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Title:
L-LYSINE FOR IMPROVING NORMAL COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/068173
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention shows that administration of L-lysine enhances cognitive performance in healthy individuals directly and these improvements persist if L-lysine is continuously administrated. However, when administration is interrupted the cognitive performance returns to baseline.

Inventors:
KLAMER, Daniel (Storgatan 27A, Göteborg, S-411 24, SE)
Application Number:
SE2009/051407
Publication Date:
June 17, 2010
Filing Date:
December 11, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
KLAMER, Daniel (Storgatan 27A, Göteborg, S-411 24, SE)
International Classes:
A61K31/198; A61P25/26
Domestic Patent References:
2008-08-28
2002-01-31
2002-01-31
1995-06-22
1998-08-06
Foreign References:
EP1707194A12006-10-04
US20040005311A12004-01-08
EP0198508A11986-10-22
US20070036870A12007-02-15
Other References:
LACZI F ET AL: "Effects of lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin on memory in healthy individuals and diabetes insipidus patients." PSYCHONEUROENDOCRINOLOGY 1982, vol. 7, no. 2-3, 1982, pages 185-193, XP24386358 ISSN: 0306-4530
Anonymous: "Lysine" Vita Viva - Info, [Online] 10 August 2008 (2008-08-10), pages 1-3, XP002566126 Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://www.vitaviva-info.com/en/Health/Health_Products_Details.29.aspx> [retrieved on 2010-01-29]
PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY vol. 192, no. 1, May 2007, pages 9 - 15
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VALEA AB (Lindholmspiren 5, Göteborg, S-417 56, SE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1 A composition comprising L-lysine for use in the improvement of cognitive functions and performances in normal healthy mammals

2 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the mammal is a human

3 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the cognitive function is pre-attentive and attentive information processing

4 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the cognitive function is attentional capacity

5 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the cognitive function is the memory, including the long-term memory, short-term memory and the working memory

6 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the cognitive function is the executive function

7 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the cognitive function is reasoning

8 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the composition is administered daily

9 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the effective dose of L-lysine is 500 - 40 000 mg/day, preferably between 1000 - 30 000 mg/day, more preferably between 2000 - 25 000 mg/day and the most preferred dose ranges between 3000 - 20 000 mg L-lysine per day

10 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the composition is administered orally

1 1 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the composition is formulated in a form or shape of the group comprising the following forms tablets, pills sachets, vials, hard or soft capsules, aqueous or oily suspensions, aqueous or oily solutions, emulsions, powders, granules, syrups, elixirs, lozenges, reconstitutable powders, liquid preparations, creams, troches, hard candies, sprays, liquid aerosols, dry powder formulations, HFA aerosols or organic or inorganic acid addition salts

12 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the composition further comprises a carrier or excipient 13 A composition according to claim 1 , wherein the composition is administered as a single dose or by multiple doses daily

14 Use of L-lysine for the manufacture of a composition for the improvement of cognitive functions and performances in normal healthy mammals

15 Use according to claim 14, wherein the mammal is a human

16 Use according to claim 14, wherein the cognitive function is pre-attentive and attentive information processing

17 Use according to claim 14, wherein the cognitive function is attentional capacity

18 Use according to claim 14, wherein the cognitive function is the memory, including the long-term memory, short-term memory and the working memory

19 Use according to claim 14, wherein the cognitive function is the executive function

20 Use according to claim 14, wherein the cognitive function is reasoning

21 Use according to claim 14, wherein the composition is administered daily

22 Use according to claim 14, wherein the effective dose of L-lysine is 500 - 40 000 mg/day, preferably between 1000 - 30 000 mg/day, more preferably between

2000 - 25 000 mg/day and the most preferred dose ranges between 3000 - 20 000 mg L-lysine per day

23 Use according to claim 14 wherein the composition is administered orally

24 Use according to claim 14, whei ein the composition is formulated in a form or shape of the group comprising the following forms tablets, pills sachets, vials, hard or soft capsules, aqueous or oily suspensions, aqueous or oily solutions, emulsions, powders, granules, syrups, elixirs, lozenges, reconstitutable powders, liquid preparations, creams, troches, hard candies, sprays, liquid aerosols, dry powder formulations, HFA aerosols or organic or inorganic acid addition salts

25 Use according to claim 14, wherein the composition further comprises a carrier or excipient

26 Use according to claim 14, wherein the composition is administered as a single dose or by multiple doses daily A method for improving cognitive functions and performances in normal healthy mammals, wherein an effective amount of a composition comprising L-lysine is administered to a mammal

Description:
L-LYSINE FOR IMPROVING NORMAL COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

DESCRIPTION

Technical Field

The present invention relates to the use of L-lysine to improve cognitive function in normal healthy subjects

Background of the invention

In life, we experience situations daily when we wished we had better cognitive functions Vast interest in finding ways to improve our normal cognitive abilities has inspired a new invention

The present invention improves cognitive function in normal subjects These improvements are achieved by administration of L-lysine

L-lysιne is an essential and basic amino acid (ι e , carries a positive net charge at physiological pH) with a high nutritional value It is required for normal growth and development and, is readily absorbed from the intestine and metabolized by the liver

High levels of L-lysine are found in muscle Increased intake of L-lysine is more readily distributed to muscle tissue than to other parts of the body, such as blood Studies have been performed using L-lysine supplementation for treating conditions such as recurrent herpes simplex infection and osteoporosis Being an essential amino acid, L-lysine has very good oral bioavailability and easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier

The only reported adverse effects of L-lysine treatment in humans are transient gastrointestinal problems in a few patients Based on published studies, long-term addition of 6 g of L-lysine to the daily diet is regarded to be safe In short-term human studies, doses as high as 40 g/day have been used The only reported adverse effects were abdominal cramps and transient diarrhea that resolved as the dose was decreased Long-term studies on L-lysine administration (up to 2 years) have not revealed any adverse effects

Previously, it has been demonstrated that L-lysine can restore cognitive impairments, as measured by how the brain filters information pre-attentively, in mice These cognitive deficits were induced by the schizophrenomimetic substance phencyclidine (Palsson et al, Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007 May, 192 (1 ) 9-15) Interestingly, a recent pilot study suggests that adjunctive treatment with L-lysine (6 g/day) possibly can improve some symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

A common misconception is that improving cognitive defects in an ill person is equivalent to enhancing cognitive abilities in a typically healthy person This may be a fine point, but is key in understanding the technical effect of using L-lysιne in a healthy person For example, an antibiotic would not be useful in an uninfected person, just as L-lysine was not known to previously improve memory and cognition in healthy people

Importantly, L-lysine has the ability to improve normal cognitive functions, as this invention claims This differs from previous studies where L-lysine restored some symptoms in patients suffering from an underlying disease, or cognitive impairments in laboratory disease models As another example, antipsychotic treatments can improve cognitive impairments of schizophrenia, as well as reduce some symptoms in this patient group However, no one would claim that antipsychotic treatment would improve baseline cognitive performance in healthy individuals

Hence there is a difference in improving an impairment caused by an underlying pathophysiology as compared to improving a state from a natural baseline Another example would be that, if a person has a sore throat caused by a Streptococcal infection, antibiotic medication would help against this disease state However, taking antibiotics if you are healthy and do not have any symptoms associated with Streptococci, antibiotics would not make you, or your throat better In fact, taking antibiotics could be harmful for a normal functional person

An example from the neuropsychiatry field is the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRI This class of pharmaceutical agents has proven highly effective in the treatment of e g depression and anxiety related disorders but have no positive effects on mood in healthy individuals This division between effect sin a disease state versus effects on normal function is a well-known fact in the neuropsychiatry field Therefore a person skilled in the art cannot assume that a beneficial effect in a disease or disease model equals a beneficial effect in a healthy individual It would be similar to assuming that an invention that can repair a broken car would also make a fully functional car go faster

In fact, cognition-enhancing compounds used in Alzheimer's disease constitute another example of the dissociation between treating deficits in a patient population and enhancing baseline cognition in healthy volunteers Both the NMDA antagonist Memantine and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Donezepil enhance cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but have no or detrimental effects on cognition in healthy volunteers These findings clearly underscore the difference in approach between improving normal versus impaired cognition and suggest that extrapolation of a given drug effect from one population to the other is speculative at the best

Hence it is not obvious for a person skilled in the art to make the assumption that L-lysine has the possibility to improve cognitive performance from a natural baseline, simply because it is has been claimed to alleviate cognitive impairments associated with different diseases or deficiencies

As defined in the present application a healthy individual is somebody who does not have an underlying disease, such as schizophrenia, ADHD, Alzheimer's disease, other dementia-related diseases and/or other diseases that could cause cognitive impairments Moreover, a healthy individual does not suffer from deficiency states or related deficiency symptoms Signs and symptoms of L-lysine deficiency include fatigue, nausea, dizziness, and declined concentration

WO 02/07768 and US2004005311 disclose dietary supplements, which are claimed to alleviate dementia-related symptoms These supplements include a core of L-lysine and bromelain plus a range of different substances and vitamins, e g , lycopene, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and folic acid However, this composition comprises at least both L-lysine and bromelain and alleviates impairments that already exist with a combination of several compounds

The website Vita Viva, dated 2008-08-10 (www vitaviva-info com) mentions that L-lysine improves concentration However, the context is that L-lysine can improve concentration in people suffering from L-lysine deficiency, since deficiency symptoms include tiredness and dizziness Hence, there is no mentioning of that L-lysine would improve concentration in healthy individuals

WO 95/16661 claims that 4,7,10,13,16, 19-cιs-docosahexaenoιc acid (DHA) salts with basic amino acids in particular arginine and lysine, have favorable therapeutically and technological characteristics compared with the starting acid However, nothing in WO 95/16661 suggests that the amino acid L-lysine by itself improves cognitive performance from a natural baseline

EP0198508 states that L-Phosphoseπne amino acidic deπvates with L-arginine and/or L-lysine may constitute a pharmacological composition in order to treat memory deficiencies, intellection deficiencies and mental deterioration Hence, L-lysine is part of another molecule, L- Phosphoseπne salt, which could be used to therapeutically treat cognitive impairments

US2007036870 claims the use of a bioavailable iron compound and a bioavailable zinc compound in a weight ratio of at least 2 1 , and at least one B vitamin, in the manufacture of an edible composition, for use in aiding the cognitive development or cognitive performance of humans having an age of up to 18 years L-lysine is mentioned in the context that it can be one of many chelating ligands in order to increase the bioavailability for the active compounds

WO9833498 claims that administering of therapeutically effective amount of Breflate or a Breflate derivative can treat a mammal suffering from cognitive dysfunction as well as enhancing cognitive functions in a mammal Residues to the above compounds could include amino acids such as glycine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, proline, lysine and arginine Again there is no evidence that the amino acid L-lysine by itself improves cognitive performance from a natural baseline

Taken together, none of the above documents or other sources of public information anticipate the surprising effect of L-lysine regarding improved cognitive performance on healthy individuals

Summary of the invention

The present invention improves cognitive function in normal subjects These improvements are achieved by L-lysine (L-lysine monhydrochloπde)

A first aspect of the invention relates to a composition comprising L-lysine for use in the improvement of cognitive functions and performances in normal healthy mammals In another embodiment of the invention the mammal is a human

In another embodiment of the invention the cognitive function is pre-attentive and attentive information processing or attentional capacity

In yet another embodiment of the invention the cognitive function is the memory, including the long-term memory, short-term memory and the working memory In another embodiment of the invention the cognitive function is the executive function or reasoning

In a further embodiment of the invention the composition is administered daily

In another embodiment of the invention the effective dose of L-lysine is 500 - 40 000 mg/day, preferably between 1000 - 30 000 mg/day, more preferably between 2000 - 25 000 mg/day and the most preferred dose ranges between 3000 - 20 000 mg L-lysine per day

In another embodiment of the invention the composition is administered orally

In a further embodiment of the invention the composition is formulated in a form or shape of the group comprising the following forms tablets, pills sachets, vials, hard or soft capsules, aqueous or oily suspensions, aqueous or oily solutions, emulsions, powders, granules, syrups, elixirs, lozenges, reconstitutable powders, liquid preparations, creams, troches, hard candies, sprays, liquid aerosols, dry powder formulations, HFA aerosols or organic or inorganic acid addition salts

In another embodiment of the invention the composition further comprises a carrier or excipient

In another embodiment of the invention the composition is administered as a single dose or by multiple doses daily

A second aspect of the invention relates to the use of L-lysine for the manufacture of a composition for the improvement of cognitive functions and performances in normal healthy mammals

In another embodiment of the invention the mammal is a human

In another embodiment of the invention the cognitive function is pre-attentive and attentive information processing In another embodiment of the invention the cognitive function is attentional capacity

In another embodiment of the invention the cognitive function is the memory, including the long-term memory short-term memory and the working memory

In another embodiment of the invention the cognitive function is the executive function In another embodiment of the invention the cognitive function is reasoning In another embodiment of the invention the composition is administered daily

In another embodiment of the invention the effective dose of L-lysine is 500 - 40 000 mg/day, preferably between 1000 - 30 000 mg/day, more preferably between 2000 - 25 000 mg/day and the most preferred dose ranges between 3000 - 20 000 mg L-lysine per day

In another embodiment of the invention the composition is administered orally

In another embodiment of the invention the composition is formulated in a form or shape of the group comprising the following forms tablets, pills sachets, vials, hard or soft capsules, aqueous or oily suspensions, aqueous or oily solutions, emulsions, powders, granules, syrups, elixirs, lozenges, reconstitutable powders, liquid preparations, creams, troches, hard candies, sprays, liquid aerosols, dry powder formulations, HFA aerosols or organic or inorganic acid addition salts In another embodiment of the invention the composition further comprises a carrier or excipient

In another embodiment of the invention the composition is administered as a single dose or by multiple doses daily

A third aspect of the invention relates to a method for improving cognitive functions and performances in normal healthy mammals, wherein an effective amount of a composition comprising L-lysιne is administered to a mammal

Definitions

The terms "cognition" "cognitive function" and "cognitive performance" as used herein are interchangeable and refer to a range of cognitive domains such as for example

• Pre-attentive and attentive information processing (including processes with both intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli)

• Attentional capacity (the process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other stimuli)

• Memory (encoding, storage, retrieval)

• Short-term memory (memory that involves recall of information for a relatively short time)

• Long-term memory ® Working memory (temporarily storing and manipulating information)

• Reasoning (cognitive process of looking for reasons for beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings)

® Executive functions (dealing with novelty, planning and implementation, monitoring performance, vigilance, inhibition of task irrelevant information)

• A conscious intellectual act

• Intellectual capacity

However, it should be understood by the person skilled in the art that the list of cognitive functions and/or cognitive performances mentioned above does not exclude other forms of cognitive functions

Brief description of the drawings

Figures 1 A and B shows that L-lysine improves cognitive function in a dose-related manner by assess how the brain filters information pre-attentively Figure 2 show that L-lysine improves cognitive function by assessing non-associative learning

Figure 3 A and B shows that L-lysine improves cognitive function by assessing learning and memory formation

Detailed description of the invention In the present invention it is shown that L-lysine improves natural and baseline cognitive performances

The following experiments (example 1 , 2 and 3) demonstrate that L-lysine (L-lysine monhydrochloπde) can enhance baseline cognitive performance in normal healthy mammals Example 1 - Pre-attentive information processing

One way to elucidate how substances affect our cognitive function is to measure how the brain processes information Pre-attentive information processing is thought to be important for selective and efficient processing of sensory information and for coherent cognitive operations, and thus for memory and cognitive functions Pre-attentive information processing can be assessed by using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response model One major advantage of the PPI model is that it is a translational behavior Hence, it can be studied in a variety of species, from rodents to humans, and provides unique opportunities for cross species explorations of how the brain processes information pre-attentively PPI is the reduction in reflex response to an intense stimulus when this stimulus is immediately preceded (30-500 ms) by a weak prestimulus The presentation of the prestimulus, although not strong enough to elicit a measurable response by itself, evokes a short lasting sensory gating process in the brain, which is manifested by the attenuated response to the successive intense stimulus PPI is hypothesized to reflect the ability of the central nervous system to filter out distracting and irrelevant stimuli before it reaches the cortex An increased, / e improved, PPI could result in better inhibitory mechanisms that filter or gate intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli prior to higher order processing Hence, improved pre-attentive information processing could result in better cognitive performances Furthermore, PPI and other cognitive functions are regulated by the same cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic circuitry and association between these different cognitive domains has been shown

Male NMRI mice (Charles river, Germany, 25-35 g) were used in examples 1 , 2 and 3 The animals were housed nine per cage in a colony room undet constant temperature (20+1 0 C) and humidity (50±5%) Animals were allowed to acclimatize for at least one week prior to behavioral testing The daylight cycle was maintained artificially (lights on from 0600 to 1800 hours) and behavioral experiments were conducted during the light phase The Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments, Goteborg, Sweden, approved all experimental procedures used in the present study

Acoustic startle was recorded using a MOPS 3 startle response recording system (Metod och Produkt Svenska AB, Sweden) The animals were placed in small plexi glass cages (10 x 5 5 x 6 cm) that were suspended at the top of a piston A movement of the animal in the cage caused a displacement of the piston, the acceleration of which was registered by a piezo-electπc accelerometer This signal was sampled and digitized by a microcomputer that also controlled the delivery of acoustic stimuli Startle amplitude was defined as the maximum signal amplitude occurring 8-30 ms after the startle-eliciting stimulus Four cages were used simultaneously and each cage was housed in a dimly lit and sound attenuated cabinet (52 x 42 x 38 cm) The cages were calibrated for equal sensitivity prior to testing and a mouse was always tested in the same cage at subsequent tests The acoustic stimuli consisted of white noise, which was delivered by two high-frequency loudspeakers built into the ceiling of the cabinet

Each test session started with an 8-mιn adaptation period containing only white background noise at 65 dB (A) Startle pulse was set to 105 dB (A) and prepulse intensities to 3, 9 and 12 dB (A) above background noise Duration of acoustic stimuli was set to 20 ms for both prepulses and startle pulses and interstimulus interval (ISI) was set to 40 ms Following the adaptation period the animals were subjected to a series of 5 startle pulse-alone trials that were omitted from the analysis since they only served to accommodate the animals to the sudden stimulus onset The animals were then subjected to a pseudo-randomized combination of 3 prepulse-alone trials for each prepulse intensity, 45 pulse-alone trials and 15 prepulse+pulse trials for each prepulse intensity Trials were separated by 5-15 s intervals

All mice were first subjected to a pre-test to ensure that they expressed basal startle reactivity Thereafter, the animals were subjected to matching test and based on the results of this test the animals were divided into four treatment groups with comparable basal PPI and startle reactivity During three consecutive days (day 1 to 3) the groups received, once daily, either saline (10 ml/kg, n=16) or L-lysine (500 mg/kg, n=16, 1000 mg/kg, n=15, or 2000 mg/kg, n=17) PPI was tested on day 1 and day 3 with administration of saline/L-lysine 25 mm before presentation of the first startle stimuli This design was used to evaluate both the acute and sub-chronic effects of L-lysine treatment A final PPI test was performed at day 9, hence when the animals have been without any L-lysine treatment for 6 days The final test was performed to evaluate if the effects of L- lysine were acute or persisted over time

The mean response amplitude for pulse-alone trials (P) was calculated for each mouse and test This measure was used in the statistical analysis to assess drug-induced changes in acoustic startle response The mean response amplitude for prepulse-pulse trials (PP) was also calculated and used to express the percent PPI according to the following formula

Prepulse inhibition (%) = 100 - [(PP/P) * 100] Using this formula, a 0% value denotes no difference between pulse-alone and prepulse- pulse response amplitudes and consequently no PPI Statistical analysis for the experiments was performed using a two-way mixed model ANOVA with test day as within subjects factor and dose as between subject factor Two tailed levels of significance were used and p<0 05 was considered statistically significant

The results demonstrate a significant effect of L-lysine treatment on day 1 and day 3 (F(1 , 44)=94 9, P<0 05) at a prepulse level of 9 dB over background noise The doses 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg improved the PPI response in a dose related manner, while the highest dose L-lysιne, 2000 mg/kg, did not affect PPI significantly These results point towards an inverted U-shaped response curve regarding cognitive performance and levels of L-lysine The cognitive performance improved with increased levels of L-lysine, but only up to a point When levels of L-lysine became too high, performance decreased An inverted U-shaped response curve is not uncommon when it comes to cognitive performances

In figure 1A, the effects of L-lysine (0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg, intraperitoneal^) are shown after acute administration (day 1 ) In figure 1 B data is presented as absolute change in PPI, at day 1 , compared to what the different treatment groups had in the matching test Figure 1 B demonstrates that the capacity to filter infoi mation pre-attentively was increased with 28 7% in the group that was treated with L-lysine 500 mg/kg and 51 3% in the group administrated with L-lysine 1000 mg/kg and with 9 0% in the L-lysine 2000 mg/kg group

The results also demonstrated that there was no significant effect of test day (comparing the results of PPI at day 1 with day 3) Hence, the beneficial effects on PPI function do not increase or decrease with repeated L-lysine administration

Moreover, the final PPI test at day 9, after a 6-day washout period, did not demonstrate any significant effects of L-lysine treatment Thus, the beneficial effects of L-lysine disappear if the administration terminates

Finally, L-lysine administration did not affect the pulse-alone response Hence, L-lysine doesn't seem to have any sedative properties

In summary, these results demonstrate that administration of L-lysine improves normal cognitive functions, measured by how the brain filters information pre-attentively in the PPI model Administration of L-lysine enhances cognitive performance directly and these improvements persist if L-lysine is continuously administrated However, when administration is interrupted the cognitive performance returns to baseline

Example 2 - Non-associative learning The aim was to investigating the effects of L-lysine administration in a model measuring non-associative learning As predicted from the study measuring pre-attentive information processing (example 1 ), mice administrated L-lysine 1000 mg/kg increased the capacity to screen out irrelevant stimuli and thus demonstrated an improved learning (see figure 2) The model used to measure non-associative learning was habituation of acoustic startle response Habituation refers to the decrease in response to repeated presentation of identical stimuli and the model used for this test is also translational in nature Since habituation is a measure of how the brain filter outs irrelevant stimuli and focus selectively on important stimuli, it is thought to be a prerequisite for other forms of learning and cognitive functions Acoustic startle was recorded using a MOPS 3 startle response recording system (see example 1 )

The mice were tested for habituation according to the following protocol The mice were first subjected to a pre-test The mice were placed in the startle cages in the enclosure foi a 10 mm accommodation period consisting of 65 dB (A) background noise After the habituation period they were presented with 20 pulse-alone trials The time interval between the trials was always 10 s Pulse intensity was set to 105 dB (A) and the duration of each pulse was 20 ins After the pre-test the mice were matched and randomized into homogenous groups with their mean startle response and SEIVI as reference (L-lysine 1000 mg/kg, n=12 Saline 10 ml/kg, n=12) The mice used in the habituation test were again placed in the startle cages in the enclosures for a 10 mm accommodation period consisting of 65 dB background noise After this period they were presented with 121 pulse-alone trials The time interval between the trials was always 10 s Pulse intensity was set to 105 dB and the duration of each startle was 20 ms Administration of saline/L-lysine intraperitoneal^ was 25 mm before presentation of the first startle stimuli The first startle pulse response was omitted from statistical analysis since it was too variable to achieve significance Hence 120 startle pulse trials were used in the analysis The 120 pulses were divided into 6 blocks, each block containing 20 pulses Habituation, the change in mean response amplitude over time, was calculated using the formula

Habituation (%) = [(block number x/block number 1 ) x 100] - 100 Using this formula, a 0% value denotes no difference between in startle response amplitude between block number 1 and other subsequent blocks and consequently no habituation Negative values indicate a decreased response over time, i e , a habituation of the acoustic startle response

In figure 2 the effects of acute administration of L-lysine 1000 mg/kg on the habituation of the acoustic startle response are shown L-lysine significantly, at block 6 (unpaired t-test, t=2 099, df=22, p<0 05), improves the brain capacity to filter out irrelevant information

Example 3 - Learning and memory formation

There are several learning and memory tasks that are appropriate for study in rodents One widely used is the novel object recognition test The test involves exposing the rodent to two identical objects for a brief period of time (the introductory session) After a delay the rodent is placed back to the arena (the recognition session) with one of the familiar objects it encountered in the introductory session and an additional novel object Rodents typically spend more time exploring the novel object (if they have a memory from the introductory session) Task difficulty can be increased by e g prolonging the delay between sessions or increasing the number of objects presented Some of the benefits with the object recognition model are that it is well characterized and not based on reward or punishment The object recognition test is based on the animals' innate behavior to investigate their environment Furthermore, very similar aspects of memory formation (involving encoding, consolidation and retrieval of information) can be assessed in human using the Brief Visual Memory Task - Revised (BVMT-R) Hence the object recognition test is a valid and translational model to investigate the effects of different substances on memory

The aim was to investigating the effects of L-lysine administration in the object recognition model

The experimental setup for object recognition consisted of a box-shaped Plexiglas arena with a floor area of 40x40 cm The illumination at the floor of the arena was 5-7 lux and the arena was videotaped from above with a digital video camera

Objects to discriminate were a green wooden star-shaped cylinder (h, 0 6 * 3 5 cm) and a drinking glass (h, 0 5 5 x 5 8 cm) Objects were placed 14 cm apart and 1 1 cm from the closest wall

The object exploration time was manually scored from the videotapes Object exploration was defined as mice sniffing or touching the object with nose and/or forepaws

The day before the object recognition test the animals were acclimatized to the arena for 5 mm On the day of the experiment the animals were transferred to the laboratory, marked and weighed and thereafter left to acclimate to the environment for approximately 2 5 h before testing started Administration of L-lysine 1000 mg/kg (n=17) or saline 10 ml/kg (n=19) was given intraperitoneal^ 30 mm before the introductory session

In the first, i e the introductory, session the mice were placed in the middle of the arena and presented with two identical objects, A1 and A2, during 5 mm (the green wooden star- shaped cylinder) Aftei a 90 mm delay in the home cage, the mice were again placed in the middle in the same arena as eat her and presented with two objects, the old, familiar A1 , and a new object B1 (the drinking glass) during 5 mm (the recognition session) Object A2 was always the one that was replaced Between each mouse and session the objects were cleaned with 10% ethanol

Data are expressed as means and standard errors of the mean (S E IVI ) If object exploration time during the introductory session was <5 s/object the mice were discarded from the sample

A discrimination index was calculated for each animal Tn/(Tf+Tn)*100 Tn=tιme spent exploring the novel object (B1 )

Tf=tιme exploring the object (A1 ) under recognition

The discrimination index was expressed in percentages An animal spending equal time exploring the two objects during a session will receive a discrimination index of 50%, while an animal exploring the novel object a longer time compared with the familiar will receive a value >50%

There was no difference between L-lysine (1000 mg/kg) and saline (10 ml/kg) treatments in time exploring the two similar objects during the introductory session (two-way mixed model ANOVA with treatment as between subject factor and object as within subject factor), indicating that there was no preference for a certain position of the objects in the arena as well as administration of L-lysιne did not influence the explorative behavior Figure 3A shows that mice that have been administrated L-lysine spent significantly more time exploring the novel object compare to saline treated mice, as demonstrated by the discrimination index during the recognition session (unpaired t-test, t=2 580, df=34, p<0 05) Moreover, in figure 3B administration of L-lysine also resulted in significantly less exploration of the familiar object during the recognition session compare the time the object was explored during the introductory session (unpaired t-test, t=2 273, df=32, p<0 05), while there was no significant difference in the control group (unpaired t-test, t=1 463, df=36, p=ns)

The main finding was that administration of L-lysine increased object recognition compared to saline treatment The better learning and memory was demonstrated by decreased exploration to the familiar object during recognition session compared to the introductory session Furthermoie, the L-lysine treated animals also explored the novel object more compared to the familiar object during the recognition session Taken together, this demonstrates that administration of L-lysine improves cognitive performance from a natural and non-pathological non-deficiency baseline

L -lysine could be used as a supplement in food and drinks, e g in bread, cereals, cookies, chips, bars, candies pastries, ice cream, gum, juices, sodas, energy drinks, yogurt drinks as well as in animal foods and as a salt substitute

Preferably the L-lysine is supplemented in a free form, hence not part of e g a peptide The compound of the present invention may be isolated in any level of purity by standard methods and purification can be achieved by conventional means known to those skilled in the art, such as distillation, recrystallization and chromatography L-lysine may be manufactured by a fermentation process using carbohydrate sources

The compound of the invention may be administered alone or in combination with acceptable carriers or diluents, and such administration may be carried out in single or multiple doses The dose range, for oral administration of L-lysine, is 500 - 40 000 mg/day The dose is preferably between 1000 - 30 000 mg/day, more preferably between 2000 - 25 000 mg/day The most preferred oral dose ranges between 3000 - 20 000 mg/day which may be administered as a single dose or by multiple doses daily Compositions may, for example, be in the form of tablets, pills sachets, vials, hard or soft capsules, aqueous or oily suspensions, aqueous or oily solutions, emulsions, powders, granules, syrups, elixirs, lozenges, reconstitutable powders, liquid preparations, creams, troches, hard candies, sprays, liquid aerosols, dry powder formulations, HFA aerosols or organic or inorganic acid addition salts The compositions of the invention may be in a form suitable for administration through oral, parenteral, topical, dermal, subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, buccal, rectal or vaginal routes, or for administration by inhalation or insufflation (e g nasal, tracheal, bronchial) routes However, oral administration is the preferred route of administration

Depending upon the subject the route of administration, the compositions may be administered at varying doses

The compound of the present invention may be able to form salts with acceptable acids or bases

Suitable acid addition salts of the compound of the present invention include but are not limited to those formed with acceptable salts such as toluensulfonate, methanesulfonate, fumarate, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, nitrate, acetate, lactate, citrate, acid citrate, tartrate, bitartrate, aliphatic, ahcyclic, aromatic or heterocyclic carboxylate, succinate, maleate, fumarate, gluconate, glycolate, saccharate, ascorbate, acetate, propionate, benzoate, pyruvate, pamoate [ι e , 1 , 1 '-methylene-bιs-(2-hydroxy-3- naphthoate)], phosphate, acid phosphate, sulphate or bisulfate salts It is also to be understood that compound of the present invention can exist in solvated as well as unsolvated forms such as, e g, hydrated forms

For oral, buccal or sublingual administration, the compound of the present invention may be combined with various excipients Solid preparations for oral administration often include binding agents (for example syrups and sugars, acacia, gelatin, sorbitol, tragacanth, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium lauryl sulphate, pregelatinized maize starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose, starches, modified starches, gum acacia, gum tragacanth, guar gum, pectin, wax binders, microcrystalline cellulose, methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, copolyvidone and sodium alginate), disintegrants (such as starch and preferably corn, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid and certain complex silicates, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sucrose, gelatin, acacia, sodium starch glycollate, microcrystalline cellulose, crosscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose), lubricating agents (such as magnesium stearate, sodium lauryl sulfate, talc, silica polyethylene glycol waxes, stearic acid, palmitic acid, calcium stearate, carnuba wax, hydrogenated vegetable oils, mineral oils, polyethylene glycols and sodium stearyl fumarate) and fillers (including high molecular weight polyethylene glycols lactose, sugar, calcium phosphate, sorbitol, glycine magnesium stearate, starch, glucose, lactose, sucrose, rice flour, chalk, gelatin, microcrystalline cellulose, calcium sulphate, xylitol and lactitol) Such preparations may also include preservative agents and anti-oxidants

Liquid compositions for oral administration may be in the form of, for example, emulsions, syrups, or elixirs, or may be presented as a dry product for reconstitution with water or other suitable vehicle before use Such liquid compositions may contain conventional additives such as suspending agents (e g sorbitol, syrup, methyl cellulose, hydrogenated edible fats, gelatin, hydroxyalkylcelluloses, carboxymethylcellulose, aluminium stearate gel, hydrogenated edible fats) emulsifying agents (e g lecithin, sorbitan monooleate, or acacia), aqueous or non-aqueous vehicles (including edible oils, e g almond oil, fractionated coconut oil) oily esters (for example esters of glycerine, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol or ethyl alcohol), glycerine, water or normal saline, preservatives (e g methyl or propyl p-hydroxybenzoate or sorbic acid) and conventional flavouring, preservative, sweetening or colouring agents Diluents such as water, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin and combinations thereof may also be included Other suitable fillers, binders, disintegrants, lubricants and additional excipients are well known to a person skilled in the art

The compound of the invention may also be administered in a controlled release formulation The compounds are released at the required rate to maintain constant activity for a desirable period of time Such dosage forms provide a supply of a drug to the body during a predetermined period of time and thus maintain drug levels in the therapeutic range for longer periods of time than conventional non-controlled formulations The compound may also be formulated in controlled release formulations in which release of the active compound is targeted For example, release of the compound may be limited to a specific region of the digestive system through the pH sensitivity of the formulation Such formulations are well known to persons skilled in the art

The active compounds may be administered in the form of liposome delivery systems, such as small unilamellar vesicles, large unilamellar vesicles and multilamellar vesicles Liposomes can be formed from a variety of phospholipids, such as cholesterol, stearylamine or phosphatidylcholines