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Title:
A KINEMATIC MOTION ASSEMBLY WITH RECIPROCATING RELATIVE MOTION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1992/016721
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The kinematic motion assembly (10) comprises a cylinder element (12) and a piston element (14) collaborating with each other, each of which is rotatably carried in an eccentric position on a rotating body (22, 36). The rotating bodies rotate around parallel axes (c, d) and are constrained together in such a way that they are able to rotate with equal angular velocity. The eccentricities (e) are equal for the piston and for the cylinder. The kinematic motion assembly can be used, for example, as an engine or as a pump.

Inventors:
Gagliano, Vitaliano
Application Number:
PCT/EP1992/000624
Publication Date:
October 01, 1992
Filing Date:
March 20, 1992
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Avanzata, Technologia S.
Gagliano, Vitaliano
International Classes:
F01B15/00; F02B57/00; F04B1/10; F04B19/02; F16H37/12; (IPC1-7): F01B15/00; F02B57/00; F04B1/10; F04B19/02; F16H37/12
Foreign References:
US3786727A
GB2216600A
GB1475765A
DE109309C
DE96687C
Download PDF:
Claims:
C L A I M S
1. A kinematic motion assembly comprising a cylinder block (12) forming a cylinder (16) and a piston unit (14) with a piston (26) movable in the said cylinder block, characterized in that the cylinder block is carried on a first rotating body (22, 22'), in an eccentric 5. position on the latter; the piston is integral with a piston rod (28) whose end opposite to the piston is pivoted in an eccentric way on a second rotating body (36, 36'), the rotation of the two rotating bodies being coordinated in such a way that they have equal angular velocities.
2. 10 2.
3. A kinematic motion assembly according to claim 1, characterized in that in addition it comprises guiding extensions (56) integral with the cylinder block and engaging with one part which is integral with the rotating body of the piston.
4. A kinematic motion assembly according to claim 1, characterized 15. in that the rotating bodies are identical crown wheels (22, 22', 36, 36') meshing with each other.
5. A kinematic assembly according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotating bodies are two identical crown wheels connected with each other by means of an endless belt or chain (62).
6. 20 5.
7. A kinematic motion assembly according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotating bodies are crown wheels (22b, 36b) which are connected to each other by means of a further crown wheel (60).
8. A kinematic motion assembly according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotating bodies are wheels (22f, 22'f, 22"f, 22" 'f) which are connected to each other by means of a connecting rod (6 ) .
9. A kinematic motion assembly according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises several cylinders mounted eccentrically and integrally on a central crown wheel (22c), each cylinder collaborating 5 with one of a plurality of pistons, whose piston rods (28c, 28'c, 28"c) have one end integral and rotatable on peripheral crown wheels (28c, 28'c, 28"c), which are angularly equidistant with respect to the central crown wheel.
10. A kinematic motion assembly according to claim 1, characterized 10. in that it comprises a central crown wheel (36f; 36h), onto which are mounted, eccentrically and rotatably, the ends of several piston rods, and peripheral crown wheels (22f, 22'f, 22"f, 22"'f; 22h, 22'h, 22"h), which are angularly equidistant and engaged on a central crown wheel (36f; 36h) , each one carrying an eccentric rotating cylinder engaging 15. with one of the said rods.
Description:
- l -

"A KINEMATIC MOTION ASSEMBLY WITH RECIPROCATING RELATIVE MOTION"

Various types of kinematic motion assemblies with reciproca'cing motion are known at present, and others with rotary motion, used as pumps and/or engines.

With the intention of improving the kinematic motion assemblies used 5. for these aims, the kinematic motion assembly which is the object of the present application has been realized, as defined in appended claim 1. In other words the new kinematic motion assembly comprises at least a cylinder and a piston collaborating with each other, the cylinder and the piston rod each being mounted in a rotating way

10. eccentrically around a respective axis, the two axes being parallel to each other and their eccentricities being equal to each other. The rotations can be the same or contrary, but in any case their angular velocity is the same. Preferably the cylinder and the piston are mounted on respective crown wheels, which are engaged with each other

15, directly or by means of interposed mechanisms.

The new kinematic motion assembly can be used as a motor or as a pump.

It has the following advantages:

- it eliminates dead centres;

- in some configurations, as a result of the simmetry of the 20. masses and the consequent positioning of the centre of gravity on the centre of rotation, it is possible to reduce or eliminate lateral trusts of the "piston" on the container cylinder, with advantageous effects on mechanical efficiency, on lubrication problems, and on sealing and resistance to abrasive wear; 25. - in other configurations, the attainment of symmetry of movements of moving masses can reduce or eliminate vibrations and

so-called whipping, in such a way that the working unit which adopts such a mechanism has higher qualities and advantages.

The invention will now be described below in greater detail, for exemplary purposes only and not restrictive, with reference to the

5. appended drawings, in which various embodiments are illustrated, and in which:

figure 1 is a diagrammatic perspective view, with one part removed, of a first kinematic motion assembly according to the invention; figure 2 is a diagrammatic illustration of the kinematic motion 10. assembly in figure 1, shown in section along the axis of the cylinder end of the piston rod; figure 3 from a) to n), illustrates various phases of the movement of the kinematic motion assembly in figure 1, by means of diagrammatic illustrations similar to those in figure 2; 15. figure 4 shows an exploded diagrammatic view of a first modified embodiment of the kinematic motion assembly; figure 5 is a diagrammatic view of the kinematic motion assembly in figure 4, substantially on the plane of the axis of the cylinder and the rod; 20. the figures from 6 to 13 show diagrammatic views of a number of modified embodiments of the kinematic motion assembly.

With reference first to figures 1 and 2, the new kinematic motion assembly is indicated as a whole with number 10 and essentially comprises a cylinder block 12 and a piston unit 14. The cylinder block 25. comprises a cylindrical chamber 16 and is mounted in a freely rotating way around an axis a; the axis a is transverse to the longitudinal axis b_ which is the center axis of the cylinder chamber 16. The axis a in its turn is parallel to and at a distance from an axis c, around which the cylinder block can rotate. The distance or eccentricity

(offset) between a and £ is indicated with the letter £.

The possibility of the block 12 rotating around the axis a is achieved by mounting the said block 12 by means of opposed lateral pins, which are received into rolling bearings, shown respectively with the 5. numbers 18 and 18'; the bearings 18 and 18' are received inside symmetrical wheels 22, 22', provided with respective axial pins 23, 23', whose axes are aligned and coincident with the axis a mentioned above, in such a way that the rotating mounting (not shown) of the pins 23, 23' of the wheel gives the assembly here described the 10. possibility of rotating around the above-mentioned axis £.

The piston unit 14 comprises a piston, indicated with 26, which is capable of moving with reciprocating motion with respect to the cylindrical chamber or cylinder 16. A piston rod 28 is integral with the piston and rigid with it, and is guided in such a way that it

15. slides into an opening 30 in the cylinder block 12, the opening possibly having a bush 31. The rod 28, at its end opposite to the piston, is connected at 32 in a rotating eccentric way to a member rotating around an axis d parallel to the axis £; the freely rotating axis of rotation, shown in diagrammatic form with the hinge 32, is

20. referenced f and is parallel to the axis d and spaced from it at an eccentricity equal to £, (that is, equal to the distance between the axes a and £ mentioned above).

In figure 2, a member for maintaining the eccentricity or offset between f and d is shown in diagrammatic form as a crank 33, 25. constrained to rotate with a pair of integral wheels 36, 36'. In figure 1, the piston rod 28 is hinged by means of a sleeve 29 on a shaft 40 having an axis f, and the axis f is rotatably supported in an eccentric position on parallel wheels 36 and 36', which, in turn, are integral with axial pins 37, 37', having an axis d around which they

are able to rotate.

Each wheel 22, 22' is constrained to rotate with the respective wheels 36, 36', in any known way whatsoever, in such a way that, when the wheel 36 performs a rotation in a clockwise direction, the wheel 22 5. performs a rotation in an anti-clockwise direction through an identical arc, and vice versa. In the embodiment in figures 1 and 2, this constraint is illustrated as a toothing made on each of the wheels 22, 22', 36, 36', the toothings having the same diameter and the same number of teeth, and meshing with each other.

10. Figure 3, from a) to n) illustrates the operation of the kinematic motion assembly. Beginning with, for example, a configuration {Figure 3a) in which the piston is in an intermediate position in the cylinder and the crank 33 is horizontal, for a rotation arc of about 30 ° (in a clockwise direction, for the wheels 36, 36' and in an

15 , anti-clockwise direction for the wheels 22, 22'), there is a shift clockwise of 30 * of the crank 33, a sMft of tfte nge 32 along the circle 38 around the axis d, and a shift of the piston 26 along the circumference 24 with-, radius around the axis £ and shown with a broken line; there is also a corresponding anti-clockwise shift of 30°

20. of the axis of the cylinder along t&e same circumference 24; there is, therefore, a reciprocal approach of tike bottom 16' of the cylinder and of the piston 26. This moving togetlrer continues further during the phase illustrated in Figure 3c), until the phase in Figure 3d), in which the crank 33 is aligned with the rod 28 of the piston. In the 25. phase 3e) there is a moving away of the bottom 16' of the cylinder and the piston, and this moving away increases during the phases f} , g) , h;, i) until it reaches its maximum in the phase indicated with the letter 1, and there is a subsequent moving together in the phases m) and n) , followed by a return to the phase illustrated in Figure 3a.

It should be noted that the kinematic motion assembly can be used as a two- or four- stroke internal combustion engine; as a diesel engine and as a pump. When it is used as an explosion engine, the phases of the figures from 3 to 31 can correspond to an induction stroke or an 5. explosion stroke, and the phases from 3m, n, a, b, c, d, to a compression stroke or an exhaust stroke. The pins 23, 37, 23', 37', or some of these, will be used for the drive. In the case of the assembly working as a pump, the figures from 3 to 31 correspond to a suction stroke and the figures 3m, n, a, b, c, d correspond to a delivery 10. stroke.

In this or in the other embodiments the induction or exhaust openings are not drawn, since it is understood that their realization is within the reach of a technician in the art.

The kinematic assembly can be realized in various other forms, some of 15. which will be explained with reference to the figures from 4 to 13.

With reference to figure 4, the elements shown in it which correspond to those shown in figure 1 have the same reference numbers and will not be described in detail.

The kinematic motion assembly 10a in figure 4 comprises a cylinder 20. block 12 and a piston unit 14.

The cylinder block comprises a head 52 (preferably finned for cooling reasons) rotatably mounted around a shaft 54. The latter is integral with the crown wheels 22, 22' in an eccentric position with respect to the pins 23, 23' of the wheels. The axis of the shaft 54 is axis a, 25. the axis of the pins is axis £. It should be be noted that in this case the axis a does not pass through the cylinder, but is outside it. The head 52 is integral with the cylinder 16, whose skirt is extended

by two arms 56 which define longitudinal guide openings 58 between the .

As in the previous embodiment, the piston unit comprises a piston head 26, a rod 28 and a sleeve 29. The latter is mounted on a pin 40 with 5. axis f; the pin is integral with and eccentric on the crown wheels 36, 36' , with axial pins 37 and 37' . The operation of this embodiment is identical to the one previously described, except for the fact that the arms 56 carry out the function of a reciprocal guide for the movement of the cylinder block and the piston.

10. The number 60 indicates a connecting stand for the arms.

In the figures from 6 to 13 some different exemplary embodiments of the kinematic motion assembly are represented solely in diagrammatic form, which, however, are given for the sake of information and are not to be considered as a complete list of all the embodiments which

15. may be possible. In each embodiment the parts which are similar to the parts described with reference to the figures from 1 to 5 have the same reference numbers with the addition of a letter, and they will not be described in detail. The embodiment 10b in Figure 6 comprises a piston 26b, able to move inside a cylinder 16b. The cylinder 16b is

20. carried eccentrically on a crown wheel 22b in such a way that it moves along a circumference having a radius £ while remaining parallel to itself. The piston comprises two rods 28b, 28'b, each of which is connected to a respective crank 33b, 33'b, having a length £; the crank 33b is integral with the crown wheel 36b and the crank 33'b is

25. integral with the crown wheel 36'b; the three crown wheels 36b, 22b and 36'b have equal diameters and mesh together.

The kinematic motion assembly 10c comprises (figure 7) a single central crown wheel 22c bearing three cylinders 16c, 16'c, 16"c,

mounted eccentrically on it, with the geometric centre of gravity in the hinge 32c which runs along the circle 38c, whose radius is equal to the eccentricity £, around the axis d. Three peripheral crown wheels 36c, 36'c, 36"c mesh with the central crown wheel 22c, being 5, equal to each other and equal to the central crown wheel, said peripheral crown wheels being arranged angularly equidistant and each integral with a respective crank 33c, 33'c, 33"c, which moves a respective rod 28c, 28'c, 28"c, of a relative piston 26c, 26'c, 26"c, each piston being able to slide in the respective cylinder.

10. The embodiment lOd illustrated in figure 8 comprises a cylinder 16d mounted eccentrically on crown wheel 22d and a crank 33d mounted on the crown wheel 36d, equal to 22d. The rod 28d of the piston 26d is pivoted at the connecting end of the crank. The connection between the crown wheels, in this case, is provided by a further crown wheel 60,

15. which meshes with both of them, in such a way that the crown wheels 22d and 36d move at an equal angular velocity in the same direction, clockwise and anti-clockwise respectively.

The assembly of the parts is such that, in this case, the rod 28d, being oblique, crosses the axis of the crown wheel 60, in every 20. position.

The embodiment lOe, illustrated in figure 9, comprises two identical crown wheels 22e and 36e respectively, one carrying the cylinder 16e and the other carrying the crank 33e connected to the relative rod 28e of the piston 26e, the connection between the crown wheels, in this 25. case, being provided by a chain or other flexible endless means, shown with 62.

The embodiment lOf, illustrated in figure 10, comprises a central crown wheel 36f, bearing a single crank 33f, at the connecting end of

which are fastened in a rotating way the respective rods 28f, 28'f, 28"f and 28"'f of four respective pistons sliding in the respective cylinders 16f, 16'f, 16"f, 16" 'f. The respective cylinders are carried eccentrically on the respective crown wheels 22f, 22'f etc., which are 5. equal to the crown wheel 38f and meshing with it, the said cylinders being at an equal angular distance around them.

The embodiment lOg in figure 11 is similar to the embodiment illustrated in figure 9, except for the fact that the connection between the crown wheels 22g and 36g is provided by a 10. connecting rod 64.

In figure 12 a further embodiment is illustrated, referenced lOh, being substantially similar to the embodiment illustrated in figure 10, except for the fact that, in this case, there are only three peripheral cylinder-bearing crown wheels 22h, 22'h, 22"h, at an equal 15. angular distance from each other, instead of four.

In figure 13 yet another embodiment is illustrated, similar to the one illustrated in the figures 10 and 12, except for the fact that there are two peripheral cylinder bearing crown wheels, 221, 22'1, at an angle of 180° to each other, with respect to a central crown 20. wheel (361).