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Title:
INSTRUCTION METHOD FOR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND PREVENTION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2006/098732
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A progressive method for training and reinforcing automatic hazard detection skills for an individual student for a selected environment.

Inventors:
Mirrington, John H. (499 Boynton Avenue #3, San Jose, California, 95117, US)
Knightly, Dave (20 Hearthstone Drive, Hebron, Connecticut, 06248, US)
Buda, Joseph G. (6 Apple Lane, Simsbury, Connecticut, 06070, US)
Towill, Bruce E. (151 Letitia Street, Oatley, Australian Capital Territory NSW 2223, AU)
Coleman, Jeff (2 Bow Lane, Cromwell, Connecticut, 06416, US)
Black, Anthony C. (114 Ridgefield Drive, South Windsor, Connecticut, 06074, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2005/008584
Publication Date:
September 21, 2006
Filing Date:
March 14, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY (10 Farm Springs, Farmington, Connecticut, 06032, US)
Mirrington, John H. (499 Boynton Avenue #3, San Jose, California, 95117, US)
Knightly, Dave (20 Hearthstone Drive, Hebron, Connecticut, 06248, US)
Buda, Joseph G. (6 Apple Lane, Simsbury, Connecticut, 06070, US)
Towill, Bruce E. (151 Letitia Street, Oatley, Australian Capital Territory NSW 2223, AU)
Coleman, Jeff (2 Bow Lane, Cromwell, Connecticut, 06416, US)
Black, Anthony C. (114 Ridgefield Drive, South Windsor, Connecticut, 06074, US)
International Classes:
G09B19/00
Foreign References:
US20040241627A12004-12-02
US6616453B22003-09-09
US6157808A2000-12-05
US4313726A1982-02-02
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Snyder, Troxell K. (Assistant Secretary, 10 Farm Springs Farmington, Connecticut, 06032, US)
Henley, Randy G. (OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY, 10 Farm Springs Farmington, CT, 06032, US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. A method for teaching and reinforcing hazard detection skills to an individual student for a selected environment by a) identifying a sufficient number of major hazard categories based on the selected environment; b) familiarizing the individual student with each of the identified major hazard categories; and c) training the individual student to constantly scan and recognize unsafe conditions in the selected environment; characterized in that the training step further includes the steps of presenting a series of individual scenes from the selected environment, each scene containing at least one unsafe condition falling within at least one identified major hazard category, requiring the individual student to identify all unsafe conditions in each individual scene, scoring the individual student's correct identification of the unsafe conditions in the series of scenes, comparing the student's score from step 3) with a preselected passing score, and in the event the student's score determined in step 3) is less than the predetermined passing score, causing the student to repeat steps 14.
2. The method as recited in claims 1, wherein each scene of the series of scenes is presented to the student for a selected time period.
3. The method as recited in any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the time period is selected to be between 15 and 45 seconds.
4. The method as recited in any one of claims 23, further comprising the step of notifying the student of the correct or incorrect identification by the student of each unsafe condition in the corresponding scene both simultaneously with said identification and upon expiration of the selected time period.
5. The method as recited in any one of claims 14, wherein the series of scenes includes at least one individual scene having a reduced visibility condition selected from one of the group of reduced visibility conditions consisting of poor lighting, blocked visibility, and dust covered material.
6. The method as recited in any one of claims 15, wherein the unsafe conditions shown in the series of scenes are distributed substantially evenly among the identified major hazard categories.
7. The method as recited in any one of claims 16, further comprising the step of conducting a oneonone job site hazard scan audit between an instructor and the individual student following successful completion of step 4), said audit being conducted at a ob site within the selected environment.
Description:
INSTRUCTION METHOD FOR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND PREVENTION

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[001] A method for instructing individual students to scan for potential hazards in their surroundings is disclosed. The method according to the present invention provides a progressive learning tool, including a pre-work assignment, a formal training segment, an online audit, and a one-on-one job site audit. Also according to the invention, the on-line audit is timed, to reinforce the scanning mentality and habit, and scored, to quantitatively measure the achievement level of each student individually.

BACKGROUND

[002] Safety related instructional courses, books, presentations, etc. to raise the personal safety awareness of individuals are well known throughout industry. Such instruction is most often delivered in a classroom or group setting, whereby several individuals receive instruction either from an individual instructor, a group of instructors, an instructional video presentation, or a combination of the foregoing.

[003] One prior art instructional program involves the training of a group of students to constantly scan their surroundings for the presence of an unsafe or potentially hazardous condition or conditions. This technique, termed Scan Safe, is illustrated in a presentation titled "Sample Program on Safety Hazard Recognition" presented by Eugene A. Satrun at the Chicagoland Joint Safety Conference in September 1997, available at http://siri.uviTi.edu/librarv/scanning.html. The presentation, and the accompanying slides, illustrate a safety training program which suggests the students incorporate hazard recognition into their daily routine, constantly scanning to spot potential hazards while performing their jobs, as well as at other times.

[004] This prior art program involves the use of a series of photographs of job site conditions showing a mixture of hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions. The class is invited to scan each picture and compare their observations to a list of predefined hazard categories. The group is instructed to break the pictured scenes down into small areas and focus their attention on each area to identify hazardous conditions therein. After the hazards for an entire scene have been identified, the proper corrective measures for each identified instance are presented.

[005] After several sets of slides, and interactive discussion between the class and the instructor, the instructor then conducts the group on a walking tour of an adjacent industrial facility for the purpose of identifying existing hazards or the potential for a hazard to come into existence. After leaving the class students are encouraged to practice the skills they have learned on a regular basis.

[006] One drawback of the foregoing safety scanning instructed technique is that it does not focus on the individual students or evaluate the students' abilities to achieve a scanning mentality prior to the end of the instructional course. As with any group participation course, it is possible for an individual to fall behind the class or conceal their lack of progress by avoiding class participation. Group instructors, often cognizant that most of the group has achieved the required skill or mastery level, are hesitant to hold back the entire class to insure that every participant has demonstrated the required learning.

[007] What is needed is an instructional method that assures the progress and mastery of each individual student, thereby enhancing both individual and overall group safe working practices.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[008] According to the present invention, a method for teaching and reinforcing hazard detection skills to an individual student is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes identifying a number of major hazard categories based on a selected environment, and providing the student with a pre-work assignment describing and illustrating these major hazard categories for the purpose of preparing the student to learn the hazard scanning technique.

[009] The next step is a formal training session, which builds on the knowledge acquired by the student in the pre-work assignment, providing illustrations of the nature of the hazards that may be encountered, and a description of the scanning mindset that the course will build in each student.

[010] The method further includes an on-line audit having a series of visual presentations illustrating one or more individual hazards set in the selected environment. The student is challenged to identify the individual hazard and a related major hazard category, and to choose a corrective action based thereon. Each student's responses are compared with previously developed correct responses, and a score is assigned. The student is required to repeat the foregoing until he or she receives a correct score in excess of a predetermined value, representing sufficient mastery of the desired hazardous condition identification skills.

[Oi l] According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the individual visual presentations in the series of visual presentations are each presented to the student for a preselected time period.

[012] According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the individual visual presentations are provided with individual hazards set in a reduced visibility setting. [013] According to still a further embodiment of the present invention, the individual hazards illustrated in the series of visual presentations are distributed substantially evenly among the major hazard categories for the selected environment.

[014] According to still a further embodiment of the present invention, the method includes a one-on-one job site audit between the individual student and an instructor conducted within the selected environment subsequent to the student receiving a correct score in excess of the predetermined value.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[015] According to the present invention, a method for training and reinforcing hazard detection skills for a selected environment is provided. The method instructs an individual student in the knowledge and skills required to perform continuous hazard scanning while the student is present in the selected environment. By evaluating and reinforcing the student's behavior during the training process, the method according to the present invention reinforces the student's habitual inclination to apply the training.

[016] A series of examples illustrating various embodiments of the present invention are presented below.

Example 1

[017] In this first example, a method for training hazard scanning and detecting skills for a selected environment will be described. In this example, the selected environment is the work places and settings typically found for technicians in the elevator and escalator service and installation business. The work functions involved typically include new equipment installation in a new construction site, repair and maintenance of existing equipment of varying vintages, and replacement or modernization of older equipment with new components or systems.

[018] The method according to the present invention begins with the identification of a number of major hazard categories based on the selected environment, in this example the

above-described elevator and escalator service and installation business. For this example, the six major hazard categories are:

1. Caught in or between moving objects

2. Contact with a harmful energy source

3. Struck by moving object or hit an object

4. Slip, trip, or fall

5. Overextensi on/straining while doing a task

6. Exposure to sharp edges, harmful substances or conditions

[019] Having identified the major hazard categories for the selected environment, it is useful to provide additional explanation or definition to facilitate the student's understanding of the individual categories and their scope. In the current example, the third category may include the following explanation:

3. Struck by a moving object or hit an object

These hazards involve objects in motion or people in motion, such as being struck by a moving vehicle, counterweight or material falling on a person.

Examples of these hazards are:

1. Driving a motor vehicle on wet roads

2. Unguarded counterweight

3. Employee on elevator car top moving lift

4. Incorrect size spanner ~ spanner slips

5. Unsecured or badly stacked material

[020] At the beginning of the student's involvement in the training, he or she is presented with the listing of the major hazard categories and the related explanatory material. The student is familiarized with each of these categories by means of a pre-work assignment or a group presentation, or a combination of both. Following the familiarization step, the student is then formally trained individually to constantly scan, recognize, and correct unsafe conditions in the selected environment.

[021] This individual training is conducted, according to the method of the present invention, by presenting each student with a series of individual scenes in the form of photographs or electronic images taken from the selected environment. Each scene contains and illustrates at least one unsafe condition falling within at least one of the identified major hazard categories.

[022] In the preferred embodiment, this presentation is conducted by means of an interactive computer program operating on an individual workstation. Each student views successive scenes, and is required to identify and categorize all unsafe conditions in each scene. By way of example, one scene may show two technicians working in an area near an electrical panel. The student is asked to identify any unsafe conditions. The scene at first appears to be a typical construction site with work in progress having a variety of unassembled components and scrap distributed throughout the area. [023] Upon closer review, the student may see that the technicians are standing in an area with electrical cables lying on the floor that might constitute a slip or trip hazard, and that portions of the area are poorly lit. Upon still closer review, one of the technicians may be seen holding an electrical cable with a damaged plug at the end, possibly constituting an electrical shock hazard, other portions of the floor may be seen as being wet, constituting a slip hazard, and at least one electrical cable on the floor is shown as being damaged, thereby also constituting an electrical shock hazard.

[024] The above described example scene is repeated, in each case changing the site, scenario, angle of view, illustrated unsafe conditions, etc. In short the student is challenged to dissect a wide variety of conditions, all to be expected or possible in the selected environment. By continuing the same type of challenge repeatedly throughout this training step, the student is taught to habitually evaluate each new, and occasionally familiar, scene by breaking it down into its constituent parts and scanning each part for unsafe conditions or hazards.

[025] The method according to the present invention requires each student to review each scene and identify as many unsafe conditions, categorizing each, as possible. The student's response to each scene is compared and scored against the actual illustrated unsafe conditions and their categories present in the scene, and compounded for the entire series of scenes. The student's total is then compared to a preselected passing score. The passing score is selected to provide an adequate assurance that the student has mastered the ability to identify and categorize unsafe conditions in a variety of scenes and locations.

[026] If the student's score meets or exceeds the preselected passing score, the student is deemed to have reached the desired level of mastery for hazard detection. If the student's score is less than the preselected passing score, the student is advised and required to repeat all or some of the above-described steps until the desired level of mastery as determined by the student's score is achieved.

Example 2

[027] In this second example, the training method according to the present invention includes the above described steps of Example 1, but adding the additional feature that the time period for the presentation of the individual scenes to the student and in which the student is required to identify the illustrated unsafe conditions is limited. By limiting the time period available to the student to examine the presented scene and identify unsafe conditions, the method according to the present invention encourages and reinforces automatic and continuous scanning of the presented scene. Throughout the training process, the timed scene presentation forces the student to actively examine the presented scene and quickly identify potentially unsafe conditions. Since each student moves independently and individually through the training presentations, each student is actively challenged to perform at his or her optimum level.

[028] The time period permitted for each scene may vary, depending upon the complexity of the scene and the number of illustrated unsafe conditions. For the preselected environment of the present example, a time period of between 15 and 45 seconds is preferred. The time period may also be selected to reflect the method of delivery of the scene images, for example if delivered over a remote network connection, or from a local media storage device.

Example 3

[029] In this embodiment of the method according to the present invention, in addition to the steps as described in Example 2, immediate feedback is provided to the student at the time the student completes his or her review of each individual scene, or when the permitted time period expires. The student is presented with an image of the scene on a video display, including a listing of the major hazard categories. The student is instructed to click or otherwise indicate those hazard categories in which the unsafe conditions illustrated in the scene are present. If the student indicates an incorrect category, the video display immediately indicates the choice as incorrect. A correct category selection is so identified, and the unsafe condition highlighted within the current scene. If the time period expires prior

to the student's identifying all of the relevant major hazard categories, the video display indicates all unsafe conditions and the relevant hazard categories present. In this way, the student receives immediate feedback as to the correct selections, and may learn and increase their skill for the remaining scenes in the series.

Example 4

[030] In this example, any of the illustrated methods from any of the preceding examples further includes one or more scenes in which the student's ability to view and identify individual unsafe conditions is hampered by means of reduced visibility. The scene may be photographed or illustrated as having, for example, poor lighting wherein the unsafe condition may not be clearly visible, blocked visibility the unsafe condition may be hidden behind other equipment or personnel in the scene foreground, or dusty or dirty conditions in which the unsafe condition may be camouflaged or hidden.

[031] By presenting the student " with a reduced visibility scene, the method according to the present invention as illustrated in this example mimics actual work site conditions in which optimum visibility is rarely present. The student is trained to overcome or adapt to such actual conditions, and still scan and identify hazards.

Example 5

[032] In this example, any of the illustrated methods from any of the preceding examples is conducted wherein the unsafe conditions illustrated for the entire series of scenes are distributed substantially evenly among the identified major hazard categories. Thus, for the six major hazard categories for the selected environment, if the series of scenes were to illustrate the preferable total of sixty individual unsafe conditions, approximately ten of the sixty would be preferably be categorized in each of the major hazard categories. In this way, the method according to the present invention provides sufficient illustration and reinforcement to the student for each identified major hazard category.

Example 6

[033] In this example, any of the illustrated methods from any of the preceding examples further includes the step of, upon determining that the student's score has met or exceeded the preselected passing score, conducting a one-on-one job site audit in the preselected environment with both an instructor and the student. The student is required to identify actual or potential unsafe conditions to the instructor, and present his or her analysis for

correcting or avoiding the unsafe condition. The purpose of this final step is to further reinforce the hazard scanning and detection skills learned in the preceding steps. [034] The foregoing examples are presented as illustrations of various embodiments of the method according to the present invention. As will be apparent to those skilled in the art, the method according to the present invention may be adapted to a wide variety of selected environments and settings without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims. We claim: