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Title:
IONIC LIQUID CORROSION INHIBITORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/002848
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Methods for providing corrosion inhibition in conduits, containers, and wellbores penetrating subterranean formations are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include contacting a metal surface with a fluid that includes a corrosion inhibitor additive, in certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additive includes an tonic liquid.

Inventors:
ZELLER, Robert, August (US)
PRINCE, Philippe (US)
Application Number:
US2019/040232
Publication Date:
January 07, 2021
Filing Date:
July 02, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MULTI-CHEM GROUP, LLC (US)
International Classes:
C09K8/54; E21B41/02
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CARTER, Jennifer et al. (US)
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Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A method comprising:

contacting a metal surface with a fluid comprising a corrosion inhibitor additive, wherein the corrosion inhibitor additive comprises an ionic liquid;

wherein the ionic liquid1 comprises an organic cation and an organic anion; and wherein the corrosion inhibitor additive at least partially inhibits corrosion of the metal surface.

2. The method of claim: 1, wherein the organic cation comprises one or more cationic moieties selected from the group consisting of an ammonium cation, an hnidazoliuin cation, a pyrrolidinmrn cation, a morpholmimn cation, a pyridinium cation, a pyrazolium cation, a tria/ohum cation, a suifonitnn cation, a phosphonium cation, and any combination thereof.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the organic anion comprises one or more anionic moieties selected from the group consisting of a sulfonate anion, a carbox.yh.tie anion, a phosphonate anion, a thiofafe anion, and any combination thereof,

4. The method of claim 1 , further comprising the step of introducing the corrosion inhibitor additive to the fluid.:

5. T he method of claim 1 , wherei n the corrosion inhibi tor additive is present in an amount from about 1 parts: per million ("’ppm'’) to about 5,000 ppm based on the volume of the fluid.

6, The method of claim 1 , wherein the fluid further comprises a rheology modifier. 7, The method of claim 1 , wherein the metal surface comprises a metal selected from the group consisting of a ferrous alloy, a carbon steel any derivative thereof, and any combination thereof

8, 'The method of claim 1 , wherein the ionic liquid is a reaction product of a reaction between ft) a carbonate salt of the organic cation and (it) an acid of the organic anion; wherein the water and carbon dioxide are evaporated to leave behind the tonic liquid.

9, The method of claim l, wherein the ionic liquid is a reaction product of a reaction between (i) a methy l carbonate salt of the organic cation and (ii) an acid of the organic anion;: wherein the methanol and carbon dioxide are evaporated to leave behind the ionic liquid,

10, A method comprising:

introducing a corrosion inhibitor additive into a wellbore penetrating at least a portion of a subterranean formation, wherein the corrosion inhibitor additive comprises an ionic liquid; wherein the ionic liquid comprises an organic cation and an organic anion; and contacting a metal surface in the wellbore with the corrosion inhibitor additive; wherein tire corrosion inhibitor additive at least partially inhibits corrosion of the metal surface. 1 1 , The method of claim 10, wherein the corrosion inhibitor additi ve is introduced into the wellbore through a conduit or an injection point in fluid communication with the wellbore.

1:2, The method of claim 10, wherein the organic cation comprises one or more cationic moieties selected from the group consisting of an ammonium cation, an irnidazolium cation, a pyrrolidiniuM cation, a morpho!mium cation,, a pyridiniirm cation, a pyrazoliom cation, a triazolam cation, a sulfonium cation, a phosphonkim cation, and any combination thereof

13, The method of claim 10, wherein the organic anion comprises one or more anionic moieties selected from the group consisting of a sulfonate anion, a carboxylate anion, a phosphonate anion, a thiolate anion, and any combination thereof,

14. The method of claim 10, wherein the corrosion inhibitor additi ve is introduced into the wellbore by mixing the: corrosion inhibitor additive with a pressurized gas.

15. The method of claim 10, wherein the metal surface comprises a metal selected from the group consisting of a ferrous alloy, a carbon steel, any derivative thereof, and any combination thereof

16. The method of claim 10, further comprising allowing the corrosion inhibitor additive to contact a treatment fluid residing in the wellbore or subterranean formation.

17. A method comprising:

introducing a fluid comprising a corrosion inhibitor additive into at least a portion of a conduit or container comprising a metal surface, wherein the corrosion inhibitor additi ve comprises an ionic liquid; wherein the ionic liquid comprises an organic cation and an organic anion; and

contacting the metal surface with the corrosion Inhibitor additive; wherein the eorrosion inhibitor additive at least partially inhibits corrosion of the metal surface.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the organic cation comprises one or more cationic moieties selected from the group consisting of an ammonium cation, an imidazoiinm cation, a pyrrolidinium cation, a morpholinium cation, a pyridmium cation, a pyrazolium cation, a triazoiium cation, a sulfonium cation, a phosphonium cation, and any combination thereof

19. The method of claim 17, wherein the organic anion comprises one or more anionic moieties selected from the group consisting of a sulfonate anion, a carboxylate anion, a phosphonate anion, a thiolate anion, and any combination thereof

20. The method of claim 17, wherein the fluid is introduced into the portion of the conduit or container by mixing the fluid with a pressurized gas.

Description:
IONIC LIQUID CORROSION INHIBITORS

BACKGROUND

The present disclosure relates to compositions, treatment fluids, and methods for providing corrosion inhibition in subterranean operations * pipelines * and other related operations. The corrosion of metal surfaces occurs when metal surfaces are contacted by a corrosive environment containing :an oxidizer an electroehemiea! oxidizer, a chemical oxidizer or the like). Illustrative corrosive environments include, Tor example, acidic environments, environments containing water vapor in the presence of air and/or oxygen, and environments containing chloride or bromide ions, carbon dioxide and/or hydrogen sulfide. As used herein, the term“corrosion’ refers to any interaction between a material and its environment that causes some deterioration of the material or its properties, Examples of common types of corrosion include, but are not limited to, the rusting of a metal, the dissolution of a metal in acids, and patina development on the surface of a metal,

in subterranean applications, metal surfaces on various types of equipment are often exposed to corrosive conditions during downhole operations. For example, corrosive components including brine, carbon dioxide, and/or hydrogen sulfide are commonly encountered downhole. Pipelines and conduits used to transport fluids between various locations (in the oilfield industry and elsewhere) also may be exposed to fluids that can cause corrosion. Corrosive environments can be produced by treatment fluids that are commonly used in a number of operations in the oil and chemical industries. In such operations, any metal surfaces present (e.g„ piping, tubular goods, heat exchangers and reactors) are subjected to the corrosive environment of the treatment fluid.

To combat potential corrosion problems, certain corrosion inhibitors additives have been used to reduce, i nhibit, and/or substantially prevent corrosion of metal and metal alloy surfaces on downhole equipment, ail with varying levels of success. As used herein, the term“inhibit” and its derivatives refer to a lessening of the tendency of a phenomenon to occur and/or the degree to which that phenomenon occurs:. The term“mhibii” does not imply any particular degree or amount of inhibition. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

These drawings illustrate certain aspects of some of the embodiments of the present disclosure and should not be used to limit or define the claims,

Figure 1 is a diagram illustrating an injection system used in accordance with certain embodimen ts of the present disclosure.

Figure 2 is a graph illustrating data reiating to corrosion rates using the corrosion inhibitor additives of the present disclosure at various concentrations.

Figures 3 A, 3B, 3€, and 3D are graphs illustrating data relating to corrosion rates using the corrosion inhibitor additives of the present disclosure at various temperatures and/or oi i/water tractions.

While embodiments of this disclosure have been depleted, such embodiments do not imply a lira itation on the disclosure, and no such limitation should be interred. The subject matter disclosed is capable of considerable modification, alteration, and equivalents in form and function, as wilt occur to those skilled in the pertinent art and having the benefit of this disclosure. The depleted and described embodiments of this disclosure are examples only, and not exhaustive of the scope of the disclosure.

DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN EMBODIMENTS

Illustrative embodiments of the present disclosure are described in detail herein. In the interest of clarity, not ail features of an actual implementation may be described 1 in this specification. It will of course be appreciated that in the development of any such actual embodiment numerous irnpiementation-speciilc decisions may be made to achieve the specific implementation goals, which may vary from one implementation to another. Moreover, it will he appreciated that such a development effort might be complex and firae-eonsuming but would nevertheless be a routine undertaking for those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of the present disclosure.

To facilitate a better understanding of the present disclosure, the following examples of certain embodiments are given, in no way should the following examples be read to limit, or define, the scope of the invention. Embodiments of the present disclosure involving wellbores may he applicable to horizontal, vertical, deviated, or otherwise nonlinear wellbores in any type of subterranean formation. Embodiments may he applicable to injection wells, monitoring wells, and production wells, including hydrocarbon or geothermal wells.

As used herein, the nomenclature“(A to Q,” refers to the number of carbon atoms in a hydroearbyi group (here, ranging from x to y carbon atoms), wherein x and y may be any positive integer, As used herein, a“hydroearbyi group” may, unless otherwise specifically noted, be branched, unbranched, non-eyelie, and/or cyclic; substituted or ««substituted (that is, it may or may not contain one or more additional moieties or functional groups in place of one or more hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon chain); saturated or unsaturated; and/or may include one or more heteroatoms (e.g., O, N, P, S). As used herein, '"independently” refers to the notion that preceding items may be the same as or different from each other.

The present disclosure relates to methods, systems, and compositions for providing corrosion inhibition in wellbores penetrating subterranean formations or conduits, such as pipes used for the production and/or transport of petroleum products, natural gas, and: the like. In certain embodiments, the present disclosure may provide corrosion inhibitor additives that include an ionic liquid, in some embodiments the ionic liquid may include an organic cation and an organic anion, in some embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additives may fee provided, used, and/or introduced as an ionic liquid. The methods of the present disclosure may include contacting a metal surface with a fluid that includes a corrosion inhibitor additive, wherein the corrosion inhibitor additive includes an ionic liquid, in certain embodiments, a fluid including the corrosion inhibitor additive may be introduced into at least a portion of a conduit or container that includes a metal surface. In certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additive may be introduced Into a wellbore penetrating: at least a portion of a subterranean formation. Among the many advantages to the corrosion inhibitor additives, such additives may, among other benefits, provide corrosion inhibition without the use of volatile compounds in some embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additives provide corrosion Inhibition without the use of volatile solvents. In some embodiments, both the organic cation and organic anion of the corrosion inhibitor additives are selected to provide corrosion inhibition,

In certain embodiments, the present disclosure further provides methods of using such corrosion inhibitor additives to inhibit and/or reduce corrosion in corrosive environments. For example, the corrosion inhibitor additives may inhibit and/or reduce corrosion in acidic en vironments, environments containing water vapor in the presence of air and/or oxygen, and environments containing, chloride or bromide ions, carbon dioxide, and/or hydrogen sulfide. In certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additives may inhibit corrosion of various types of metals, including, but not limited to a ferrous alloy, carbon steel, copper, alurninum, any derivative thereof, and any combination thereof

In some embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additives may be film-forming corrosion inhibitors. The corrosion inhibitor additives and/or their salts may include surface-active compounds that may form a protective film on the surface of a metal, thereby suppressing corrosion. The effectiveness of such a film-forming corrosion inhibitor (FFCI) may be based, at least in part, on the strength of foe FFCf’s adsorption or other adherence to the metal surface (or to another surface such as a ferrous scale surface like siderite, iron carbonate) in certain embodiments, the effectiveness of the corrosion inhibitor additives of the present disclosure may increase with the strength of adsorption. The corrosion inhibitor additives may, in some embodiments, form a protective layer that physically, chemically, or otherwise hinders or prevents corrosive compounds from reaching the metal or other surface to which the inhibitor has adhered. In some embodiments, any such protective film or layer may be removed. For example, the protective film or layer may be removed intentionally (e.g., by an additive or fluid) or simply by the passage of time.

in certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additives may include an ionic liquid. In such embodiments, the ionic liquid may include one or more organic anions and one or more organic cations. Organic anions suitable for one or more embodiments of the present disclosure may include, but are. not limited to a sulfonate anion, a earboxylate anion, a phosplxmato anion, a thioiate anion, and any combination thereof Organic cations suitable for one or more embodiments of the present disclosure may include, but are not l imited to an ammonium cation, an imidazolium cation, a pyrroiidhritrm cation, a rnorpholinium cation, a pyridinium cation, a pyrazolium cation, a triaxoiium cation, a suMbmum cation, a phosphonium cation, and any combination thereof it will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art: having the benefit of this disclosure that ionic liquids may be formed with other organic anions and organic cations instead of or in addition to the organic anions and: organic cations specifically disclosed herein.

In certain embodiments, each organic anion may include one or more anionic moieties and each organic cation may include one or more cationic moieties. In certain embodiments, the ionic liquid may have a .stoichiometric ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties of l; 1 or more. For example, the ionic liquid may include .1 :2 stoichiometric ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties. For example, the following Figure (1) Illustrates an anionic liquid with a stoichiometric ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties of 1:2. The organic anion includes two anionic moieties, a carboxylate anionic moiety and a phosphonate anionic moiety and the organic cation includes one anionic moiety, an ammonium cationic moiety.

In certain embodiments, each anionic moiety and cationic moiety may independently include one or more E-groups: R, R 1 , R 2 R 3 and R 4 , as: illustrated in Figure (11) shown below. Each of R, R 1 . R 2 , R 3 and R 4 may Independently include either a hydrogen atom or one or more hydrocarbon chains of any length, branched Of unbranehed, and/or saturated or unsaturated (so long as the anionic moiety and cationic moiety maintain their anionic and cationic charges, respectively). In some embodiments, each of R, R 1 , R 2 . Rx and R 4 may include a C 1 to C 20 hydrocarbon chain or longer. In certain embodiments, an anionic moiety of the organic anion may be bonded via the C 1 to C 20 hydrocarbon chain to one or more additional anionic moieties, in certain embodiments, a cationic moiety of the organic cation may be bonded via the C 1 to C 20 hydrocarbon chain to one or more additional cationic moieties. («)

!u embodiments wherein at least one of R, R 1 ., R 2 Rn and R 4 includes a C 1 to C 20 hydrocarbon chain, the hydrocarbon chain may include any one or more hydrocarbon groups selected from the group consisting of: alkyl alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, arylaikyl, arylaikeny!, alkylaryl, alkenylaryi, and any combination thereof tor example, in certain embodiments, each of , R 1 R 2 , R 3 , and R 4 may independently include (1) as few as any one of: 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, }: f 12, 13, 14 » 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 carbon atoms, and (if) as many as one of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 carbon atoms. For example, suitable ranges of earbon atoms in each of R, R 1 , R 2, R 3 , and R* according to various embodiments include, but are not limbed to 1 to 5, 3 to 5, 4 to 8, 4 to 15, 8 to 18, 12 to 16, 8 to 20, 10 to 20, 15 to 20, and the like, in certain embodiments, suitable ranges of carbon atoms in each of R, R 1 ., R 2 , R 3 and R 4 include 5 to 15 earbon atoms, in another embodiment, suitable ranges of carbon atoms in each of R, R 1. , R 2, R 3 and R 4 include 7 to 13 carbon atoms, In certain embodiments, any one or more of R, R 1 ., R 2 R 3 , and: R 4 may be substituted such that it includes any kind and any number of functional groups in addition to the hydrocarbon groups described above (so long as the anionic moiety and cationic moiety maintain their anionic and cationic charges, respectively). Examples of suitable functional groups that may be included in the linking moiety, the lipophilic tail(s), and/or the R. -groups (R 1 R . R 3 ) may include any one or more of an ester, ether, amine, sulfonamide, amide, ketone, carbonyl, isocyanate, urea, urethane, and any combination thereof for example. In certain embodiments, at least one of R, Ri, R:;, i¾, and R4 may include a beteroatom {e g., O, N, P, S, or another atom other than C or R). In certain embodiment;:;, the ionic liquid of the corrosion inhibitor additive is formed from one or more reaction products. In some embodiments, the reaction product results from direct protonation of a Bronsted base by a Bronsted acid. In some embodiments, the desired organic cation: of the ionic liquid of the corrosion inhibitor additive is an electron pair donor and the desired organic anion of the ionic liquid of the corrosion inhibitor additive is an electron pair acceptor. In such an embodiment the pH of the of the reaction product may be adjusted by adding non-equal amounts of the Bronsted base and Bronsted acid, For example, in certain embodiments, 2-f2- (dimethyianunojethoxy (ethanol is reacted with 2 " phosphonobutane~l,2,4~tricarboxylic acid to yield an ammonium phosphonate ionic liquid, as illustrated in: Reaction I shown below. It will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art haying the benefit of the present disclosure that various modifications may be made to this reaction scheme to produce other ionic liquids.

in certain embodiments, the ionic liquid of the corrosion inhibitor additive is formed from a reaction including a carbonate and/or a methyl carbonate salt of a desired organic cation of the ionic liquid in such an embodiment, volatile byproducts such as carbon dioxide, methanol, and/or water may be evaporated under heat and/or a vacuum, leaving behind the ionic liquid in some embodiments, direct protonation of the carbonate sail of the desired organic cation of the ionic liquid by an acid of the desired organic anion of the ionic liquid, followed by dismutation of the carbonic add, yields carbon dioxide and water. In such an embodiment, the carbon dioxide and water are removed using beat and/or a vacuum, leaving behind the ionic liquid. For example, in certain embodiments, an ammonium carbonate Is reacted with an alkylsulfonie acid producing au ammonium sulfonate ionic liquid, water, and carbon dioxide, as illustrated in Reaction !.i shown below.

in other embodiments, protonation of the methyl carbonate salt of the desired organic cation of the ion ic liqu id by an acid of the desired organic anion of the ionic l iquid fol lowed by dismutation of the carbonic acid yields an ionic liquid, carbon dioxide and methanol. In such an embodiment, the carbon dioxide and methanol may be removed using heat and/or a vacuum, leaving; behind the ionic liquid. It will he appreciated: by one of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of the present disclosure that various modifications may be made to this reaction scheme to produce other ionic liquids.

In certain embodiments, the ionic liquid of the corrosion inhibitor additive is formed via acid driven anion exchange. In such an embodiment, if the- desired organic anion of the ionic liquid 1 is the conj ugate base of a strong acid, the ionic liquid can be formed by the addition of the strong acid to a chloride salt that includes the desired organic cation of the ionic liquid, Protonatiou of the chloride salt yields hydrochloric acid, which may be removed using a vacuum to leave behind the ionic liquid. For example, in some embodiments, an ammonium chloride is reacted with a sulfonic acid to yield an ammonium sulfonate ionic liquid and hydrochloric acid, as: illustrated in Reaction Hi shown below. It will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the ait having the benefit of the present disclosure that various modifications may be made to this reaction scheme to produce other Ionic liquids,

In certain embodiments, the ionic liquid of the corrosion inhibitor additive is formed via a double displacement reaction, in some embodiments, the organic cation of the ionic liquid corrosion inhibitor additive may be a reaction product of an alkylation using an alky! halide or an alkyl sulfate, in certain embodiments, the desired organic cation and desired organic anion pair of the ionic liquid may be formed by selective precipitation of an ondesired ion pair from solution. For example, the ionic liquid of the corrosion inhibitor may be formed by reacting a halide salt of the desired organic cation of the ionic liquid with a silver salt of the desired organic anion of the Ionic liquid in an aqueous solution. Precipitation of tire silver halide yields the ionic liquid in aqueous solution, as illustrated in Reaction IV shown below:

in another example embodiment, the ionic liquid of the corrosion inhibitor additive is formed by reacting a sulfate salt of the desired organic cation of the ionic liquid with a barium salt of the desired organic anion of the ionic liquid in aqueous solution. Precipitation of the- barium sulfate yields the ionic liquid in aqueous solution, ft will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of the present disclosure that various modifications may be made to this reaction scheme to produce other ionic liquids.

In certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additives may be provided, used, and/or introduced as an ionic liquid including an organic cation and an organic anion, in certain embodiments, .such ionic liquids may wholly or partially dissociate in aqueous solution. In other embodiments, the ionic liquid may remain substantially associated (either wish the organic cation and/or organic anion or with other ions from solution).

In certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additive may be added to a fluid that comes into contact with a metal surface, including but not limited to treatment fluids used in conjunction with certain subterranean operations anchor fluids produced from a subterranean formation, in certain embodiments, one or more corrosion inhibitor additives may be introduced into a wellhead, a wellbore, a subterranean formation, a conduit, a vessel, and the like and may contact and/or be exposed to a metal surface residing therein * The corrosion inhibiting additives may be introduced in a subterranean formation and/or wellbore in conjunction with one or more treatment fluids, As used herein, the term“treatment: fluid” refers to any fluid that may be used in an application in conjunction with a desired function and/or for a desired purpose. The term treatment” does not imply any particular action by the fluid or any component thereof Treatment fluids that may be useful in accordance with the present disclosure Include, but am not limited to, fracturing fluids, grave! packing fluids, pre-pad fluids, pad fluids, preflush fluids, afterfluSh fluids, acidic fluids, consolidation fluids, cementing fluids, wellbore clean-out fluids, conformance fluids, aqueous fluids ( e.g , flesh water, salt water, brines, etc,), non-aqueous fluids (e g , mineral oils, synthetic oils, esters, etc.), hydrocarbon-based fluids (e.g., kerosene, xylene, toluene, diesel, oils, etc.), foamed fluids (e.g., a liquid that includes a gas), gels, emulsions, gases, and the like. In one or snore embodiments, the treatment fluid may have a pH within a range of from about 3 to about 8. In one or more embodiments, the treatment fluid may have a pH within a range of from: about 5 to about 10, in other embodiments, the treatment fluid including the corrosion mhibitor additive may ha ve a pH greater than 4, 5, />, 7, 8, or 9.

The methods and compositions of the present disclosure may be used during or In conjunction with any subterranean operation. Suitable subterranean operations may include, but are not limited to, preflush treatments, afterflush treatments, drilling operations, hydraulicfracturing treatments, sand control treatments (e.g., gravel packing), acidizing treatments (e.g., matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing),“frae-paek" treatments, well bore clean-out treatments, and other operations where a treatment fluid and/or corrosion inhibitor additive may be, useful, In certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additives may be used in near wellbore e lean-out operations, wherein a treatment fluid may be circulated in the subterranean formation, thereby suspending or solubilizing particulates residing in the formation. The treatment fluid then may be recovered out of the formation, carrying the suspended or solubilized particulates with it. In certain embodiments, the methods and/or compositions of the present disclosure may he used in construction and/or operation of pipelines (e.g., transportation pipelines, distribution pipelines, etc.} or umbilical equipment that may be used, among other purposes, to transport various fluids (e.g·, treatment fluids and/or fluids produced from subterranean formations).

in certain embodiments, the fluid that includes the corrosion inhibitor additive may be flowing or it may be substantially stationary. In certain embodiments, the fluid: may be within a vessel, within a conduit (e.g., a conduit that may transport the fluid), within a subterranean formation, within a wellbore penetrating a portion of the subterranean formation, and/or within a wellhead of a wellbore. Examples of conduits suitable for certain embodiments include, but are not limited to pipelines, production piping, subsea tubulars, process equipment, and the like as used in industrial settings and/or as used in the production of oil and/or gas from a subterranean formation, and: the like. In particular embodiments, the conduit may be a wellhead, a wellbore, or may be located within a wellbore penetrating at least a portion of a subterranean formation. Such oil and/or gas well may, for example, be a subsea well (e.g., with the subterranean formation being located below the sea floor), or it may be a surface well (e.g.., with the subterranean formation being located belowground), A vessel or conduit according to other embodiments may be located in an industrial setting: such as a refinery (e.g., separation vessels, dehydration units, pipelines, heat exchangers, and the like), or may he a transportation pipeline. In some embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additive may be incorporated into a fluid. For example, in some embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additive may be added to ;a treatment fluid for use in a wellbore penetrating a. subterranean formation during, for instance, oil and/or gas recovery operations or other operations in connection with subterranean activities. The fluid may include a solvent for the corrosion inhibitor additive. Solvents suitable for certain embodiments of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to methanol, isopropyl alcohol, glycol, ethylene glycol, toluene, xylene, monobutyl ether, hexane, cyclohexane, : and any combination or derivative thereof for example, in some embodiments, the solvent may be an alcohol, an organic solvent, and/or any combination thereof In certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additives may he used: with substantially no solvent, e.g, in an absence of a significant amount of solvent. In certain embodiments, the fluid also may include a rheology modifier which may modify the rheology of the corrosion inhibitor additives, for example, to adjust the viscosity of the corrosion inhibitor additives, to adjust the freezing point of the corrosion inhibitor additives, to facilitate handling of the corrosion inhibitor additives, to facilitate transport of the corrosion inhibitor additi ves, to facilitate pumping of the corrosion inhibitor additives, to facilitate precise dosing of the corrosion inhibitor additi ves, and/or to control the application rate of the corrosion inhibitor additives, and the like, in some embodiments, the theology modifier may include low viscosity liquids that are miscible or dispersible in a particular corrosion inhibitor additive including the ionic liquids of the present disclosure. Rheology modifiers suitable for certain embodiments of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to Ci to Cio alcohols (e,g, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, butanol, 2 ethoxyethanoi, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol), acetates such as carboxylate esters (e.g., methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, 2.~ethylhexyl acetate), and ketones such as alkyl aldehyde (e,g, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, dimethyl formam kief In one or more embodiments, the rheology modifier may be introduced and/or present in the fluid in a fluid in an amount within a range of from about 10% to 90% based on the weight of the fluid. In various embodiments, an effective amount of rheology modifier may be as low as any of: .10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 00%, 70% , and 80% based on the weight of the fluid. In certain embodiments, an effective amount of rheology modifier in a fluid may be as high as any of: 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%. 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% based on the weight of the fluid, Thus, in one or more embodiments, an effective amount of rheology modifier may be within a range of from about 30% to about 70% based on the weight of the fluid; from about 35% to about 65% based on the weight of the fluid; from about 40% to about 60% based on the weight of the fluid; from about 45% to about $5% based on the weight of the fluid; or iron) about 50% to about 60% based on the weight of the fluid. It wall further he appreciated by one of ordinary sk ill in the art having the benefit of the present disclosure that the amount of the rheology modifier effective for modifying the rheology of the corrosion inhibitor additive may depend upon, for example, the temperature, pressure, fluid composition, additional additives in the fluid, and other conditions, affecting the fluid and/or fluid environment,

In one or more embodiments, one or more corrosion inhibitor additi ves may be introduced into: and/or present in a fluid in an amount within a range of from about 1 ppm to about 5.000 ppm based on the volume of the fluid. In various embodiments, an effective amount of one or more corrosion inhibitor additives for inhibiting, retarding, mitigating, reducing, controlling, and/or delaying corrosion may be as low as any of: 1, 500, 750, 1G00, 1:250, 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2500, 2750, 3000, 3250, 3500, 3750, 4000, 4250, 4500, and 4,750 ppm based on the volume of the fluid. In certain embodiments, an effective amount of corrosion Inhibitor additives in a fluid may be as high as any oh 500, 750, M)C)0, 1250, 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2500, 2750, 3000, 3250, 3500, 3750, 4000, 4250, 4500, 4750, and 5000 ppm based on the volume of the fluid. Thus, in one or more embodiments, an effective amount of corrosion inhibitor additives for inhibiting, retarding, mitigating, reducing, controlling, and/or delaying corrosion may be within a range of from about 100 to about 4000 ppm based on the volume of the fluid; from about 250 to about 3500 ppm by volume based on the volume of the fluid; from about 2 to about 2400 ppm by volume based on the volume of the fluid; from about 3 to about 1900 ppm by volume based on the volume of the fluid; from about 4 to about 500 ppm by volume based on the volume of the fluid: or from about 5 to about 15 ppm by volume based on the volume of the fluid. It further will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of the present disclosure that the amount of the corrosion inhibitor additives effective for inhibiting, retarding, reducing, controlling:, and/or delaying corrosion may depend upon, for example, the temperature, pressure, fluid composition, other additi ves in the fluid, and other conditions:.

In certain embodiments, the fluid to which one or more corrosion inhibitor additives may be introduced: optionally may include any number of additives. Examples of such additives include, hilt are not limited to satis, surfactants, acids, progpant particulates, diverting agents, fluid loss control additives, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, surface modifying agents, tackifying agents, foamers, additional corrosion inhibitors, corrosion inhibitor imensifiers, scale inhibitors, hydrate inhibitors, catalysts, elay control agents, biocides, friction reducers, antifoam agents, bridging agents, floccuiants, HaS scavengers, CCb scavengers, oxygen scavengers, lubricants, viscosifiers, breakers, weighting agents, relative permeability modifiers, resins, wetting agents, coating enhancement agents, filter cake removal agents, antifreeze agents (e.g., ethylene glycol), and the like. A person skilled In the art, with the benefit of this disclosure, will recognize the types of additives that may be included in the fluids for a particular application.

In certain embodiments, the corrosion: inhibitor additives may be introduced into a wellhead of a wellbore penetrating at least a portion of the subterranean formation, a wellbore, a subterranean formation, a vessel, and/or a conduit (and/or into a fl uid within any of the foregoing) using any method ot equipment known in the art, fit certain embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor addi tives are introduced into a wellbore penetrating at least a portion of a subterranean formation through which a fluid is flowing. For example, the corrosion inhibitor additives may be applied to a subterranean formation and/or wellbore using; batch treatments, squeeze treatments, continuous treatments (e.g,, during gas lift powered extraction), and/or any combination thereof. In certain embodiments, a batch treatment may be performed in a subterranean formation by stopping production from the well and pumping the fluid including the corrosion inhibitor additives into a wellbore, which may be performed at one or more points in time during the life of a well. In other embodiments, a squeeze treatment: may be performed by squeezing the corrosion inhibitor additives (and optional rheology modifier mixed therewith) downhole into the formation, allowing production out of the formation to bring the corrosion inhibitor additives to their desired location, in other embodiments, a gas lift extraction may be performed in a subterranean formation by mixing the corrosion inhibitor additives wvith a pressurized gas, which is subsequently injected into a wellbore, allowing the production out of the formation to bring the corrosion inhibitor additives to their desired location.

In other embodiments, a corrosion inhibitor additive may be Injected into a portion of a subterranean formation using an annular space or capillary injection system to continuously introduce the corrosion inhibitor additive into the formation. In certain embodiments, a composition (such as a treatment fluid) including a corrosion Inhibitor additive may be circulated in the wellbore using the same types of pumping systems and equipment at the surface that are used to introduce treatment fluids or other additives into a wellbore penetrating at least a portion of the subterranean formation, in certain embodiments, tire corrosion inhibitor additive may be introduced to a fluid througfi a conduit or an infection point in fluid communication with a wellbore in which the fluid resides. In certain embodiments, the fluid is introduced through a conduit through which the: fluid is flowing.

For example, a corrosion inhibitor additive may be introduced into a wellbore and/or tubing using a capillary injection system as shown in Figure 1. Referring now to Figure 1 , wellbore 1.05 has been drilled to penetrate a portion of a subterranean formation 100. A tubing 1 iO fe.g., production tubing) has been placed in the wellbore 105. A capillary injection tube 130 is disposed in the annular space between the outer surface of tubing f 10 and the inner wall of wellbore 105. The capillary injection tube 130 is connected to a side-pocket mandrel 140 at a lower section of the tubing 1 10. A corrosion inhibitor additive may be injected into capillary' injection tube 130 at the wellhead 108 at the surface such that it mixes with production fluid at or near the side-pocket mandrel 140, Asthe production fluid flows through the tubing 1 10, the corrosion inhibitor additive may prevent, inhibit, retard, reduce, control, and/or delay corrosion within the tubing 1 10. Other capillary injection systems and side pocket mandrel devices (e.g., those used in gas lift production) may he used in a similar manner to the system shown in Figure I .

In certain embodiments, a corrosion inhibitor additive may be added to a conduit such as a pipeline where one or more fluids enter the conduit and/or at: one or more other locations along the length of the conduit In such embodiments, the corrosion inhibitor additive may be added in batches or injected .substantially continuously while the pipeline is being used, for example, to maintain the concentration of the corrosion inhibitor additive in the fluid at a certain amount (e.g., one or more of the concentrations referenced above). Once introduced into a fluid, subterranean formation, wellbore, pipeline, vessel, or other location, the corrosion inhibitor additive may inhibit, retard, reduce, control, and/or delay corrosion within the fluid, subterranean formation, wellbore, pipeline, vessel, or other location.

An embodiment of the present; disclosure is a method that includes contacting a metal surface with a fluid that includes a corrosion inhibitor additive, wherein the corrosion inhibitor additive includes an ionic liquid; wherein the ionic liquid includes an organic cation and an organic anion; and wherein the corrosion inhibitor additive at least partially inhibits: corrosion of the metal surface. In one or more of the embodiments above, the organic anion at least partially inhibits corrosion: of the metal surface. In one or more of the embodiments above, the organic cation includes one or more: cationic moieties selected from the group consisting of an ammonium cation, an irnidaxolium cation, a pyrrol idinium cation, a morpho!imum cation, a pyridinium cation, a pyraxolium cation, a triazoiium cation, a sulfomum cation a phosphonium cation, and any combination thereof. In one or more of the embodiments above, the organic anion includes one or more anionic- moieties selected from the group consisting of a sulfonate anion, a carboxylate anion, a phosphonate anion, a tbiolate anion, and any combination thereof. In one or more of the embodiments above, the method further includes the step of introducing the corrosion inhibitor additive to the fluid. In one or more of the embodiments above, the corrosion inhibitor additive is present in an amount from about 1 parts per million (“ppm”) to about 5,000 ppm based on the volume of the fluid. In one or more of the embodiments above, the thud further includes a rheology modifier. In one or more of the embodiments above, the metal surface includes a metal selected from the group consisting of a ferrous alley, a, carbon steel, any derivative thereof, and any combination thereof. In one or more of the embodiments above, the ionic liquid is a reaction product of a reaction between (1) a carbonate salt of the organ ic cation arid (ii) an acid of the organic anion; wherein the water and carbon dioxide are evaporated to leave behind the ionic liquid. In one or more of the embodiments above, the ionic liquid is a reaction product of a reaction between (i) a methyl carbonate salt of the organic cation and (ii} an acid of the organic anion; wherein the methanol and carbon dioxide are evaporated to leave behind the ionic liquid.

Another embodiment of the present disclosure is a method that includes introducing a corrosion inhibitor additive into a wellbore penetrating at least a portion of a subterranean formation, wherein the corrosion inhibitor additive includes an tonic liquid; wherein the ionic liquid includes an organic cation and an organic anion; and contacting a metal surface in the wellbore with the corrosion inhibitor additive; wherein the corrosion inhibitor additive at least partially inhibits corrosion of the metal surface. In one or more of the embodiments above, the organic anion at least partially inhibits corrosion of the metal surface. In one or more of the embodiments above, the corrosion inhibitor additive is introduced into the wellbore through a conduit or at) injection point in fluid communication with the wellbore. In one or more of the embodiments above, the organic cation includes one or more one or more cationic moieties selected from the group consisting of an ammonium cation, an imidax.olium cation, apyrrolidiniuin cation, a morpholinium cation, a py rid inium cation, a pyrazolium cation, a triazoiinm cation, a sulfbnium cation, a phosphonium cation, and any combination thereof, in one or more of the embodiments above, the organic anion includes one or more anionic moieties selected from the group consisting: of a sulfonate anion, a carboxylate anion, a phosphonate anion, a thiolate anion, and any combination thereof in one or more of the embodiments above, the corrosion inhibitor additive is introduced into the wellbore by mixing the corrosion inhibitor additive with a pressurized gas. In one or more of the embodiments above, the metal surface includes a metal selected from the group consisting of a ferrous alloy, a carbon steel, any derivative thereof and any combination thereof In one or more of the embodiments above, the method further includes allowing the corrosion inhibitor additive to contact a fluid residing in the wellbore or subterranean formation.

Another embodiment of the present disclosure is a method that includes introducing a fluid that includes a corrosion inhibitor additive into at least a portion of a conduit or container that includes a metal surface, wherein the corrosion .inhibitor additive includes an ionic liquid; wherein the ionic liquid includes an organic cation and an organic anion; and contacting the metal surface with the corrosion inhibitor additive, corrosion inhibitor additive at least partially inhibits corrosion of the metal surface, In one or more of the embodiments above, the organic anion at least partially inhibits corrosion of the metal surface, In one or more of the embodiments above, the organic cation includes one or more cationic moieties selected from the group consisting of an ammonium cation, an irnidazoiium cation, a pyrrolidinium cation, a morphohnium cation, a pyridinium cation, a pyrazolium cation, a triazolSum cation, a sulfonium cation, a phosphonium cation, and any combination thereof In one or more of the embodiments above, the organic anion includes one or more anionic moieties selected from the group consisting of a sulfonate anion, a earboxy late anion, a phosphonate anion, a fhiolate anion, and any combination thereof in one or more of the embodiments above, the fluid is introduced into the portion of the conduit or container fry mixing the fluid with a pressurized gas.

To facilitate a better understanding of the present disclosure, the following examples of certain aspects of certain embodiments are given. The following examples are not the only examples that could be given according to The present disclosure and are not intended to limit the Scope of the disclosure or claims.

EXAMPLE 1

The effectiveness of an example corrosion inhibitor additive of the present disclosure was evaluated using a linear polarization resistance technique and a Gantry electrochemical measurement system. A corrosion inhibitor additive including aikyldirnethylhenzylammonium sulfonate was formulated in two concentrations (2 ppm and 10 ppm) to test solutions that each included 90% synthetic sea-salt brine and 10% LVT-200 light petroleum distillate (available from various suppliers) by volume. The test solutions were heated to 120°F, continuously purged with CO 2 and stirred with a magnetic stir bar / plate corn bi nation. The corrosion inhibitor additives were added after approximately 4 hours- The working electrode (10 IS carbon steel) was polarized +/- 13 mV from its free corroding potential at a scan rate of 0.4 mV / second. The pseudo~referenee electrode and counter electrode were XJ 6SS rods. The corrosion rate on the working electrode was measured using the linear polarization resistance technique, and those measurements are shown in Figure 2, The average uninhibited corrosion rate was 3 millimeters per year ( ; ‘mm/yf ! ) prior to injecting 2 ppm of the corrosion inhibitor additive. A s shown in Figure 2, the corrosion rate decreased to about 0,05 mm/yr about 6 hours after adding the corrosion inhibitor additive at 2 ppm. Accordingly » the corrosion inhibitor additive at 2 ppm provided 98.3% inhibition. When the dose rate was increased to 10 ppm of the corrosion inhibitor additive, the corrosion rate decreased to about 0.04 mm/yr after about 12 hours, a corrosion inhibition efficiency of 98.6% These data demonstrate that the corrosion inhibitor additives of the present disclosure effectively inhibit corrosion at various concentrations. EXAMPLE 2

As in Example 1, the effectiveness of an example corrosion inhibitor additive of the present disclosure was evaluated using a linear polarization resistance technique and a Gamry electrochemical measurement system, A corrosion inhibitor additive including: alkyklimethylbenzyiammonium sulfonate was formulated at two temperatures ( 12(FF and 150°F) to test solutions that each included 95% synthetic sea-salt brine and 5% EVT-200 light petroleum distillate · {available from various suppliers) by volume. The test solutions were heated to 120° F and 150°F respectively* continuously purged with CO 2 , and stirred with a magnetic stir bar / plate combination. The corrosion inhibitor additives were added after approximately 2 hours. The working electrode (1018 carbon steel) was polarized +/- 1.3 m V from its free corroding potential at a scan rate of 0.4 mV / second. The pseudo-reference electrode and counter electrode were 316SS rods. The corrosion rate on the working electrode was measured using the linear polarization resistance technique, and those measurements are shown in Figure 3. The average uninhibited corrosion rate was 3 mm/yr for the 120% test solution (Figure 3A) and 4,4 mm/yr for the 150' 3 F test solution (Figure 3B) prior to injecting 7.5 ppm of the corrosion inhibitor additive. The corrosion rate decreased to about 0.03 mm/yr for the 120% ' test solution (Figure 3 A) and about 0.05 mm/yr for the I S0°P test solution (Figure 313) about 10 hours after adding the corrosion inhibitor additive at 7.5 ppm. Accordingly, the corrosion inhibitor additive provided 99% inhibition at 120°F and 98 J% : inhibition at i 50% ' . Similar temperature data is provided in Figures 3C and 3D for test solutions that each included 80% synthetic sea-salt brine and 20% LVT-2Q0 light petroleum distillate (available from various suppliers) :by volume. These data demonstrate that the corrosion inhibitor additives of the present disclosure effectively inhibit corrosion at various temperatures.

EXAMPLE 3

As in Examples 1 -2, the effectiveness of an example corrosion inhibitor additive of the present disclosure was evaluated using a linear polarization resistance technique and a Gamry electrochemical measurement system, A corrosion inhibitor additive including aikyldimeibyihenzyiammonium sulfonate was formulated in two test solutions containing the following oil/water fractions respectively, (i) a first test solution containing 95% synthetic sea-salt brine and 5% tVT-200 light petroleum distillate (available from various suppliers) by volume and (ii) a second test solution 80% synthetic sea-salt brine and 20% L¥T-2@0 light petroleum distillate (available from various suppliers) by volume. The test solutions were heated to !20°F, continuously purged with CO 2 and stirred with a magnetic stir bar / plate combination. The corrosion inhibitor additives were added after approximately 2 hours. The working electrode (1J18 carbon steel) was polarized +/- 13 mV from its free corroding potential at a scan rate of 0,4 mV / second. The pseudo-reference electrode arfe counter electrode were 316SS rods. The corrosion rate on the working electrode was measured using the linear polarization resistance technique, and those measurements are shown in Figure 3. The average uninhibited corrosion rate was 3 mra/yr for the first test solution (Figure 3 A) and 3 mm/yr for the second test solution (Figure 3(f) prior to injecting 7,5 ppm of the corrosion inhibitor additive. The corrosion rate decreased to about 0.1)3 mm/yr for the first test solution (Figure 3 A) and about 0.02 mm/yr for the second test solution (Figure about 10 hours after adding the corrosion inhibitor additive at 7.5 ppm. Accordingly, the corrosion inhibitor additive provided 99% inhibition for the first test solution and 99.3% inhibition for the second test solution. Similar data is provided in Figures 38 and 3D for test solutions with the same oil/water fractions at a temperature of 150°F, These data demonstrate that the corrosion inhibitor additives of the present disclosure effectively inhibit corrosion at various oil/water tractions.

Therefore, the present disclosure is well adapted to attain the ends and advantages mentioned as well as those that are inherent therein. The particular embodiments disclosed above are illustrative only, as the present disclosure may he modified and practiced in different but equ ivalent manners apparent to those skilled in the art having the benefi t of the teachings herein. While numerous changes may be made by those skilled in the art, such changes are encompassed within the spirit of the subject matter defined by the appended claims. Furthermore, no limitations are intended to the details of construction or design herein shown, other than as described in the claims below, it is therefore evident that the particular illustrative embodiments disclosed above may he altered or modified and ail such variations are considered within the scope and spirit of the present disclosure, In particular, «very range of values (e.g.,“from about a to about b,” or, equivalently,‘'from approximately a to h,” or, equivalently,“from approximately a-b”) disclosed herein is to be understood as referring to the power set (the set of all subsets) of the respective range of values. The terms in the claims have their plain, ordinary meaning unless otherwise explicitly and clearly defined by the patentee.