclature. For example, any position not substituted by any indicated group is understood to have its valency filled by a bond as indicated, or a hydrogen atom. A dash that is not between two letters or symbols is used to indicate a point of attachment for a substituent. For example, -CHO is attached through carbon of the carbonyl group.

[0118] While particular embodiments have been described, alternatives, modifications, variations, improvements, and substantial equivalents that are or may be presently unforeseen may arise to applicants or others skilled in the art. Accordingly, the appended claims as filed and as they may be amended are intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications variations, improvements, and substantial equivalents.