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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
ISO GAS FREIGHT CONTAINER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2006/020871
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
An ISO gas freight container for the transporting of pressurized gases at high transport pressures. The ISO gas freight container includes an ISO frame and at least one composite tank mounted on the ISO frame. The composite tank is formed of an inner liner and a composite over wrap.

Inventors:
Owens, William Wayne (17012 East Rockbridge, Baton Rouge, LA, 70817, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2005/028742
Publication Date:
February 23, 2006
Filing Date:
August 12, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Specialty Gas, Transportation L. L. C. (880 Sherwood Forest Boulevard, Baton Rouge, LA, 70815, US)
Owens, William Wayne (17012 East Rockbridge, Baton Rouge, LA, 70817, US)
International Classes:
B65D88/00
Foreign References:
US6012598A
US5429845A
US3843010A
US6513442B1
US3479043A
US5476189A
US6508378B1
US1466175A
USD250123S
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Meroney, Bernard F. (Jones, Walker Waechter, Poitevent, Carrere & Denegre, LLP, 5th Floor, 8555 United Plaza Boulevar, Baton Rouge LA, 70809, US)
Download PDF:
Description:
ISO Gas Freight Container Priority claim: This application claims the priority benefit of U.S. provisional application number 60/600891 filed on August 12, 2004 and hereby incorporates that application in its entirety. Technical Field This invention relates to freight container for moving of pressurized gases, and more particularly to a freight container using an ISO frame with composite tanks. Background Art ISO freight containers have been used extensively in the transportation industry to transport materials. An ISO freight container, as used herein, includes an ISO frame and one or more tanks or tubes carried in the frame. By ISO frame, as used herein, means a series 1 frame or framework sized according to ISO 668 standards (hereby incorporated by reference and attached hereto as an appendix) having corner castings or fittings as described in ISO 1161 (hereby incorporated by reference) and meeting the testing standards of ISO 1496-3 (hereby incorporated by reference, and attached hereto as an appendix). Standard series 1 frame dimensions includes widths of 8 feet and heights or 8, 8.5, 9 and 9.5 feet. Standard lengths include 10, 20, 30 and 40 feet. ISO freight container frames are sized for transportation by truck, rail, air and ship, and the corner fittings are designed to allow for lifting, retaining and stacking of ISO freight containers. The ISO frame is designed to transmit static and dynamic forces in allow for safe and secure lifting and transporting of loaded freight containers. For instance, fully loaded ISO containers (which can weight up to 85,000 lbs) are designed to be lifted by crane or other lifting device from the corner fittings. Hence, a loaded frame may be transported by helicopter to remote locations. ISO freight containers have been used to transport pressurized gases, but at low pressures, such as 300-500 psi (see U.S. patent number 6,012,598, hereby incorporated by reference). As disclosed in this patent, transportation of ISO frames by truck is weight limited, and hence, ISO freight containers used to transport gases would have tanks only partially full due to weight limitations of the combined frame, tank and product weight. The number of tubes will change because of the weight restrictions of moving on a highway. Different countries have different weight restrictions. The United States has to conform to the U.S. bridge formula of 55,000 lbs loaded. Other countries will range from 53,000 lbs to 85,000 lbs. The '598 patent attempts to overcome the weight limitation by building the tanks from steel using a minimum thickness, thereby dropping the tank weight. Unfortunately, this patent addresses transportation of gases at relatively low pressures Of 100-500 psi. If higher pressures are desired (allowing for the transportation of larger quantities of product), thicker steel wall structures are needed, using fairly small diameter steel tanks. For instance, a 22' diameter steel tank rated to 2900 psi having a length of 38.5 feet, weighs about 6000 pounds. An 8' high, 40 foot long ISO frame could accommodate about 16 of such tubes, but the tubes alone would weigh in excess of 96,000 pounds, exceeding by substantial margins road weight limitations, even without product. Attempts have been made to build composite low weight transportation tanks, such as the tank design shown in U.S. patent number 6,189,723 (hereby incorporated by reference). The '723 patent is directed to a large 5.5 foot diameter, 20 foot long composite tank for the transportation of liquids. The tank is transported by attaching the tank to a banded skid frame at the front and rear of the tank. This tank is not thought suitable for transportation of high pressure gases as the composite materials are not of sufficient strength, nor is the skid frame adapted to allow the mounted tank to be transported by ship, truck or rail. Composite tanks for ship or truck transportation of compressed gases are disclosed in U.S. patent number 6,339,996. The system disclosed in the '996 patent is directed to a bank of vertically orientated composite cylinders to allow for separation of fluids and gases. The truck and ship board designs create an integrated transportation system, that is, the tanks/frames are not designed to be removed from one transport vehicle and moved to another transport vehicle. The tanks have an upper manifold and a lower manifold to facilitate removal of gases and liquids. The '996 also briefly discussed a modular system using vertically orientated composite tanks, but does not disclose a transportation frame. What is lacking is a light weight transport container for transportation of high pressured gases that can also be used as a distribution storage container, and where the transport container can be transported by several different modes of transportation, including rail, truck, air and ship, including helicopter carriage or air transport vehicle. Disclosure of the Invention An ISO gas freight container for the transporting of pressurized gases at high transport pressures. The ISO gas freight container includes an ISO frame and at least one composite tank mounted on the ISO frame. The composite tank is formed of an inner liner and a composite overwrap. Brief Description of Drawings FIG. I is a side view of one embodiment of the ISO gas freight container of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a top view of one embodiment of the ISO gas freight container of the present invention. FIG. 3 is a bottom view of one embodiment of the ISO gas freight container of the present invention. FIG. 4 is an end view of one embodiment of the ISO gas freight container of the present invention using a bulkhead. FIG. 5 is an end view of another embodiment of an ISO gas freight container without a bulkhead. FIG.6 is a cross section through a composite tank showing the bosses. FIG. 7 is a front view of one embodiment of a saddle. Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention Shown in figure 1 is an ISO frame 1. Positioned within the frame is one or more preferably horizontally orientated composite tanks 2. Composite tanks 2 are adapted to transport pressured gases such as compressed natural gas, hydrogen, helium, argon, acetylene, oxygen and nitrogen. The number of tanks in a particular frame will depend on the particular ISO frame size, and the type and pressure of the transported gas. For instance, a ICC ISO frame can accommodate thirty-two 10 foot length tubes each about of about 24 inch diameter when transporting hydrogen gas at 7,000 psi. A IAAA ISO frame can transport seven, eight or nine 40 foot tubes of about 32 inches diameter when transporting compressed natural gas at 3,000 psi. The number and sizes (both length and diameters) of the transported tanks can vary based upon the product, transport pressures and desired transport volumes. For a frame transporting a single gas, it may be preferred to use a single composite tank at high pressures to maximize transport volume; for instance, combine a IAA ISO frame with an 88 inch diameter composite tank at high transport pressures of 5000 (or greater) psi. For transport purposes, the larger length ISO frames (20, 30 and 40 feet) are preferred, with 40 foot length frames (1 AX, IA, IAA, and IAAA) being the most preferred. While high transport pressure, as used herein, is considered to being at pressures of about 1000 psi and greater, it is preferred to transport at pressures of 3000 psi and up to about 15,000 psi; for instance, a preferred high transport pressure for CNG is about 3000-4000 psi, with 3600 psi being more preferred; a preferred high transport pressure for hydrogen is about 6000-15000 psi, with 6000-10000 psi being more preferred, and about 7000 psi being most more preferred. Any ISO frame can be utilized provided that the frame is suitably adapted to support the carried tanks. The ISO frame should be approved. One embodiment of a 40 foot long ISO frame is shown in figures 1-4. The frame is generally constructed of A-500 steel, where the four main structural components are: bottom I beams 21 and 30 (sized as 12"x 4"x 0.69"), corner square tubes 16 (sized as 6" x 6" x 0.5"), and top square tubing 29 (sized at 3" x 3" x 0.375"). Also shown are end bulkhead 14 (figure 5)(sized at 3/8- 1/2 inch plate steel), and corner fittings or castings 17 (per ISO 688 and ISO 1161). Bulkhead 17, as shown are plates having opening therethrough aligned with the tank centers. The tank bosses 100 (figure 6)(later described) are positioned through these openings and help position and support the tanks in the frame. Instead of a bulkhead 17 plate that completely encloses the frame ends, a horizontal or vertical strip having suitable openings could be used, as shown by the dotted lines in figure 4. Note however, that replacing the bulkheads will entail resizing the remaining frame members to ensure that the frame meets ISO test standards. Additional members can be added to the frame based upon the carried tanks. For instance, if the carried tanks are bottom supported instead of bulkhead supported, support members across the bottom in will be needed, such as members 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27, as shown in Figure 3 (generally, 3/16 thick steel, either plate, channel or tubing). In multiple tank designs, additional surround members 22 may be provided to prevent tank separation in the middle of the frame due to bowing of the frame that may occur during lifting or stacking (up to 15 frames high) of the loaded frames. Other stiffening frame members can be used, such as braces 19 and 20. -As shown, the posts 16 and support members 28, 29, 27, and 30 are connected to ISO corner castings 17. The ISO corner castings are used to lift and secure the frame in transit. The frame shown in figures 1-4 can also be used in a 20 foot long embodiment, but using different sized members: the 20 foot frame includes posts 16 (sized at 6" x 6" x 3/16" tubing), bottom rails 21 (sized at 6" x4" x 3/16" tubing) top rails 29 (sized at 3" x 3" x 3/16" tubing), and braces 19 (4" x 2"x 3/16" tubing), 20, 22 (sized at 5 inch A36 channel). Other supports are members 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29 which may or may not be required, based upon the tank configuration and tank support configuration. Figure 5 shows an alternative open end frame embodiment instead of a bulkhead, shown are cross braces 30, sized at 3" x 2" x 3/16" tubing. The structural members, as sized herein for the 20 foot embodiment, are sized for the open end frame of figure 5. The bottom support design, as shown in figure 2, can vary based upon the tank support system. Generally, joints are welded together according to the standards of the American Welding Society. The ISO frame's eight corner castings 17 (four top and four bottom) along with rails and end posts (and braces where needed) form a base structure that generally satisfies the requirements of ISO 1496-3 Sections 5.1-5.5. However, as noted above, any ISO frame will work with the invention. The second component of the invention is the composite tank or tanks 16. A typical tank 12 is shown installed in the ISO frame (in a four tank embodiment) in figures 1-4. The diameter of the tanks or tubes 12 can vary from about 22" up to about 88" in diameter D, but it is preferred that the tank conform to ANSI/AS NGV2, ISO/FDIS 11439, and A.S.M.E. regulations (1998 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code X (each incorporated by reference) or U.S. Department of Transportation standards. For tanks used in countries other than the United States, other standards may be more applicable. The tank includes a main body section 12 of a generally cylindrical configuration and a pair of end sections 14 of generally of ellipsoidal, parabolic or hemispheroidal configurations, with ellipsoidal being preferred as this geometry accommodates additional volumes. Bosses 31 are provided at one or both ends of the vessel to provide one or two ports communicating with the interior of the vessel. Boss 31 includes an outwardly projecting neck portion 31 shown in figure 6. The boss neck portion 31 can be utilized to support the tank in an ISO frame, such as shown in figure 1. Tanks include an inner liner 40 and an outer composite shell overwrap 41. By "composite" is meant a fiber reinforced resin matrix material, such as a filament wound or laminated structure. Outer shell overwrap 41 is a composite shell fabricated from a mechanically strong material such as fiber reinforcing material in a resin matrix. The fiber may be fiberglass, aramid fibers (such as poly-paraphenylene terepthalamide or Kelvar fibers), carbon, graphite, or any other generally known fibrous reinforcing material, or a combination thereof, capable of creating the desired strength overwrap structure. The resin matrix may be epoxy, polyester, vinylester, thermoplastic or any other suitable resinous material capable of providing the properties required for the particular application in which the vessel is to be used. The set temperature of the resin must be below the melting point of the inner shell material and overwrap materials. Inner liner 40 is a generally fluid impervious liner disposed in outer shell overwrap 41 against the inside surface thereof. The inner liner 40 may be made of plastic or other elastomers and can be manufactured by compression molding, blow molding, injection molding or any other generally known technique. Liner can also be a metal liner, such as steel, aluminum or stainless, or a lined metal liner, such as Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) coated steel, with the end caps welded to the cylindrical body. Using a composite overwrap allows thinner walled metal inner liners to be employed, thereby reducing the weight of the metal liner/composite overwrap from that of a similar strength non-wrapped metal tank. Boss 32 may be composed of an alloy of aluminum, steel, nickel or titanium, although it is understood that other metal and nonmetal materials, such as composite materials, are suitable. One tank embodiment uses a boss 32 constructed of aluminum (6061-T6) and imbedded in the tank in accordance with U.S. patent number 5,429,845 (hereby incorporated by reference). The bosses 30 are incorporated into a tank having an inner liner of high-density polyetheylene (HDPE) liner and an outer overwrap of filament wound carbon fiber and E-glass fiber. The HDPE meets ASTM 1248 Type III, Grade P34, Class C, Category 5 standards; the carbon fiber is single strand T-700SC available from Toray Carbon Fibers of America in Decatur Alabama; the E-glass utilized is a single strand suitable for filament winding systems; the resin is an epoxy based resin compatible with E-glass and carbon fibers. The preferred manufacturing method is filament winding of the composite laminate onto the HDPE liner (which can have an initial skin coat of resin or resin impregnated wrap to improve binding of the filament overwrap) using circumferential wound layers or helical wound layers, or a combination of both as needed for the required strength. Lincoln Composites, Inc. of Lincoln, Nebraska is building filament wound HDPE liner tanks suitable for use in the present invention. While HDPE is more expensive than steel, HDPE is lighter and is not contaminated by' contact with a gaseous product. A steel tank can become contaminated if not lined, and once contaminated, that tank should not be used for transportation of a different product. As an example, a 36 inch diameter tank transporting of compressed natural gas at 3000 psi can have an inner liner of 0.750" 80,000 pound tensile steel with a composite 0.586 inch thick overwrap of filament wrapped carbon fibers. A 42 inch diameter tank for transporting of hydrogen at 7,000 psi can have an inner liner of 0.248 inch HDPE with an over wrap thickness of about 1.161" carbon fibers (the HDPE and overwrap will thicken at the ends to support the bosses, as shown in U.S. patent number 5,429,845. A comparison between a standard 3AAX 2900 psi 38.5 foot steel tube and a comparable composite/steel tube at the same pressure shows the weight efficiency of the composite tank structure: Steel 22" tube @ 2900 psi weighs 6056 lbs Steel/Composite (S/C) 22" tube @ 2900 psi weighs 3305 lbs Volumes in scf Hydrogen Natural Gas Oxygen Helium Nitrogen Argon Steel 14,026 20,085 18,299 15,718 16,244 18,299 S/C 16,316 23,362 19,468 16,769 17,438 19,390 As the pressures are increased, the ability to carry more product becomes even more significant: Steel/Composite at 3000 psi (Volumes scf) Dia weight H2 Natural Gas O2 He N Ar 42" 12,564 lbs 60,617 86,729 72,508 52,078 64,735 72,244 36" 9,206 lbs 44,646 63,878 53,404 45,947 47,679 53,209 32" 7,260 lbs 35,209 50,375 42,115 36,235 37,601 41,962 30" 6,375 lbs 31,034 44,403 37,122 31,939 33,143 36,987 Steel/Composite at 3600 psi 42" 15,025 lbs 69,899 97,495 84,358 72,429 74,084 84,059 36" 11,019 lbs 51,415 71,714 62,051 53,276 54,493 61,831 32" 8,685 lbs 40,792 56,897 49,230 42,268 43,234 49,056 30" 7,629 lbs 35,693 49,785 43,076 36,985 37,830 42,924 As noted, further weight reductions can be made by using a HDPE inner liner. For instance, at 38.5 foot long 22 inch diameter composite tube using an HDPE inner liner at a high transport pressure of 7,000 psi for hydrogen will weigh 1,014 lbs and carry 27,994 scf of product. The composite tanks may have an outer coating to protect the composite layer and resin matrix from ultra-violet degradation or to improve tank impact resistance. One outer covering that can be used is taught in U.S. patent number 5,476,189 (hereby incorporated by reference) and is marketed by Lincoln Composites under the Tuffshell mark. A gel coat or paint can be also be used for added protection, or an added outer layer of glass alone can be used. Additionally, a fabric screen or lightweight metal or plastic screen could be integrated into the frame to provide needed protection. The tanks are mounted in the ISO frame in a fashion to allow the tanks to expand both radially and lengthwise upon pressurization. For instance, a an 88 inch diameter single 38.5 foot long tank can be expected to expand about two inches in length and about 0.5 inches in diameter when pressurized to 5000 psi. Hence, if the bosses 32 are utilized to mount the tanks on a bulkhead, there should be sufficient room to allow the needed expansion and for the bosses to slide in the bulkhead openings. A compressible foam or other elastomeric material can be provided adjacent to the boss between the tank and the bulkhead to allow for a secure fit in the bulkhead when the tank is not pressurized. Further, the openings in the bulkhead can be lined, for instance with Teflon, to reduce sliding friction. When multiple tanks are used in an ISO frame, the expansion of the tanks into adjacent space must also be taken into account. Compressible saddles of elasomeric materials may be placed between tanks or integrated into the tank outer layer to provide an offset and cushion expansion. An example of a saddle 60 is shown in figure 7, showing a block of elastomeric material designed to fit between two tanks. The saddle 60 top and bottom surface reflects the tank curvatures; for a saddle placed on a bottom support, only the saddle top side would reflect tank curvature. Saddles may not needed if the tanks are supported at the bosses (such as through the use of a bulkhead) as the tanks as described are very rigid structures when pressurized and generally do not sag when supported from the bosses. However, unpressurized tanks sag and saddles or other supports may be needed. It is preferred that the elasomeric material have memory, or the ability to return to an uncompressed state, providing separation or offset between the tanks for later expansion upon pressurization. Obviously, vertical or horizontal support plates (such as steel tubing, channels or plates) could be integrated into the interior of the frame to provide tank separation (and such supports may still require a lining or cushioning to reduce frictional rubbing during transportation or charging/discharging of the tanks); however, such supports add additional weight and are not preferred. Common multiple tank designs are four 42 inch diameter tanks or sixteen 22 inch diameter tanks. The ISO gas frame container can be filled with tanks of differing diameters, or only partially filled with composite tanks, leaving a portion of the frame vacant for other uses, such as placement of compressors, pumps, etc. The ISO gas frame container can also utilize different length tanks within the same ISO frame. However, to accommodate different length tanks, a tank support (such as a partial baffle plate) may be required in the interior of the frame. Positioned in the bosses 32 re a series of valves (not shown) to control the filling and discharge of the tanks. It is preferred that a valve be positioned in the interior of the tank to prevent accidental spill in the event the neck of the boss is sheared off. One or more manifold systems may be present at one of both ends of the tanks to allow simultaneous filling/discharge of multiples tanks. In a multiple tank embodiment, several independent manifold systems may be present allowing the frame container to carry more than one type of gas. Other components can be mounted on the frame to satisfy customer requirements, such as a compressors or pumps for loading and unloading of the gases, pressure regulators, battery operate remotely interrogatable GPS systems to track to location of a particular ISO freight container, pressure monitors on the manifold system that communicate with a cellular or satellite communication system to send a remote alarm based upon pressure a pressure drop or significant change in monitored pressure, temperature monitors, etc. As described, the use of a composite overwrap on the inner liner of the tank structure allows transportation of gases at high transport pressures within an ISO frame and allows the entire loaded structure to fall within weight limitations for transport, particularly highway transport. A composite tube weights about 1/3 (with a steel inner liner) to 1/5 (with a HDPE inner liner) that of a comparable steel only tank. The weight savings allows for more product to be shipped at one time and possibly for fewer shipments to satisfy a customer's needs. Additionally, a product loaded ISO gas freight container can be used for storage and distribution. For instance, a charged ISO gas freight container as disclosed herein can be dropped off at a remote location and used as storage of the gas until needed. Indeed, the product can be discharges as needed from a charged ISO frame gas container. Upon full discharge, the ISO gas freight container can be swapped out with another charged ISO gas freight container. Common gas transport containers do not provide this added flexibility, as these transport containers do not meet specifications for onsite storage facilities. It will be understood that the invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or central characteristics thereof. The present examples and embodiments, therefore, are to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, and the invention is not to be limited to the details given herein. As used herein, "about" can include variations of 10%. APPENDIX

INTERNATIONAL ISO

STANDARD 668 Fifth edition 1995-12-15

Series 1 freight containers — Classification, dimensions and ratings

Conteneurs de Ia série 1 — Classification, dimensions et masses brutes maximales

.Reference numbe * ISO 668:1995(E ISO 668:1995(E)

Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. International Standard ISO 668 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 104, Freight containers. This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 668:1988). which has been technically revised. Annex A forms an integral part of this International Standard.

O ISO 1995 AH rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced Of utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher. International Organization for Standardization Case Postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneve 20 • Switzerland Printed in Switzerland INTERNATIONAL STANDARD o ISO ISO 668:1995(E)

Series 1 freight containers — Classification, dimensions and ratings

1 Scope ISO 1496-2: — ". Series 1 freight containers — Speci¬ fication and testing — Part 2: Thermal containers. This International Standard establishes a classification of series 1 freight containers based on external di- ISO 6346:1995, Freight containers — Coding, identifi¬ mensions, and specifies the associated ratings and, cation and marking. where appropriate, the minimum internal and door opening dimensions for certain types of containers. These containers are intended for intercontinental 3 Definitions traffic. For the purposes of this International Standard, the This International Standard summarizes the external following definitions apply. See also ISO 830:1981, and some of the internal dimensions of series 1 con- Freight containers — Terminology. tainers. The dimensions of each type of container are defined in the appropriate part of ISO 1496, which is the authoritative document for internal container di- 3.1 freight container: Article of transport equip- mensions. ment a) of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use;

2 Normative references b) specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods by one or more modes of transport, with- The following standards contain provisions which, out intermediate reloading; through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this International Standard. At the time of publi- c) fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, cation, the editions indicated were valid. All standards particularly its transfer from one mode of trans- are subject to revision, and parties to agreements port to another: based on this International Standard afe encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most re- d) so designed as to be easy to fill and empty; cent editions of the standards indicated below. e) having an internal volume of 1 m3 (35,3 ft3) or Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of cur- more. rently valid International Standards. ISO 1161:1984, Series 1 freight containers — Comer The term "freight container" includes neither vehicles fittings — Specification. nor conventional packing. IS0 1496-1:1990. Series 1 freight containers — 3.2 ISO container: Freight container complying with Specification and testing — Part 1: General cargo all relevant ISO container standards in existence at the containers for general purposes. time of its manufacture.

1) To be published. (Revision of ISO 1496-2:1988) ISO 668:1995(E) O ISO

3.3 rating, R: The gross mass2), R. of a container which is both the maximum mass foroperationand— the minimum mass for testing.

3.4 nominal dimensions: Those dimensions,disre-garding tolerances and rounded tothenearestcon- venient whole number, by which acontainermaybe identified. Nominal dimensions are usually expressedinimperialunits. 3.5 internal dimensions: Dimensionsofthelargestunobstructed rectangular parallelepipedwhichcouldbe inscribed in the container ifinwardprotrusionsofthe top corner fittings are disregarded. Except where otherwise stated, theterm"internaldimensions" is synonymous with theterm"unob- structed internal dimensions".

3.6 door opening: Term usually reserved for the 5 Dimensions, tolerances and ratings definition of the size of the (end) door aperture, i.e. the width and height dimensions of the largest parallelepiped which could possibly be passed into the 5.1 Reference temperature for container through the door aperture in question. measurements The dimensions and tolerances apply when measured at the temperature of 20 'C (68 °F); measurements taken at other temperatures shall be adjusted accord- ingly.

4 Classification and designation 5.2 External dimensions, tolerances and ratings Series 1 freight containers have a uniform width of 2 438 mm (8 ft). 5.2.1 External dimensions and tolerances The nominal lengths are listed in table 1. The external dimensions and permissible tolerances given in table 2 are applicable to all types of contain- Containers 2 896 mm (9 ft 6 in) in height are desig- ers, except that a reduced height is permissible for nated 1AAA and 1BBB. tank, open top, bulk, platform and platform-based type containers. Containers 2 591 mm (8 ft 6 in) in height are desig- nated 1AA, 1 BB and 1CC. 5.2.2 Ratings Containers 2 438 mm (8 ft) in height are designated The ratings given in table 2 are applicable to all types 1A. 1 B, 1C and 1 D. of containers, except that for particular traffic higher Containers less than 2 438 mm (8 ft) in height are values are permissible for 1 B8B. I BB, 1 B, 1BX, 1CC. 1 C and 1CX containers of any type. Such containers designated 1AX, 1BX. 1CX and 1DX. are considered as ISO containers provided that their NOTE 1 The letter "X" used in the designation has no maximum gross mass (R) does not exceed 30 480 kg specific connotation other than to indicate that the height and that they are tested and marked to these ratings of the container is between 0 and 2438 mm (8 ft). (see 3.3).

2) In some countries, in order to conform to current commercial practice, the term "weight" is used (incorrectly) instead of mass o ISO ISO 668:1995(E)

WARNING — Recognizing that there will always 5.3.2.2 Minimum door opening dimensions be a need for special containers for particular traffic, attention is drawn to the fact that numer¬ Closed-type containers designated IA, 1B, 1C and 1D ous containers exist which have length and width (types 00 and 02) shall have a door opening, prefera- dimensions similar to those of ISO series 1 con- bly having dimensions equal to those of the internal tainers but have ratings and/or heights in excess cross-section (height and width) of the containers and, of those defined by this International Standard. in any case, not less than the values given in table 3. They may not be iπtermodai worldwide and their operation could require special arrangements. Closed-type containers designated IAA, 1BB and 1CC (types 00 and 02) shall have a door opening, prefera- 5.3 Internal dimensions and door openings bly having dimensions equal to those of the internal cross-section (height and width) of the containers and, 5.3.1 Dimensions with projecting top comer in any case, not less than the values given in table 3. fitting Closed-type containers designated 1AAA and 1BBB Where a top corner fitting projects into the internal (types 00 and 02) shall have a door opening, prefera- space (specified by table 3), that part of the corner bly having dimensions equal to those of the internal fitting projecting into the container shall not be con- cross-section (height and width) of the containers and, sidered as reducing the size of the container. in any case, not less than the values given in table 3. 5.3.2 General cargo containers for general purposes (see ISO 1496-1) The type code numbers shall be in accordance with 5.3.3 Thermal containers (see ISO 1496-21 ISO 6346. The internal dimensions and door openings of thermal 5.3.2.1 Minimum internal dimensions containers shall be as large as possible. Door openings shall preferably have dimensions equal to Internal dimensions of containers shall be as large as those of the internal cross-section of the containers. possible, but, in any case. The internal dimensions shall be measured from inner — closed containers type 00 shall comply with the faces of battens, bulkheads, ceiling air ducts, floor air requirements for minimum internal length, width ducts, etc., where fitted. and height given in table 3; The minimum internal width shall be 2200 mm U ft — containers type 02, having partial opsning(s) in the 2 5/8 in) for container types 20, 21 , 22, 30, 31 , 32. 40, side(s), shall comply with the requirements for 41 and 42. minimum internal length and height given in table 3; — containers type 03, having an opening roof, shall comply with the requirements for minimum 5.3.4 Other types of container internal length and width given in table 3; — containers types 01 and 04, having openings in the The internal dimensions, door openings and end side(s) and/or roof, shall comply with the require- openings (if any) shall be as large as possible. ments for minimum internal length given in table 3; — closed, vented containers types 10 and 11 shall comply with the requirements for minimum internal length, width and height given in table 3; 5.4 Corner fitting locations — closed, ventilated containers type 13 shall comply Centre-tc-centre distances (length and width) and di- with the requirements for minimum internal agonal tolerances for comer fittings are given in length, width and height given in table 3. annex A. ISO 668:1995(E) C ISO

Table 2 — External dimensions, permissible tolerances and ratings for series 1 freight containers

Table 3 — Minimum internal dimensions and door opening dimensions for series 1 freight containers

o ISO ISO 668:1995(E

Annex A (normative)

Corner fittings

Corner fitting locations (centre-to-centre distances and diagonal tolerances) are given in table A.1 and figure A.1.

opposite corner fit¬

ISO 668:1995{E) © ISO ICS 55.180.10 Descriptors: containers, freight containers, classification, dimensions, ratings, designation. Price based on 6 pages INTERNATIONAL ISO

STANDARD 1496-3 Fourth edition 1995-03-01

Series 1 freight containers — Specification and testing —

Part 3: Tank containers for liquids, gases and pressurized dry bulk

Conteneurs de Ia série 1 — Spécifications et essais — Partie 3: Conteneurs-citernes pourles liqυides. les gaz et les produits solides en vrac pressurisés

ISO 1496-3:199S(E)

Contents Page 1 Scope 1 2 Normative references 1 3 Definitions 2 4 Dimensions and ratings 3 4.1 External dimensions 3 4.2 Ratings 3 5 Design requirements 3 5.1 General 3 5.2 Comer fittings 4 5.3 Base structure 4 5.4 End structure 5 5.5 Side structure 5 5.6 Tank 5 5.7 Optional features 6 6 Testing . 6 6.1 General 6 6.2 Test No. 1 — Stacking 7 6.3 Test No. 2 — Lifting from the four top comer fittings 8 6.4 Test No. 3 — Lifting from the four bottom corner fittings .... 8 6.5 Test No. 4 — External restraint (longitudinal) 9 6.6 Test No. 5 — Internal restraint (longitudinal) 9 6.7 Test No. 6 — Internal restraint (lateral) 10 6.8 Test No. 7 — Rigidity (transverse) 10 6.9 Test No. 8 — Rigidity (longitudinal) „ 11 6.10 Test No. 9 — Load-transfer area test 11

ISO 1995 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced - utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher. International Organization for Standardization Case Postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20 • Switzerland prit te d in Switzerland « ISO ISO 1496-3:1995(E)

6.11 Test No. 10 — Walkways (where provided) 11 6.12 Test No. 11 — Ladders (where provided) 12 6.13 Test No. 12 — Pressure test 12 7 Identification and marking 12

Annexes A Diagrammatic representation of capabilities appropriate to all types and sizes of tank containers, except where otherwise stated 14 B Details of requirements for load-transfer areas in base structures of containers 19 C Dimensions of gooseneck tunnels (where provided) 23 D Bibliography 24 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD c ISO ISO 1496-3:1995(E)

Series 1 freight containers — Specification and testing —

Part 3: Tank containers for liquids, gases and pressurized dry bulk

1 Scope 2 Normative references

1.1 This part of ISO 1496 specifies the basic speci- The following standards contain provisions which, fications and testing requirements for ISO series 1 through reference in this text, constitute provisions tank containers suitable for the carriage of gases, liq- of this part of ISO 1496. At the time of publication, the uids and solid substances (dry bulk) which may be editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject loaded or unloaded as liquids by gravity or pressure to revision, and parties to agreements based on this discharge, for international exchange and for part of ISO 1496 are encouraged to investigate the conveyance by road, rail and sea, including inter- possibility of applying the most recent editions of the change between these forms of transport. standards indicated below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International 1.2 Except where otherwise stated, the require- Standards. ments of this part of ISO 1496 are minimum require- ments. Tank containers to be used for the carnage of ISO 668:1988, Series 1 freight containers — Classi- dangerous goods may be subject to additional inter- fication, dimensions and ratings. national and national requirements as applied by competent authorities. ISO 830:1981, Freight containers — Terminology.

1.3 The container types covered by this part of ISO 1161:1984. Series 1 freight containers — Corner ISO 1496 are given in table 1. fittings — Specification. ISO 6346:1984. Freight containers — Coding, identi- 1.4 The marking requirements for these containers shall be in accordance with the principles embodied fication and marking. in ISO 6346. ISO 1496-3:1895(E( O I5>U

Tabl 1 — Container tes

3 Definitions 3.5 gas: Fluid substance having a vapour pressure greater than an absolute pressure of 300 kPa " at For the purposes of this part of ISO 1496, the defi- 50 °C or as otherwise defined by the competent nitions given in ISO 830. together with the following, authority. apply. However, for practical reasons, certain defi- nitions taken and adapted from ISO 830 are given 3.6 liquid: Fluid substance having a vapour pressure below. not greater than an absolute pressure of 300 kPa Λ> at 50 °C. 3.1 tank container: Freight container which in- cludes two basic elements, the tank or tanks and the 3.7 dry bulk: Assemblies of separate solid particles framework and complies with the requirements of normally substantially in contact with one another this part of ISO 1496. which are, or may be rendered, capable of fluid flow.

3.2 framework: Tank mountings, end structure and 3.8 dangerous goods: Those substances classified all load-bearing elements not present for the purposes as dangerous by the United Nations committee of of containing cargo, which transmit static and dynamic experts on the transport of dangerous goods or bγ the forces arising out of the lifting, handling, securement competent authority as defined in 3.9. and transporting of the tank container as a whole. 3.9 competent authority: The authority or auth- 3 J tank(s): Vessel(s) and associated piping and fit- orities designated as such in each country or in each tings which are designed to contain the cargo carried. specific case by the governments concerned for the approval of tank containers. 3.4 compartment: A section of the tank formed bγ the shell, ends or complete bulkheads. 3.10 maximum allowable working pressure: That pressure assigned for operation by either a competent NOTE 2 Baffles, surge plates or other perforated plates authority or other responsible person to a particular do not form tank compartments within the meaning of this tank, above which that tank is not intended to be op- definition. erated.

11 300 IcPa = 3 bar o ISO ISO 1496-3:1995(E)

3.11 test pressure: The gauge pressure at which 5.1.3 The strength requirements for comer fittings the tank is tested (see 6.13.2). (see also 5.2) are specified in ISO 1161. 3.12 total capacity : That volume of water which 5.1.4 The tank container shall be capable of with- will completely fill the tank at 20 °C. standing the test loads and loadings specified in clause 6. 3.13 ullage: That portion of the total capacity of the tank not occupied by its cargo, expressed as a per- 5.1.5 Each tank container shall be designed to with- centage of the total capacity. stand the effects of inertia of the tank contents re- sulting from transport motions. For design purposes, these effects may be taken to be equivalent to 4 Dimensions and ratings loadings of 2Rg longitudinally, Rg laterally and 2Rg vertically2). These loadings may be considered 4.1 External dimensions individually to be evenly distributed and to act through the geometric centre of the tank. Vertical loadings are The overall external dimensions and tolerances of total loadings including dynamic effects. It should be tank containers covered by this part of ISO 1496 shall noted that the above loadings do not give rise to an be those established in ISO 668, except that tank increase in pressure in the vapour space. For design containers may be of reduced height, in which case purposes, an equivalent pressure loading may be they shall be designated 1AX, 1BX. 1CX and 1DX. No used. part of the tank container, its associated fittings and/or equipment shall project beyond these specified 5.1.6 Each tank container shall be capable of with- overall external dimensions. standing the requirements of 5.1.5 and the static head produced in the tank container while loaded to its 4.2 Ratings rating R. Due regard shall be given to the liquid/dry bulk of highest density that is to be carried and to any The values of the rating, R, the maximum gross mass compartmentation of the tank. of the container, shall be those specified in ISO 668 However, taking account of the high density of many 5.1.7 As the effects of loads encountered under any fluid cargoes, the values of the rating R chosen for the dynamic operating condition should only approach, design and testing of 1 BBB. 1BB, 1B. 1CC and 1C but not exceed, the effects of the corresponding test tank containers may be higher than those specified in loads, it is implicit that the capabilities of tank con- ISO 668. For all containers in operation, such values tainers indicated in annex A and demonstrated by the shall in no case exceed the rating allowed for 1AAA, tests described in clause 6 shall not be exceeded in 1AA and 1A containers in ISO 668. any mode of operation. 5.1.8 Any closure in a tank container, which if unse- 5 Design requirements cured could lead to a dangerous situation, shall be provided with an adequate securing system having, 5.1 General so far as may be practicable, external indication of the positive securement of that closure in the appropriate All tank containers shall be capable of fulfilling the operating position. following requirements for the framework, the design and construction of the tank and any optional pro- 5.1.9 Fork-lift pockets shall not be provided in tank visions. containers. NOTE 3 Fork-lift transport of tank containers is con- 5.1.1 The ability of the tank container to withstand sidered dangerous because of stability problems with the specified design loadings shall be established by loaded or partly-loaded tanks and the danger of impact calculation or test. damage from the forks of fork-lift trucks.

5.1.2 The strength requirements for tank containers 5.1.10 The tank container materials shall be suitable are given in diagrammatic form in annex A (these re- for. or adequately protected from, the cargo and the quirements are applicable to all tank containers as environment in which the tank container may be op- complete units except where otherwise stated). erated. 2) See 6.1.1, note 6. ISO 1496-3:1995{E) o ISO

Oue regard should be given to the problems of vari- or from the longitudinal members of a carrying vehi- ation in ambient temperature, corrosive atmospheres, cle, which are assumed to lie within the two the possibility of uncontrolled cargo release in fire, 250 mm3) wide zones defined by the dotted lines in etc. figure B.I. Special consideration shall be given in the base 5.1.11 The design of tank containers of types IAAA structure design to the risk of failure from fatigue. and 1BBB shall take into special account the prob- lems of the dynamic instability of these containers, compared with 1AA and 1BB tank containers, when 5.3.2.2 The lower faces of the load-transfer areas in operating in the road/rail environment in a partially the container base structure, including those of the laden condition. end transverse members, shall lie in one plane located 12,5 mm mm3) 5.2 Corner fittings above the plane of the lower faces of the bottom corner fittings of the tank container (base plane). 5.2.1 General Apart from the bottom comer fittings and bottom side All tank containers shall be equipped with top and rails, no part of the container shall project below this bottom comer fittings. The requirements and pos- plane. However, doubler plates may be provided in itioning of the comer fittings are given in ISO 1161. the vicinity of the bottom corner fitting to afford pro- The upper faces of the top comer fittings shall tection to the understructure. protrude above the top of all other components of the tank container by a minimum of 6 mm3) (see 5.3.5). Such plates shall not extend more than 550 mm3) from the outer end and not more than 470 mm3) from 5.2-2 Doubter plates the side faces of the bottom corner fittings, and their lower faces shall be at least 5 mm3) above the lower Whenever reinforced zones or doubler plates are pro- faces of the base plane of the container. vided to afford protection in the vicinity of the top comer fittings, such plates and their securements 5.3.2.3 The transfer of load between the underside shall not protrude above the upper faces of the top of any bottom side rails which may be fitted and corner fittings. These plates shall not extend more carrying vehicles is not envisaged. than 750 mm3) from either end of the container but may extend the full width. 5.3.2.4 Load-transfer area requirements are given in annex B. 5.3 Base structure 5.3.3 For 1D and 1DX tank containers, the level of 5.3.1 All tank containers shall be capable of being the underside of the base structure is not specified, supported by their bottom comer fittings only. except insofar as it is implied in 5.3.4 and 5.3.5.

5.3.2 AJI tank containers, other than 1CC, 1C, 1CX, 5.3.4 When the tank container is loaded to its rating 1D and 1DX, shall be capable of being supported only R, no part of the tank or its associated shell fittings by load-transfer areas in their base structure. shall project downwards below a plane situated 25 mm3) above the base plane (bottom faces of the 1CC, 1C and 1CX tank containers may have inter- bottom comer fittings). mediate load-transfer areas as an optional feature. If so, these tank containers shall meet the requirements 5.35 For tank containers under dynamic conditions, in 5.3.2.1. 5.3.22 and annex B. or the static equivalent thereof, with the tank con- tainer loaded in such a way that the combined mass 5.3.2.1 Consequently, these tank containers shall of the tank container and test load is equal to 1.8R. have end transverse members and sufficient inter- no part of the base of the tank container shall deflect mediate load-transfer areas (or a flat underside) of more than 6 mm3) below the base plane (bottom sufficient strength to permit vertical load transfer to faces of the bottom comer fittings).

3) 5 mm o 3/16 in: 6 mm ∞ 1/4 in; 12,5 mm 1 mm - 1/2 in Sj!| in: 25 mm = 1 in; 250 mm = 10 in; 470 mm < - 18 1 /2 h>: SSO mm -» 22 in: 750 mm - 29 1/2 in o ISO ISO 1496-3:1995(E)

5.4 End structure necessary to comply with this requirement (see 4.1 and 5.3). For tank containers other than 1D and 1DX the side- ways deflection of thertop-of the tank container with Wherever possible, hinged device should be fitted so respect to the bottom of the tank container at the that they open away from the likely vicinity of any time it is under full transverse rigidity test conditions personnel. (see 6.8) shall not cause the sum of the changes in length of the two diagonals to exceed 60 mm4) 5.6.3.3 Any tank opening located below the normal level of the contents and fitted with a valve capable 5.5 Side structure of being operated manually shall be provided with an additional means of closure on the outlet side of the For tank containers other than 1D and IDX the lon- valve. Such additional means of closure may be a gitudinal deflection of the top of the tank container contents-tight cap, bolted blank flange, or other suit- with respect to the bottom of the tank container at able protection against accidental escape of the con- the time it is under full longitudinal rigidity test con- tents. ditions (see 6.9) shall not exceed 25 mm4). All valves, whether fitted internally or externally, shall be located as close to the tank shell as practicable. 5.6 Tank

5.6.1 Design and construction 5.6.3.4 Stop valves with screwed spindles shall be closed by clockwise motion of the handwheel. 5.6.1.1 Each tank or compartment thereof shall be designed and constructed to good technical practice. 5.6.3.5 All tank connections, such as nozzles, outlet fittings and stop valves, shall be clearly marked to in- 5.6.1.2 Each tank or tanks shall be firmly secured to dicate their appropriate functions. structural elements of the tank framework. The tank or tanks shall be capable of being filled and emptied 5.6.4 Pressure and vacuum relief devices without removal from the framework. 5.6.1.3 Tanks or tank compartments without vac- 5.6.4.1 Each tank or compartment thereof intended uum relief devices shall be designed to withstand an to carry non-dangerous cargo shall be fitted with a external pressure of at least 40 kPa4) above the pressure relief device set to be fully open at a pres- internal pressure. sure not greater than the tank's test pressure, to prevent excessive internal overpressure. Such de- Tanks equipped with vacuum relief valves shall be vices shall be connected to the vapour space of the designed to withstand an external overpressure of tank and located as near to the top of the tank and as 21 kPa4) or greater. near to the tank's (or tank compartment's) mid-tength as practicable. 5.6.2 Corrosion allowance In those cases where the tank container is used with In addition to the requirements of 5.1.10 an allowance both dangerous and non-dangerous cargo, the relief for corrosion shall be taken into consideration where devices shall be set in accordance with 5.6.4.3. necessary. 5.6.42. Pressure relief devices, installed as required 5.6.3 Tank openings in 5.6.4.1, should have a minimum relief capacity of 0,05 m3/s4) of standard air [an absolute pressure of 5.6.3.1 All tank openings except those fitted with 100 kPa4) at 15 °C]. pressure relief devices shall be provided with ade- quate closures to prevent accidental escape of the This may be considered as providing overpressure contents. protection under non-emergency conditions, but should not be considered as adequate protection for 5.6.3.2 Tank nozzles and outlet fittings shall be sub- a tank container, or compartment thereof, against ex- stantially made and attached to the tank in such a cessive overpressure under full fire exposure con- manner as to minimize the risk of breakage. Protec- ditions, dry bulk dust explosion or higher dry bulk tive covers or housings shall be used wherever pressurization.

4) 25 mm « 1 in; 60 mm = 23/8 in: 21 kPa -0,21 bar; 40 kPa = 0.4 bar, 100 kPa •» 1 ban 0,05 m3/s«» 106ft3/min ISO 1496-3:1995(E) o ISO

5.6.4.3 Tanks, or a compartment thereof, intended 5.7 Optional features for the carriage of dangerous goods shall be provided with pressure relief devices meeting the relevant 5.7.1 Gooseneck tunnels regulations to the satisfadion.of the competent auth- ority. Gooseneck tunnels shall be provided as mandatory features in 1AAA tank containers and may be provided 5.6.4.4 Each pressure relief device shall be plainly as optional features in 1AA, 1A and 1AX tank con- and permanently marked with the pressure at which tainers. The dimensional requirements are specified it is set to operate. in annex C; all other parts of the base structure shall be as specified in 5.3. 5.6.4.5 A tank container, or a compartment thereof, with an external design pressure of less than 5.7.2 Walkways 40 kPa5) shall be equipped with a vacuum relief de- vice set to relieve at an absolute pressure of Where provided, walkways shall be designed to 79 kPa5), except that a lower absolute setting may be withstand a loading of not less than 3 kN 5) uniformly used, provided that the external design pressure is distributed over an area of 600 mm x 300 mm5). not exceeded. The vacuum relief device shall have a minimum through area of 284 mm25) and shall con- Longitudinal walkways shall have a minimum width form to the requirements of the competent authority. of 400 mm5). The use of combination pressure/vacuum relief de- vices is allowed. 5.7.3 Udders NOTE 4 The above requirements are intended to protect against collapse of the tank or compartment thereof, during Where provided, ladders shall be designed to with- conditions of normal ambient temperature variations. They stand a load of 200 kg5) on any rung. will not necessarily prevent collapse if a tank, or a com- partment thereof, is, for example, closed tightly immediately 5.7.4 Tank Insulation after steam cleaning or discharged without opening the manhole covers. When insulation is provided, the design and con- struction shall be such that the insulation will in no 5.6.5 Inspection and maintenance openings way impinge on the specified requirements nor inter- fere with the proper function of the tank fittings. Tank containers shall be provided with manholes or other openings to allow for complete internal in- Due regard shall be given to the requirements of spection, unless exempted by the competent auth- 5.1.10. ority. The size of manholes shall be a minimum of 5.7.5 Tank heating and refrigeration 500 mm5) in diameter and shall be determined by the need for men and machines to enter the tank to in- When heating or refrigeration is provided, due con- spect, maintain or repair the inside, taking into ac- sideration shall be given to the safety of the tank and count the requirements of the governing competent its contents. Suitable safeguards shall be provided to authority. avoid the development of excessive temperature and stresses. 5.6.6 Gauging devices Gauging devices which may be in direct communi- 6 Testing cation with the contents of the tank shall not be made of easily destructible material. 6.1 General 5.6.7 Sealing (customs requirements) Unless otherwise stated, tank containers complying with the design and construction requirements speci- Adequate provision shall be made for the sealing of fied in clause 5 shall, in addition, be capable of with- the tank in accordance with international customs standing the tests specified in 6.2 to 6.11. The agreements. pressure test (test No. 12) snail be applied to every

5) 4O kPa - 0.4 ban 79 kPa - 0.79 ban 284 mm2 - 0,44 in2; 400 mm = 16 In; 500 mm - 19 3/4 m; 600 mm x 300 mm - - 24 in x 12 In; 3 kN -675 Pbf; 200 kg - 440 Ib ° lSO ISO 1496-3:1995(E)

tank container and shall, where practicable, be carried 6.1.3 The test loads and loadings specified for all the out last if other tests are to be performed. following tests are minimum requirements. Tank containers intended f or the carriage of danger- NOTE 8 Special attention is drawn to the loading induced ous goods shall, in addition, comply with the test re- during operation of types 87 and 88. quirements of the relevant regulations to the satisfaction of the competent authority. 6.1.4 The dimensional requirements to which refer- ence is made in the requirements clause after each NOTE 5 Dynamic tests are not included pending possible test are those specified in development of a satisfactory and reproducible test speci- fication. a) the dimensional and design requirement clauses 4 and 5 of this part of ISO 1496; 6.1.1 The symbol P denotes the maximum payload b) ISO 668; of the container to be tested, that is, P ==R -T c) ISO 1161. where 6.2 Test No. 1 — Stacking R is the rating; 6.2.1 General T is the tare. This test shall be carried out to prove the ability of a The symbol W denotes the container payload with the tank container to support a superimposed mass of total capacity filled with water. containers, taking into account conditions aboard ships at sea and the relative eccentricities between NOTE 6 R. P. T and W, by definition, are in units of mass. superimposed containers. Where test requirements are based on the gravitational forces derived from these values, those forces, which are Table 2 specifies the force to be applied as a test to inβrtial forces, are indicated thus: each pair of comer fittings and the superimposed mass that the test force represents. Rg. Ps. Tg. Wg the units of which are in newtons or multiples thereof. 6.2.2 Procedure The word "toad", when used to describe a physical quantity The tank container, filled completely with water, shall to which units may be ascribed, implies mass. be placed on four level pads, one under each bottom comer fitting. The pads shall be centralized under the The word "loading", for example, as in "internal loading", implies force. fittings and shall be substantially of the same plan di- mensions as the fittings.

6.1.2 The tank container under test, unless other- The tank container shall be subjected to vertical forces wise stated, shall be loaded with a suitable fluid/dry applied either to all four comer fittings simultaneously, bulk to achieve the test load or loading specified. or to each pair of end fittings, at the appropriate level specified in table 2. If the test load or loading cannot readily be met by the The forces shall be applied through a test fixture above method, or if such a method is undesirable, the equipped with comer fittings as specified in ISO 1161. tank container shall be loaded with a suitable or equivalent fittings which have imprints of the same fluid/dry bulk and a supplementary load or loading geometry (i.e. with the same external dimensions, shall be applied. The total load or loading thus applied chamfered aperture and rounded edges) as the bot- shall be such as to simulate uniform loading. tom face of the bottom comer fitting specified in Variations of 20 % of the calculated bending moment ISO 1161. If equivalent fittings are used, they shall be diagrams of the uniformly loaded tank container shall designed to produce the same effect on the container be considered acceptable. under test loads as when corner finings are used. NOTE 7 Other alternative test load or loadings (for In all cases, the forces shall be applied in such a example for longitudinal and lateral internal restraint tests) manner that rotation of the planes through which the may be used, provided that they achieve the specified test forces are applied and on which the container is sup- loading. ported, is minimized. ISO 1496-3:1995(E) o ISO

—eliedinstackin tt

Each corner fitting or equivalent fining shall be offset that no significant acceleration or deceleration forces in the same direction by 25,4 mm6) laterally and are applied. 38 mm6) longitudinally. For a tank container other than 1D or 1DX, the lifting In the case of tank containers with identical ends, only forces shall be applied vertically. one end need be tested. For a ID or 1DX tank container, lifting shall be by means of slings, the angle of each leg being at 60* to 6.2.3 Requirements the horizontal. On completion of the test, the tank container shall not After lifting, the tank container shall be suspended for show leakage or permanent deformation or abnor- 5 min and then lowered to the ground. mality which will render it unsuitable for use, and the dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing 6.3.3 Requirements and interchange shall be satisfied. On completion of the test, the tank container shall not 6.3 Test No.2 — Lifting from the four top show leakage or permanent deformation or abnor- corner fittings mality which will render it unsuitable for use, and the dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing and interchange shall be satisfied. 6.3.1 General This test shall be carried out to prove the ability of a 6.4 Test No. 3 — Lifting from the four tank container, other than a 1D or a 1DX container, to bottom comer fittings withstand being lifted from the four top comer fittings with the lifting forces applied vertically, and the ability 6.4.1 General of a 1 D or 1 DX tank container to withstand being lifted from the four top comer fittings with the lifting forces This test shall be carried out to prove the ability of a applied at any angle between the vertical and 60° to tank container to withstand being lifted from its four the horizontal. These are the only recognized ways of bottom comer fittings by means of lifting devices lifting tank containers by the four top comer liftings. bearing on the bottom corner fittings only and at- tached to a single transverse central spreader beam This test shall also be regarded as proving the ability above the container. of the tank container to withstand the forces arising from acceleration of the payload in lifting operations. 6.4.2 Procedure 6.3.2 Procedure The tank container under test shall be loaded in such a way that the combined mass of tank container and The tank container under test shall be loaded in such test load is equal to 2R (see 6.1.2). and shall be care- a way that the combined mass of tank container and fully lifted from the side apertures of all four bottom test load is equal to 2R (see 6.1.2) and it shall be comer fittings in such a way that no significant accel- carefully lifted from all four top comers in such a way eration or deceleration forces are applied. 6) 25.4 mm- 1 in; 38 mm - 1 1/2 in o ISO ISO 1496-3:1995(E)

Lifting forces shall be applied at 6.5.3 Requirements 30' to the horizontal for IAAA, IAA. 1A and 1AX On completion of the test, the tank container shall not tank containers; _ _ show leakage or permanent deformation or abnor- mality which will render it unsuitable for use, and the 37" to the horizontal for IBBB, IBB, 1B end 1BX dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing tank containers; and interchange shall be satisfied. 45* to the horizontal for 1CC, 1C and 1CX tank containers; 6.6 Test No. 5 — Internal restraint (longitudinal) 60* to the horizontal for ID and 1DX tank con- tainers. 6.6.1 General In each case, the line of action of the lifting force and the outer face of the corner fitting shall be no further Separate tests shall be carried out to prove the ability apart than 38 mm 7I. The lifting shall be carried out in of the tank container to withstand the effects of the such a manner that the lifting devices bear on the four inertia of the tank contents both on the tank itself and bottom corner fittings only. the tank-tc-framework connections under the con- ditions of longitudinal acceleration envisaged in 5.1. The tank container shall be suspended for 5 rnin and then lowered to the ground. NOTES 9 The effects of vertical acceleration are deemed to be 6.4.3 Requirements covered by tests Nos. 2 and 3. On completion of the test, the tank container shall not 10 Containers without longitudinal frames are deemed to show leakage or permanent deformation or abnor- be covered by test No. 4. mality which will render it unsuitable for use, and the dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing 6.6.2 Procedure and interchange shall be satisfied. The tank container shall be loaded in such a way that the combined mass of the tank container and test 6.5 Test No. 4 — External restraint load is equal to R. (longitudinal) The tank container shall be positioned with its longi- 6.5.1 General tudinal axis vertical (a tolerance of 3° is acceptable), ft shall be held in this position for 5 min either This test shall be earned out to prove the ability of a a) by means of supports at the lower end of the tank container to withstand longitudinal external re- base structure of the tank container acting only straint under dynamic conditions or railway operation, through the two bottom comer fittings giving both which implies accelerations of 2;. vertical and horizontal securemβnt. and by means of anchor devices acting through the comer fit- 6.5.2 Procedure tings at the upper end of the base structure in such a manner as to provide horizontal restraint The tank container shall be loaded in such a way that only; or the combined mass of tank container and test load is equal to R (see 6.1.2), and shall be secured b) by means of supports under the four downward- longitudinally to rigid anchor points through the bot- facing corner fittings. tom apertures of the bottom corner fittings at one end of the tank container. Alternative procedure b) may be used only for those types of tank containers where the tank is supported A force of 2Rg shall be applied horizontally to the tank solely by the base structure of the container or where, container through the bottom apertures of the other in the opinion of the competent authority, the tank bottom comer fittings, first towards and then away container is adequately tested with respect to tank- from the anchor points. to-framework connections by tests Nos. 4 and 8. 7) 38 mm » 1 1/2 in ISO 1496-3:1995{E) o ISO

Tank containers which are not structurally symmetri- container is adequately tested with respect to tank- cal with respect to internal divisions or tank-to- to-framework connections by tests Nos. 4 and 8. framework connections shall be tested at both ends. 6.7.3 Requirements 6.6.3 Requirements On completion of the tests, the tank container shall On completion of the tests, the tank container shall not show leakage or permanent deformation or not show leakage or permanent deformation or abnormality which will render it unsuitable for use, abnormality which will render it unsuitable for use. and the dimensional requirements affecting handling, and the dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing and interchange shall be satisfied. securing and interchange shall be satisfied. 6.8 Test No. 7 — Rigidity (transverse) 6.7 Test No. 6 — Internal restraint (lateral) 6.8.1 General 6.7.1 General This test shall be carried out to prove the ability of a tank container, other than a 1 D or a 1 DX container, to Separate tests shall be carried out to prove the ability withstand the transversal racking forces resulting of the tank container to withstand the effects of the from ship movement. inertia of the tank contents both on the tank itself and the tank-to-framework connections under the con- 6.8.2 Procedure ditions of lateral acceleration envisaged in 5.1. The tank container in tare condition (J) shall be placed NOTES on four level supports, one under each corner fitting, 11 The effects of vertical acceleration are deemed to be and shall be restrained against lateral and vertical covered by tests Nos. 2 and 3. movement by means of anchor devices acting through the bottom apertures of the bottom corner 12 Containers without longitudinal frames are deemed to fittings. Lateral restraint shall be provided only at a be covered by test No. 4. bottom corner fitting diagonally opposite to and in the same end frame as a top comer fitting to which force 6.7.2 Procedure is applied. The tank container shall be loaded in such a way that When testing the two end frames separately, vertical the combined mass of the tank container and test restraint need only be applied at the end frame under load is equal to R. test. The tank container shall be positioned with its trans- Forces of 15Q kN61 shall be applied either separately verse axis vertical (a tolerance of 3' is acceptable). It or simultaneously to each of the top comer fittings on shall be held in this position for 5 min either one side of the tank container in lines parallel both to the base and to the planes of the ends of the tank a) by means of supports at the lower end of the container. The forces shall be applied first towards base structure of the lank container acting only and then away from the top comer fittings. through the two bottom comer fittings given both vertical and horizontal securement, and by means In the case of tank containers with identical ends, only of anchor devices acting through the comer fit- one end need be tested. Where an end is not essen- tings at the upper end of the base structure in tially symmetrical about its own vertical centreline, such a manner as to provide horizontal restraint both sides of that end shall be tested. only: or For allowable deflection under full test loading, see b) by means of supports under the four downward- 5.4. facing comer fittings. 6.8.3 Requirements Alternative procedure b) may be used only for those types of tank containers where the tank is supported On completion of the test, the tank container shall not solely by the base structure of the container or where, show leakage or permanent deformation or abnor- in the opinion of the competent authority, the tank mality which will render it unsuitable for use, and the 8) 150kN =33700lbf C fSO ISO 1496-3:.1995{E)

dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing areas are only partially in contact with the carrying and interchange shall be satisfied. vehicle, within the space provided between the twistlock and the bottom comer fitting. 6.9 Test No. 8 — Rigidity (longitudinal) This test only confirms the strength of the structure in relation to static load-carrying ability. 6.9.1 General This test shall be carried out to prove the ability of a 6.10.2 Procedure tank container, other than a 10 or a 1DX container, to withstand the longitudinal racking forces rβsutting The tank container shall be loaded in such a way that from ship movement. the combined mass of the tank container and test load is equal to 2R. and it shall be supported by means of four supports, each with a supporting area of 6.9-2 Procedure 150 mm x 150 mm9). The supports shall be pos- itioned at the inner ends of the allowable transverse The tank container in tare condition (T) shall be placed support area. on four level supports, one under each comer fitting, and shall be restrained against longitudinal and vertical The tank container shall remain supported in this way movement by means of anchor devices acting for a minimum of 5 min. through the bottom apertures of the bottom comer fittings. Longitudinal restraint shall be provided only Repeat the test with the supports positioned at the at a bottom comer fitting diagonally opposite and in outer ends of the allowable transverse support area. the same side frame as a top corner fitting to which the force is applied. In the case of tank containers with symmetrical load- transfer areas, only one end need be tested. Where Forces of 75 kN8) shall be applied either separately the load-transfer areas are not symmetrical, both ends or simultaneously to each of the top comer fittings on shall be tested. one end of the tank container in lines parallel both to the base of the tank container and to the planes of the sides of the tank container. The force shall be applied 6.10.3 Requirements first towards and then away from the top comer fit- tings. Upon completion of the test, the tank container shall not show leakage, permanent deformation or abnor- In the case of a tank container with identical sides, mality which will render it unsuitable for use. and the only one side need be tested. Where a side is not dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing essentially symmetrical about its own vertical centre- and interchange shall be satisfied. line, both ends of that side shall be tested. For allowable deflections under full test loadings, see 5.5. 6.11 Test No. 10 — Walkways (where provided) 6.9.3 Requirements 6.11.1 General On completion of the test, the tank container shall not show leakage or permanent deformation or abnor- This test shall be carried out on all walkways, where mality which will render it unsuitable for use, and the provided on a tank container, to prove the ability of dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing the walkway to withstand the loads imposed by per- and interchange shall be satisfied. sons working thereon.

6.10 Test No. 9 — Load-transfer area test 6.112 Procedure 6.10.1 General A concentrated load of not less than 300 kg8) shall be uniformly distributed over an area of 600 mm x This test shall be carried out to simulate, statically, the 300 mm" located at the weakest area of the walk- known dynamic condition when the load-transfer way.

9) 75 kN •> 16850 Ibf; 150 mm x 150 mm = 6 in x 6 in; 600 mm x 300 mm - 24 in x 12 in; 300 kg - 660 Ib

11 ISO 1496-3:1995(E) o ISO

6.11.3 Requirements normal position. The test pressure shall be maintained for as long as is necessary to enable a complete On completion of the test, the walkways shall show examination of the tank and its fittings to be made, neither undue deformation nor any abnormality which but in any case for not less than 30 min. renders them unsuitable for use. Relief devices, where fitted, shall be rendered inop- 6.12 Test No. 11 — Ladders (where provided) erative or removed for the purpose of this test. The pressure at which the tank is tested shall be 6.12.1 General selected with regard to the intended use of the tank, in accordance with the regulations applied by the This test shall be carried out on all ladders, where competent authority and the requirements of 5.1.6. provided on a tank container, to prove the ability of This pressure will determine the type code desig- the ladder to withstand the loads imposed by persons nation of the tank container in accordance with working thereon. table 1. 6.12.2 Procedure 6.13.3 Requirements A load of 200 kg10) shall be positioned at the centre During the test, the tank shall show no leakage. On of the widest rung. completion of the test, the tank container shall not show leakage or permanent deformation or abnor- 6.12.3 Requirements mality which will render it unsuitable for use, and the dimensional requirements affecting handling, securing On completion of the test, the ladders shall show and interchange shall be satisfied. neither undue deformation nor abnormality which would render them unsuitable for use. 7 Identification and marking 6.13 Test No. 12 — Pressure test 7.1 The marking requirements of these tank con- tainers shall be in accordance with the principles em- 6.13.1 General bodied in ISO 6346 for the identification and marking This test shall be carried out on every tank container of freight containers. to prove the ability of the tank to withstand the spec- ified internal pressure. Where practicable, it shall be 72. At least the following data allowing tank identi- carried out last if other tests are to be performed, but fication shall be permanently attached to the tank in before the addition of thermal insulation, if any. a readily accessible position. These data shall be per- manently marked by stamping, embossing or other Shot-blasting or other preparation normally required means and shall not be painted so as to obscure the prior to applying lining or insulation need not be per- markings: formed prior to this test. a) date of original hydraulic test, year and month; 6.13.2 Procedure b) test pressure, in kilopascals and bars; The tank shall be hγdraulically tested. c) maximum allowable working pressure, in kilo- If the liquid/gas tank is provided with compartments, pascals and bars; in addition to hydraulic testing, each compartment shall be tested with the adjacent compartments d) total capacity, in litres; empty and at atmospheric pressure. e) date of hydraulic re-test, year and month; The test pressure shall be measured at the top of the tank or compartment with the tank container in its f) type code designation (optional mark).

10) 200 kg - 440 bf o ISO ISO 1436-3:1995(E)

7.3 As far as possible, the data plate shall include If any of the required data is included on other data the information required by the competent authorities. plates, it need not be duplicated in order to satisfy the thus reducing to a minimum the number of separate requirements of this part of ISO 1496. plates required. All data plates should be located as close to one another as possible. ISO 1496-3:1995(E) o ISC

Annex A (normative)

Diagrammatic representation of capabilities appropriate to all types and sizes of tank containers, except where otherwise stated

NOTES 13 The externally applied forces shown below are for one end or one side only- The loads shown within the containers rep- resent uniformly distributed internal loads only, and such loads are for the whole container. 14 The figures in this annex correspond to the tests described in 6.2 to 6.12 only where marked. 15 For definitions of R, P, T and W. sea 6.1.1.

15

1D and

17

O ISO ISO 1486-3:1995(E)

Annex B (normative)

Details of requirements for load-transfer areas in base structures of containers

B.1 The base structures of containers, i.e. the end For 1CC, 1C and ICX containers (if fitted) 2 transverse members and such intermediate members For 1 BBB, 1 BB, 1 B and 1 BX containers 2 as may be fitted (or such flat undersides as may be provided) to constitute load-transfer areas, shall be For 1AA, 1A and 1AX containers 3 capable of transferring load to or from the longitudinal For 1AAA. 1AA, IA and 1AX containers fitted members of a carrying vehicle which are assumed to with a non-continuous gooseneck tunnel 4 lie within the two 250 mm '" wide zones defined (by the dashed lines) in figure B.I. Where a greater number of pairs of load-transfer areas are provided, these should be approximately equally spaced along the length of the container. B.2 Containers having transverse members spaced B.2.3 The spacing between the end transverse more than 1 000 mm 11) apart (and not having a flat member and the nearest intermediate pair of load- underside) shall have load-transfer areas as indicated transfer areas shall be: in figures B.2, B.3 and B.4 capable of meeting the following requirements. — 1 700 mm to 2 000 mm11) for containers having the minimum number of pairs of load-transfer areas for the container concerned; B.2.1 Each pair of load-transfer areas associated with an end transverse member shall be capable of — 1 000 mm to 2 000 mm11) for containers having transferring loads of not less than R. i.e. the loads one more pair of load-transfer areas than the which may occur when a container is placed onto a minimum required for the containers concerned. carrying vehicle of the kind which does not support the container by its comer fittings. B.2.4 Each load-transfer area shall have a longitudi- nal dimension of at least 75 mm11). Furthermore, each pair of intermediate load-transfer areas shall be capable of transferring loads of not less than 2RIn, where n is the number of pairs of inter- B.3 Minimum requirements for load-transfer areas mediate load-transfer areas, Le. loads which may oc- in the vicinity of the gooseneck tunnel are shown in cur during transport operations. figure B.5. NOTE 16 In figures B.2, B.3 and B.4, the load-transfer areas associated with the container base ara shown in B.2.2 The minimum number of pairs of intermedi- black. Gooseneck tunnel transfer areas are also shown in ate load-transfer areas is: black in figure B.5.

11) 75 mm = 3 in; 250 mm = 10 in; 350 mm «. 14 in; 1 000 mm - 393/8 in; 1 000 mm to 2000 mm = 393/8 in to 783/4 in; 1 700 mm to 2000 mm - 66 15/16 in to 783/4 in; 3 ISO mm to 3 500 mm - 124 1/4 in to 1377/8 in; 1 250 mm2 = 2 in2

19 ISO 1496-3:1935(E) c lSO sions In millimetres

NOTE — See footnote 11) for conversion of dimensions to inches. Figure B.1 — Zones for longitudinal members Dimensions in miPimetres

NOTE — See footnote 11) for conversion of dimensions to inches. Figure B.2 — Minimum number of pain of load-transfer areas — 1CC, 1C and ICX containers (if fitted), and IBBB, 1BB, 1B and 1BX containers 0 O ISO ISO 1496-3:1995(E}

NOTE — See footnote 11) for conversion of dimensions to indies. Figure β.3 — Minimum number of pairs of load-transfer areas — 1AA, 1A and IAX containers without gooseneck tunnel

NOTE — See footnote 11) for conversion of dimensions to inches.

Figure B.4 — Minimum number of pairs of load-transfer areas — IAAA, IAA, IA and IAX containers with gooseneck tunnel (with minimum localized structure)

21 ISO 1496-3:1995(E) © ISO Dimensions in millimetres

Each load-transfer area at the tunnel has two components, an upper component (A) and a lower component (B). This paired set, A and B, shall be taken as one load-transfer area and the sum of the two components, A + B, shall be equal to or greater than 1 250 mm2. (See annex C for details of tunnel section.) NOTES 1 Where continuous tunnel side members are provided, the load transfer areas situated between 3 150 mm and 3500 mm from the end of the container may be omitted. 2 See footnote 11 ) for conversion of dimensions to inches. Figure B.S — Minimum requirements for load-transfer areas near the gooseneck tunnel 22 o ISO ISO 1496-3:1995{E>

Annex C (normative) Dimensions of gooseneck tunnels (where provided) See 5.7.2. The space required to constitute a gooseneck tunnel into which the gooseneck of a trailer may fit is shown in figured.

Rgurβ Cl

23