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Title:
LEAVENING COMPOSITION TO REPLACE ALUMINUM BASED LEAVENING ACIDS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/144855
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to a leavening composition which eliminates the need for metal phosphate composition for aluminum based leavening acids and provides control of the leavening activity.

Inventors:
BRODIE, John (218 Fountain Farm Ln, Newtown, PA, 18940, US)
ALOSCO, Cindy (259 Prospect Plains Road. Bldg. A, Cranbury, NJ, 08512, US)
DELPRATO, Francois (259 Prospect Plains Road, Bldg. ACranbury, NJ, 08512, US)
Application Number:
US2016/021150
Publication Date:
September 15, 2016
Filing Date:
March 07, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INNOPHOS, INC. (259 Prospect Plains Road, Bldg ACranbury, NJ, 08512, US)
International Classes:
A21D2/02; A21D10/02; C01B25/32; C01B25/42
Domestic Patent References:
2010-05-27
2006-07-13
Foreign References:
US20120263854A12012-10-18
US1834747A1931-12-01
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DIDONATO, Joseph, J. (Innophos, Inc.259 Prospect Plains Road, Bldg., Cranbury NJ, 08512, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A leavening composition comprising:

(i) a rise controlling composition;

(ii) an acid leavening composition, wherein the leavening composition contains less than 200 parts per million of aluminum.

2. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the acid leavening composition

comprises calcium acid pyrophosphate and anhydrous monocalcium phosphate CAPP/MCPA.

3. The composition of claim 2, wherein the rise controlling composition is sodium acid pyrophosphate SAPP.

4. The composition of claim 3, wherein the percentage by weight of

CAPP/MCAP to SAPP is 50/50.

5. The composition of claim 3, further comprising monocalcium phosphate, wherein the percentage by weight of CAPP/MCPA to SAPP to monocalcium phosphate is 50/30/20.

6. The composition of claim 4, wherein the composition has a neutralizing value of about 66 to 72.

7. The composition of claim 5, wherein the composition has a neutralizing value of about 70 to 74.

8. The composition according to claim 1 further comprising an additional leavening acid composition selected from the group consisting of GDL, MCP, DCPD, Encapsulated MCP, Encapsulated GDL, and mixtures thereof.

9. The composition according to claim 7, wherein the amount of said additional leavening acid composition comprises between about I to about 99 percent of the total of said leavening acids in said composition.

10. A process for producing a leavening acid composition comprising the steps of mixing the components of a leavening composition including (i) a rise controlling composition; and (ii) an acid leavening composition, wherein the composition contains less than 200 parts per million of aluminum, wherein the components are mixed in a blender type (V-blender), mix time ( 15 minutes) and RPM (250), in a defined order.

1 1.The process of claim 10, wherein the components are combined in the order of first, the rise controlling composition, and thereafter, an additional acid leavening composition and lastly, the acid leavening composition.

12. The process of claim 10, wherein the components are combined in the order of first, the rise controlling composition, and thereafter the acid leavening composition.

13. A baking powder or baking mix for preparing an edible baked good

comprising the leavening composition of claim 1.

14. The baking powder or baking mix according to claim 13 which is used to produce a cake, muffin, doughnut, bread, pastry, cookie, room temperature, refrigerated or frozen dough, room temperature, refrigerated or frozen batter, brownie, hush puppy, pancake, waffle, pizza crust tortilla, cracker, biscuit, scone, coating system or roll.

15. The baking powder or baking mix according to claim 15 wherein said

composition comprises greater than 0.5 percent by weight of said mix.

16. The baking powder or baking mix according to claim 1 S further comprising an additional leavening acid composition selected from the group consisting of GDL, MCP, DCPD, encapsulated MCP, encapsulated GDL, encapsulated SAPP.

17. A method to control the release of C02 in a baking mix comprising the steps of:

(i) combining the composition of claim 1 with a baking mix.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein C02 is released at less the 50% after 10 minutes .

Description:
LEAVENING COMPOSITION TO REPLACE ALUMINUM BASED

LEAVENING ACIDS

Cross-Rcfcrcncc to Related Applicaitons

[001] This application claims the benefit of priority under 35 USC 1 19(e) to U.S. Provisional No. 62/129,796 filed March 7, 2015, incorporated herein in its entirety.

Field of the Invention

10021 The present disclosure relates to a leavening composition which eliminates the need for aluminum based leavening acids and provides control of the leavening activity.

Background of the Invention

[003] Sodium aluminum phosphates along with other ingredients containing aluminum are coming under great scrutiny in the marketplace especially in Europe (EU) and Asia. Sodium aluminum phosphate has been limited in its allowed usage for certain application especially in the UK (United Kingdom). Only certain bakery products currently allow their usage but that is being eliminated with new legislature by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

[004] Chemical leavening systems have been known for over 100 years. A carbonate alkali which is subjected to the neutralizing action of an acid or acid salt reduces the amount of time and materials required for the preparation of baked goods. From its early beginning various leavening systems have been invented and sold as individual carbonate and acid components or as baking powders which contain not only the leavening alkali and the acid employed to neutralize the acid, but also fillers which enabled convenient measurement, handling and storage of such baking powders.

[005] Leavening systems have long been known to comprise two basic ingredients. The first, of course, is the leavening acid such as cream-of-tartar, various phosphoric acid salts such as orthophosphoric acid, pyrophosphoric acid and the partial salts thereof such as monocalcium phosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, and any other suitable, edible, non-toxic acids which would not impart an undesirable taste to the resultant baked goods. Such acids have been known as "acidulants", or "baking acids" but more commonly as "leavening acids".

[006] When added to a moist batter or dough, the acidulant reacts with a carbon dioxide liberating compound included in the batter or dough to yield the gas necessary for leavening. The rate of gas evolution is an important consideration determining largely the volume, density and texture qualities which will be imparted to the final baked product. This rate must occur within rather narrow limits for some applications such as in the preparation of prepared, canned dough for biscuits. Also, leavening requirements differ widely among the various baked goods for each of these demands a particular speed of evolution to ensure highest quality products. One of the principal factors with respect to the speed of evolution of carbon dioxide is the reactivity of the acidulant neutralization of the carbon dioxide producing material.

[007] It is a primary objective when using leavening acids to modulate and control the carbon dioxide liberation kinetics to yield a suitable final baked good product. More particularly, it is desirable to limit the reactive effect of water with the leavening acid. Ideally, the leavening acid would be designed so that it would not be reactive or have limited reaction at the time of kneading or cold storing of the dough but would be reactive during heating, where the leavening of the final product takes place.

[008] Particularly useful leavening acids are phosphate materials, and more specifically monocalcium phosphate. This acid is considered desirable as a commercial candidate as it does not possess sodium and has no aftertaste. While monocalcium phosphate does not possess sodium it has been difficult to adequately control its reaction rate which results in the release of carbon dioxide bases at various stages during the baking cycle. The fundamental problem with the use of monocalcium phosphate is that it liberates gas at too fast a desired rate. As a result, its commercial use has generally been limited to being a part of a leavening system or blend. Such blends can be less than optimal because they either may contain sodium, for example blends of monocalcium phosphate with sodium aluminum phosphate or sodium pyrophosphate, or may not have a completely bland taste.

[009] It has been known to regulate the speed of carbon dioxide evolution by control of the reactivity of the leavening acid. Numerous attempts to control the speed of reaction of the leavening acid are known in the art. Typical examples include U.S. Pat. No. 3,034,899 to Tucker wherein a finely divided calcium salt is combined with the acid to control the speed of reaction.

Summary of the Invention [0010] The present invention is directed to compositions and methods for a leavening composition which eliminates the need for metal phosphate composition and provides control of the leavening activity.

[0011] In a first embodiment, the invention is directed to a leavening composition comprising (i) a rise controlling composition; and (ii) an acid leavening

composition, wherein the leavening composition contains less than 200 part per million of aluminum (ppm).

[0012] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a process for producing a novel leavening acid composition including the steps of mixing the components of a leavening composition comprising (i) a rise controlling composition; and (ii) an acid leavening composition, wherein the composition contains less than 200 parts per million of aluminum (ppm), utilizing a blender type (V-blender), mix time ( 15 minutes and RPM (250), in a defined order.

[0013] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a baking powder or baking mix for preparing an edible baked good including a leavening acid composition.

Detailed Description of the Invention

[0014] The present disclosure is related to a rise controlling leavening composition, more specifically, the present invention is directed to compositions and methods for a leavening composition having a defined aluminum content and provides control of the leavening activity. As used herein, the term "rise controlling" is meant to describe carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) release.

[0015] In a first embodiment, the invention is directed to a leavening composition including (i) a rise controlling composition and (ii) an acid leavening composition, wherein the composition has defined aluminum content. Without being limited to any specific theory, it has been found that when properly created, based upon both the salt's characteristics, including 1 ) to provide proper cationic and anionic composition, and 2) the fundamental rate of reaction; an alternative can be developed which delivers like performance to those commercially available. The acid salt has been selected so that the final product has: clean flavor, uniform cell structure, resiliency and target crust and crumb color.

[0016] In the present embodiment, the acid leavening composition includes calcium acid pyrophosphate and anhydrous monocalcium phosphate CAPP/MCPA, commercially available as Cal-rise, and the rise controlling composition is sodium acid pyrophosphate SAPP.

[0017] The composition can further comprise an additional leavening acid composition selected from the group consisting of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL), Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCP), Dicalcium phosphate di hydrate and coated versions of MCP or GDL and mixtures thereof. The amount of the additional leavening acid composition is between about 1 to about 99 percent of the total of said leavening acids in said composition.

[0018] As previously discussed, the reduction or elimination of the use of SALP products in the bakery markets especially in Europe and Asia, has initiated the need for an alternative. Cal-Rise has always been an option but has had some issues in certain applications therefore needing another alternative. The two alternatives of the present embodiment that are evaluated herein are referred to herein as SA-1 , percentage by weight of CAPP/MCPA to SAPP is 50/50 and SA- 2, wherein the percentage by weight of CAPP/MCPA to SAPP to monocalcium phosphate is 50/30/20. More particularly, SA-1- Cal-Rise 50%/ SAPP#4 50% (Physical Blend), and SA-2- Cal-Rise 50%/ SAPP#4 30%/ V-90 20% (Physical Blend). SAPP#4 is a physical blend having less than 200ppm of aluminum available commercially from Innophos Inc., Cranbury, New Jersey.

[0019] The composition SA- 1 has a neutralizing value of between about 66 to 72 and particularly 68 , as determined by a standardized procedure.

[0020] The composition SA-2 has a neutralizing value of between about 70 to 74 and particularly 72, wherein the neutralizing value is determined by the same standardize procedure as SA-1.

100211 In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a process for producing a novel leavening acid composition including the steps of mixing the components of a leavening composition including (i) a rise controlling composition; and (ii) an acid leavening composition, wherein the composition has a defined amount of aluminum, utlilizing a blender type (V-blender), mix time ( 15 minutes) and RPM (250), in a defined order. The SA-1 components are combined in the order of first, Cal-Rise 50%, and second, SAPP#4. The SA-2 components are combined in the order of first, Cal-Rise 50%, second, V-90, and third SAPP#4.

[0022] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a baking powder or baking mix for preparing an edible baked good including a leavening composition of the previous embodiments.

[0023] Evaluations

[0024] The information herein illustrates a comparison of the compositions of the present invention, in particular SA-1 and SA-2 and replacing SALP (Innophos * Levair and BL-60) and full analysis of physical properties as well as a range of various application types from batter based systems to dough based systems. The product that performs best across various applications is SA-1. The baked goods made with SA-1 are closest to Levair in many aspects. SA-2 is a decent alternative especially when the amount of sodium is critical for the user.

[0025] The SA-I and SA-2 blends are evaluated for Bulk Density, pH, Ro-Tap particl size, Neutralizing Value, Dough Rate of Reaction (DRR), Risograph C02 Mass, Batter expansion, and various bakery baking applications. This data includes Bulk Density (Tap Density), pH (10% Solution), Neutralizing Value (NV), DRR (Dough Rate of Reaction), and Ro-tap (particle size) - each of the blends is compared as well to Levair, Cal-Rise, Cal-Rise 100, BP Pyro, and SAPP#4.

[0026] Table 1

[0028] Neutralizing value (NV) is the value used to compare the difference in acidity between the different leavening acids. This value gives the formulator the correct usage level to use in order to react the carbonate and allows for comparison with other leavening acids. Table 3 gives the NV used in the testing of the SALP Alternative project. Products marked with an asterisk (*) have been determined by a standardized NV test method. Those not marked by an asterisk were used at the known NV value.

[0029] Table 3

[0030] One of the most critical pieces of information about leavening acids/blends is the DRR (Dough Rate of Reaction). The DRR reported herein is the standard method used by the by the inventor but could be substituted by methods known in the industry. In Table 4, the comparison of Levair vs. the Cal-Rise family of leavening acids including the SALP Alternative products SA-1 and SA-2 (known commercially from Regal Bake™ and Regal Rise™, respectively, both commercially available from Innophos Inc., Cranbury, New Jersey) are shown. The DRR in this test is a cross between a batter and a dough system.

[0031] In order to illustrate how some products may present themselves differently, a ROR (Rate of Reaction) giving the C02 Mass generated is also illustrated in Table 5. One of the main differences between the DRR and the ROR(C02 Mass) is the ROR is started after the dough has been mixed and the C02 generated is from that point for the period of 1 hour total (Table 6 & 7). The dough in the present example is scone dough. The differences also include the scone dough is less robust when using Cal-Rise as has been seen in the past when baked with lower Specific Volumes and Heights of the scones after cooking. In Table 6, the differences between the C02 Mass of the Levair dough and the other common leavening acids are shown. The SAPP#4 dough is slower than the Levair to begin but due to the unique properties of SAPP#4 after 30 minutes the SAPP#4 Blend dough becomes faster than the Levair dough.

[0032] Table 4

[0033] Table 5

[0034] Table 6

[0035] With the DRR and the ROR's indicating some differences between the products, some of the information that is necessary when determining what product are probable to work in a specific formulation vs. another is illustrated. To show the changes in a batter system - a batter expansion test was performed utilizing a pancake formulation as provided in Table PF and monitored at 2 temperatures : 15°C and room temperature (21 -21.5°C). The batter was measured to the 50 ml mark, the weight of the batter was measured and readings were recorded every 5 minutes over an hour total time. The data is shown in Tables 7, 8 and 9.

[0036] Table PF - Formulation

[0037] Table 7 - Pancake Batter Expansion

Table 8

[0038] Table 9

[0039] Physical testing of the SALP Alternative (SA) products is critical but more importantly, the value is in the actual applications in food products. Bake testing of the SA products were performed on a variety of baked goods ranging from dough systems - scones and biscuits and in batter systems - Creme cakes, White layer cakes, and pancakes. As seen in some of the physical evaluation testing - results vary from dough to batter systems. [0040] Application Testing - Dough Products

[0041] Commercially available Levair or SALP based products have been successful for many years. Now that more and more scrutiny has been placed on SALP based leavening acids, the need to change to a "non-aluminum" option is required. Biscuits have presented some issues with Cal-Rise but Scones have presented a greater difficulty for achieving acceptable performance.

[0042] SRF Biscuit Evaluations

[0043] Biscuits (American Style) are common in the US and have been tested with baking immediately after mixing and after the dough being held for 30 minutes. The results of the SALP alternative products along with the Cal-Rise products vary significantly between the 0 and 30 minute hold times (Table 10 & 1 1 ). The SA and Cal-Rise products have good specific volume and height (normalized) at 0 hold time. The SA- I product performs slightly smaller than the Levair product but the SA-2 and Cal-Rise products lose a significant amount of Specific Volume and Height after the 30 minute hold time. Another significant difference with the Cal-Rise products is the change in the Hardness (TPA Analysis). After the 30 minute hold the SA-2, Cal-Rise and Cal-Rise 100 biscuits became very firm - there was a significant expansion of the dough during the storage time and when the dough was rolled a large amount of the air was then lost. Also, it is important to recognize the Sodium Acid Pyrophosphates compared to the Levair and Cal-Rise series. The SAPP products were very consistent from 0 time to the 30 minute hold time. As known in the industry, the SAPP products deliver higher pH which can impact appearance and ability to sell as a shelf stable commercial product. The SAPP's were very tender as well at both times. Sodium content and taste will be discussed later. [0044] Table: 10

Table 1 1

[0045] Scones are very popular in Europe and have gained popularity in the US and elsewhere. The use of Levair (SALP) is one area where there has routinely been an exception for use, but SALP is no longer allowed for use in scones in the European region and was never allowed in Japan. The evaluations of the SALP alternatives in Scones is illustrated below in Table 12. There are some texture differences when using either the SAPP's or Cal-Rise based ingredient - the Hardness is lower with the SAPP products and the scones with Cal-Rise are firmer than with Levair with the exception of SA-1.

[0046] Table 12

[0047]

[0048] Application Testing - Batter Products

[0049] Batter types of bakery products are typically thinner (higher moisture content), have better flow properties and can range in a wide variety of products. In order to cover a range Pancakes. Creme Cake and White Layer cakes were made. The functionality of the SALP Alternative blends compared to Levair (SALP) and other typical chemical leaveners was evaluated for each.

[0050] Pancakes

[0051] Pancakes are very common in the US. An issue with Cal-Rise in pancake batters is that the Cal-Rise pancake mix, when held for any length of time, expands very rapidly as was shown in the Batter expansion tests (Tables 8 & 9). SA-1 performs well compared to Levair in pancakes as seen in Tables 13 and 14. The SA-1 held up over hold time even better than Levair, and the baked pancake heights and diameters were equal to or improved over the Levair. Pancakes that were made with the SAPP products (SAPP#4 or BP Pyro) had a good appearance and stability over storage but the pancakes were extremely crumbly and difficult to handle. The higher the amount of Cal-Rise or V-90 in the blends the worse the pancakes held up on hold time. These had a lot of gassing on the bench and the pancakes gave a good height but were very small in diameter also making for a gummier mouthfeel.

[0052] Table 13 - Pancakes

[0053] Table 14

[0054] Cakes - Creme Cake and White Layer Cake [0055] Creme cakes and white layer cakes are formulations bakery formulators are looking to remove the SALP from the formulation. The bakers located in South America have requested this reformulation. Some south American countries have used the European regulations as guidelines or fully adopted and follow the regulations of Europe and have phased out the use of SALP. Mix of both cake types was obtained from a commercial mix manufacturer for evaluations in the SALP Alternative development. The mixes were provided without any chemical leavening. The standard amount of sodium bicarbonate and leavening acid type and amount used was provided by the manufacturer. The results are shown in Tables 15 and 16, Creme Cake and White Layer cake respectively.

[0056] In both cake types SA- 1 replacing SALP (Levair) was the most effective alternative. In the creme cakes most of the cakes gave slightly smaller specific volume but SA-1 was closest to the control. The viscosity was very similar with straight Cal-Rise and SA-1. The specific volume of SA-2, Cal-Rise 100 and Cal-Rise were slightly lower than Levair. The SAPP#4 and BP Pyro both had similar viscosity, and specific volume but higher crumb pH. The hardness of the cakes was slightly lower than Levair with the exception of Cal-Rise which gave a slightly higher hardness. The SA-2 blend, Cal-Rise and the BP Pyro cakes have a slightly more open grain than the Levair cake. The Cal-Rise and both the SAPP cakes had darker crusts as well.

[0057] Table 15

[0058] The White Layer cakes performed well. The specific gravity of the batters was lower with SA-2, Cal-Rise and Cal-Rise 100. The specific volume exceeded Levair with all products tested. The pH of the cakes was slightly higher with SA- 1 , SA-2 and the 2 SAPP's. The appearance of all the cakes were very similar, they have similar color and grain. All the cakes are softer in texture than the Levair cake. Cakes with Cal-Rise, BP Pyro and SA-1 had hardness closer to the Levair than the others. The SAPP mixtures give the finish product a softer texture than sodium aluminum phosphate.

[0059] Table 16

[0060] Sodium Content from Application Work White Layer Cake

[0061] The nutritional data from each of the products baked (Table 17) shows how the change from using Levair (SALP) to other leavening systems including the SALP Alternative blends effects the overall sodium content of the products. All are based on 100 gram serving sizes.

[0062] Both of the SALP Alternative blends increase the sodium content of each product, SA-1 increase from 14 - 29% and the SA-2 from 4 - 14% however this is still significantly less than using straight SAPP which increases from 29 - 59%. Cal-Rise and Cal-Rise 100 both give reductions in sodium from 2 -18% less than Levair. These sodium value increases were part of the initial reason for having SA-2 added to the options. If sodium is a critical concern for the customer, SA-2 is another option if Cal-Rise or Cal-Rise 100 is not functionally working in a particular application.

[0063] Table 17 - Sodium Content of Various Bakery Applications