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Title:
INVENTION ON IMPROVING AN ENGINES EFFICIENCY BY HEAT PRESERVATION, AND ENGINES EMPLOYING THIS INVENTION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/032030
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Improving an IC Engine's thermal efficiency by heat preservation by providing: heat insulation layers to the cylinder, piston crown, combustion chamber and cylinder-head including internal gaps/ cavities with or without vacuum; reduced carbonisation of fuel and oil; reduced the thermal shock by exhaust gas recirculation - EGR with control/intake valves, heating and storage tank; improved thermal shock resistance of insulation with flexible/porous thread/fibre and cloth materials bound together by binding with paste, stitching, weaving, braiding or pressed/clamped together; improved distortion resistance using sapphire or tungsten steel; an elongated piston cap or cone; segmented or annular sheet cylinder/liner construction; direct or indirect cooling of fuel injectors with fuel recirculation or spark plugs with high pressure gas jets in pits or slits.

Inventors:
ZHANG, Yong (60 Durham Street, Carlton, NSW 2218, AU)
Application Number:
AU2017/000161
Publication Date:
February 22, 2018
Filing Date:
August 04, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ZHANG, Yong (60 Durham Street, Carlton, NSW 2218, AU)
International Classes:
F02B77/11; F01N9/00; F02B77/02; F02F3/12; F02M26/01; F02M26/13; F02M26/20; F02M26/37; F02M53/04; H01T13/16
Foreign References:
US20160130716A12016-05-12
US4245611A1981-01-20
US20140102294A12014-04-17
US20140290617A12014-10-02
US20110180032A12011-07-28
US5552196A1996-09-03
US1824528A1931-09-22
DE3413942A11986-01-30
US6134881A2000-10-24
US1814781A1931-07-14
US7849836B22010-12-14
US1721158A1929-07-16
US20030154716A12003-08-21
CN2537822Y2003-02-26
US2858813A1958-11-04
Download PDF:
Claims:
Patent Claims:

1. A sort of engine characterised in that the portion or all of the material of the cylinder-piston assembly is able to endure more than 50 degrees Celsiu higher temperatures compared with the current corresponding portion of the engine of the corresponding type, under the same/compartible working condition.

2. A sort of engine characterised in that the thermal conductivity of a portion or all of the material on the heat dissipation path of the high-temperature gas in the cylinder is more than 20% lower than the thermal conductivity of the material of the corresponding portion of the current engine of the corresponding type, under the same/compatible working condition.

3. A sort of engine characterised in that the thickness of some or all of the devices on the heat dissipation path of the high-temperature gas in the cylinder is twenty percent greater than the corresponding components of the corresponding engine of the present invention, this thicker design is to increase the heat dissipation resistance.

4. A sort of engine characterised in that there are one or more heat-insulating cavity(s) and/or one or more insulating gap(s) in the interior of some devices or all of the devices on the heat-dissipating path of the high-temperature gas in the cylinder, the said cavity(s) and/or gap(s) may be vacuum or non-vacuum.

5. A sort of engine characterised in that the thermal conductivity of a portion or all of the material of the cylinder-piston assembly is more than 20% lower than the thermal conductivity of the material of the corresponding portion of the current engine of the corresponding type, under the same/compatible working condition.

6. A sort of engine characterised in that part or all of the material of the cylinder-piston assembly are heat-resistant materials having high thermal shock resistance.

7. A sort of engine characterised in that the thickness of the cylinder and/or cylinder liner and/or the cylinder head and/or combustion chamber, and/or the respective parts of the piston is 20% greater than the thickness of the corresponding parts of the engine of the corresponding type of the present engine. This design is to increase the heat resistance for the devices.

8. A sort of engine characterised in that there are one or more thermally insulated cavity(s) and/or insulating gap(s) in the interior of the devices or all of the components contained in the cylinder-piston assembly. The said cavity(s) and/or gap(s) may be vacuum or non-vacuum.

9. A sort of engine characterised in that the cylinder and/or the cylinder liner is cooled at a portion or all of the portion below the highest point at which the piston ring can reach.

10. A sort of engine characterised by cooling of part or all of the piston below the piston ring

11. A sort of engine characterised in that the piston portion that is in contact with the cylinder and/or the cylinder liner, a part or all of the said material will be having a higher thermal conductivity materials, such as steel, iron or aluminum alloy, and the like. And some or all of the materials of the other parts will be having a lower thermal conductivity which is twenty percent or more less than that of the materials of the present corresponding parts of the corresponding type engine.

12. A sort of engine characterised in that the lubricating oil is locally cooled by a part or all of the piston ring below the piston and comprising the heat insulating layer .

13. A sort of engine characterised in that there is a thermal insulation layer above the upper piston ring of the piston, referred to as a piston insulation layer, which may or may not contain a heat insulating cavity. The said priston insulation layer is located at in between the piston and the high temperature gas in the cylinder, it can have a small amount of contact or have no contact with the cylinder and/or the cylinder liner, so to reduce friction.

14. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 3, the highest temperature of the piston insulation layer during normal operation exceeds four hundred and fifty degrees Celsius.

15. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 13, the temperature of the top edge of the piston insulation layer in excess of four hundred degrees Celsius during normal operation.

16. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 13, the maximum temperature of the said piston insulation layer during normal operation is at least 50 degrees Celsius above the highest temperature of the corresponding present engine's piston.

17. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 13, the temperature of the top edge of the said piston insulation layer during normal operation is 50 degrees Celsius greater than the temperature of the leading end of the engine piston tip of the present engines.

8. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 13, the highest temperature of the said piston insulation layer during normal operation is more than 100 degrees Celsius higher than the temperature of the piston ring.

19. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 13, the temperature of the top edge of the piston insulation layer during normal operation is 50 degrees Celsius greater than the temperature of the leading end of the engine piston ring.

20. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 13, the distance from the piston ring to the top surface edge exceeds the stroke distance (between the top dead point and the bottom dead point), by at least five percent.

21. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 13, the distance from the piston ring to the top surface edge exceeds the stroke distance (between the top dead point and the bottom dead point), by at least ten percent.

22. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 13, the distance from the piston ring to the top surface edge exceeds the stroke distance (between the top dead point and the bottom dead point), by at least fifteen percent.

23. A sort of engine characterised in that there is a thermal insulation layer above the highest point at which the piston ring can reach, which is locating at the upper portion of the cylinder and/or the cylinder liner, which is referred to as a cylinder insulation layer. The said insulation layer may or may not contain an heat-insulating cavity. The said cylinder insulation layer is located in between the cylinder and/or the cylinder liner and the high temperature gas in the cylinder, with little or no contact with the piston insulation to reduce friction.

24. A sort of engine as described in claimed number 23, it's characterized in that the highest temperature of the cylinder insulation layer in the normal operation is more than 450 degrees Celsius.

25. A sort of engine as described in claimed number 23, it's characterised in that the highest temperature of the cylinder insulation layer during normal operation at least 50 degrees Celsius is greater than the highest temperature of the current design's corresponding engine's cylinder and/or cylinder liner.

26. A sort of engine is characterised in that a thermal insulation layer is provided under the cylinder head, referred to as a cylinder head insulation layer, which may or may not contain a heat-insulating cavity. The said insulation layer is located uin between the cylinder head and the high temperature gas in the cylinder.

27. A sort of engine as described in claimed number 26, it's characterized in that the highest temperature of the cylinder head insulation layer in the normal operation is more than 450 degrees Celsius.

28. A sort of engine as described in claimed number 26, it's characterised in that the highest temperature of the cylinder head insulation layer during normal operation is 50 degrees Celsius greater than the highest temperature of the corresponding engine cylinder head of the current engine.

29. A sort of engine characterised in that there is a thermal insulation layer inside the combustion chamber, referred to as a combustion chamber insulation layer which may or may not contain a heat-insulating cavity within, which is located in between the combustion chamber and the high temperature gas in the combustion chamber.

30. A sort of engine as set forth in claim number 29, in that the highest temperature of the said combustion chamber insulation layer in normal operation is more than 350 degrees Celsius.

31. A sort of engine as described in 29, in that the highest temperature of the combustion chamber insulation layer during normal operation is more than 450 degrees Celsius above the highest temperature of the corresponding engine type of the current engine's combustion chamber.

32. A sort of engine characterised by local cooling of the injector, either by a direct cooling of the injector itself or partial cooling of the components around the injector and its vicinity which is an indirect cooling of the injector. Or employing simultaneously the said direct cooling and the indirect cooling of the injector.

33. A sort of engine characterised in that, jet holes is provided in the vicinity of the injector and/or spark plugs, and a relatively cold gas of high pressure is injected into the cylinder so that the cooler gas forms an isolated protective air mass around the injector to reduce the fuel injection mouth's temperature.

34. A sort of engine characterised in that, pits are provided on the bottom surface of the cylinder head, and/or at the inner wall of the cylinder, and/or at the inner wall of the cylinder liner, and/or at the inner wall of the combustion chamber, and placing the injector, and/or the jet holes as mentioned in claim number 33 inside the pits.

35. A sort of engine characterised in that, one or more heat insulating cavity(s) and/or one or more insulating gap(s) is provided between the fuel injection hole or the spark plug of the injector, and the other part of the surrounding cylinder-piston assembly. The insulating cavity can be of vacuum or non-vacuum style. The said insulating cavities and/or insulating slits structure may be employed in the described jet holes as stated at claim number 33. The said insulating cavities and/or insulating slits structure may also be used on the injector or, in between the injector and other cylinder-piston assembly, or in other cylinder-piston assembly, or on a spark plug, or in between a spark plug and other cylinder-piston assembly.

36. A sort of fuel injector is characterised in that, a fuel return pipe is provided on the fuel injector, and then the driving device is provided to drive the fuel into the fuel injector from the fuel inlet pipe, and the remaining fuel is returned from the fuel returning pipe, so that the fuel injector may be cooled in this manner. The said driving device may be an fuel pump, a propeller and/or other devices. The said driving device may be located at any position on the fuel inlet-outlet circulation circuit. The heat sink can also be provided in the said circulation circuit, and there is no such driving device and heat sinking structure in the current engine design.

37. A sort of spark plug design characterised in that, part or all of the material is 50 degrees centigrade higher than the temperature of the corresponding portion of the corresponding type of spark plug using in the current engine.

38. A sort of engine characterised in that the spark plug is partially cooled, in that the spark plug can be cooled directly, or the part near the spark plug can be partially cooled - the spark plug is indirectly cooled in this case. Also the spark plug can be cooled indirectly and directly simeotaneously.

39. A sort of engine characterised by that, a material type having a good machinability such as steel and/or iron and/or an aluminum alloy and/or the like, as a part of the piston which is in contact with the cylinder and/or cylinder liner, or with the good machinability material as a part of the cylinder and/or cylinder liner which is in contact with the piston, and/or as a part of the piston which is in contact with the cylinder and/or cylinder liner, while the part or all of the other parts of the cylinder-piston assembly are made of heat-resistant materials.

40. A sort of engine characterised in that, the cross section of the upper part of the piston insulation layer is made smaller and its lower part cross section is made larger. For a cylindrical piston insulation layer, the upper part of the cross section is smaller in diameter, and the lower part is with a larger diameter of the cross section, and the cylinder insulation layer is formed in a corresponding shape so that the gap between the piston insulation layer and the cylinder insulation layer is small when the piston is at the top dead centre, and when it is at the bottom dead centre position, the distance between the piston insulation layer and the cylinder insulation layer is larger.

41. A sort of engine characterised in that, by re-redirecting the hot exhaust gas back inside the cylinder-piston assembly and/or into other cylinders, when the engine stops spraying the fuel, so to reduce thermal shock to the cylinder-piston assembly.

42. A sort of engine is characterised in that, a heater, such as an electric heater and/or a chemical reaction heater, etc. is provided on the path through which the exhaust gas flows, in order to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas.

43. A sort of engine is characterised in that, as described in claim number 41 such that, after the fuel is not injected into the cylinder, the exhaust valve is pressed down by a means so that the exhaust valve is in an open state.

44. A sort of engine is characterised in that, as described in claim number 41 such that, when the fuel is not injected into the cylinder, the cam of the intake valve is lifted up and the intake valve is kept in the closed state.

45. A sort of engine is characterised in that, as described in claim number 41 such that, a conduit is provided between the exhaust pipe and the intake pipe, referred to as a "return gas duct" and it has a valve control, which is referred to as a "return valve".

46. A sort of engine is characterised in that, as described in claim number 45 such that, a valve is also provided in between the inlet of the cylinder and the said " return gas duct" , and it is referred to as an "intake valve" which is opened when the fuel is not injected into the cylinder, and the said return valve is opened, and the intake valve is closed, that way the exhaust gas reflux is achieved.

47. A sort of engine is characterised in that, as described in claim number 46 such that, a valve is provided after the exhaust duct of the cylinder and the said return gas duct, and it is referred to as an "exhaust valve" which is opened when the fuel is not injected into the cylinder, and the intake valve as weil as the exhaust valve are closed, such a structure can also enable the exhaust gas reflux.

48. A sort of engine is characterised in that, as described in claim number 41 such that, in order to allow the discharged exhaust gas to be stored locally, an air tank can be added at an appropriate position between the said intake valve and the exhaust valve.

49. A sort of heat-resistant material characterized in that, it is partially or wholly comprising of a plurality of smaller members/pieces which are polymerised together by an external force which is produced by other pieces other than these comprising members, comprising fibers and/or ropes, and/or threads, and/or slim strips and/or the like that using for sewing the said membering components together. This heat-resistant material may also be produced in any other manner, such as force-pressing the said comprising members together with steel pieces.

50. A sort of engine is characterised in that, as described in claim number 49 on the heat-resistant material such that, as part or all of the piston insulation layer, and/or part or all of the cylinder insulation layer, and/or part or all of the cylinder head insulation layer, and/or part or all of the combustion chamber insulation layer.

51. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 49 on the heat-resistant material such that, the heat-resistant fiber is sandwiched in between the smaller members.

52. A sort of engine is characterised in that, as described in claim number 51 on the heat-resistant material such that, a part or all of the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer to be made with the said heat-resistant material.

53. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 49 on the heat-resistant material such that, some of these smaller components are partially joined together, while the other parts are only in contact or have a small gap in between and are not connected together.

54. A sort of engine characterised by a heat-resistant material as described in claimed number 53, as part or all of the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer are made with the said heat-resistant material.

55. A sort of heat-resistant material characterised by the heat-resistant material as described in claimed number 53, in that inside it's said small gaps in between the smaller components the heat-resistant fibre cloths is used to fill these gaps.

56. A sort of engine characterised by a heat-resistant material as described in claimed number 55, in that a part of or all of the insulation layer for the piston, and/or for the cylinder, and/or for the cylinder lid, and/or for the combustion chamber are made with the said heat-resistant material.

57. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 53, characterized in that part or all of the other portions of the contact or crevice are joined together by a material having a lower strength or a lower hardness.

58. A sort of engine characterised in that a heat-resistant material as described in claimed number 57 was used to produce a part of or all of the piston heat-resistant layer and/or the cylinder heat-resistant layer and/or the cylinder lid heat-resistant layer and/or the combustion chamber heat-resistant insulation layer.

59. A sort of engine as described in claim number 49, in that the devices is characterised by polymerizing the small members with heat-resistant material which made into an slim strip form, and/or in a wire form and/or in fiber form, etc. The method of polymerization may be carried out in any manner, such as seam and/or wrapping and/or tying and/or riveting, etc.

60. A sort of engine characterised as described in claim number 49, in that it's characterised by employing the fibre and/or the and/or rope and/or thread form of the heat-resistant material sewn into cloth form, then by employing these cloth form materials producing devices or smaller devices that forming bigger size devices.

61.A sort of engine as described in claim number 60, characterised in that, the said cloth form materials to be mixed with other materials to form a relatively solid materials by any means, such as physically and/or chemically, etc.

62. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 54, in that it is characterized by employing a string of heat-resistant fibers and/or rope and/or threads and/or the like form of the material, then its components are polymerised. The manner of polymerisation may be carried out in any manner such as seam and/or entanglement and/or binding and/or riveting, etc.

63. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 54, in that it is characterized by employing the heat-resistant material in the form of fiber and/or rope and/or thread and/or the like sewn them into a cloth form and then the said heat-resistant cloth form materials will be used to producing engine devices or smaller pieces that comprising the said devices.

64. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 54, characterise in that, a part or all of the cloth form material is mixed with other materials and is cured into a relatively solid material by any means, such as physically and/or chemically, etc.

65. A sort of engine characterized in that, by mixing the said heat-resistant fibers with an another type heat-resistant material, such as powdered and/or liquid and/or pasty and/or any other form of heat-resistant material, solidified into solid forms by any means, then the said solid form materials will be used to producing a part or all of the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer.

66. A sort of engine characterised in that, a part or all of the material that used to producing the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer comprising small gas cavities, and/or materials with relatively low strength/hardness.

67. A sort of engine as described in claim number 65, wherein the said cured material contains a material having a low porosity and/or a lower hardness and/or a lower strength.

68. A sort of engine as described in claim number 65, wherein the heat-resistant fibers are woven into a cloth and/or a three-dimensional braid structure.

69. A sort of heat-resistant material characterised in that, a cloth and/or three-dimensional braided structure heat-resistant material is mixed with an another heat-resistant material such in powder, and/or liquid, and/or paste and/or any other form, with any method of curing to making the mixture into a solid form.

• 70.A sort of heat-resistant material characterised in that a plurality of said heat-resistant cloth are stacked together and then the said heat-resistant cloths is aggregated together by wrapping and/or riveting and/or sewing and/or binding and/or other such methods, with heat-resistant fiber and/or heat-resistant rope and/or heat-resistant thread and/or the like and/or heat-resistant slim strips, so to produce a heat and heat-shock resistant material.

71. A sort of engine, characterised in that the heat-resistant material as described in claim number 70 is used for making a part or all of the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer and/or the cylinder head insulation layer, and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer.

72. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 70 in that, in between the heat-resistant cloths, and/or in its pores in the cloth, heat-resistant materials and/or porous materials is used as filling materials in the structure.

73. A sort of engine characterised in that the heat-resistant material as described in claim number 72, is used as part or all of the materials for producing the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer, and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer.

74. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 70, it is characterised in that, the said multilayer heat-resistant cloth structure to be sewn together in such a way that, the heat-resistant fibers and/or the heat-resistant ropes and/or threads and/or slim strips and/or the like is sewn partially diagonally and/or totally diagonally traversing through the multilayer heat-resistant cloths. This is to enhance the resistance to deformation of the said multilayer heat-resistant cloth structure.

75. A sort of engine characterised in that, as described in claim number 74 for the heat-resistant material that, the said material is used as part or all of the compositing material for the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer, and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer.

76. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 74, wherein a heat-resistant material and/or a porous heat-resistant material is used as a filling material in between the said heat-resistant cloths and/or in the cloth's fibre pores.

77. A sort of engine characterized by the use of a heat-resistant material as described in claim number 76, in that, a part or all of the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer, and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer.

78. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 70, characterised in that, A heat-resistant and rigid/hard material such as ceramic and/or sapphire and/or tungsten steel, is used to supported the heat-resistant fiber and/or rope and/or thread and/or slim strip and/or the like, that is parallel to, and touches the surface of the heat-resistant cloths, so to prevent the heat-resistant cloth from deforming.

79. A sort of engine characterised in that, as described about the heat-resistant material in claim number 78, such that, a part or all of the piston insulation layer and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer, and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer is made with the said heat-resistant material.

80. A sort of heat-resistant material as described in claim number 49 in that, the contact surface or the gaps in between the said plurality of smaller member pieces is curved and/or wavy,

81. A sort of engine characterised in that, the said heat-resistant material as described in claim number 80 is used as a part of or, all of the piston insulation layer, and/or the cylinder insulation layer, and/or the cylinder head insulation layer, and/or the combustion chamber insulation layer, etc.

82. A sort of cylinder characterised in that a plurality of cylindrical members having a cross-sectional shape as a circular sector are used, these members were pressed together by a jacket made of steel and/or iron and/or an aluminum alloy and/or any other material to form a cylinder insulating layer.

83. A sort of cylinder as described in claim number 82, it is characterised in that a heat-resistant cloth is sandwiched in between the cylindrical members

84. A sort of cylinder as described in claim number 82, characterised in that the contact surfaces between the cylindrical members are curved and/or wavy.

85. A sort of cylinder insulation layer characterised by stacking a plurality of annular sheet made with heat-resistant materials together to form a cylinder insulation layer, and then using a cylinder head, and a jacket made of steel and/or iron and/or aluminum alloy and/or any material to press the said annular sheet together to form a cylinder insulation layer .

86. A sort of cylinder insulation layer as described in claim number 85, characterised in that a heat insulating cloth is sandwiched between heat insulating layers

87. A sort of cylinder insulation layer as described in claim number 85, in that the contact surface between the said annular sheets heat-resistant material is curved and/or wavy.

88. A sort of engine characterised in that, the piston insulation layer is secured to the upper portion of the piston by heat-resistant fiber-reinforced columnar or circular truncated cone shape heat-resistant material.

89. A sort of engine as described at claim number 88, in that it is characterised in that, the inner walls of the piston insulation layer is hollow, it's in order to enhance the thermal shock resistance and the weight reduction.

90. A sort of engine as described at claim number 89, in that, in order to enhance the strength, the reinforcing ribs or struts are added in the cavity's upper part of the hollow insulating layer, and/or added to the top surface of the insulation layer.

91.A sort of piston insulation layer characterised by stacking a plurality layers of heat-resistant fiber cloth, and mixing it with a porous heat-resistant material for solidification, also fixing the columnar or circular truncated cone shaped porous heat-resistant material to the upper part of the piston, where the said columnar or circular truncated cone shaped porous materials are to be stitching together with heat-resistant fibers. The above mentioned structure will be used as a insulation layer for the piston. Since the said structure material may be gradually deformed at high temperatures, so around the side of the piston insulation layer, the multi-layer heat-resistant cloth to be used with one or more types of the special materials that are not easy to deform in high temperature, to form encirclement structure to surrounding the piston insulation layer, the said special materials choices can be sapphire, and/or tungsten steel ,etc.

92. A sort of piston insulation as described in claim number 91 , it's characterised in that the said encirclement structure do not have to be an integral one, its structure can be divided into a plurality of sections so to increase the thermal shock resistance and/or for the ease of production.

93. A sort of piston insulation as described in claim number 91 , it's characterised in that a stiffener and/or a pillar is provided on the inner side of the encirclement structure in order to increase the strength the structure.

94. A sort of piston insulation as described in claim number 92, it's characterised in that a stiffener and/or a pillar is provided on the inner side of the encirclement structure in order to increase the strength the structure.

95. A sort of piston insulation layer characterised in that a plurality of strip-shaped heat-resistant materials are fixed at the top of the piston, the strips being vertically fixed to the piston, the cross-section of the said strip which is parallel to the ground may be of any shape, such as rectangular, and/or hexagonal and/or round and/or in a circular section, and so on.

96. A sort of piston insulation layer described at at claim number 95, in that in order to make the said strips more robust, their lower portions may be joined together in some way and/or the sides of the strips may be surrounded by a sturdy material.

97. A sort of engine as described at claim number 71 , in that a hard intermediate layer is provided in between the multilayered heat-resistant cloth and the plane of the piston ring, so to reduce the deformation of the piston heat-resistant layer at high temperatures.

Description:
(0010J Since the machinability of the heat-resistant material is poor and the requirement for the machining accuracy of the piston that is in contact with the cylinder or the cylinder liner is high, it is possible to use a conventional material such as steel and / or iron and / or aluminum alloy or the like as a part of the piston that is in contact with the cylinder and / or the cylinder liner, and the material that is easier to work with may be used as a portion where the cylinder and / or the cylinder liner that is in contact with the piston. And some or all of the piston and / or cylinder and / or other parts of the cylinder liner will be made of heat-resistant material.

[00111 For description conveniency, from now on we will be referring the heat-resistant material that acts as the piston or part of the piston at the piston position as a "piston insulation". And the heat-resistant material of a portion or all of the cylinders and / or cylinder liner to be a "cylinder insulation layer". And the heat-resistant material layer serving as a part or all of the cylinder head at the position of the cylinder head is called a "cylinder head insulation", and the heat-resistant material layer, which forms a part or all of the combustion chamber, is called a "combustion chamber insulation".

[0012] As the piston insulation layer has a small distance with the cylinder insulation layer, between them the heat conductance is high, also there could be carbon deposition in between the piston insulation layer and the cylinder insulation layer, this further increases the heat conduction. As for the piston insulation layer and the upper part of the cylinder insulation layer, the temperature is relatively higher, and their lower parts will have a lower temperature, so that when the piston insulation layer is at the location near the bottom end point of its movement, the heat transferred to the cylinder insulation layer will be more, causing an increasing in the heat loss. And increasing the size of the gap between the piston insulation layer and the cylinder insulation layer will cause too much gas leaking, affecting the normal operation of the engine. So the solution is to make the upper part of the piston insulation cross-section to be smaller, and the cross-section of the lower part to be bigger. That is, for the cylindrical type piston insulation layer, the upper part of the cross-section diameter to be smaller, and the lower part's cross-section diameter diameter to be larger, and then the cylinder insulation layer also made to the corresponding shapes, such that the gap between the piston insulation layer and the cylinder insulation layer is very small when the piston is at the top end movement position, and the said gap would be relatively larger when the piston is at the bottom end point of its movement position. While for the traditional piston, its upper and lower cross-sections are the same.

[0013] When the fuel is not injected into the cylinder-piston assembly, if the engine is still running, such as when the car is slipping, the engine will continue to inhale the cooler air from outside, causing a rapid cooling of the cylinder-piston assembly, creating a thermal shock to

l the insulation layer inside the piston assembly, which may cause the insulation layer to be damaged prematurely. In order to solve this problem, it can be designed such that the hot exhaust gas can be redirected back into the cylinder so to reduce the thermal shock to the cylinder-piston assembly when the engine stops injecting the fuel. In order to maintain the temperature of the exhausted gas, a heater, such as an electric heater and / or a chemical reaction heater can be used to heating up the exhaust gas flowing path so to heat up the exhaust gas. The easiest way to redirect the exhaust gas back onto the cylinder is to open the exhaust valve with a device, so that the exhaust valve is in the open state while lifting the cam of the intake valve so that the intake valve is at the closed state. Another method is to set up a pipe between the exhaust pipe and the intake pipe, called "return gas pipe", and with a controlling valve, the controlling valve to be called "gas returning valve", in front of the connection section of the said intake pipe and the return gas pipe, a valve will be positioned and it is called an "intake valve", and a valve is provided after the connecting section of the exhaust pipe and the return gas pipe, which is called the "exhaust valve". When the fuel is not injected into the cylinder, the gas returning valve is opened and the intake valve as well as the exhaust valve will be closed. In order to allow the exhausted gas to be stored locally, a gas tank may be added at an appropriate position between the intake valve and the exhaust valve.

[0013] As the heat-resistant materials are mostly brittle materials, they have poor compressive strength and poor tensile strength, when subjected to thermal shock, or when a part of the material experienced pulling tension they are easy to break. When experienced thermal shock, the larger mass/size it is for the whole piece material, the higher the thermal stress it would be produced by this said larger mass, therefore a larger component can be decomposed into smaller components, and they are polymerised together with external forces to add prestressing force, such as with steel parts, smaller pieces are pressed together. These smaller parts may also be joined together with materials of smaller strength or hardness, and then the external forces are applied with prestressing so that so the smaller pieces will be better connected together. It is also possible to connect a portions (portion A) of the smaller pieces while the other portions (portion B) are only in contact or have very small gaps that are not joined together, the materials for the said portion B can be produced with lower strength or hardness, and with added prestressing force, so the smaller pieces will be better connected together. So that when under the thermal shock, the thermal stresses generated can deform the gaps between the smaller pieces, or the deformation or breakage of the material with only happened in lower strength or hardness materials, so the thermal stress between the small members is eliminated to ensure that the small pieces do not break, so the large piece which containing the said smaller pieces will be substantially constant in shape so as to ensure the normal operation of the structure. The previously discussed piston insulation layer, the cylinder insulation layer, the cylinder head insulation layer, and the combustion chamber insulation layer, etc. can be made into the plurality of small parts. In order to prevent the gas leaking in the gaps between the small members, it is possible to sandwich the heat-resistant fibres between the smaller members or the gaps. In addition, in order to allow the thermal stresses generated by the small members to be released so that the stress would not be concentrated in the middle of the structure, the small members may be made to be bending or wavy in shapes, and the contact surfaces or the gaps between the small members may also be curved or wavy, so that the elasticity of the small member is increased and the thermal stress can be released by bending deformation under the thermal shock without resulting in excessive thermal stress to break the small members.

[0014] As the heat-resistant fiber material can withstand greater tension, such as Alumina fibre can withstand 18GPa of tension, it is 36 times the strength compared with ordinary steel, so we can utilise the heat-resistant fibre materials' high tension property, polymerising the small pieces together to form a bigger piece as we have described above. Some heat-resistant materials such as sapphires also have a greater tensile capacity, and can be made to heat-resistant slender bar shape, together with other said heat-resistant fiber or rope/thread for the aggregating purpose as described above. The manner of aggregation may be carried out in any manner that works such as seam or entanglement, or binding or riveting etc.

10015] The heat-resistant fiber/rope/thread type material may also be woven into a cloth form material, and the heat-resistant cloth may be used to form the aforementioned smaller pieces or sub-pieces of the said smaller pieces. As the cloth structure is relatively soft structure, it's easy to deform, so one can mix the cloth with other materials, through any method, such as physical or chemical methods to solidify smaller pieces into a more solid piece. For example, the heat-resistant cloth can be mixed with the ceramic soil, sintered at a high temperature, or the heat-resistant cloth can be mixed with a glue to solidify into a solid material piece. Even if such resulting material is cracked under thermal shock, the crack would only be developing in between the heat-resistant cloths, and the cracks would not pass through the heat-resistant cloth, and if the smaller pieces members is made into a bigger piece by an external force, the process of the application of the external force will inhibit the development of cracks, so that the crack will not be extended to such an extent that it would completely separating the heat-resistant cloths, which ensures that the overall structure would basically not be deformed.

[0016] The heat-resistant fibers material may also be mixed with heat-resistant material in other forms, such as a powder or liquid or pastry form of heat-resistant material, which is cured into a solid by any means, as described above or it can also be cured into smaller pieces so to form bigger a piece.

[0017] Due to the poor tensile strength and its poor resistivity to deformation of the heat-resistant material, it is possible to form a plurality of small holes in the heat-resistant material piece when it is produced. The material piece thus formed has a large deformation capacity, and its thermal shock resistance is also strong. Such a porous heat-resistant material can also be made into the said smaller pieces so to form a bigger piece. The said heat-resistant fiber/rope/thread structure may be embedded in the porous material to further enhance its strength and thermal shock resistance.

[0018] The heat-resistant cloth may be put together in a plurality of layers, and then the heat-resistant cloths may be stitched or knitted or riveted or other method to polymerised together to form a heat-resistant material, which may be filled with a heat-resistant material or a porous heat-resistant material among the heat-resistant cloths or even in the gaps in between fibres at the same cloth. Such heat-resistant material or porous heat-resistant material may be solidified or uncured. In order to enhance the resistance to deformation of the multilayer heat resistant cloth material, it is possible to knitting, riveting or stitching the multilayer heat resistant cloths in a partially or wholly oblique manner.

Since the heat-resistant cloth is soft, the above mentioned heat-resistant fiber/rope/wire or elongated strip is transferred from one side of the multilayer heat-resistant cloth to the other side when sewing/producing the cloth, the heat-resistant fiber/rope/wire or elongated strip will be stretched so as to be attached to the outermost surface of the cloth, if the fiber/rope wire or elongated strip were pulled tight it will resulting in the deformation of the heat-resistant cloth, causing it to have a non-flat surface. A similar deformation situation occurs when wrapped or tied or riveted method was used in the said cloth production process.

In order to prevent the heat-resistant cloth from being deformed under the tension of the heat-resistant fiber/rope/wire or elongated strip when in production, it is possible to use a more solid type of material in between the cloth and the said fiber/rope/wire or elongated strip, such material choice can be ceramic, so that the tensile force is sustained by the more solid heat-resistant material to prevent deformation of the said cloth. The heat-resistant cloth, which is polymerized from multilayers of the heat-resistant cloths, may be used on the engine heat-resistant pieces or its smaller compositing pieces, it may also be used in any other application requiring heat or heat shock resistance.

[0019] In one embodiment, a plurality of cylindrical pillar pieces having a circular sector cross-sectional shape to form a cylindrical shape, forming a cylinder insulating layer, and the pillar-shaped smaller pieces are sandwiched between heat-resistant cloths and then pressed together by a steel casing.

|B] fi¾¾ S¾¾¾¾6¾o In another embodiment, the sides of the pillar-shaped smaller pieces described at [0019] are made to be in a wavy form, so that the contact surfaces between the small pieces is wavy.

W In another embodiment, a plurality of annular thin sheet heat-resistant materials are stacked together to form a cylinder insulation layer, a heat-resistant cloth is sandwiched in between the insulating layers, and then pressed together with a cylinder head and a steel jacket.

nCi.2! An another embodiment: the annular thin sheet heat-resistant material described at [0021] is made to be in a wavy form, so the contact surfaces between the thin sheets of the heat-resistant materials is wavy.

' ' " > f One embodiment of the piston insulation layer is secured to the upper portion of the piston with a heat-resistant fiber-reinforced columnar or circular table-like heat-resistant material. In order to enhance the thermal shock resistance and to reduce the weight, the interior of the piston insulation layer can be made hollow. And in order to enhance it's strength, it is possible to add stiffeners inside the said cavity or towards it's top position in the cavity.

_ ' I Another embodiment of the piston insulation layer is a columnar or round-like sheet which is stacked with a plurality of sheets of heat-resistant fiber cloths as described in [0018] and solidified with a porous heat-resistant material and sewn together with heat-resistant fibers. The porous heat-resistant material is fixed to the upper part of the piston as a piston insulation. Since the said material may be gradually deformed at high temperatures, one or more materials which are not easily deformable at high temperatures may be used around the side of the piston insulation layer around the multi-layer heat-resistant cloth, such as sapphire or tungsten steel and other materials made into encirclement shapes. In order to make the strengthening the encirclements, stiffeners or struts may be used on the inside of the enclosure.

Another embodiment of the piston insulation layer is to secure a plurality of strip-shaped heat-resistant material at the top of the piston, which is vertically fixed to the piston, and the cross-section of the strip that is parallel to the ground may be of any shape, such as rectangular, hexagonal, round or circular section shape etc. In order to make the bars stronger, they may be connected together in some way or the sides of the stripes are surrounded by some kind of sturdy material.

' \ SH-M ^ ( best mode ) ¾ :

The best mode is: The multi-layer heat-resistant fiber cloth described in [0018] is sewn to the piston with a heat-resistant rope, the piston is made of a conventional material such as steel, iron or aluminum alloy. In between the heat-resistant cloth and the piston a strong thermal shock resistance solid intermediate padding layer can be used, such as fiber reinforced porous heat-resistant materials, mullite or glass-ceramic, etc., the heat-resistant fiber cloth is covered with a sapphire sheet, and sewn Together. In order to be able to sew together, the intermediate layers and the sapphire sheet should also be produced with a plurality of small holes so that the heat resistant rope can pass therethrough.

In order to enhance the thermal shock resistance and to reduce the weight, the aforementioned material's interior of the intermediate layer may be made hollow, and in order to enhance the strength, the reinforcing ribs or struts may be added to the cavity of the hollow intermediate layer. In order to prevent the said heat-resistant fibrous sheet from being deformed so that some or all of the heat-resistant ropes are made diagonally passing through the multilayer heat-resistant cloth, and the heat-resistant fiber cloth is coated with a heat-resistant material and cured to be a one-body structure. The heat-resistant materials mixed with the heat-resistant cloth such that it's filled with pores after curing, which will enhance the thermal shock resistance and thermal insulation of the device.

Since the said material from ' may become deformed gradually at high temperatures, the multilayer stacking cloth mentioned at ·. ' may be used around the side of or above the piston insulation layer, and using one or a plurality of layers of materials that are with high resistance of deformation in high temperature, such as sapphire and the like forming wrapping or bracketing layers. In order to have higher strength of the wrapping or bracketing layers, stiffeners and or struts may be used on the inside or outside of the enclosure or the bracketing layer. The shape of the piston insulation is made to be like a rounded table shape. The multi-layer stacked, and mixed with porous heat-resistant material of the ring shape heat-resistant cloth will be sintered into a relatively strong solid, connected to the upper part of the cylinder, to form a cylinder insulation. The lower part of the cylinder which located at the lower part of the piston ring, is made with traditional materials such as steel, iron or aluminum alloy. The outer jacket layer of the cylinder insulation layer is made with steel, iron or aluminum alloy etc. so to increase the strength of the insulation layer. The internal pores of the cylinder insulation is also made to be in the rounded shape and is located close to the piston insulation layer. Inside the cylinder insulation layer, it is also possible to install a wrapping or bracketing layer so that it is not easily deformable at high temperatures as described in [0026] 1).

In the lower part of the cylinder head, a insulation layer can be sewn to it, such that the heat-resistant cloth is stacked in a multi-layer structure and mixed with a porous heat-resistant material similar to that described in [0026] 2) to form a relatively strong solid, that forms a cylinder head insulation. A hole is created, such that it is the passage path for the intake pipe, and the exhaust pipe, the fuel injection nozzle as well as the spark plug. In order for the cylinder head insulation layer not to be easily deformed, a portion or all of the heat resistant rope is diagonally passed through the said heat-resistant cloth.

Between the heat-resistant cloth and the cylinder head, a strong thermal shock resistance intermediate layer material can be used, such material choice can be fiber reinforced porous heat-resistant materials, mullite or glass-ceramic, etc. The heat-resistant fiber cloth is to be covered with a sapphire sheet. In order for the structure to be sewn together, the said intermediate layer material and the said sapphire sheet should also be produced with a plurality of small holes through which the heat resistant rope can pass through. In order to enhance the thermal shock resistance and to reduce the weight, the interior of the intermediate layer may be made hollow, and in order to enhance the strength, the reinforcing ribs or struts may be added to the cavity of the hollow in the intermediate layer.

In order to enhance the strength of the cylinder head insulation layer, the outer circumference of the cylinder head to be made structurally extending outward and downward to form a hat shape structure, which wraps around the upper and the side of the cylinder lid insulation layer, and then the external force is used to press the cylinder head insulation layer onto the cylinder Insulation layer, with such an external force applied to it, the cylinder insulation layer will not be having outward expansion, nor can it be compressed, even if there is small cracks presenting in it, due to the fact that the layer is tightly pressed, so that cracks can not be extended. The cylinder head insulation layer is sewn on the cylinder head, under the heat-resistant ropes' tension and the cylinder insulation layer's pressure, the cylinder head insulation layer will not be producing straight through cracks easily in the structure, thus ensuring the cylinder insulation layer and the cylinder head insulation layer not to be deformed easily.