Zielinski, Jan (7396 Trade Street, San Diego, CA, 92121, US)
Hendler, Sheldon S. (2159 Avenida De La Playa, La Jolla, CA, 92037, US)
Zielinski, Jan (7396 Trade Street, San Diego, CA, 92121, US)
|1.||A method of providing skin care products, comprising: providing a topical formulation that includes a compound having the structure: wherein R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4'are independently selected from the group consisting of H, OH, OMe, glucose, 0glucose, 0acetyl glucose, Omalonyl glucose, ZCOOand ZP04 ; and with the proviso that at least one of R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4'is ZCOOor ZP04, where Z is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a straight or branched alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylthioalkyl, or aminoalkyl, a substituted or nonsubstituted cycloalkyl, an aryl, aralkyl, or alkylaryl, and a substituted cycloalkyl where at least one ring contains one or more of a nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorous or silicon heteroatom in the at least one ring.|
|2.||The method of claim 1 further comprising providing an information that topical application of the formulation to a skin has a beneficial result when applied over a predetermined period of time.|
|3.||The method of claim 2 wherein the beneficial result is selected from the group consisting of a reduction of an oxidative damage in the skin, a reduction of UV induced skin damage, a reduction in wrinkle formation, a reduction of progression of a precancerous lesion, and an improvement in skin tone.|
|4.||The method of claim 1 wherein the topical formulation is a cream, a balm, an ointment, a liposome formulation, or a gel.|
|5.||A method of treating skin, comprising: providing a topical formulation that includes a compound having the structure: wherein R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4'are independently selected from the group consisting of H, OH, OMe, glucose, 0glucose, 0acetyl glucose, Omalonyl glucose, ZCOOand ZP04 ; with the proviso that at least one of R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4'is ZCOOor ZP04, where Z is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a straight or branched alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylthioalkyl, or aminoalkyl, a substituted or nonsubstituted cycloalkyl, an aryl, aralkyl, or alkylaryl, and a substituted cycloalkyl where at least one ring contains one or more of a nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorous or silicon heteroatom in the at least one ring; and applying the formulation to an area of skin.|
|6.||The method of claim 5 wherein application of the formulation to the area of skin provides a beneficial result selected from the group consisting of a reduction of an oxidative damage in the skin, a reduction of UVinduced skin damage, a reduction in wrinkle formation, a reduction of progression of a precancerous lesion, and an improvement in skin tone.|
|7.||The method of claim 6 wherein the topical formulation is a cream, a balm, an ointment, a liposome formulation, or a gel.|
|8.||An isoflavone having the structure wherein R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4'are independently selected from the group consisting . of H, OH, OMe, a sugar radical, 0sugar, 0acetyl sugar, Omalonyl sugar, and a solubilizing group; with the proviso that the solubilizing group is not ZCOOor ZP04, where Z is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a straight or branched alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylthioalkyl, or aminoalkyl, a substituted or nonsubstituted cycloalkyl, an aryl, aralkyl, or alkylaryl, and a substituted cycloalkyl where at least one ring contains one or more of a nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorous or silicon heteroatom in the at least one ring.|
Field of the Invention The field of the invention is isoflavones.
Background of The Invention The isoflavones are a group of naturally occurring plant compounds having the aromatic heterocyclic skeleton of a flavan. Soybeans are the most common and well known source of isoflavones, and are reported to contain the isoflavones, daidzin, genistin, glycitin, 6'-O-acetyl-daidzin, 6'-O-acetyl genistin, 6'-O-malonyl daidzin, and 6'-O-malonyl genistin.
(see US Patent no. 5,679, 806 to Zheng et al. , (Oct. 1997) incorporated herein by reference).
Isoflavones are present in processed soy foods as well, including miso and soy sauce.
Legumes, lupine, fava bean, kudzu and psoralea may also be important sources. The existence of isoflavones in Pueraria has long been known, with the roots of Pueraria containing several isoflavone compounds, such as daidzin, and puerarin.
Isoflavones are known in aglucon forms, as well as 7-acetylated and 7-substituted glycosides. Especially important isoflavones in aglucon form include daidzein, genistein, and glycitein. Especially important isoflavones in 7-glycoside form include daidzin, genistin, and glycitin. Genistein is also known to occur naturally as a 4'-glucoside (sophoricoside), and a 4'- methyl ether (biochanin A).
Isoflavones in general, and genistein in particular, have structural similarities to that of certain human estrogens, and such compounds are said to have estrogenic activity.
Isoflavones are also said to have other useful biological and pharmacological activities, including antiangiogenic, antihemolytic, antiischemic, antileukemic, antimitogenic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, fungicidal, pesticidal, MAO-inhibition, phytoalexin, and tyrosine kinase inhibition activities (1).
The anticancer effects of genistein are of particular interest. Genistein may exert antitumor effects in part by inhibiting angiogenesis, i. e. , reducing formation of vasulature and blood flow to the tumor. Its affinity to estrogenic sites in the vicinity of cancer cells may also inhibit tumor growth. As a well-known inhibitor of the enzyme tyrosine kinase, genistein may also inhibit energy and signaling pathways in tumors. Examples of research are described in references (4) and (5).
Genistein and other isoflavones are also said to be important contributors to bone health, resulting at least in part from the ability of these compounds to inhibit protein kinase activity, and thereby inhibit osteoclast cell activity. The isoflavones are especially attractive in this regard because they generally have a low toxicity relative to many other known protein kinase inhibitors. Examples of research along these lines are described in references 6 and 7.
Citations for still other research articles describing beneficial effects of isoflavones are set forth as references.
Because of its many beneficial effects, enriched sources of genistein are marketed to consumers around the world in a wide variety of nutritional supplements. Many of the health benefits of soy products are ascribed to the presence of genistein.
Unfortunately genistein and other isoflavones are very insoluble in water. See, for example, descriptions of genistein, genistin, biochanin A, and sophoricoside in the Merck Index (3). The insolubility of the isoflavones complicates their formulation into foodstuffs and cosmetics, many of which are aqueous-based systems. Low solubility is also frequently an impediment to efficient bioavailability in orally administered products. Low solubility is a particularly serious impediment to formulation of intravenous medications, which are most often delivered in aqueous media.
Thus, there is a continuing need to provide isoflavones in forms which have increased bioavailability,. especially enhanced aqueous solubility relative to the unmodified compounds, while retaining the active properties of such modified compounds.
Summary of the Invention Methods and compositions of the present invention provide increased bioavailability of isoflavones by converting a starting isoflavone into a pro-compound. This is preferably accomplished by attaching a polar (solubilizing) leaving group which can be readily hydrolyzed under physiologic conditions to produce the starting isoflavone.
In preferred embodiments, an alcohol functionality of an isoflavone is esterified using a carboxylic acid group or a phosphoric acid group. This yields a carboxylic acid hemiester or a phosphate ester. In general, fluids of the digestive and absorptive gastrointestinal tract, other acids, and various enzymes are capable of hydrolyzing the esterified isoflavone to the starting isoflavone.
In another aspect of the invention, the starting isoflavone preferably comprises a natural isoflavone, more preferably comprises genistin or daidzin, and still more preferably comprises an aglycone form such as genistein or daidzein.
In still other aspects of the invention, the pro-compounds may advantageously be employed therapeutically or prophylactically for a variety of conditions, provided as a dietary supplement, or added to natural or processed food-stuffs. Thus, the pro-compounds may be used as pro-drugs or pro-nutrients.
In a further aspect of the invention, contemplated compounds may be incorporated into a formulation for topical application to the skin, wherein such formulations may be employed for a variety of indications. Particularly preferred indications include cosmetic indications (e. g., improving skin tone, reducing wrinkles, etc. ) and pharmaceutical indications (e. g., transdermal delivery of contemplated compounds, antineoplastic formulation, etc.).
Various objects, features, aspects and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention.
Brief Description of The Drawings Fig. 1 is a structural representation of a generalized isoflavone.
Detailed Description Using the structure shown in Figure 1 and below as a reference, known isoflavones include the following (where the 6'position may be on the glucose ring): Figure 1 ISOFLAVONE Rg R7 R6 Rs R. a' daidzin H O-glucose H H OH genistin H 0-glucose H OH OH glycitein H OH OMe H H puerarin glucose OH H H H 6'-O-acetyl daidzin H 0-acetyl glucose H H OH 6'-O-acetyl genistin H 0-acetyl glucose H OH OH 6'-O-malonyl daidzin H O-malonyl glucose H H OH 6'-O-malonyl genistion H O-malonyl glucose H OH OH genistein H OH H OH OH daidzein H OH H H OH glycitin H 0-glucose OMe H H Still further contemplated isoflavones may include those in which R4', R5, R6, R7, and R8 are independently H, OH, OMe, glucose, 0-glucose, 0-acetyl glucose, O-malonyl glucose, ZCOO-, ZP04, and a solubilizing group.
It is now contemplated that a natural or modified isoflavone may be esterified or otherwise modified to provide a pro-compound having increased bioavailability, and in particular enhanced aqueous solubility relative to the unesterified isoflavone. Thus, in preferred embodiments one or more of R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4'may comprise a group (solubilizing group) that, when covalently coupled to the isoflavone, increases the solubility of the so modified isoflavone over the non-modified isoflavone in water.
In still further preferred aspects of the inventive subject matter, the solubilizing group has a general structure of ZCOO-or ZP04-, where Z is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a straight or branched aliphatic chain, including an alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylthioalkyl, aminoalkyl group, including substituted derivatives of such groups, a substitute or non-substituted cycloalkyl, and an aromatic group, including aryl, aralkyl, or alkylaryl, and substituted derivatives such as where a ring contains one or more nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorous or silicon heteroatoms. Substituted forms of such groups may especially include a hydroxyl group, an amino group, a keto-group, a thiol group, a sulfate group, a nitro group, and various other groups that can act as a hydrogen donor or acceptor to form a hydrogen bond.
Z may comprise hydrogen, hydroxyl, cyano, nitro, halo, alkyl such as methyl, ethyl, butyl, pentyl, octyl, nonyl, tert-butyl, neopentyl, isopropyl, sec-butyl, dodecyl and the like, alkenyl such as 1-propenyl, 4-butenyl, 1-pentenyl, 6-hexenyl, 1-heptenyl, 8-octenyl and the like ; alkoxy such as propoxy, butoxy, methoxy, isopropoxy, pentoxy, nonyloxy, ethoxy, octyloxy, and the like; alkanoyl such as butanoyl, pentanoyl, octanoyl, ethanoyl, propanoyl and the like; arylamino and diarylamino such as phenylamino, diphenylamino and the like; alkylsulfinyl, alkylsulfonyl, alkylthio, arylsulfonyl, arylthio, and the like, such as butylthio, neopentylthio, methylsulfinyl, benzylsulfinyl, phenylsulfinyl, propylthio, octylthio, nonylsulfonyl, octylsulfonyl, methylthio, isopropylthio, phenylsulfonyl, methylsulfonyl, nonylthio, phenylthio, ethylthio, bezylthio, phenethylthio, sec-butylthio, naphthylthio and the like; alkoxycarbonyl such as methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, butoxycarbonyl and the like; alkyl amino and dialkylamino such as dimethylamino, methylamino, diethylamino, ethylamino, dibutylamino, butylamino and the like; cycloalkyl such as cyclohexyl, cyclopentyl, cyclooctyl, cycloheptanyl and the like; alkoxyalkyl such as methoxymethylene, ethoxymethylene, butoxymethylene, propoxyethylene, pentoxybutylene and the like; arylalkylamino such as methylphenylamino, ethylphenylamino and the like; aryloxyalkyl and aryloxyaryl such as phenoxyphenylene, phenoxymethylene and the like; and various substituted alkyl and aryl groups such as 1-hydroxybutyl, 1-aminobutyl, 1-hydroxylpropyl, 1- hydroxypentyl 1-hydroxyoctyl, 1-hydroxyethyl, 2-nitroethyl, trifluoromethyl, 3,4-epoxy-butyl, cyanomethyl, 3-chloropropyl, 4-nitrophenyl, 3-cyanophenyl, 1-hydroxymethyl, and the like ; hydroxyl terminated alkyl and aryl groups such as, 2-hydroxy ethyl, 4-hydroxy butyl and 4- hydroxy phenyl; sulfonic, sulfuric, carboxylic, phosphoric and phosphoric acid terminated alkyl and aryl groups such as ethylsulfonic acid, propylsulfonic acid, butylsulfonic acid, phenylsulfonic acid, and the corresponding carboxylic and phosphoric acids and derivatives of said sulfonic, carboxylic and phosphoric acids as for example salts, esters and the like, or nothing in ZP04.
Still further preferred solubilizing groups will include those derived from an organic and/or inorganic acid, wherein the acid is preferably coupled to the isoflavone via an ester bond. For example, where the solubilizing group comprises a phosphate group (which may be further modified) or sulfate/sulfonate group, it is contemplated that the solubilizing group is introduced via a reaction with a phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid (or corresponding modified acid). In another example, where contemplated solubilizing groups include an organic acid moiety (e. g. , citric acid, glycolic acid, etc. ), such groups may be coupled to contemplated compounds via an esterification with a hydroxyl group in contemplated compounds. Still further contemplated solubilizing groups include hydrophilic polymers (e. g., polyethylene glycols, polyvinyl alcohols, etc.). Therefore, preferred compounds according to the inventive subject matter especially include esterified isoflavones, in which an isoflavone is modified by esterification in at least one of the C4', C5, C6, C7, and/or CS position.
Of course, those skilled in the art will appreciate that higher solubility in aqueous environments is generally preferred over lower solubility. Thus, where R8, R7, R6, R5 and/or R4'comprise ZCOO-, Z is advantageously selected to have a polar group, and any alkyl segment is advantageously selected to be small. Among the dicarboxylic acid groups, hemisuccinate is by far the most common, useful and biocompatible group, and is specifically contemplated for this purpose. Glutarate and adipate are also preferred.
Where R8, R7, R6, Rs and/or R4'comprise ZP04-, a (OH) 2PO2 ester is preferred because it has two polar groups, is a good solubilizer, and has high biological compatibility.
Any additions to the P04 (such as (RO) 2PO2-) are contemplated to generally reduce aqueous solubility, and are therefore disfavored.
With respect to complexes, it is contemplated to employ metal salts of the esterified isoflavones, especially Li+, Na+, K+, Mg++ and ammonium salts, including NH4+ and low molecular weight mono-or polyalkylammonium.
Examples By way of example, and not of limitation, several embodiments of the inventive subject matter have been prepared and characterized. These examples all fall within the group of pro-compounds where at least one of R7, R6, Rs and R4'is H2PO4-, and HOOC- (CH2) x-COO- where x = 2,3, or 4. These new phosphate esters and hemiesters are all water soluble and readily hydrolyzed. They are also stable. In aqueous solutions of the exemplified compounds, for example, hydrolysis occurs to the extent of less than 1 % per day, when stored at pH 7.4 and 37°C. Dry formulations of the same compounds appear to be indefinitely stable.
Example 1-Mixed phosphate esters of genistein A solution of genistein (135 mg, 0.5 mmole) and di-tert-butyl phosphoramidite (330 ul, 1.0 mmole) in DMF (1 ml) was stirred under argon while IH-tetrazole (210 mg in 0.5 ml of DMF ; 3.0 mmole) was added dropwise. After a few minutes, the solution was cooled to- 20°C, then a solution of m-chloroperbenzoic acid (260 mg in 0.5 ml of methylene chloride, 1.5 mmole) was added dropwise. After warming to room temperature, the mixture was diluted threefold with ethyl acetate, then washed with 10% sodium metabisulfie and 10% sodium bicarbonate. A wash with 5% sodium carbonate removed a trace of unreacted genistein.
The ethyl acetate solution, containing the butyl esters of the genistein phosphates, was washed with 1M HCl and dried over sodium sulfate. After removal of the solvent in vacuo, the residue was treated with 30% TFA in acetic acid for 90 minutes at room temperature. The solvents were removed in vacuo, and the residue was taken up in ethanol and neutralized with sodium hydroxide to pH 5.5. Removal of the solvent in vacuo left a mixture of sodium salts of genistein phosphates, 145 mg.
HPLC analyses were performed using a Chrompack Intersil C8 column, 4.6 x 250 mm. The solvent was a mixture of 25% acetonitrile and 75% 0. 1M diammonium phosphate, pH 2.5, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was by UV at a wavelength of 260 nm.
HPLC analysis of the phosphate mixture showed approximately equal amounts of the 4'-phosphate, the 7-phosphate and the 4', 7-diphosphate, and only a small amount of the 5- phosphate.
Example 2-Genistein-7-phosphate a) Genistein-7-tosylate: p-Toluenesulfonyl chloride (540 mg, 2.8 mmoles) was added during 4 hours to a stirred mixture of genistein (730 mg, 2.7 mmoles) and potassium carbonate (2 g) in 25 ml of acetone. After stirring overnight, the mixture was poured into brine and extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract was evaporated under vacuum, and the residue chromatogrammed through silica gel with dichloromethane and chloroform.
Crystallization from methanol yielded 920 mg (80.2% yield) of genistein-7-tosylate. The proton magnetic resonance spectrum was consistent with the expected structure. b) 4', 5-Di (methoxymethyl) -genistein-7-tosylate : Chloromethyl methyl ether (90 ul, 1.12 mmoles) was added to a solution of genistein-7-tosylate (106 mg, 0.25 mmoles) and diisopropylethylamine (200 ul, 1.15 mmoles) in 0.6 ml of dioxane, under argon atmosphere, and stirred overnight. The mixture was poured into brine, extracted with ethyl acetate, and chromatogrammed through silica gel with dichloromethane. Crystallization from methanol yielded 115 mg (90% yield) of 4', 5-Di (methoxymethyl)-genistein-7-tosylate. The proton magnetic resonance spectrum was consistent with the expected structure. c) 4', 5-Di (methoxymethyl)-genistein : Potassium carbonate (700 mg) in water (5 ml) was added to a solution of 4', 5-di (methoxymethyl) -genistein-7-tosylate (600 mg, 1.17 mmoles) in 15 ml methanol under argon, and stirred overnight. The mixture was poured into brine, extracted with ethyl acetate, and recrystallized from methanol. The yield of 4', 5- Di (methoxymethyl)-genistein was 344mg (82%).
The electrospray mass spectrum in negative mode showed ion ni/z 357 [M-1] which confirmed the expected molecular weight of 358. The proton and carbon magnetic resonance spectra were consistent with the expected structure. d) Genistein-7-phosphate: 1H-Tetrazole (120 mg, 1.7 mmoles) was added to a solution of di-tert-butyl-diethylphosphoramidite (180 ul, 0.64 mmoles) and 4', 5- di (methoxymethyl) -genistein (200 mg, 0.56 mmoles) in 1.5 ml of N, N-dimethylacetamide under argon. After 10 minutes at room temperature, the mixture was cooled to-40°C, and a solution of m-chloroperbenzoic acid (130 mg, 0.75 mmoles) in dichloromethane was added rapidly. After warming to room temperature, the mixture was diluted with ether and washed with brine containing sodium bicarbonate. The solvent was removed, and the residue treated with 40% trifluoroacetic acid in acetic acid for 30 minutes. The volatile acids were removed under vacuum, and the residue dissolved in 2-propanol (4 ml) containing 0.2 ml 6N HC1 and left overnight. The mixture was poured into brine and extracted with ethyl acetate. The solvent was removed, and the residue was dissolved in ethanol (3 ml) and adjusted to pH 5.5 with NaOH. After evaporation, the residue was crystallized from ethanol, yielding 155 mg (75% yield) of genistein-7-phosphate as the sodium salt.
The electrospray mass spectrum in negative mode showed ion m/z 349 [M-1] which confirmed the expected molecular weight of 350. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were consistent with the expected structure.
Example 3-Mixed hemisuccinate esters of genistein A solution of genistein (135 mg, 0.5 mmole) in 2.0 ml of pyridine was stirred at room temperature while succinic anhydride (100 mg, 1.0 mmole) was added in several portions.
After stirring overnight at room temperature, the solvent was removed in vacuo. The gummy residue was taken up in water, adjusted to pH 3.0, and extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extracts were washed with water, then evaporated to dryness in vacuo. The crude mixture of mixed hemisuccinic acid esters weighed 205 mg.
Thin layer chromatography of the product showed principally the presence of mixed mono-and disuccinate esters of genistein. The product was completely soluble in phosphate buffer at pH 7.
Example 4-Genistein-7-hemisuccinate To a solution of 4', 5-Di (methoxymethyl)-genistein (see example 2c) (100 mg, 0. 28 mmole) in 1.5 ml of pyridine was added succinic anhydride (50 mg, 0.5 mmole) with stirring at room temperature. After stirring overnight, the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was taken up in water containing one drop of glacial acetic acid, and again evaporated to dryness in vacuo. The residue was chromatogrammed through silica gel with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. The yield of the 7-hemisuccinic ester of 4', 5- di (methoxymethyl)-genistein was 102 mg (78%). The product was dissolved in 2-propanol (3 ml) containing 0.2 ml 6N HCl and left overnight. The solution was evaporated to dryness.
The residue taken up in 1 ml of ethyl acetate and crystallized by the addition of hexane. The yield of genistein-7-hemisuccinate was 52 mg (50%).
Example 5-Non-enzymatic hydrolysis of genistein esters HPLC analysis was conducted using a Partisil ODS-3 column (9.5 x 250 mm), with methanol as the mobile phase, and UV detection at 260 mn.
A solution of genistein-7-phosphate (2.5 mg) in 5 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (0.1 M) at pH 7.4 was incubated at 37° for 10 days. Analysis by HPLC showed that absence of free genistein.
A solution of genistein-7-hemisuccinate (2.5 mg) in 5 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (0.1 M) at pH 7.4 was incubated at 37° for 10 days. Analysis by HPLC showed a conversion of about 4% of the hemisuccinate ester to free genistein.
Example 6: Hydrolysis of genistein-7-phosphate by various enzymes and biological media In each of these experiments, free genistein was extracted with a 1: 1 mixture of ethyl acetate and hexane, then analyzed by HPLC under the conditions described in example 5. a) In human serum (Sierra Biologicals) at 37°C, the half-life for hydrolysis to free genistein was about 5 hours. b) In human blood (Sierra Biologicals) at 37°C, the half-life for hydrolysis to free genistein was about 6 hours. c) In rat blood (Sierra Biologicals) at 37°C, the half-life for hydrolysis to free genistein was about 30 minutes. d) In alkaline phosphatase type VII-S at 37°C, the initial rate of hydrolysis to free genistein was 0.08% per minute.
This enzyme from bovine intestinal mucosa (Sigma cat no. P5521). 0.5 DEA units were dissolved in 1.0 ml of O. 1M glycine buffer pH 10.4, and the initial substrate concentration was 1. 07 mM. e) In alkaline phosphatase type XXIV at 37°C, the initial rate of hydrolysis to free genistein was 0. 05% per minute.
Example 7: Preparation of topical formulations Commercially available polyethyleneglycolized medium chain triglycelides (such as "Labrasol", "Gatte Fosse Inc") (10 g), polyethyleneglycolized triglycerides (such as"Gelucir 44", "Gatte Fosse hie" (10 g), soybean lecithin granules (available from many companies) (5 g) and almond oil (20 g) are well homogenized in a mixer at 40-60 rpm (component A).
Separately, component B is prepared as a solution of contemplated compounds according to any one of Examples 1-4 above in distilled water (30 ml) at a concentration between about 0. 1 g/1 to about 10 g/l. It should be recognized that a particular concentration is easily determined by the solubility of the modified isoflavone in water, as well as by the strength of the desired biological effect (e. g., visual inspection, biopsy, etc. ). Component B is then slowly mixed in the component A with a mixer at 40-60 rpm. One obtains an ointment formulation suitable for application to human skin.
Alternatively, glycerol mono-oleate (readily commercially available) (5 g), polyglycerol oleate ("Plurol Oleic","Gatte Fosse Inc") (5 g), soybean lecithin granules (0.5 g), sodium cholate (0.3 g), tocopherol (0.5 g), gelucir 44 (2 g) and almond oil (10 g) are fully homogenized in a mixer at 40-rpm (component A). Separately, component B is prepared as described above, and Component B is added gradually to component A while slowly mixing in a mixer at 40 rpm during 1 hour at room temperature. The product is a cream formulation suitable for application to human skin.
Of course, it be recognized that numerous alternative formulations can be prepared by a person of ordinary skill in the using well established protocols and commercially available ingredients. Therefore, suitable topical formulations will also include mousses, oil-in-water emulsions, water-in-oil emulsions, liposome preparations, nanosome preparations, balm, gels, sprays, fluids, etc. An exemplary collection of suitable topical formulations into which contemplated compounds may be incorporated can be found in"Beginning Cosmetic Chemistry: An Overview for Chemists, Formualtors, Suppliers and Others Interested in the Cosmetic Industry"by Randy Schueller, Perry Romanowski (Allured Pub Corp; (1999), ISBN: 0931710685), or in"Cosmetic and Toiletry Formulations Volume 8"by Ernest W.
Flick (Noyes Publications; ; 2nd edition ISBN: 0815514549).
Uses It is contemplated that esterified isoflavones will be readily converted to free isoflavone in biological media such as gastrointestinal fluid and blood. Among other things, gastrointestinal fluids often have enzymes and sufficiently high pH to hydrolyze ester bonds, and blood generally contains enzymes such as phosphatases and esterases which can hydrolyze phosphate ester and carboxylate ester bonds.
Contemplated uses of esterified isoflavones include any presently known or later discovered uses for isoflavones or isoflavonoids. Among other things, it is contemplated that esterified isoflavones can be administered to (which term is used herein to include"taken by") a person for any of the beneficial effects for which a natural isoflavonoid is thought to be advantageous. This specifically includes any of the effects listed above or described in any of the literature cited herein, and includes uses where the desired effect is antiangiogenic, antihemolytic, antiischemic, antileukemic, antimitogenic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, fungicidal, microbicidal, pesticidal, MAO-inhibition, phytoalexin, and tyrosine kinase inhibition. It is especially contemplated that esterified isoflavones can be used to treat osteoporosis and other symptoms of estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women. Also, it is contemplated that the compounds of the present invention can be used to prevent osteoporosis and consequent fractures that result from osteoporosis, which are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Still further, it is contemplated that esterified isoflavones can be used prophylactically to provide UV protection and in other ways to improve general skin health, to stimulate the immune system, and to reduce undesirable effects of oxidation (i. e. , provide antioxidant benefits).
Those skilled in the art will recognize that esterified isoflavones may be employed in many different ways. When taken orally, esterified isoflavones may be incorporated into food or beverage material, for nutritional, therapeutic, prophylactic value, or any combination of these. Esterified isoflavones may also be administered by any appropriate form of in vivo delivery, which is defined herein to include oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intrathecal, intramuscular, intracranial, inhalational, topical, transdermal, suppository (rectal), pessary (vaginal), administration and the like. Thus, delivery may occur through foods, pills, capsules or liquids as a nutritional supplement, or as a pharmaceutical.
In one particularly preferred aspect, a cosmetic preparation for topical application comprises contemplated compounds at a concentration effective to achieve a desired cosmetic or pharmacological effect. It should be recognized that topical application of selected and modified isoflavones is known in the art. However, such known application are generally limited to application in alcohols or other organic lipophilic solvents, which may frequently lead to irritation and other adverse reactions. In contrast, contemplated compounds may be admixed in any hydrophilic cosmetic composition due to the increased solubility of the modified isoflavones, and there are numerous suitable applications for topical application of contemplated compounds.
For example, a topical sunscreen or après-sun formulation may be employed to reduce or prevent UV-induced skin damage (see e. g. , Carcinogenesis 2002 Feb; 23 (2): 317-21.
Effects of the isoflavone 4', 5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone (genistein) on psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA)-induced photodamage. Shyong et al.; or Poster presented at 2002 Annual Meeting and Food Expo in Anaheim, California: Genistein reduces UVB induced oxidative damages in cultured human skin fibroblasts, by N. Y. Kim et al. of Pharmaceutical & Health Research Institute, Amore Pacific Corporation R&D Center, Kiheung-eup, Yongin-si, Kyounggi-do, 449-729, South Korea).
Alternatively, or additionally, a topical formulation comprising contemplated compounds may also provide significant protection from oxidative damage to the skin due to the well known anti-oxidative effect of isoflavones. (see e. g., Life Sci. 2002 Mar 29; 70 (19): 2287-97. Antioxidant effects of phyto-and synthetic-estrogens on cupric ion- induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins in vitro by Wilson T. et al. ). Oxidative damage may thereby be from electromagnetic or other radiation, or oxidative stress in a person.
In another example, a skin rejuvenation formulation may include contemplated compounds to improve skin tone via stimulation of synthesis of hyaluronic acid (see e. g., Skin Pharmacol. Appl. SkinPhysiol. 2002 May-Jun; 15 (3): 175-83. Genistein and daidzein stimulate hyaluronic acid production in transformed human keratinocyte culture and hairless mouse skin. Miyazaki K, Hanamizu T, Iizuka R, Chiba K. ). Delivery of significant quantities of isoflavones into the skin via contemplated compounds from (preferably) hydrophilic compositions may therefore reduce wrinkles, improve skin tone, improve feel of the skin.
In a further example, skin cancer or precancerous lesions may be treated with a topical composition that includes compounds according to the inventive subject matter (see e. g., Int.
J. Cancer 1997 Sep 4 ; 72 (5): 860-4. Genistein inhibits growth of B 16 melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro and promotes differentiation in vitro. Record IR, et al.; or Carcinogenesis 1998 19 (8): 1509-14. Isoflavone genistein inhibits the initiation and promotion of two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice by H Wei, R Bowen, X Zhang and M Lebwohl).
When applied as a topical compound, i. e. , onto the surface of skin, contemplated compounds may advantageously be included in a solution or emulsion in any lipid, non-lipid, or mixed lipid and non-lipid carrier (s) suitable for topical application. It is especially contemplated that the carrier may include water, aqueous buffer, a mixture of water and an organic solvent allowed in topical skin treatment (such as ethanol, glycerol, etc), organic non- toxic and non-irritating solvents, or macro-and micro-emulsion forms, liposome forms. In other aspects, contemplated compounds may also be dissolved in water, and then applied using a cloth, sponge, or other absorbent material. In any case, immersion or other soaking application may then advantageously be followed by topical application of a cream to hands and/or face, or any other part of the skin where a desired cosmetic effect is needed.
In yet another example, where contemplated compositions are included in a topical formulation for application onto the eye, corneal neovascularisation (see e. g. , Exp. Eye Res.
2000 Nov; 71 (5): 483-7. Treatment of corneal neovascularization with dietary isoflavonoids and flavonoids by Joussen et al. ) or oxidative damage may be reduced or even prevented using such formulations.
Therefore, the inventors contemplate that a skin care product may be provided in which a topical formulation includes a compound having the structure: wherein R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4'are independently selected from the group consisting of H, OH, OMe, glucose, 0-glucose, 0-acetyl glucose, O-malonyl glucose, ZCOO-and ZP04- ; and with the proviso that at least one of R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4'is ZCOO-or ZP04-, where Z is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a straight or branched alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylthioalkyl, or aminoalkyl, a substituted or non-substituted cycloalkyl, an aryl, aralkyl, or alkylaryl, and a substituted cycloalkyl where at least one ring contains one or more of a nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorous or silicon heteroatom in the at least one ring.
Where such products are commercially made available (e. g :, in wholesale or retail), it should be recognized that the product may be accompanied by an information that topical application of the formulation to a skin has a beneficial result when applied over a predetermined period of time. For example, such information may be provided by a booklet, a package insert, a commercial advertisement, or by verbal communication with a retailer and/or customer. Depending on the particular composition of the formulation, the beneficial result may vary considerably. For example, suitable beneficial results include reduction of oxidative damage in the skin, reduction of UV-induced skin damage, reduction in wrinkle formation, reduction of progression of a precancerous lesion, and/or an improvement in skin tone.
Consequently, it should be recognized that contemplated methods also include methods of treating skin in which a topical formulation is provided that includes a compound according to the inventive subject matter presented herein. While not limiting to the inventiove concept, it is generally preferred that suitable formulations include creams, balms, ointments, liposome formulations, and/or gels.
It is still further contemplated that compounds according to the present invention can be administered alone, or formulated in admixture with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
For example, the compounds of the present invention can be administered orally as pharmacologically acceptable salts. Because preferred compounds of the present invention are relatively water soluble, they can be administered intravenously in physiological saline solution (e. g. , buffered to a pH of about 7.2 to 7.5). Conventional buffers such as phosphates, bicarbonates or citrates can be used for this purpose. Of course, one of ordinary skill in the art may modify the formulations within the teachings of the specification to provide numerous formulations for a particular route of administration without rendering the compositions of the present invention unstable or compromising their therapeutic activity. It is also well within the ordinary skill of the art to modify the route of administration and dosage regimen of a particular compound in order to manage the pharmacokinetics of the present compounds for maximum beneficial effect in patients. One of ordinary skill in the art will also take advantage of favorable pharmacokinetic parameters of the pro-drug forms, where applicable, in delivering the present compounds to a targeted site within the host organism or patient to maximize the intended effect of the compound.
In addition, compounds according to the present invention may be administered alone or in combination with other agents for the treatment of the above mentioned diseases or conditions. Combination therapies according to the present invention may comprise the administration of at least one compound of the present invention or a functional derivative thereof, and at least one other pharmaceutically active ingredient. The active ingredient (s) and pharmaceutically active agents may be administered separately or together and when administered separately this may occur simultaneously or separately in any order. The amounts of the active ingredient (s) and pharmaceutically active agent (s) and the relative timings of administration will be selected in order to achieve the desired combined therapeutic effect.
To prepare the pharmaceutical compositions according to the present invention, a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the compounds according to the present invention is preferably intimately admixed with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier according to conventional pharmaceutical compounding techniques to produce a dose. A carrier may take a wide variety of forms depending on the form of preparation desired for administration, e. g. , oral or parenteral. In preparing pharmaceutical compositions in oral dosage form, any of the usual pharmaceutical media may be used. Thus, for liquid oral preparations such as suspensions, elixirs and solutions, suitable carriers and additives including water, glycols, oils, alcohols, flavouring agents, preservatives, colouring agents and the like may be used. For solid oral preparations such as powders, tablets, capsules, and for solid preparations such as suppositories, suitable carriers and additives including starches, sugar carrier, such as dextrose, mannitol, lactose and related carriers, diluents, granulating agents, lubricants, binders, disintegrating agents and the like may be used. If desired, the tablets or capsules may be enteric-coated or sustained release by standard techniques.
Thus, specific embodiments and applications of esterified isoflavones have been disclosed. It should be apparent, however, to those skilled in the art that many more modifications besides those already described are possible without departing from the inventive concepts herein. The inventive subject matter, therefore, is not to be restricted except in the spirit of the appended claims.
References : (incorporated herein by reference) 1. Phytochemical Database of the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Stephen M.
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22. Other references cited and not specifically included in the above list are also expressly included by reference herein.