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Title:
LIGHTING SYSTEMS GENERATING PARTIALLY-COLLIMATED LIGHT EMISSIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/112634
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Lighting system. Bowl reflector has rim defining horizon and aperture, first light - reflective surface defining cavity, first parabolic surface. Funnel reflector has flared funnel-shaped body: central axis; second light - reflective surface aligned along axis; second parabolic surface; tip located within cavity along axis; profile including parabolic curves converging towards tip. Optically-transparent body aligned with second light - reflective surface along axis; with: bases spaced apart by side surface; first base facing light source. Second parabolic surface has ring of focal points at first position within cavity, equidistant from second parabolic surface; ring encircles first point on axis. Second parabolic surface has axes of symmetry intersecting with and radiating in directions all around axis from second point. Axes of symmetry intersect with focal points. Second point on axis between first point and horizon. Light source located for causing light emissions reflected by second parabolic surface to have partially-collimated distribution.

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Inventors:
ZHANG, Xin (10744 Lawler Street, Los Angeles, CA, 90034, US)
PICKARD, Paul (4455 Pelona Canyon Road, Acton, CA, 93510, US)
PETLURI, Raghuram, L.V. (13236 Carolyn Street, Cerritos, CA, 90703, US)
Application Number:
US2018/016662
Publication Date:
June 13, 2019
Filing Date:
February 02, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ECOSENSE LIGHTING INC. (837 N. Spring Street, Suite 103Los Angeles, CA, 90012, US)
International Classes:
F21K9/62; F21V3/04; F21V7/00
Foreign References:
US20160230958A12016-08-11
US20170343167A12017-11-30
CN206347348U2017-07-21
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BROWN, Jay, M. (Jay Brown Law Firm, 201 Shannon Oaks Circle Suite 20, Cary NC, 27511, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

We claim:

1. A lighting system, comprising:

a bowl reflector having a rim defining a horizon and defining an emission aperture, the bowl reflector having a first visible-light - reflective surface defining a portion of a cavity, a portion of the first visible-light - reflective surface being a first light - reflective parabolic surface;

a funnel reflector having a flared funnel-shaped body, the funnel-shaped body having a central axis and having a second visible-light - reflective surface being aligned along the central axis, the funnel-shaped body also having a tip being located within the cavity along the central axis, a portion of the second visible-light - reflective surface being a second light - reflective parabolic surface and having a cross-sectional profile defined in directions along the central axis that includes two parabolic curves that converge towards the tip of the funnel-shaped body; a visible-light source including a semiconductor light-emitting device, the visible-light source being configured for generating visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light- emitting device;

an optically-transparent body being aligned with the second visible-light - reflective surface along the central axis, the optically-transparent body having a first base being spaced apart along the central axis from a second base and having a side surface extending between the bases, and the first base facing toward the visible-light source;

wherein the second light - reflective parabolic surface has a ring of focal points being located at a first position within the cavity, each one of the focal points being equidistant from the second light - reflective parabolic surface, and the ring encircling a first point on the central axis;

wherein the second light - reflective parabolic surface has an array of axes of symmetry intersecting with and radiating in directions all around the central axis from a second point on the central axis, each one of the axes of symmetry intersecting with a corresponding one of the focal points, the second point on the central axis being located between the first point and the horizon of the bowl reflector; and

wherein the visible-light source is within the cavity at a second position being located, relative to the first position of the ring, for causing some of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface as having a partially-collimated distribution.

2. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein a one of the focal points is within the second position of the visible-light source.

3. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the second position of the visible-light source intersects with a one of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface.

4. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the bowl reflector has another central axis, and wherein the another central axis is aligned with the central axis of the funnel-shaped body.

5. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the lighting system includes another surface defining another portion of the cavity, and wherein the visible-light source is located on the another surface of the lighting system.

6. The lighting system of claim 5, wherein the visible-light source includes a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices arranged in an emitter array being on the another surface, the emitter array having a maximum diameter defined in directions being orthogonal to the central axis, and wherein the funnel reflector has another maximum diameter defined in additional directions being orthogonal to the central axis, and wherein the another maximum diameter of the funnel reflector is at least about 10% greater than the maximum diameter of the emitter array.

7. The lighting system of claim 6, wherein the ring of focal points has a maximum ring diameter defined in further directions being orthogonal to the central axis, and wherein the another maximum diameter of the funnel reflector is about 10% greater than the maximum diameter of the emitter array, and wherein the maximum ring diameter is about half of the maximum diameter of the emitter array.

8. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first light - reflective parabolic surface of the bowl reflector has a second array of axes of symmetry being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light-emitting device having been refracted by the side surface of the optically-transparent body after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface of the funnel-shaped body.

9. The lighting system of claim 8, wherein the visible-light source includes another semiconductor light-emitting device, and wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector includes another portion as being a third light - reflective parabolic surface, and wherein the third light - reflective parabolic surface has a third array of axes of symmetry being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions from the another semiconductor light-emitting device having been refracted by the side surface of the optically- transparent body after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface of the funnel-shaped body.

10. The lighting system of claim 9, wherein the visible-light source includes a further semiconductor light-emitting device, and wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector includes a further portion as being a fourth light - reflective parabolic surface, and wherein the fourth light - reflective parabolic surface has a fourth array of axes of symmetry being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions from the further semiconductor light-emitting device having been refracted by the side surface of the optically-transparent body after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface of the funnel-shaped body.

11. The lighting system of claim 9, wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector is configured for reflecting, toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for partially-controlled emission from the lighting system, some of the visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light-emitting device and some of the visible-light emissions from the another semiconductor light-emitting device.

12. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first light - reflective parabolic surface is configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system in a partially-collimated beam having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions, as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis, being no greater than about forty-five degrees.

13. The lighting system of claim 12, wherein the first light - reflective parabolic surface is configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°).

14. The lighting system of claim 13, wherein the first light - reflective parabolic surface is configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a field angle being no greater than about eighteen degrees (18°).

15. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first light - reflective parabolic surface is configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system in a substantially-collimated beam having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions, as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis, being no greater than about twenty-five degrees.

16. The lighting system of claim 1, including another bowl reflector being interchangeable with the bowl reflector, the another bowl reflector having another rim defining another horizon and defining another emission aperture and a third visible-light - reflective surface defining a portion of another cavity, a portion of the third visible-light - reflective surface being a fifth light - reflective parabolic surface, wherein the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface is configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the another emission aperture of the another bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system in a partially- collimated beam having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions, as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis, being no greater than about forty- five degrees.

17. The lighting system of claim 16, wherein the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface is configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the another emission aperture of the another bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°).

18. The lighting system of claim 17, wherein the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface is configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the another emission aperture of the another bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a field angle being no greater than about eighteen degrees (18°).

19. The lighting system of claim 16, wherein the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface is configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the another emission aperture of the another bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system in a substantially- collimated beam having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions, as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis, being no greater than about twenty- five degrees.

20. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the visible-light source includes a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices.

21. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the visible-light source includes the plurality of the semiconductor light-emitting devices as being arranged in an array.

22. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the ring of focal points has a ring radius, and wherein each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices is located within a distance of or closer than about twice the ring radius away from the ring.

23. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the ring of focal points has a ring radius, and wherein each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices is located within a distance of or closer than about one-half of the ring radius away from the ring.

24. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein a one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices is located at a one of the focal points.

25. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the ring of focal points defines a space being encircled by the ring, and wherein a one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices is at a location intersecting the space.

26. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the visible-light source is at the second position being located, relative to the first position of the ring of focal points, for causing some of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface in a partially-collimated beam shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions, the ray fan expanding away from the second visible-light - reflective surface and having an average fan angle, defined in directions parallel to the central axis, being no greater than about forty-five degrees.

27. The lighting system of claim 26, wherein the ring of focal points has a ring radius, and wherein each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices is located within a distance of or closer than about twice the ring radius away from the ring.

28. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the visible-light source is at the second position being located, relative to the first position of the ring of focal points, for causing some of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface in a substantially-collimated beam being shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions, the ray fan expanding away from the second visible-light - reflective surface and having an average fan angle, defined in directions parallel to the central axis, being no greater than about twenty- five degrees.

29. The lighting system of claim 28, wherein the ring of focal points has a ring radius, and wherein each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices is located within a distance of or closer than about one-half the ring radius away from the ring.

30. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the first position of the ring of focal points is within the second position of the visible-light source.

31. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein a portion of the plurality of

semiconductor light-emitting devices is arranged in a first emitter ring having a first average diameter encircling the central axis, and wherein another portion of the plurality of

semiconductor light-emitting devices is arranged in a second emitter ring having a second average diameter being greater than the first average diameter and encircling the central axis.

32. The lighting system of claim 31, wherein the semiconductor light-emitting devices being arranged in the first emitter ring collectively cause the generation of a first beam of visible- light emissions at the emission aperture of the bowl reflector having a first average beam angle, and wherein the semiconductor light-emitting devices being arranged in the second emitter ring collectively cause the generation of a second beam of visible-light emissions at the emission aperture of the bowl reflector having a second average beam angle being less than the first average beam angle.

33. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the plurality of the semiconductor light- emitting devices are collectively configured for generating the visible-light emissions as having a selectable perceived color.

34. The lighting system of claim 33, wherein the lighting system includes a controller for the visible-light source, the controller being configured for causing the visible-light emissions to have a selectable perceived color.

35. The lighting system of claim 33, including additional semiconductor light- emitting devices being co-located in pluralities together, so that each of the co-located pluralities of the semiconductor light-emitting devices may be configured for collectively generating the visible-light emissions as having a selectable perceived color.

36. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the second position of the visible-light source is a small distance away from the first base of the optically-transparent body.

37. The lighting system of claim 36, wherein the small distance is less than or equal to about one (1) millimeter.

38. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the side surface of the optically- transparent body has a generally-cylindrical shape.

39. The lighting system of claim 38, wherein the first and second bases of the optically-transparent body have circular perimeters, and the optically-transparent body has a generally circular-cylindrical shape.

40. The lighting system of claim 39, wherein the first base of the optically-transparent body has a generally-planar surface.

41. The lighting system of claim 39, wherein the first base of the optically-transparent body has a surface being convex, concave, having both concave and convex portions, or otherwise being roughened or irregular.

42. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the side surface of the optically- transparent body has a concave hyperbolic-cylindrical shape.

43. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the side surface of the optically- transparent body has a convex-cylindrical shape.

44. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the side surface of the optically- transparent body includes a plurality of vertically-faceted sections being mutually spaced apart around and joined together around the central axis.

45. The lighting system of claim 44, wherein each one of the vertically-faceted sections forms a one of a plurality of facets of the side surface, and wherein each one of the facets has a generally flat visible-light reflective surface.

46. The lighting system of claim 44, wherein each one of the vertically-faceted sections forms a one of a plurality of facets of the side surface, and wherein each one of the facets has a concave visible-light reflective surface.

47. The lighting system of claim 44, wherein each one of the vertically-faceted sections forms a one of a plurality of facets of the side surface, and wherein each one of the facets has a convex visible-light reflective surface.

48. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the optically-transparent body has a refractive index of at least about 1.41.

49. The lighting system of claim 20, wherein the plurality of semiconductor light- emitting devices are collectively configured for generating the visible-light emissions as having a selectable perceived color.

50. The lighting system of claim 49, wherein the optically-transparent body includes light-scattering particles for causing diffuse refraction.

51. The lighting system of claim 49, wherein the side surface of the optically- transparent body is configured for causing diffuse refraction.

52. The lighting system of claim 51, wherein the side surface of the optically- transparent body is configured for causing the diffuse refraction by being roughened or having a plurality of facets, lens-lets, or micro-lenses.

53. The lighting system of claim 1, including another optically-transparent body, wherein the another optically-transparent body is located between the visible-light source and the optically-transparent body.

54. The lighting system of claim 22, wherein the optically-transparent body has a refractive index being greater than another refractive index of the another optically-transparent body.

55. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the optically-transparent body is integrated with the funnel-shaped body of the funnel reflector.

56. The lighting system of claim 55, wherein the funnel-shaped body is attached to the second base of the optically-transparent body.

57. The lighting system of claim 55, wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body is attached to the second base of the optically-transparent body.

58. The lighting system of claim 55, wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body is directly attached to the second base of the optically- transparent body by a gapless interface between the second base of the optically-transparent body and the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body.

59. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein each one of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface forms an acute angle with a portion of the central axis extending from the second point to the first point.

60. The lighting system of claim 59, wherein each one of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface forms an acute angle being greater than about 80 degrees with the portion of the central axis extending from the second point to the first point.

61. The lighting system of claim 59, wherein each one of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface forms an acute angle being greater than about 85 degrees with the portion of the central axis extending from the second point to the first point.

62. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the second light - reflective parabolic surface is a specular light - reflective surface.

63. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface is a metallic layer on the flared funnel-shaped body.

64. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body has a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety percent (90%).

65. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body has a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety -five percent (95%).

66. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body has a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about ten percent (10%).

67. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body has a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%).

68. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector is a specular light - reflective surface.

69. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface is a metallic layer on the bowl reflector.

70. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector has a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety percent (90%).

71. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector has a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%).

72. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector has a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about ten percent (10%).

73. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector has a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%).

74. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first light - reflective parabolic surface of the bowl reflector is a multi -segmented surface.

75. The lighting system of claim 9, wherein the third light - reflective parabolic surface of the bowl reflector is a multi-segmented surface.

76. The lighting system of claim 10, wherein the fourth light - reflective parabolic surface of the bowl reflector is a multi-segmented surface.

77. The lighting system of claim 1, further including a lens defining a further portion of the cavity, the lens being shaped for covering the aperture of the bowl reflector.

78. The lighting system of claim 77, wherein the lens is a bi-planar lens having non- refractive anterior and posterior surfaces.

79. The lighting system of claim 77, wherein the lens has a central orifice being configured for attachment of accessory lenses to the lighting system.

80. The lighting system of claim 79, including a removable plug being configured for closing the central orifice.

81. The lighting system of claim 4, wherein: the first and second bases of the optically-transparent body have circular perimeters; and the optically-transparent body has a circular-cylindrical shape; and the funnel reflector has a circular perimeter; and the horizon of the bowl reflector has a circular perimeter.

82. The lighting system of claim 4, wherein: the first and second bases of the optically-transparent body have elliptical perimeters; and the optically-transparent body has an elliptical-cylindrical shape; and the funnel reflector has an elliptical perimeter; and the horizon of the bowl reflector has an elliptical perimeter.

83. The lighting system of claim 4, wherein: each of the first and second bases of the optically-transparent body has a multi-faceted perimeter being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal; and the optically-transparent body has a multi-faceted shape being rectangular-, hexagonal-, octagonal-, or otherwise polygonal-cylindrical; and the funnel reflector has a multi-faceted perimeter being rectangular-, hexagonal-, octagonal-, or otherwise polygonal shaped; and the horizon of the bowl reflector has a multi-faceted perimeter being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal.

84. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the first visible-light reflective surface of the bowl reflector includes a plurality of vertically-faceted sections being mutually spaced apart around and joined together around the another central axis.

85. The lighting system of claim 84, wherein each one of the vertically-faceted sections has a generally pie-wedge - shaped perimeter.

86. The lighting system of claim 84, wherein each one of the vertically-faceted sections forms a one of a plurality of facets of the first visible-light - reflective surface, and wherein each one of the facets has a concave visible-light reflective surface.

87. The lighting system of claim 84, wherein each one of the vertically-faceted sections forms a one of a plurality of facets of the first visible-light - reflective surface, and wherein each one of the facets has a convex visible-light reflective surface.

88. The lighting system of claim 84, wherein each one of the vertically-faceted sections forms a one of a plurality of facets of the first visible-light - reflective surface, and wherein each one of the facets has a generally flat visible-light reflective surface.

89. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the optically-transparent body has a spectrum of transmission values of visible-light having an average value being at least about ninety percent (90%).

90. The lighting system of claim 1, wherein the optically-transparent body has a spectrum of absorption values of visible-light having an average value being no greater than about ten percent (10%).

Description:
LIGHTING SYSTEMS GENERATING PARTIALLY-COLLIMATED LIGHT EMISSIONS

CROSS - REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of commonly-owned U.S. patent application serial number 15/835,610 filed on December 8, 2017, which is a continuation of International Application No. PCT/US2016/016972 filed on February 8, 2016 and is a continuation of U.S. patent application serial number 14/617,849 which was issued on January 16, 2018 as U.S. Patent No. 9,869,450, the entireties of all of which hereby are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention.

[0001] The present invention relates to the field of lighting systems that include semiconductor light-emitting devices, and processes related to such lighting systems.

2. Background of the Invention.

[0002] Numerous lighting systems that include semiconductor light-emitting devices have been developed. As examples, some of such lighting systems may control the propagation of light emitted by the semiconductor light-emitting devices. Despite the existence of these lighting systems, further improvements are still needed in lighting systems that include semiconductor light-emitting devices and that control the propagation of some of the emitted light, and in processes related to such lighting systems.

SUMMARY

[0003] In an example of an implementation, a lighting system is provided that includes a bowl reflector, a funnel reflector, a visible-light source including a semiconductor light-emitting device, and an optically-transparent body. In this example of the lighting system, the bowl reflector has a rim that defines a horizon and an emission aperture. Further in this example of the lighting system, the bowl reflector has a first visible-light - reflective surface defining a portion of a cavity; and a portion of the first visible-light - reflective surface is a first light - reflective parabolic surface. In this example of the lighting system, the funnel reflector has a flared funnel- shaped body. Also in this example of the lighting system, the funnel-shaped body has: a central axis; and a second visible-light - reflective surface being aligned along the central axis; and a tip being located within the cavity along the central axis. A portion of the second visible-light - reflective surface in this example of the lighting system is a second light - reflective parabolic surface having a cross-sectional profile defined in directions along the central axis that includes two parabolic curves that converge towards the tip of the funnel-shaped body. In this example of the lighting system, the visible-light source is configured for generating visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light-emitting device. Additionally in this example of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body: is aligned with the second visible-light - reflective surface along the central axis; and has a first base being spaced apart along the central axis from a second base; and has a side surface extending between the bases; and has the first base as facing toward the visible-light source. Further in this example of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface has a ring of focal points being located at a first position within the cavity, each one of the focal points being equidistant from the second light - reflective parabolic surface, and the ring encircling a first point on the central axis. In this example of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface further has an array of axes of symmetry intersecting with and radiating in directions all around the central axis from a second point on the central axis, each one of the axes of symmetry intersecting with a corresponding one of the focal points, the second point on the central axis being located between the first point and the horizon of the bowl reflector. Additionally in this example of the lighting system, the visible-light source is within the cavity at a second position being located, relative to the first position of the ring, for causing some of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface as having a partially-collimated distribution.

[0004] In some examples of the lighting system, a one of the focal points may be within the second position of the visible-light source.

[0005] In further examples of the lighting system, the second position of the visible-light source may intersect with a one of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface.

[0006] In additional examples of the lighting system, the bowl reflector may have another central axis, and the another central axis may be aligned with the central axis of the funnel- shaped body.

[0007] In other examples of the lighting system, the lighting system may include another surface defining another portion of the cavity, and the visible-light source may be located on the another surface of the lighting system.

[0008] In some examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source may include a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices arranged in an emitter array being on the another surface, the emitter array having a maximum diameter defined in directions being orthogonal to the central axis, and the funnel reflector may have another maximum diameter defined in additional directions being orthogonal to the central axis, and the another maximum diameter of the funnel reflector may be at least about 10% greater than the maximum diameter of the emitter array.

[0009] In further examples of the lighting system, the ring of focal points may have a maximum ring diameter defined in further directions being orthogonal to the central axis, and the another maximum diameter of the funnel reflector may be about 10% greater than the maximum diameter of the emitter array, and the maximum ring diameter may be about half of the maximum diameter of the emitter array.

[0010] In additional examples of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface of the bowl reflector may have a second array of axes of symmetry being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light- emitting device having been refracted by the side surface of the optically-transparent body after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface of the funnel-shaped body.

[0011] In other examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source may include another semiconductor light-emitting device, and the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector may include another portion as being a third light - reflective parabolic surface, and the third light - reflective parabolic surface may have a third array of axes of symmetry being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions from the another semiconductor light-emitting device having been refracted by the side surface of the optically- transparent body after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface of the funnel-shaped body.

[0012] In some examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source may include a further semiconductor light-emitting device, and the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector may include a further portion as being a fourth light - reflective parabolic surface, and the fourth light - reflective parabolic surface may have a fourth array of axes of symmetry being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions from the further semiconductor light-emitting device having been refracted by the side surface of the optically-transparent body after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface of the funnel-shaped body.

[0013] In further examples of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector may be configured for reflecting, toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for partially-controlled emission from the lighting system, some of the visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light-emitting device and some of the visible-light emissions from the another semiconductor light-emitting device. [0014] In additional examples of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system in a partially-collimated beam having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions, as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis, being no greater than about forty-five degrees.

[0015] In other examples of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°).

[0016] In some examples of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a field angle being no greater than about eighteen degrees (18°).

[0017] In further examples of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the emission aperture of the bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system in a substantially-collimated beam having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions, as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis, being no greater than about twenty-five degrees.

[0018] In additional examples, the lighting system may include another bowl reflector being interchangeable with the bowl reflector, the another bowl reflector having another rim defining another horizon and defining another emission aperture and a third visible-light - reflective surface defining a portion of another cavity, a portion of the third visible-light - reflective surface being a fifth light - reflective parabolic surface, and the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the another emission aperture of the another bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system in a partially-collimated beam having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions, as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis, being no greater than about forty-five degrees.

[0019] In other examples of the lighting system, the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the another emission aperture of the another bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°).

[0020] In some examples of the lighting system, the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the another emission aperture of the another bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a field angle being no greater than about eighteen degrees (18°).

[0021] In further examples of the lighting system, the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions toward the another emission aperture of the another bowl reflector for emission from the lighting system in a substantially-collimated beam having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions, as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis, being no greater than about twenty-five degrees.

[0022] In additional examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source may include a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices.

[0023] In other examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source may include the plurality of the semiconductor light-emitting devices as being arranged in an array.

[0024] In some examples of the lighting system, of claim 20, the ring of focal points may have a ring radius, and each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be located within a distance of or closer than about twice the ring radius away from the ring.

[0025] In further examples of the lighting system, the ring of focal points may have a ring radius, and each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be located within a distance of or closer than about one-half of the ring radius away from the ring.

[0026] In additional examples of the lighting system, a one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be located at a one of the focal points.

[0027] In other examples of the lighting system, the ring of focal points may define a space being encircled by the ring, and a one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be at a location intersecting the space.

[0028] In some examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source may be at the second position being located, relative to the first position of the ring of focal points, for causing some of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface in a partially-collimated beam shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions, the ray fan expanding away from the second visible-light - reflective surface and having an average fan angle, defined in directions parallel to the central axis, being no greater than about forty-five degrees.

[0029] In further examples of the lighting system, the ring of focal points may have a ring radius, and each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be located within a distance of or closer than about twice the ring radius away from the ring. [0030] In additional examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source may be at the second position being located, relative to the first position of the ring of focal points, for causing some of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface in a substantially-collimated beam being shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions, the ray fan expanding away from the second visible-light - reflective surface and having an average fan angle, defined in directions parallel to the central axis, being no greater than about twenty-five degrees.

[0031] In other examples of the lighting system, the ring of focal points may have a ring radius, and each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be located within a distance of or closer than about one-half the ring radius away from the ring.

[0032] In some examples of the lighting system, the first position of the ring of focal points may be within the second position of the visible-light source.

[0033] In further examples of the lighting system, a portion of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be arranged in a first emitter ring having a first average diameter encircling the central axis, and another portion of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be arranged in a second emitter ring having a second average diameter being greater than the first average diameter and encircling the central axis.

[0034] In additional examples of the lighting system, the semiconductor light-emitting devices being arranged in the first emitter ring may collectively cause the generation of a first beam of visible-light emissions at the emission aperture of the bowl reflector having a first average beam angle, and the semiconductor light-emitting devices being arranged in the second emitter ring may collectively cause the generation of a second beam of visible-light emissions at the emission aperture of the bowl reflector having a second average beam angle being less than the first average beam angle.

[0035] In other examples of the lighting system, the plurality of the semiconductor light- emitting devices may be collectively configured for generating the visible-light emissions as having a selectable perceived color.

[0036] In some examples of the lighting system, the lighting system may include a controller for the visible-light source, the controller being configured for causing the visible-light emissions to have a selectable perceived color.

[0037] In further examples, the lighting system may include additional semiconductor light- emitting devices being co-located in pluralities together, so that each of the co-located pluralities of the semiconductor light-emitting devices may be configured for collectively generating the visible-light emissions as having a selectable perceived color. [0038] In additional examples of the lighting system, the second position of the visible-light source may be a small distance away from the first base of the optically-transparent body.

[0039] In other examples of the lighting system, the small distance may be less than or equal to about one (1) millimeter.

[0040] In some examples of the lighting system, the side surface of the optically-transparent body may have a generally-cylindrical shape.

[0041] In further examples of the lighting system, the first and second bases of the optically- transparent body may have circular perimeters, and the optically-transparent body may have a generally circular-cylindrical shape.

[0042] In additional examples of the lighting system, the first base of the optically- transparent body may have a generally-planar surface.

[0043] In other examples of the lighting system, the first base of the optically-transparent body may have a surface being convex, concave, having both concave and convex portions, or otherwise being roughened or irregular.

[0044] In some examples of the lighting system, the side surface of the optically-transparent body may have a concave hyperbolic-cylindrical shape.

[0045] In further examples of the lighting system, the side surface of the optically-transparent body may have a convex-cylindrical shape.

[0046] In additional examples of the lighting system, the side surface of the optically- transparent body may include a plurality of vertically-faceted sections being mutually spaced apart around and joined together around the central axis.

[0047] In other examples of the lighting system, each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets of the side surface, and each one of the facets may have a generally flat visible-light reflective surface.

[0048] In some examples of the lighting system, each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets of the side surface, and each one of the facets may have a concave visible-light reflective surface.

[0049] In further examples of the lighting system, each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets of the side surface, and each one of the facets may have a convex visible-light reflective surface.

[0050] In additional examples of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body may have a refractive index of at least about 1.41. [0051] In other examples of the lighting system, the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices may be collectively configured for generating the visible-light emissions as having a selectable perceived color.

[0052] In some examples of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body may include light-scattering particles for causing diffuse refraction.

[0053] In further examples of the lighting system, the side surface of the optically-transparent body may be configured for causing diffuse refraction.

[0054] In additional examples of the lighting system, the side surface of the optically- transparent body may be configured for causing the diffuse refraction by being roughened or having a plurality of facets, lens-lets, or micro-lenses.

[0055] In other examples, the lighting system may include another optically-transparent body, and the another optically-transparent body may be located between the visible-light source and the optically-transparent body.

[0056] In some examples of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body may have a refractive index being greater than another refractive index of the another optically-transparent body.

[0057] In further examples of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body may be integrated with the funnel-shaped body of the funnel reflector.

[0058] In additional examples of the lighting system, the funnel-shaped body may be attached to the second base of the optically-transparent body.

[0059] In other examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body may be attached to the second base of the optically-transparent body.

[0060] In some examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body may be directly attached to the second base of the optically- transparent body by a gapless interface between the second base of the optically-transparent body and the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body.

[0061] In further examples of the lighting system, each one of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface may form an acute angle with a portion of the central axis extending from the second point to the first point.

[0062] In additional examples of the lighting system, each one of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface may form an acute angle being greater than about 80 degrees with the portion of the central axis extending from the second point to the first point. [0063] In other examples of the lighting system, each one of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface may form an acute angle being greater than about 85 degrees with the portion of the central axis extending from the second point to the first point.

[0064] In some examples of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface may be a specular light - reflective surface.

[0065] In further examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface may be a metallic layer on the flared funnel-shaped body.

[0066] In additional examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety percent (90%).

[0067] In other examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%).

[0068] In some examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about ten percent (10%).

[0069] In further examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface of the funnel-shaped body may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%).

[0070] In additional examples of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector may be a specular light - reflective surface.

[0071] In other examples of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface may be a metallic layer on the bowl reflector.

[0072] In some examples of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety percent (90%).

[0073] In further examples of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%).

[0074] In additional examples of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about ten percent (10%). [0075] In other examples of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%).

[0076] In some examples of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface of the bowl reflector may be a multi-segmented surface.

[0077] In further examples of the lighting system, the third light - reflective parabolic surface of the bowl reflector may be a multi-segmented surface.

[0078] In additional examples of the lighting system, the fourth light - reflective parabolic surface of the bowl reflector may be a multi-segmented surface.

[0079] In other examples, the lighting system may further include a lens defining a further portion of the cavity, the lens being shaped for covering the aperture of the bowl reflector.

[0080] In some examples of the lighting system, the lens may be a bi-planar lens having non- refractive anterior and posterior surfaces.

[0081] In further examples of the lighting system, the lens may have a central orifice being configured for attachment of accessory lenses to the lighting system.

[0082] In additional examples, the lighting system may include a removable plug being configured for closing the central orifice.

[0083] In other examples of the lighting system: the first and second bases of the optically- transparent body may have circular perimeters; and the optically-transparent body may have a circular-cylindrical shape; and the funnel reflector may have a circular perimeter; and the horizon of the bowl reflector may have a circular perimeter.

[0084] In some examples of the lighting system: the first and second bases of the optically- transparent body may have elliptical perimeters; and the optically-transparent body may have an elliptical-cylindrical shape; and the funnel reflector may have an elliptical perimeter; and the horizon of the bowl reflector may have an elliptical perimeter.

[0085] In further examples of the lighting system: each of the first and second bases of the optically-transparent body may have a multi-faceted perimeter being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal; and the optically-transparent body may have a multi-faceted shape being rectangular-, hexagonal-, octagonal-, or otherwise polygonal-cylindrical; and the funnel reflector may have a multi-faceted perimeter being rectangular-, hexagonal-, octagonal-, or otherwise polygonal-shaped; and the horizon of the bowl reflector may have a multi-faceted perimeter being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal. [0086] In additional examples of the lighting system, the first visible-light reflective surface of the bowl reflector may include a plurality of vertically-faceted sections being mutually spaced apart around and joined together around the another central axis.

[0087] In other examples of the lighting system, each one of the vertically-faceted sections may have a generally pie-wedge - shaped perimeter.

[0088] In some examples of the lighting system, each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets of the first visible-light - reflective surface, and each one of the facets may have a concave visible-light reflective surface.

[0089] In further examples of the lighting system, each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets of the first visible-light - reflective surface, and each one of the facets may have a convex visible-light reflective surface.

[0090] In additional examples of the lighting system, each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets of the first visible-light - reflective surface, and each one of the facets may have a generally flat visible-light reflective surface.

[0091] In other examples of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body may have a spectrum of transmission values of visible-light having an average value being at least about ninety percent (90%).

[0092] In some examples of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body may have a spectrum of absorption values of visible-light having an average value being no greater than about ten percent (10%).

[0093] Other systems, processes, features and advantages of the invention will be or will become apparent to one with skill in the art upon examination of the following figures and detailed description. It is intended that all such additional systems, processes, features and advantages be included within this description, be within the scope of the invention, and be protected by the accompanying claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0094] The invention can be better understood with reference to the following figures. The components in the figures are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention. Moreover, in the figures, like reference numerals designate corresponding parts throughout the different views.

[0095] Fig. 1 is a schematic top view showing an example [100] of an implementation of a lighting system.

[0096] Fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 2-2 showing the example [100] of the lighting system.

[0097] Fig. 3 is a schematic top view showing another example [300] of an implementation of a lighting system.

[0098] Fig. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 4-4 showing the another example [300] of the lighting system.

[0099] Fig. 5 is a schematic top view showing an additional example of an alternative optically-transparent body that may be included in the examples of the lighting system.

[00100] Fig. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 6-6 showing the additional example of the alternative optically-transparent body.

[00101] Fig. 7 is a schematic top view showing a further example of an alternative optically- transparent body that may be included in the examples of the lighting system.

[00102] Fig. 8 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 8-8 showing the further example of the alternative optically-transparent body.

[00103] Fig. 9 is a schematic top view showing an example of an alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples of the lighting system.

[00104] Fig. 10 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 10-10 showing the example of an alternative bowl reflector.

[00105] Fig. 11 shows a portion of the example of an alternative bowl reflector.

[00106] Fig. 12 is a schematic top view showing an example of an alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples of the lighting system.

[00107] Fig. 13 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 13-13 showing the example of an alternative bowl reflector.

[00108] Fig. 14 shows a portion of the example of an alternative bowl reflector.

[00109] Fig. 15 is a schematic top view showing an example of an alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples of the lighting system.

[00110] Fig. 16 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 16-16 showing the example of an alternative bowl reflector.

[00111] Fig. 17 shows a portion of the example of an alternative bowl reflector.

[00112] Fig. 18 is a schematic top view showing an example of an alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples of the lighting system.

[00113] Fig. 19 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 19-19 showing the example of an alternative bowl reflector.

[00114] Fig. 20 is a schematic top view showing an example of an alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples of the lighting system. [00115] Fig. 21 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 21-21 showing the example of an alternative bowl reflector.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[00116] Various lighting systems and processes that utilize semiconductor light-emitting devices have been designed. Many such lighting systems and processes exist that are capable of emitting light from an emission aperture. However, existing lighting systems and processes often have demonstrably failed to provide partially-collimated or substantially-collimated light emissions having a perceived uniform brightness and propagating with a controllable beam angle range and a controllable field angle range; and often have generated light emissions being perceived as having aesthetically-unpleasing glare.

[00117] Lighting systems accordingly are provided herein, that include a bowl reflector, a funnel reflector, a visible-light source including a semiconductor light-emitting device, and an optically-transparent body. In examples of the lighting system, the bowl reflector has a rim that defines a horizon and an emission aperture and has a first visible-light - reflective surface defining a portion of a cavity. A portion of the first visible-light - reflective surface, in these examples of the lighting system, is a first light - reflective parabolic surface. In these examples of the lighting system, the funnel reflector has a flared funnel-shaped body; and the funnel- shaped body has: a central axis; and a second visible-light - reflective surface being aligned along the central axis; and a tip being located within the cavity along the central axis. A portion of the second visible-light - reflective surface, in these examples of the lighting system, is a second light - reflective parabolic surface having a cross-sectional profile defined in directions along the central axis that includes two parabolic curves that converge towards the tip of the funnel-shaped body. In these examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source is configured for generating visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light-emitting device. Additionally in these example of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body: is aligned with the second visible-light - reflective surface along the central axis; and has a first base being spaced apart along the central axis from a second base; and has a side surface extending between the bases; and has the first base as facing toward the visible-light source. In these examples of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface has a ring of focal points being located at a first position within the cavity, each one of the focal points being equidistant from the second light - reflective parabolic surface, and the ring encircling a first point on the central axis. The second light - reflective parabolic surface in these examples of the lighting system further has an array of axes of symmetry intersecting with and radiating in directions all around the central axis from a second point on the central axis, each one of the axes of symmetry intersecting with a corresponding one of the focal points, the second point on the central axis being located between the first point and the horizon of the bowl reflector. Additionally in these examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source is within the cavity at a second position being located, relative to the first position of the ring, for causing some of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface as having a partially-collimated distribution.

[00118] In these examples of the lighting system, the visible-light source is located at the second position, relative to the first position of the ring of focal points, for causing some of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface as having a partially-collimated distribution. Further in these examples of the lighting system, each of the axes in the array of the axes of symmetry of the second light - reflective parabolic surface is located so as to intersect the central axis at the second point, being between the horizon of the bowl reflector and the first point on the central axis which is encircled by the focal points. This structure of the examples of the lighting system may cause the visible-light emissions to pass through the side surface of the optically-transparent body at downward angles being below the horizon of the bowl reflector. Upon reaching the side surface of the optically-transparent body at such downward angles, the visible-light emissions may there be further refracted downward. In these examples of the lighting system, the downward directions of the visible-light emissions upon passing through the side surface may cause relatively more of the visible-light emissions to be reflected by the first visible-light - reflective surface of the bowl reflector and may accordingly cause relatively less of the visible-light emissions to directly reach the emission aperture after bypassing the bowl reflector. Visible-light emissions that directly reach the emission aperture after bypassing the bowl reflector may, as examples, cause glare or otherwise not be emitted in intended directions. Further, the reductions in glare and visible-light emissions in unintended directions that may accordingly be achieved by these examples of the lighting system may facilitate a reduction in a depth of the bowl reflector in directions along the central axis. Hence, the combined elements of these examples of the lighting system may facilitate a more low-profiled structure of the lighting system having reduced glare and providing greater control over directions of visible-light emissions.

[00119] The following definitions of terms, being stated as applying “throughout this specification”, are hereby deemed to be incorporated throughout this specification, including but not limited to the Summary, Brief Description of the Figures, Detailed Description, and Claims.

[00120] Throughout this specification, the term “semiconductor” means: a substance, examples including a solid chemical element or compound, that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not others, making the substance a good medium for the control of electrical current.

[00121] Throughout this specification, the term“semiconductor light-emitting device” (also being abbreviated as“SLED”) means: a light-emitting diode; an organic light-emitting diode; a laser diode; or any other light-emitting device having one or more layers containing inorganic and/or organic semiconductor(s). Throughout this specification, the term“light-emitting diode” (herein also referred to as an“LED”) means: a two-lead semiconductor light source having an active pn-junction. As examples, an LED may include a series of semiconductor layers that may be epitaxially grown on a substrate such as, for example, a substrate that includes sapphire, silicon, silicon carbide, gallium nitride or gallium arsenide. Further, for example, one or more semiconductor p-n junctions may be formed in these epitaxial layers. When a sufficient voltage is applied across the p-n junction, for example, electrons in the n-type semiconductor layers and holes in the p-type semiconductor layers may flow toward the p-n junction. As the electrons and holes flow toward each other, some of the electrons may recombine with corresponding holes, and emit photons. The energy release is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light, which corresponds to the energy of the photons, is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. As examples, a spectral power distribution of the light generated by an LED may generally depend on the particular semiconductor materials used and on the structure of the thin epitaxial layers that make up the“active region” of the device, being the area where the light is generated. As examples, an LED may have a light-emissive electroluminescent layer including an inorganic semiconductor, such as a Group III-V semiconductor, examples including: gallium nitride; silicon; silicon carbide; and zinc oxide. Throughout this specification, the term“organic light-emitting diode” (herein also referred to as an“OLED”) means: an LED having a light- emissive electroluminescent layer including an organic semiconductor, such as small organic molecules or an organic polymer. It is understood throughout this specification that a semiconductor light-emitting device may include: a non-semiconductor-substrate or a semiconductor-substrate; and may include one or more electrically-conductive contact layers. Further, it is understood throughout this specification that an LED may include a substrate formed of materials such as, for example: silicon carbide; sapphire; gallium nitride; or silicon. It is additionally understood throughout this specification that a semiconductor light-emitting device may have a cathode contact on one side and an anode contact on an opposite side, or may alternatively have both contacts on the same side of the device.

[00122] Further background information regarding semiconductor light-emitting devices is provided in the following documents, the entireties of all of which hereby are incorporated by reference herein: U.S. Patent Nos. 7,564,180; 7,456,499; 7,213,940; 7,095,056; 6,958,497; 6,853,010; 6,791,119; 6,600,175; 6,201,262; 6,187,606; 6,120,600; 5,912,477; 5,739,554; 5,631,190; 5,604,135; 5,523,589; 5,416,342; 5,393,993; 5,359,345; 5,338,944; 5,210,051; 5,027,168; 5,027,168; 4,966,862; and 4,918,497; and U.S. Patent Application Publication Nos. 2014/0225511; 2014/0078715; 2013/0241392; 2009/0184616; 2009/0080185; 2009/0050908; 2009/0050907; 2008/0308825; 2008/0198112; 2008/0179611; 2008/0173884; 2008/0121921; 2008/0012036; 2007/0253209; 2007/0223219; 2007/0170447; 2007/0158668; 2007/0139923; and 2006/0221272.

[00123] Throughout this specification, the term“spectral power distribution” means: the emission spectrum of the one or more wavelengths of light emitted by a semiconductor light- emitting device. Throughout this specification, the term “peak wavelength” means: the wavelength where the spectral power distribution of a semiconductor light-emitting device reaches its maximum value as detected by a photo-detector. As an example, an LED may be a source of nearly monochromatic light and may appear to emit light having a single color. Thus, the spectral power distribution of the light emitted by such an LED may be centered about its peak wavelength. As examples, the“width” of the spectral power distribution of an LED may be within a range of between about 10 nanometers and about 30 nanometers, where the width is measured at half the maximum illumination on each side of the emission spectrum.

[00124] Throughout this specification, both of the terms "beam width" and“full-width-half- maximum” (“FWHM”) mean: the measured angle, being collectively defined by two mutually- opposed angular directions away from a center emission direction of a visible-light beam, at which an intensity of the visible-light emissions is half of a maximum intensity measured at the center emission direction. Throughout this specification, in the case of a visible-light beam having a non-circular shape, e.g. a visible-light beam having an elliptical shape, then the terms "beam width" and“full-width-half-maximum” (“FWHM”) mean: the measured maximum and minimum angles, being respectively defined in two mutually-orthogonal pairs of mutually- opposed angular directions away from a center emission direction of a visible-light beam, at which a respective intensity of the visible-light emissions is half of a corresponding maximum intensity measured at the center emission direction. Throughout this specification, the term "field angle" means: the measured angle, being collectively defined by two opposing angular directions away from a center emission direction of a visible-light beam, at which an intensity of the visible-light emissions is one-tenth of a maximum intensity measured at the center emission direction. Throughout this specification, in the case of a visible-light beam having a non-circular shape, e.g. a visible-light beam having an elliptical shape, then the term "field angle" means: the measured maximum and minimum angles, being respectively defined in two mutually-orthogonal pairs of mutually-opposed angular directions away from a center emission direction of a visible- light beam, at which a respective intensity of the visible-light emissions is one-tenth of a corresponding maximum intensity measured at the center emission direction.

[00125] Throughout this specification, the term “dominant wavelength” means: the wavelength of monochromatic light that has the same apparent color as the light emitted by a semiconductor light-emitting device, as perceived by the human eye. As an example, since the human eye perceives yellow and green light better than red and blue light, and because the light emitted by a semiconductor light-emitting device may extend across a range of wavelengths, the color perceived (i.e., the dominant wavelength) may differ from the peak wavelength.

[00126] Throughout this specification, the term“luminous flux”, also referred to as“luminous power”, means: the measure in lumens of the perceived power of light, being adjusted to reflect the varying sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths of light. Throughout this specification, the term“radiant flux” means: the measure of the total power of electromagnetic radiation without being so adjusted. Throughout this specification, the term“central axis” means a direction along which the light emissions of a semiconductor light-emitting device have a greatest radiant flux. It is understood throughout this specification that light emissions“along a central axis” means light emissions that: include light emissions in the direction of the central axis; and may further include light emissions in a plurality of other generally similar directions.

[00127] Throughout this specification, the term“color bin” means: the designated empirical spectral power distribution and related characteristics of a particular semiconductor light-emitting device. For example, individual light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are typically tested and assigned to a designated color bin (i.e.,“binned”) based on a variety of characteristics derived from their spectral power distribution. As an example, a particular LED may be binned based on the value of its peak wavelength, being a common metric to characterize the color aspect of the spectral power distribution of LEDs. Examples of other metrics that may be utilized to bin LEDs include: dominant wavelength; and color point.

[00128] Throughout this specification, the term “luminescent” means: characterized by absorption of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., visible-light, UV light or infrared light) causing the emission of light by, as examples: fluorescence; and phosphorescence.

[00129] Throughout this specification, the term“object” means a material article or device. Throughout this specification, the term“surface” means an exterior boundary of an object. Throughout this specification, the term “incident visible-light” means visible-light that propagates in one or more directions towards a surface. Throughout this specification, the term “any incident angle” means any one or more directions from which visible-light may propagate towards a surface. Throughout this specification, the term“reflective surface” means a surface of an object that causes incident visible-light, upon reaching the surface, to then propagate in one or more different directions away from the surface without passing through the object. Throughout this specification, the term“planar reflective surface” means a generally flat reflective surface.

[00130] Throughout this specification, the term“reflection value” means a percentage of a radiant flux of incident visible-light having a specified wavelength that is caused by a reflective surface of an object to propagate in one or more different directions away from the surface without passing through the object. Throughout this specification, the term“reflected light” means the incident visible-light that is caused by a reflective surface to propagate in one or more different directions away from the surface without passing through the object. Throughout this specification, the term“Lambertian reflection” means diffuse reflection of visible-light from a surface, in which the reflected light has uniform radiant flux in all of the propagation directions. Throughout this specification, the term “specular reflection” means mirror like reflection of visible-light from a surface, in which light from a single incident direction is reflected into a single propagation direction. Throughout this specification, the term“spectrum of reflection values” means a spectrum of values of percentages of radiant flux of incident visible-light, the values corresponding to a spectrum of wavelength values of visible-light, that are caused by a reflective surface to propagate in one or more different directions away from the surface without passing through the object. Throughout this specification, the term“transmission value” means a percentage of a radiant flux of incident visible-light having a specified wavelength that is permitted by a reflective surface to pass through the object having the reflective surface. Throughout this specification, the term“transmitted light” means the incident visible-light that is permitted by a reflective surface to pass through the object having the reflective surface. Throughout this specification, the term“spectrum of transmission values” means a spectrum of values of percentages of radiant flux of incident visible-light, the values corresponding to a spectrum of wavelength values of visible-light, that are permitted by a reflective surface to pass through the object having the reflective surface. Throughout this specification, the term“absorption value” means a percentage of a radiant flux of incident visible-light having a specified wavelength that is permitted by a reflective surface to pass through the reflective surface and is absorbed by the object having the reflective surface. Throughout this specification, the term“spectrum of absorption values” means a spectrum of values of percentages of radiant flux of incident visible-light, the values corresponding to a spectrum of wavelength values of visible-light, that are permitted by a reflective surface to pass through the reflective surface and are absorbed by the object having the reflective surface. Throughout this specification, it is understood that a reflective surface, or an object, may have a spectrum of reflection values, and a spectrum of transmission values, and a spectrum of absorption values. The spectra of reflection values, absorption values, and transmission values of a reflective surface or of an object may be measured, for example, utilizing an ultraviolet - visible - near infrared (UV - VIS - NIR) spectrophotometer. Throughout this specification, the term“visible-light reflector” means an object having a reflective surface. In examples, a visible- light reflector may be selected as having a reflective surface characterized by light reflections that are more Lambertian than specular.

[00131] Throughout this specification, the term“lumiphor” means: a medium that includes one or more luminescent materials being positioned to absorb light that is emitted at a first spectral power distribution by a semiconductor light-emitting device, and to re-emit light at a second spectral power distribution in the visible or ultra violet spectrum being different than the first spectral power distribution, regardless of the delay between absorption and re-emission. Lumiphors may be categorized as being down-converting, i.e., a material that converts photons to a lower energy level (longer wavelength); or up-converting, i.e., a material that converts photons to a higher energy level (shorter wavelength). As examples, a luminescent material may include: a phosphor; a quantum dot; a quantum wire; a quantum well; a photonic nanocrystal; a semiconducting nanoparticle; a scintillator; a lumiphoric ink; a lumiphoric organic dye; a day glow tape; a phosphorescent material; or a fluorescent material. Throughout this specification, the term“quantum material” means any luminescent material that includes: a quantum dot; a quantum wire; or a quantum well. Some quantum materials may absorb and emit light at spectral power distributions having narrow wavelength ranges, for example, wavelength ranges having spectral widths being within ranges of between about 25 nanometers and about 50 nanometers. In examples, two or more different quantum materials may be included in a lumiphor, such that each of the quantum materials may have a spectral power distribution for light emissions that may not overlap with a spectral power distribution for light absorption of any of the one or more other quantum materials. In these examples, cross-absorption of light emissions among the quantum materials of the lumiphor may be minimized. As examples, a lumiphor may include one or more layers or bodies that may contain one or more luminescent materials that each may be: (1) coated or sprayed directly onto an semiconductor light-emitting device; (2) coated or sprayed onto surfaces of a lens or other elements of packaging for an semiconductor light- emitting device; (3) dispersed in a matrix medium; or (4) included within a clear encapsulant (e.g., an epoxy -based or silicone-based curable resin or glass or ceramic) that may be positioned on or over an semiconductor light-emitting device. A lumiphor may include one or multiple types of luminescent materials. Other materials may also be included with a lumiphor such as, for example, fillers, diffusants, colorants, or other materials that may as examples improve the performance of or reduce the overall cost of the lumiphor. In examples where multiple types of luminescent materials may be included in a lumiphor, such materials may, as examples, be mixed together in a single layer or deposited sequentially in successive layers.

[00132] Throughout this specification, the term“volumetric lumiphor” means a lumiphor being distributed in an object having a shape including defined exterior surfaces. In some examples, a volumetric lumiphor may be formed by dispersing a lumiphor in a volume of a matrix medium having suitable spectra of visible-light transmission values and visible-light absorption values. As examples, such spectra may be affected by a thickness of the volume of the matrix medium, and by a concentration of the lumiphor being distributed in the volume of the matrix medium. In examples, the matrix medium may have a composition that includes polymers or oligomers of: a polycarbonate; a silicone; an acrylic; a glass; a polystyrene; or a polyester such as polyethylene terephthalate. Throughout this specification, the term“remotely- located lumiphor” means a lumiphor being spaced apart at a distance from and positioned to receive light that is emitted by a semiconductor light-emitting device.

[00133] Throughout this specification, the term “light-scattering particles” means small particles formed of a non-luminescent, non - wavelength-converting material. In some examples, a volumetric lumiphor may include light-scattering particles being dispersed in the volume of the matrix medium for causing some of the light emissions having the first spectral power distribution to be scattered within the volumetric lumiphor. As an example, causing some of the light emissions to be so scattered within the matrix medium may cause the luminescent materials in the volumetric lumiphor to absorb more of the light emissions having the first spectral power distribution. In examples, the light-scattering particles may include: rutile titanium dioxide; anatase titanium dioxide; barium sulfate; diamond; alumina; magnesium oxide; calcium titanate; barium titanate; strontium titanate; or barium strontium titanate. In examples, light-scattering particles may have particle sizes being within a range of about 0.01 micron (10 nanometers) and about 2.0 microns (2,000 nanometers).

[00134] In some examples, a visible-light reflector may be formed by dispersing light scattering particles having a first index of refraction in a volume of a matrix medium having a second index of refraction being suitably different from the first index of refraction for causing the volume of the matrix medium with the dispersed light-scattering particles to have suitable spectra of reflection values, transmission values, and absorption values for functioning as a visible-light reflector. As examples, such spectra may be affected by a thickness of the volume of the matrix medium, and by a concentration of the light-scattering particles being distributed in the volume of the matrix medium, and by physical characteristics of the light-scattering particles such as the particle sizes and shapes, and smoothness or roughness of exterior surfaces of the particles. In an example, the smaller the difference between the first and second indices of refraction, the more light-scattering particles may need to be dispersed in the volume of the matrix medium to achieve a given amount of light-scattering. As examples, the matrix medium for forming a visible-light reflector may have a composition that includes polymers or oligomers of: a polycarbonate; a silicone; an acrylic; a glass; a polystyrene; or a polyester such as polyethylene terephthalate. In further examples, the light-scattering particles may include: rutile titanium dioxide; anatase titanium dioxide; barium sulfate; diamond; alumina; magnesium oxide; calcium titanate; barium titanate; strontium titanate; or barium strontium titanate. In other examples, a visible-light reflector may include a reflective polymeric or metallized surface formed on a visible-light - transmissive polymeric or metallic object such as, for example, a volume of a matrix medium. Additional examples of visible-light reflectors may include microcellular foamed polyethylene terephthalate sheets (“MCPET”). Suitable visible-light reflectors may be commercially available under the trade names White Optics® and MIRO® from WhiteOptics LLC, 243-G Quigley Blvd., New Castle, Delaware 19720 USA. Suitable MCPET visible-light reflectors may be commercially available from the Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Foamed Products Division, Tokyo, Japan. Additional suitable visible-light reflectors may be commercially available from CVI Laser Optics, 200 Dorado Place SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 USA.

[00135] In further examples, a volumetric lumiphor and a visible-light reflector may be integrally formed. As examples, a volumetric lumiphor and a visible-light reflector may be integrally formed in respective layers of a volume of a matrix medium, including a layer of the matrix medium having a dispersed lumiphor, and including another layer of the same or a different matrix medium having light-scattering particles being suitably dispersed for causing the another layer to have suitable spectra of reflection values, transmission values, and absorption values for functioning as the visible-light reflector. In other examples, an integrally-formed volumetric lumiphor and visible-light reflector may incorporate any of the further examples of variations discussed above as to separately-formed volumetric lumiphors and visible-light reflectors.

[00136] Throughout this specification, the term“phosphor” means: a material that exhibits luminescence when struck by photons. Examples of phosphors that may utilized include: CaAlSiN 3 :Eu, SrAlSiN 3 :Eu, CaAlSiN 3 :Eu, Ba 3 Si 6 0i 2 N 2 :Eu, Ba 2 Si0 4 :Eu, Sr 2 Si0 4 :Eu, Ca 2 Si0 4 :Eu, Ca 3 Sc 2 Si 3 0i 2 :Ce, Ca 3 Mg 2 Si 3 0i 2 :Ce, CaSc 2 0 4 :Ce, CaSi 2 0 2 N 2 :Eu, SrSi 2 0 2 N 2 :Eu, BaSi 2 0 2 N 2 :Eu, Ca 5 (P0 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu, Ba 5 (P0 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu, Cs 2 CaP 2 0 7 , Cs 2 SrP 2 0 7 , SrGa 2 S 4 :Eu,

Lu 3 Al 5 0 12 :Ce, Ca 8 Mg(Si0 4 ) 4 Cl 2 :Eu, Sr 8 Mg(Si0 4 ) 4 Cl 2 :Eu, La 3 Si 6 Nn:Ce, Y 3 Al 5 0i 2 :Ce, Y 3 GasO l2 :Ce, Gd 3 Al 5 0i 2 :Ce, Gd 3 GasOi 2 :Ce, Tb 3 Al 5 0i 2 :Ce, Tb 3 Ga 5 0i 2 :Ce, Lu 3 Ga 5 0i 2 :Ce, (SrCa)AlSiN 3 :Eu, LuAG:Ce, (Y,Gd) 2 Al 5 )i 2 :Ce, CaS:Eu, SrS:Eu, SrGa 2 S 4 :E 4 , Ca 2 (Sc,Mg) 2 Si0 12 :Ce, Ca 2 Sc 2 Si 2 )i 2 :C2, Ca 2 Sc 2 0 4 :Ce, Ba 2 Si 6 0i 2 N 2 :Eu, (Sr,Ca)AlSiN 2 :Eu, and CaAlSiN 2 :Eu.

[00137] Throughout this specification, the term“quantum dot” means: a nanocrystal made of semiconductor materials that are small enough to exhibit quantum mechanical properties, such that its excitons are confined in all three spatial dimensions.

[00138] Throughout this specification, the term “quantum wire” means: an electrically conducting wire in which quantum effects influence the transport properties.

[00139] Throughout this specification, the term“quantum well” means: a thin layer that can confine (quasi-)particles (typically electrons or holes) in the dimension perpendicular to the layer surface, whereas the movement in the other dimensions is not restricted.

[00140] Throughout this specification, the term “photonic nanocrystal” means: a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons, for one, two, or three dimensions, in much the same way that ionic lattices affect electrons in solids.

[00141] Throughout this specification, the term “semiconducting nanoparticle” means: a particle having a dimension within a range of between about 1 nanometer and about 100 nanometers, being formed of a semiconductor.

[00142] Throughout this specification, the term“scintillator” means: a material that fluoresces when staick by photons.

[00143] Throughout this specification, the term“lumiphoric ink” means: a liquid composition containing a luminescent material. For example, a lumiphoric ink composition may contain semiconductor nanoparticles. Examples of lumiphoric ink compositions that may be utilized are disclosed in Cao et ah, Ei.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20130221489 published on August 29, 2013, the entirety of which hereby is incorporated herein by reference.

[00144] Throughout this specification, the lean“lumiphoric organic dye” means an organic dye having luminescent up-converting or down-converting activity . As an example, some perylene-based dyes may be suitable.

[00145] Throughout this specification, the term “day glow tape” means: a tape material containing a luminescent material.

[00146] Throughout this specification, the term“CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram” means: the 1931 International Commission on Illumination two-dimensional chromaticity diagram, which defines the spectrum of perceived color points of visible-light by (x, y) pairs of chromaticity coordinates that fall within a generally U-shaped area that includes all of the hues perceived by the human eye. Each of the x and y axes of the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram has a scale of between 0.0 and 0.8. The spectral colors are distributed around the perimeter boundary of the chromaticity diagram, the boundary encompassing all of the hues perceived by the human eye. The perimeter boundary itself represents maximum saturation for the spectral colors. The CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram is based on the three-dimensional CIE 1931 XYZ color space. The CIE 1931 XYZ color space utilizes three color matching functions to determine three corresponding tristimulus values which together express a given color point within the CIE 1931 XYZ three-dimensional color space. The CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram is a projection of the three-dimensional CIE 1931 XYZ color space onto a two- dimensional (x, y) space such that brightness is ignored. A technical description of the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram is provided in, for example, the“Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology”, vol. 7, pp. 230-231 (Robert A Meyers ed., 1987); the entirety of which hereby is incorporated herein by reference. Further background information regarding the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram is provided in Harbers et al., U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2012/0224177A1 published on September 6, 2012, the entirety of which hereby is incorporated herein by reference.

[00147] Throughout this specification, the term “color point” means: an (x, y) pair of chromaticity coordinates falling within the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram. Color points located at or near the perimeter boundary of the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram are saturated colors composed of light having a single wavelength, or having a very small spectral power distribution. Color points away from the perimeter boundary within the interior of the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram are unsaturated colors that are composed of a mixture of different wavelengths.

[00148] Throughout this specification, the term“combined light emissions” means: a plurality of different light emissions that are mixed together. Throughout this specification, the term “combined color point” means: the color point, as perceived by human eyesight, of combined light emissions. Throughout this specification, a“substantially constant” combined color points are: color points of combined light emissions that are perceived by human eyesight as being uniform, i.e., as being of the same color. [00149] Throughout this specification, the term“Planckian - black-body locus” means the curve within the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram that plots the chromaticity coordinates (i.e., color points) that obey Planck's equation: E(l)=Al-5/(eB/T-1), where E is the emission intensity, X is the emission wavelength, T is the color temperature in degrees Kelvin of a black- body radiator, and A and B are constants. The Planckian - black-body locus corresponds to the locations of color points of light emitted by a black-body radiator that is heated to various temperatures. As a black-body radiator is gradually heated, it becomes an incandescent light emitter (being referred to throughout this specification as an“incandescent light emitter”) and first emits reddish light, then yellowish light, and finally bluish light with increasing temperatures. This incandescent glowing occurs because the wavelength associated with the peak radiation of the black-body radiator becomes progressively shorter with gradually increasing temperatures, consistent with the Wien Displacement Law. The CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram further includes a series of lines each having a designated corresponding temperature listing in units of degrees Kelvin spaced apart along the Planckian - black-body locus and corresponding to the color points of the incandescent light emitted by a black-body radiator having the designated temperatures. Throughout this specification, such a temperature listing is referred to as a“correlated color temperature” (herein also referred to as the“CCT”) of the corresponding color point. Correlated color temperatures are expressed herein in units of degrees Kelvin (K). Throughout this specification, each of the lines having a designated temperature listing is referred to as an “isotherm” of the corresponding correlated color temperature.

[00150] Throughout this specification, the term“chromaticity bin” means: a bounded region within the CIE 1931 XY chromaticity diagram. As an example, a chromaticity bin may be defined by a series of chromaticity (x,y) coordinates, being connected in series by lines that together form the bounded region. As another example, a chromaticity bin may be defined by several lines or other boundaries that together form the bounded region, such as: one or more isotherms of CCT’s; and one or more portions of the perimeter boundary of the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram.

[00151] Throughout this specification, the term“delta(uv)” means: the shortest distance of a given color point away from (i.e., above or below) the Planckian - black-body locus. In general, color points located at a delta(uv) of about equal to or less than 0.015 may be assigned a correlated color temperature (CCT).

[00152] Throughout this specification, the term“greenish-blue light” means: light having a perceived color point being within a range of between about 490 nanometers and about 482 nanometers (herein referred to as a“greenish-blue color point”).

[00153] Throughout this specification, the term“blue light” means: light having a perceived color point being within a range of between about 482 nanometers and about 470 nanometers (herein referred to as a“blue color point”).

[00154] Throughout this specification, the term“purplish-blue light” means: light having a perceived color point being within a range of between about 470 nanometers and about 380 nanometers (herein referred to as a“purplish-blue color point.”).

[00155] Throughout this specification, the term“reddish-orange light” means: light having a perceived color point being within a range of between about 610 nanometers and about 620 nanometers (herein referred to as a“reddish-orange color point”).

[00156] Throughout this specification, the term“red light” means: light having a perceived color point being within a range of between about 620 nanometers and about 640 nanometers (herein referred to as a“red color point”).

[00157] Throughout this specification, the term “deep red light” means: light having a perceived color point being within a range of between about 640 nanometers and about 670 nanometers (herein referred to as a“deep red color point”).

[00158] Throughout this specification, the term“visible-light” means light having one or more wavelengths being within a range of between about 380 nanometers and about 670 nanometers; and“visible-light spectrum” means the range of wavelengths of between about 380 nanometers and about 670 nanometers.

[00159] Throughout this specification, the term“white light” means: light having a color point located at a delta(uv) of about equal to or less than 0.006 and having a CCT being within a range of between about 10000K and about 1800K (herein referred to as a“white color point”). Many different hues of light may be perceived as being“white.” For example, some“white” light, such as light generated by a tungsten filament incandescent lighting device, may appear yellowish in color, while other“white” light, such as light generated by some fluorescent lighting devices, may appear more bluish in color. As examples, white light having a CCT of about 3000K may appear yellowish in color, while white light having a CCT of about equal to or greater than 8000K may appear more bluish in color and may be referred to as“cool” white light. Further, white light having a CCT of between about 2500K and about 4500K may appear reddish or yellowish in color and may be referred to as“warm” white light. “White light” includes light having a spectral power distribution of wavelengths including red, green and blue color points. In an example, a CCT of a lumiphor may be tuned by selecting one or more particular luminescent materials to be included in the lumiphor. For example, light emissions from a semiconductor light-emitting device that includes three separate emitters respectively having red, green and blue color points with an appropriate spectral power distribution may have a white color point. As another example, light perceived as being“white” may be produced by mixing light emissions from a semiconductor light-emitting device having a blue, greenish-blue or purplish-blue color point together with light emissions having a yellow color point being produced by passing some of the light emissions having the blue, greenish-blue or purplish-blue color point through a lumiphor to down-convert them into light emissions having the yellow color point. General background information on systems and processes for generating light perceived as being“white” is provided in“Class A Color Designation for Light Sources Used in General Illumination”, Freyssinier and Rea, J. Light & Vis. Env ., Vol. 37, No. 2 & 3 (November 7, 2013, Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan), pp. 10-14; the entirety of which hereby is incorporated herein by reference.

[00160] Throughout this specification, the term“color rendition index” (herein also referred to as“CRI - Ra”) means: the quantitative measure on a scale of 1 - 100 of the capability of a given light source to accurately reveal the colors of one or more objects having designated reference colors, in comparison with the capability of a black-body radiator to accurately reveal such colors. The CRI-Ra of a given light source is a modified average of the relative measurements of color renditions by that light source, as compared with color renditions by a reference black-body radiator, when illuminating objects having the designated reference color(s). The CRI is a relative measure of the shift in perceived surface color of an object when illuminated by a particular light source versus a reference black-body radiator. The CRI-Ra will equal 100 if the color coordinates of a set of test colors being illuminated by the given light source are the same as the color coordinates of the same set of test colors being irradiated by the black-body radiator. The CRI system is administered by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). The CIE selected fifteen test color samples (respectively designated as R S ) to grade the color properties of a white light source. The first eight test color samples (respectively designated as Ri-x) are relatively low saturated colors and are evenly distributed over the complete range of hues. These eight samples are employed to calculate the general color rendering index Ra. The general color rendering index Ra is simply calculated as the average of the first eight color rendering index values, R | _x. An additional seven samples (respectively designated as R9-15) provide supplementary information about the color rendering properties of a light source; the first four of them focus on high saturation, and the last three of them are representative of well-known objects. A set of color rendering index values, R1-15, can be calculated for a particular correlated color temperature (CCT) by comparing the spectral response of a light source against that of each test color sample, respectively. As another example, the CRI-Ra may consist of one test color, such as the designated red color of R9.

[00161] As examples, sunlight generally has a CRI-Ra of about 100; incandescent light bulbs generally have a CRI-Ra of about 95; fluorescent lights generally have a CRI-Ra of about 70 to 85; and monochromatic light sources generally have a CRI-Ra of about zero. As an example, a light source for general illumination applications where accurate rendition of object colors may not be considered important may generally need to have a CRI-Ra value being within a range of between about 70 and about 80. Further, for example, a light source for general interior illumination applications may generally need to have a CRI-Ra value being at least about 80. As an additional example, a light source for general illumination applications where objects illuminated by the lighting device may be considered to need to appear to have natural coloring to the human eye may generally need to have a CRI-Ra value being at least about 85. Further, for example, a light source for general illumination applications where good rendition of perceived object colors may be considered important may generally need to have a CRI-Ra value being at least about 90.

[00162] Throughout this specification, the term“in contact with” means: that a first object, being“in contact with” a second object, is in either direct or indirect contact with the second object. Throughout this specification, the term“in indirect contact with” means: that the first object is not in direct contact with the second object, but instead that there are a plurality of objects (including the first and second objects), and each of the plurality of objects is in direct contact with at least one other of the plurality of objects (e.g., the first and second objects are in a stack and are separated by one or more intervening layers). Throughout this specification, the term“in direct contact with” means: that the first object, which is“in direct contact” with a second object, is touching the second object and there are no intervening objects between at least portions of both the first and second objects.

[00163] Throughout this specification, the term“spectrophotometer” means: an apparatus that can measure a light beam's intensity as a function of its wavelength and calculate its total luminous flux.

[00164] Throughout this specification, the term“integrating sphere - spectrophotometer” means: a spectrophotometer operationally connected with an integrating sphere. An integrating sphere (also known as an Ulbricht sphere) is an optical component having a hollow spherical cavity with its interior covered with a diffuse white reflective coating, with small holes for entrance and exit ports. Its relevant property is a uniform scattering or diffusing effect. Light rays incident on any point on the inner surface are, by multiple scattering reflections, distributed equally to all other points. The effects of the original direction of light are minimized. An integrating sphere may be thought of as a diffuser which preserves power but destroys spatial information. Another type of integrating sphere that can be utilized is referred to as a focusing or Coblentz sphere. A Coblentz sphere has a mirror-like (specular) inner surface rather than a diffuse inner surface. Light scattered by the interior of an integrating sphere is evenly distributed over all angles. The total power (radiant flux) of a light source can then be measured without inaccuracy caused by the directional characteristics of the source. Background information on integrating sphere - spectrophotometer apparatus is provided in Liu et ah, U.S. Patent No. 7,532,324 issued on May 12, 2009, the entirety of which hereby is incorporated herein by reference. It is understood throughout this specification that color points may be measured, for example, by utilizing a spectrophotometer, such as an integrating sphere - spectrophotometer. The spectra of reflection values, absorption values, and transmission values of a reflective surface or of an object may be measured, for example, utilizing an ultraviolet - visible - near infrared (UV - VIS - NIR) spectrophotometer.

[00165] Throughout this specification, the term "diffuse refraction" means refraction from an object's surface that scatters the visible-light emissions, casting multiple jittered light rays forming combined light emissions having a combined color point.

[00166] Throughout this specification, each of the words "include", "contain", and "have" is interpreted broadly as being open to the addition of further like elements as well as to the addition of unlike elements.

[00167] Fig. 1 is a schematic top view showing an example [100] of an implementation of a lighting system. Fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 2-2 showing the example [100] of the lighting system. Another example [300] of an implementation of the lighting system will subsequently be discussed in connection with Figs. 3-4. An additional example [500] of an alternative optically-transparent body that may be included in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system will be discussed in connection with Figs. 5-6; and an additional example [700] of another alternative optically-transparent body that may be included in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system will be discussed in connection with Figs. 7- 8. An additional example [900] of an alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system will be discussed in connection with Figs. 9-11; and an additional example [1200] of another alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system will be discussed in connection with Figs. 12-14; a further example [1500] of another alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system will be discussed in connection with Figs. 15-17; yet another example [1800] of another alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system will be discussed in connection with Figs. 18-19; and yet a further example [2000] of another alternative bowl reflector that may be included in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system will be discussed in connection with Figs. 20-21. It is understood throughout this specification that the example [100] of an implementation of the lighting system may be modified as including any of the features or combinations of features that are disclosed in connection with: the another example [300] of an implementation of the lighting system; or the examples [500], [700] of alternative optically-transparent bodies; or the additional examples [900], [1200], [1500], [1800], [2000] of alternative bowl reflectors. Accordingly, Figs. 3-21 and the entireties of the subsequent discussions of the examples [300], [500], [700], [900], [1200], [1500], [1800] and [2000] of implementations of the lighting system are hereby incorporated into the following discussion of the example [100] of an implementation of the lighting system.

[00168] As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the example [100] of the implementation of the lighting system includes a bowl reflector [102] having a rim [201] defining a horizon [104] and defining an emission aperture [206], the bowl reflector [102] having a first visible-light - reflective surface [208] defining a portion of a cavity [210], a portion of the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] being a first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] The example [100] of the implementation of the lighting system further includes a funnel reflector [114] having a flared funnel-shaped body [216], the funnel-shaped body [216] having a central axis [118] and having a second visible-light - reflective surface [220] being aligned along the central axis [118] In examples [100] of the lighting system, the schematic cross-sectional view shown in Fig. 2 is taken along the line 2-2 as shown in Fig. 1, in a direction being orthogonal to and having an indicated orientation around the central axis [118] In examples [100] of the lighting system, the same schematic cross-sectional view that is shown in Fig. 2 may alternatively be taken, as shown in Fig. 1, along the line 2A-2A or along the line 2B-2B, or along another direction being orthogonal to and having another orientation around the central axis [118] In the example [100] of the lighting system, the funnel-shaped body [216] also has a tip [222] being located within the cavity [210] along the central axis [118] In addition, in the example [100] of the lighting system, a portion of the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] is a second light - reflective parabolic surface [224], having a cross-sectional profile defined in directions along the central axis [118] that includes two parabolic curves [226], [228] that converge towards the tip [222] of the funnel-shaped body [216] The example [100] of the lighting system additionally includes a visible-light source being schematically-represented by a dashed line [130] and including a semiconductor light-emitting device schematically-represented by a dot [132] In the example [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [130] is configured for generating visible- light emissions [234], [236], [238] from the semiconductor light-emitting device [132] The example [100] of the lighting system further includes an optically-transparent body [240] being aligned with the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] along the central axis [118] In the example [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] has a first base [242] being spaced apart along the central axis [118] from a second base [244], and a side surface [246] extending between the bases [242], [244]; and the first base [242] faces toward the visible-light source [130] Further in the example [100] of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] has a ring [148] of focal points including focal points [150], [152], the ring [148] being located at a first position [154] within the cavity [210] In the example [100] of the lighting system, each one of the focal points [150], [152] is equidistant from the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224]; and the ring [148] encircles a first point [256] on the central axis [118] Additionally in the example [100] of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] has an array of axes of symmetry being schematically-represented by arrows [258], [260] intersecting with and radiating in directions all around the central axis [118] from a second point [262] on the central axis [118] In the example [100] of the lighting system, each one of the axes of symmetry [258], [260] intersects with a corresponding one of the focal points [150], [152] of the ring [148]; and the second point [262] on the central axis [118] is located between the first point [256] and the horizon [104] of the bowl reflector [102] Further in the example [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [130] is within the cavity [210] at a second position [164] being located, relative to the first position [154] of the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152], for causing some of the visible-light emissions [238] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] as having a partially-collimated distribution being represented by an arrow [265]

[00169] In some examples [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [130] may include a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices schematically-represented by dots [132], [133] configured for respectively generating visible-light emissions [234], [236], [238] and [235], [237], [239] Further, for example, the visible-light source [130] of the example [100] of the lighting system may include a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133] being arranged in an array schematically represented by a dotted ring [166] As examples of an array [166] in the example [100] of the lighting system, a plurality of semiconductor light- emitting devices [132], [133] may be arranged in a chip-on-board (not shown) array [166], or in a discrete (not shown) array [166] of the semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133] on a printed circuit board (not shown). Semiconductor light-emitting device arrays [166] including chip-on-board arrays and discrete arrays may be conventionally fabricated by persons of ordinary skill in the art. Further, the semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], [166] of the example [100] of the lighting system may be provided with drivers (not shown) and power supplies (not shown) being conventionally fabricated and configured by persons of ordinary skill in the art.

[00170] In further examples [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [130] may include additional semiconductor light-emitting devices schematically-represented by the dots [166] being co-located together with each of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], so that each of the co-located pluralities of the semiconductor light-emitting devices [166] may be configured for collectively generating the visible-light emissions [234] - [239] as having a selectable perceived color. For example, in additional examples [100] of the lighting system, each of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133] may include two or three or more co-located semiconductor light-emitting devices [166] being configured for collectively generating the visible-light emissions [234] - [239] as having a selectable perceived color. As additional examples [100], the lighting system may include a controller (not shown) for the visible-light source [130], and the controller may be configured for causing the visible- light emissions [234] - [239] to have a selectable perceived color.

[00171] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152] may have a ring radius [168], and the semiconductor light-emitting device [132] or each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], [166] may be located, as examples: within a distance of or closer than about twice the ring radius [168] away from the ring [148]; or within a distance of or closer than about one-half of the ring radius [168] away from the ring [148] In other examples [100] of the lighting system, one or a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], [166] may be located at a one of the focal points [150], [152] As further examples [100] of the lighting system, the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152] may define a space [169] being encircled by the ring [148]; and a one or a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], [166] may be at an example of a location [170] intersecting the space [169] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, a one or a plurality of the focal points [150], [152] may be within the second position [164] of the visible-light source [130] As other examples [100] of the lighting system, the second position [164] of the visible-light source [130] may intersect with a one of the axes of symmetry [258], [260] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224]

[00172] In other examples [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [130] may be at the second position [164] being located, relative to the first position [154] of the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152], for causing some of the visible-light emissions [238] - [239] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] in the partially-collimated beam [265] being shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] As examples [100] of the lighting system, the ray fan [265] may expand, upon reflection of the visible-light emissions [238] - [239] away from the second visible-light - reflective surface [224], by a fan angle defined in directions represented by the arrow [265], having an average fan angle value being no greater than about forty-five degrees. Further in those examples [100] of the lighting system, the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152] may have the ring radius [168], and each one of a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], [166] may be located within a distance of or closer than about twice the ring radius [168] away from the ring [148]

[00173] In some examples [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [130] may be at the second position [164] being located, relative to the first position [154] of the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152], for causing some of the visible-light emissions [238] - [239] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] as a substantially-collimated beam [265] being shaped as a ray fan [265] of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] As examples [100] of the lighting system, the ray fan [265] may expand, upon reflection of the visible-light emissions [238] - [239] away from the second visible-light - reflective surface [224], by a fan angle defined in directions represented by the arrow [265], having an average fan angle value being no greater than about twenty-five degrees. Additionally in those examples [100] of the lighting system, the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152] may have the ring radius [168], and each one of a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], [166] may be located within a distance of or closer than about one-half the ring radius [168] away from the ring [148]

[00174] In further examples [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [130] may be located at the second position [164] as being at a minimized distance away from the first position [154] of the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152] In those examples [100] of the lighting system, minimizing the distance between the first position [154] of the ring [148] and the second position [164] of the visible-light source [130] may cause some of the visible-light emissions [238] - [239] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] as a generally-collimated beam [265] being shaped as a ray fan [265] of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] expanding by a minimized fan angle defined in directions represented by the arrow [265] upon reflection of the visible-light emissions [238] - [239] away from the second visible- light - reflective surface [224] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the first position [154] of the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152] may be within the second position [164] of the visible-light source [130]

[00175] In additional examples [100], the lighting system may include another surface [281] defining another portion of the cavity [210], and the visible-light source [130] may be located on the another surface [281] of the lighting system [100] Further in those examples [100] of the lighting system, a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], [166] may be arranged in an emitter array [183] being on the another surface [281] Also in those examples [100] of the lighting system: the emitter array [183] may have a maximum diameter represented by an arrow [184] defined in directions being orthogonal to the central axis [118]; and the funnel reflector [114] may have another maximum diameter represented by an arrow [185] defined in additional directions being orthogonal to the central axis [118]; and the another maximum diameter [185] of the funnel reflector [114] may be at least about 10% greater than the maximum diameter [184] of the emitter array [183] Additionally in those examples [100] of the lighting system: the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152] may have a maximum ring diameter represented by an arrow [182] defined in further directions being orthogonal to the central axis [118]; and the another maximum diameter [185] of the funnel reflector [114] may be about 10% greater than the maximum diameter [184] of the emitter array [183]; and the maximum ring diameter [182] may be about half of the maximum diameter [184] of the emitter array [183] Further in those examples [100] of the lighting system, the rim [201] of the bowl reflector [102] may define the horizon [104] as having a diameter [202] As an example [100] of the lighting system, the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152] may have a uniform diameter [182] of about

6.5 millimeters; and the emitter array [183] may have a maximum diameter [184] of about 13 millimeters; and the funnel reflector [114] may have another maximum diameter [185] of about

14.5 millimeters; and the bowl reflector [102] may have a uniform diameter [203] at the horizon [104] of about 50 millimeters.

[00176] In examples [100] of the lighting system, the second position [164] of the visible-light source [130] may be a small distance represented by an arrow [286] away from the first base [242] of the optically-transparent body [240] In some of those examples [100] of the lighting system, the small distance [286] may be less than or equal to about one (1) millimeter. As examples [100] of the lighting system, minimizing the distance [286] between the second position [164] of the visible-light source [130] and the first base [242] of the optically-transparent body [240] may cause relatively more of the visible-light emissions [236] - [239] from the semiconductor light-emitting device(s) [132], [133], [166] to enter into the optically-transparent body [240], and may cause relatively less of the visible-light emissions [234] - [235] from the semiconductor light-emitting device(s) [132], [133], [166] to bypass the optically-transparent body [240] Further in those examples [100] of the lighting system, causing relatively more of the visible-light emissions [236] - [239] from the semiconductor light-emitting device(s) [132], [133], [166] to enter into the optically-transparent body [240] and causing relatively less of the visible-light emissions [234] - [235] from the semiconductor light-emitting device(s) [132], [133], [166] to bypass the optically-transparent body [240] may result in more of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] as having a partially-collimated, substantially-collimated, or generally-collimated distribution [265] Additionally in those examples [100] of the lighting system, a space [287] occupying the small distance [286] may be filled with an ambient atmosphere, e.g., air.

[00177] In further examples [100] of the lighting system, the side surface [246] of the optically-transparent body [240] may have a generally-cylindrical shape. In other examples (not shown) the side surface [246] of the optically-transparent body [240] may have a concave (hyperbolic)-cylindrical shape or a convex-cylindrical shape. In some of those examples [100] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [242], [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] may respectively have circular perimeters [288], [289] and the optically-transparent body [240] may generally have a circular-cylindrical shape. As additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the first base [242] of the optically-transparent body [240] may have a generally- planar surface [290] In further examples [100] of the lighting system (not shown), the first base [242] of the optically-transparent body [240] may have a non-planar surface, such as, for example, a convex surface, a concave surface, a surface including both concave and convex portions, or an otherwise roughened or irregular surface.

[00178] In further examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may have a spectrum of transmission values of visible-light having an average value being at least about ninety percent (90%). In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may have a spectrum of transmission values of visible-light having an average value being at least about ninety -five percent (95%). As some examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may have a spectrum of absorption values of visible-light having an average value being no greater than about ten percent (10%). As further examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may have a spectrum of absorption values of visible-light having an average value being no greater than about five percent (5%).

[00179] As additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may have a refractive index of at least about 1.41. In further examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may be formed of: a silicone composition having a refractive index of about 1.42; or a polymethyl-methacrylate composition having a refractive index of about 1.49; or a polycarbonate composition having a refractive index of about 1.58; or a silicate glass composition having a refractive index of about 1.67. As examples [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light emissions [238], [239] entering into the optically-transparent body [240] through the first base [242] may be refracted toward the normalized directions of the central axis [118] because the refractive index of the optically-transparent body [240] may be greater than the refractive index of an ambient atmosphere, e.g. air, filling the space [287] occupying the small distance [286]

[00180] In some examples [100] of the lighting system, the side surface [246] of the optically- transparent body [240] may be configured for causing diffuse refraction; as examples, the side surface [246] may be roughened, or may have a plurality of facets, lens-lets, or micro-lenses.

[00181] As further examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may include light-scattering particles for causing diffuse refraction. Additionally in these examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may be configured for causing diffuse refraction, and the lighting system may include a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133], [166] being collectively configured for generating the visible- light emissions [234] - [239] as having a selectable perceived color.

[00182] In other examples [100], the lighting system may include another optically- transparent body being schematically represented by a dashed box [291], the another optically- transparent body [291] being located between the visible-light source [130] and the optically- transparent body [240] In those examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may have a refractive index being greater than another refractive index of the another optically-transparent body [291] Further in those examples [100] of the lighting system, the visible-light emissions [238], [239] entering into the another optically-transparent body [291] before entering into the optically-transparent body [240] through the first base [242] may be further refracted toward the normalized directions of the central axis [118] if the refractive index of the optically-transparent body [240] is greater than the refractive index of the another optically-transparent body [291]

[00183] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [240] may be integrated with the funnel-shaped body [216] of the funnel reflector [114] As examples [100] of the lighting system, the funnel-shaped body [216] may be attached to the second base [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] Further in those examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] may be attached to the second base [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] may be directly attached to the second base [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] to provide a gapless interface between the second base [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] and the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] In examples [100] of the lighting system, providing the gapless interface may minimize refraction of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] that may otherwise occur at the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] As additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the gapless interface may include a layer (not shown) of an optical adhesive having a refractive index being matched to the refractive index of the optically-transparent body [240]

[00184] In examples, a process for making the example [100] of the lighting system may include steps of: injection-molding the flared funnel-shaped body [216]; forming the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] by vacuum deposition of a metal layer on the funnel- shaped body [216]; and over-molding the optically-transparent body [240] on the second visible- light - reflective surface [220] In these examples, the optically-transparent body [240] may be formed of a flexible material such as a silicone rubber if forming an optically-transparent body [240] having a convex side surface [246], since the flexible material may facilitate the removal of the optically-transmissive body [240] from injection-molding equipment.

[00185] In further examples, a process for making the example [100] of the lighting system may include steps of: injection-molding the optically-transparent body [240]; and forming the flared funnel-shaped body [216] on the optically-transparent body [240] by vacuum deposition of a metal layer on the second base [244] In these examples, the optically-transparent body [240] may be formed of a rigid composition such as a polycarbonate or a silicate glass, serving as a structural support for the flared funnel-shaped body [216]; and the vacuum deposition of the metal layer may form both the flared funnel-shaped body [216] and the second visible-light reflective surface [220]

[00186] In further examples [100] of the lighting system, each one of the array of axes of symmetry [258], [260] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] may form an acute angle with a portion of the central axis [118] extending from the second point [262] to the first point [256] In some of those examples [100] of the lighting system, each one of the array of axes of symmetry [258], [260] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] may form an acute angle being greater than about 80 degrees with the portion of the central axis [118] extending from the second point [262] to the first point [256] Further, in some of those examples [100] of the lighting system, each one of the array of axes of symmetry [258], [260] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] may form an acute angle being greater than about 85 degrees with the portion of the central axis [118] extending from the second point [262] to the first point [256] In these further examples [100] of the lighting system, the acute angles formed by the axes of symmetry [258], [260] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] with the portion of the central axis [118] extending from the second point [262] to the first point [256] may cause the visible-light emissions [238], [239] to pass through the side surface [246] of the optically-transparent body [240] at downward angles (as shown in Figure 2) in directions below being parallel with the horizon [104] of the bowl reflector [102] Upon reaching the side surface [246] of the optically-transparent body [240] at such downward angles, the visible-light emissions [238], [239] may there be further refracted downward in directions below being parallel with the horizon [104] of the bowl reflector [102], because the refractive index of the optically-transparent body [240] may be greater than the refractive index of an ambient atmosphere, e.g. air, or of another material, filling the cavity [210] In examples [100] of the lighting system, the downward directions of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] upon passing through the side surface [246] may cause relatively more of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] to be reflected by the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] and may accordingly cause relatively less of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] to directly reach the emission aperture [206] after bypassing the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] Visible-light emissions [238], [239] that directly reach the emission aperture [206] after so bypassing the bowl reflector [102] may, as examples, cause glare or otherwise not be emitted in intended directions. Further in these examples [100] of the lighting system, the reductions in glare and of visible-light emissions propagating in unintended directions that may accordingly be achieved by the examples [100] of the lighting system may facilitate a reduction in a depth of the bowl reflector [102] in directions along the central axis [118] Hence, the combined elements of the examples [100] of the lighting system may facilitate a more low-profiled lighting system structure having reduced glare and providing greater control over propagation directions of visible-light emissions [234] - [239]

[00187] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] may be a specular light - reflective surface. Further, in examples [100] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] may be a metallic layer on the flared funnel-shaped body [216] In some of those examples [100] of the lighting system [100], the metallic layer of the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] may have a composition that includes: silver, platinum, palladium, aluminum, zinc, gold, iron, copper, tin, antimony, titanium, chromium, nickel, or molybdenum.

[00188] In further examples [100] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety percent (90%). As some examples [100] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%). In an example [100] of the lighting system wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%), the metallic layer of the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] may have a composition that includes silver. In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about ten percent (10%). As some examples [100] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%). In an example [100] of the lighting system wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] of the funnel-shaped body [216] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%), the metallic layer of the second visible-light - reflective surface [220] may have a composition that includes silver.

[00189] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may be a specular light - reflective surface. As examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] may be a metallic layer on the bowl reflector [102] In some of those examples [100] of the lighting system, the metallic layer of the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] may have a composition that includes: silver, platinum, palladium, aluminum, zinc, gold, iron, copper, tin, antimony, titanium, chromium, nickel, or molybdenum.

[00190] In further examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety percent (90%). As some examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%). In an example [100] of the lighting system wherein the first visible- light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%), the metallic layer of the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] may have a composition that includes silver. In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about ten percent (10%). As some examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%). In an example [100] of the lighting system wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%), the metallic layer of the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] may have a composition that includes silver.

[00191] In other examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may have another central axis [219]; and the another central axis [219] may be aligned with the central axis [118] of the funnel-shaped body [216] In some of those examples [100] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [242], [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] may respectively have circular perimeters [288], [289], and the optically-transparent body [240] may generally have a circular-cylindrical shape, and the funnel reflector [114] may have a circular perimeter [103]; and the horizon [104] of the bowl reflector [102] may likewise have a circular perimeter [105] In other examples [100] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [242], [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] may respectively have elliptical perimeters [288], [289], and the optically-transparent body [240] may generally have an elliptical-cylindrical shape (not shown), and the funnel reflector [114] may likewise have an elliptical perimeter (not shown); and the horizon [104] of the bowl reflector [102] may likewise have an elliptical perimeter (not shown).

[00192] In further examples [100] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [242], [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] may respectively have multi-faceted perimeters [288], [289] being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal, and the optically- transparent body [240] may generally have a side wall bounded by multi-faceted perimeters [288], [289] being rectangular-, hexagonal-, octagonal-, or otherwise polygonal-cylindrical (not shown), and the funnel reflector [114] may have a perimeter [103] being rectangular-, hexagonal - , octagonal-, or otherwise polygonal-cylindrical (not shown); and the horizon [104] of the bowl reflector [102] may likewise have a multi-faceted perimeter [105] being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal (not shown).

[00193] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may have another central axis [219]; and the another central axis [219] may be spaced apart from and not aligned with (not shown) the central axis [118] of the funnel-shaped body [216] As another example [100] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [242], [244] of the optically-transparent body [240] may respectively have circular perimeters [288], [289] and the optically-transparent body [240] may generally have a circular-cylindrical shape (not shown), and the funnel reflector [114] may have a circular perimeter [103]; and the horizon [104] of the bowl reflector [102] may have a multi-faceted perimeter [105] being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal (not shown) not conforming with the circular shape of the perimeter [288] of the first base [242] or with the circular perimeter [103] of the funnel reflector [114]

[00194] In examples [100] of the lighting system as earlier discussed, the visible-light source [130] may be at the second position [164] being located, relative to the first position [154] of the ring [148] of focal points [150], [152], for causing some of the visible-light emissions [238] - [239] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] in a partially- collimated, substantially-collimated, or generally-collimated beam [265] being shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] Further in those examples [100] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] of the bowl reflector [102] may have a second array of axes of symmetry being represented by arrows [205], [207] being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions [238], [239] from the semiconductor light-emitting devices [132], [133] having been refracted by the side surface [246] of the optically-transparent body [240] after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] of the funnel-shaped body [216] In examples [100] of the lighting system, providing the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] of the bowl reflector [102] as having the second array of axes of symmetry as represented by the arrows [205], [207] may cause some of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] to be remain as a partially-collimated, substantially-collimated, or generally-collimated beam upon reflection by the bowl reflector [102]

[00195] As additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] of the bowl reflector [102] may be configured for reflecting the visible- light emissions [234] - [239] toward the emission aperture [206] of the bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system in a partially-collimated beam of combined visible-light emissions being schematically represented by dashed circles [243] having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions [234] - [239], as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis [118], being no greater than about forty -five degrees. As further examples [100] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] of the bowl reflector [102] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [234] - [239] toward the emission aperture [206] of the bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system in a substantially-collimated beam of combined visible-light emissions being schematically represented by dashed circles [243] having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions [234] - [239], as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis [118], being no greater than about twenty-five degrees.

[00196] In other examples [100] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [234] - [239] toward the emission aperture [206] of the bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°). Still further in these examples [100] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [234] - [239] toward the emission aperture [206] of the bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a selectable range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°), being, as examples, about: 3 - 7°; 8-12°; 13-17°; 18-22°; 23-27°; 28-49°; 50-70°; 5°; 10°; 15°; 20°; 25°; 40°; or 60°.

[00197] In some examples [100] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [234] - [239] toward the emission aperture [206] of the bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about five degrees (5°); and as having a field angle being no greater than about eighteen degrees (18°). Further in those examples [100], emission of the visible-light emissions [234] - [239] from the lighting system as having a beam angle being within a range of between about 3 - 5° and a field angle being no greater than about 18° may result in a significant reduction of glare.

[00198] In examples [100] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] of the bowl reflector [102] may be configured for reflecting, toward the emission aperture [206] of the bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system, some of the visible-light emissions [234] - [239] being partially-controlled as: propagating to the first visible-light - reflective surface [208] directly from the visible-light source [130]; and being refracted by the side surface [246] of the optically-transparent body [240] after bypassing the second visible-light - reflective surface [220]; and being refracted by the side surface [246] of the optically- transparent body [240] after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [224] of the funnel reflector [114]

[00199] In additional examples [100] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] of the bowl reflector [102] may be a multi-segmented surface. In other examples [100] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [212] of the bowl reflector [102] may be a part of an elliptic paraboloid or a part of a paraboloid of revolution.

[00200] Fig. 3 is a schematic top view showing another example [300] of an implementation of a lighting system. Fig. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 4-4 showing the another example [300] of the lighting system. It is understood throughout this specification that the another example [300] of an implementation of the lighting system may be modified as including any of the features or combinations of features that are disclosed in connection with: the example [100] of an implementation of the lighting system; or the examples [500], [700] of alternative optically-transparent bodies; or the additional examples [900], [1200], [1500], [1800], [2000] of alternative bowl reflectors. Accordingly, Figs. 1-2 and 5-21 and the entireties of the discussions herein of the examples [100], [500], [700], [900], [1200], [1500], [1800], [2000] of implementations of the lighting system are hereby incorporated into the following discussion of the another example [300] of an implementation of the lighting system.

[00201] As shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the another example [300] of the implementation of the lighting system includes a bowl reflector [302] having a rim [401] defining a horizon [304] and defining an emission aperture [406], the bowl reflector [302] having a first visible-light - reflective surface [408] defining a portion of a cavity [410], a portion of the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] being a first light - reflective parabolic surface [412] The another example [300] of the implementation of the lighting system further includes a funnel reflector [314] having a flared funnel-shaped body [416], the funnel-shaped body [416] having a central axis [318] and having a second visible-light - reflective surface [420] being aligned along the central axis [318] In examples [300] of the lighting system, the schematic cross-sectional view shown in Fig. 4 is taken along the line 4-4 as shown in Fig. 3, in a direction being orthogonal to and having an indicated orientation around the central axis [318] In examples [300] of the lighting system, the same schematic cross-sectional view that is shown in Fig. 4 may alternatively be taken, as shown in Fig. 3, along the line 4A-4A or along the line 4B-4B, or along another direction being orthogonal to and having another orientation around the central axis [318] In the another example [300] of the lighting system, the funnel-shaped body [416] also has a tip [422] being located within the cavity [410] along the central axis [318] In addition, in the another example [300] of the lighting system, a portion of the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] is a second light - reflective parabolic surface [424], having a cross-sectional profile defined in directions along the central axis [318] that includes two parabolic curves [426], [428] that converge towards the tip [422] of the funnel-shaped body [416] The another example [300] of the lighting system additionally includes a visible-light source being schematically- represented by a dashed line [330] and including a semiconductor light-emitting device schematically-represented by a dot [332] In the another example [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] is configured for generating visible-light emissions [438] from the semiconductor light-emitting device [332] The another example [300] of the lighting system further includes an optically-transparent body [440] being aligned with the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] along the central axis [318] In the another example [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] has a first base [442] being spaced apart along the central axis [318] from a second base [444], and a side surface [446] extending between the bases [442], [444]; and the first base [442] faces toward the visible-light source [330] Further in the another example [300] of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] has a ring [348] of focal points being schematically-represented by points [350], [352], the ring [348] being located at a first position [354] within the cavity [410] In the another example [300] of the lighting system, each one of the focal points [350], [352] is equidistant from the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424]; and the ring [348] encircles a first point [456] on the central axis [318] Additionally in the another example [300] of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] has an array of axes of symmetry being schematically- represented by arrows [458], [460] intersecting with and radiating in directions all around the central axis [318] from a second point [462] on the central axis [318] In the another example [300] of the lighting system, each one of the axes of symmetry [458], [460] intersects with a corresponding one of the focal points [350], [352] of the ring [348]; and the second point [462] on the central axis [318] is located between the first point [456] and the horizon [304] of the bowl reflector [302] Further in the another example [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] is within the cavity [410] at a second position [364] being located, relative to the first position [354] of the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352], for causing some of the visible- light emissions [438] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] as having a partially-collimated distribution being represented by an arrow [465] [00202] In some examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] may include a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices schematically-represented by dots

[332], [333] configured for respectively generating visible-light emissions [438], [439] Further, for example, the visible-light source [330] of the another example [300] of the lighting system may include a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333] being arranged in an array schematically represented by a dotted ring [366]

[00203] Additionally, for example, a portion of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333] may be arranged in a first emitter ring [345] having a first average diameter [347] encircling the central axis [318]; and another portion of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices including examples [334], [335] may be arranged in a second emitter ring [349] having a second average diameter [351], being greater than the first average diameter [347] and encircling the central axis [318] In this another example [300] of the lighting system, the semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333] arranged in the first emitter ring [345] may collectively cause the generation of a first beam [453] of visible-light emissions [438], [439] at the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] having a first average beam angle; and examples of semiconductor light-emitting devices [334], [335] being arranged in the second emitter ring [349] may collectively cause the generation of a second beam [455] of visible-light emissions [434], [435] at the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] having a second average beam angle being less than or greater than or the same as the first average beam angle. Further, for example, an additional portion of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices including examples [336], [337] may be arranged in a third emitter ring [357] having a third average diameter [359], being smaller than the first average diameter [347] and encircling the central axis [318] In this another example [300] of the lighting system, the semiconductor light-emitting devices [336], [337] arranged in the third emitter ring [357] may collectively cause the generation of a third beam [457] of visible-light emissions [436], [437] at the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] having a third average beam angle being less than or greater than or the same as the first and second average beam angles.

[00204] As examples of an array of semiconductor light-emitting devices [366] in the another example [300] of the lighting system, a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332],

[333] may be arranged in a chip-on-board (not shown) array [366], or in a discrete (not shown) array [366] of the semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333] on a printed circuit board (not shown). Semiconductor light-emitting device arrays [366] including chip-on-board arrays and discrete arrays may be conventionally fabricated by persons of ordinary skill in the art. Further, the semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333], [366] of the another example [300] of the lighting system may be provided with drivers (not shown) and power supplies (not shown) being conventionally fabricated and configured by persons of ordinary skill in the art.

[00205] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] may include additional semiconductor light-emitting devices schematically-represented by dots [366] being co-located together with each of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333], so that each of the co-located pluralities of the semiconductor light-emitting devices [366] may be configured for collectively generating the visible-light emissions [438], [439] as having a selectable perceived color. For example, in additional examples [300] of the lighting system, each of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333] may include two or three or more co-located semiconductor light-emitting devices [366] being configured for collectively generating the visible-light emissions [438], [439] as having a selectable perceived color. As additional examples [300], the lighting system may include a controller (not shown) for the visible-light source [330], and the controller may be configured for causing the visible- light emissions [438], [439] to have a selectable perceived color.

[00206] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352] may have a ring radius [368], and the semiconductor light-emitting device [332] or each one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333], [366] may be located, as examples: within a distance of or closer than about twice the ring radius [368] away from the ring [348]; or within a distance of or closer than about one-half of the ring radius [368] away from the ring [348] In other examples [300] of the lighting system, one of a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333], [366] may be located at a one of the focal points [350], [352] of the ring [348] As further examples [300] of the lighting system, the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352] may define a space [369] being encircled by the ring [348]; and a one of the plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333], [366] may be at an example of a location [370] intersecting the space [369] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, a one of the focal points [350], [352] may be within the second position [364] of the visible-light source [330] As other examples [300] of the lighting system, the second position [364] of the visible-light source [330] may intersect with a one of the axes of symmetry [458], [460] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424]

[00207] In other examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] may be at the second position [364] being located, relative to the first position [354] of the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352], for causing some of the visible-light emissions [438] - [439] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] in the partially-collimated beam [465] as being shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] As examples [300] of the lighting system, the ray fan may expand, upon reflection of the visible-light emissions [438] - [439] away from the second visible-light - reflective surface [424], by a fan angle defined in directions represented by the arrow [465], having an average fan angle value being no greater than about forty-five degrees. Further in those examples [300] of the lighting system, the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352] may have the ring radius [368], and each one of a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333], [366] may be located within a distance of or closer than about twice the ring radius [368] away from the ring [348]

[00208] In some examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] may be at the second position [364] being located, relative to the first position [354] of the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352], for causing some of the visible-light emissions [438] - [439] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] as a substantially-collimated beam [465] as being shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] As examples [300] of the lighting system, the ray fan may expand, upon reflection of the visible-light emissions [438] - [439] away from the second visible-light - reflective surface [424], by a fan angle defined in directions represented by the arrow [465], having an average fan angle value being no greater than about twenty-five degrees. Additionally in those examples [300] of the lighting system, the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352] may have the ring radius [368], and each one of a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333], [366] may be located within a distance of or closer than about one-half the ring radius [368] away from the ring [348]

[00209] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] may be located at the second position [364] as being at a minimized distance away from the first position [354] of the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352] In those examples [300] of the lighting system, minimizing the distance between the first position [354] of the ring [348] and the second position [364] of the visible-light source [330] may cause some of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] as a generally- collimated beam [465] being shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] expanding by a minimized fan angle value defined in directions represented by the arrow [465] upon reflection of the visible-light emissions [438] - [439] away from the second visible-light - reflective surface [424] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the first position [354] of the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352] may be within the second position [364] of the visible-light source [330]

[00210] In additional examples [300], the lighting system may include another surface [481] defining another portion of the cavity [410], and the visible-light source [330] may be located on the another surface [481] of the lighting system [300] Further in those examples [300] of the lighting system, a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [334], [335] may be arranged in the emitter array [349] as being on the another surface [481] Also in those examples [300] of the lighting system: the emitter array [349] may have a maximum diameter represented by the arrow [351] defined in directions being orthogonal to the central axis [318]; and the funnel reflector [314] may have another maximum diameter represented by an arrow [385] defined in additional directions being orthogonal to the central axis [318]; and the another maximum diameter [385] of the funnel reflector [314] may be at least about 10% greater than the maximum diameter [351] of the emitter array [349] Additionally in those examples [300] of the lighting system: the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352] may have a maximum ring diameter represented by an arrow [382] defined in further directions being orthogonal to the central axis [318]; and the another maximum diameter [385] of the funnel reflector [314] may be about 10% greater than the maximum diameter [351] of the emitter array [349]; and the maximum ring diameter [382] may be about half of the maximum diameter [351] of the emitter array [349] As an example [300] of the lighting system, the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352] may have a uniform diameter [382] of about 6.5 millimeters; and the emitter array [349] may have a maximum diameter [351] of about 13 millimeters; and the funnel reflector [314] may have another maximum diameter [385] of about 14.5 millimeters; and the bowl reflector [302] may have a uniform diameter of about 50 millimeters.

[00211] In examples [300] of the lighting system, the second position [364] of the visible-light source [330] may be a small distance represented by an arrow [486] away from the first base [442] of the optically-transparent body [440] In some of those examples [300] of the lighting system, the small distance [486] may be less than or equal to about one (1) millimeter. As examples [300] of the lighting system, minimizing the distance [486] between the second position [364] of the visible-light source [330] and the first base [442] of the optically-transparent body [440] may cause relatively more of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] from the semiconductor light-emitting device(s) [332], [333], [366] to enter into the optically-transparent body [440], and may cause relatively less of the visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light-emitting device(s) [332], [333], [366] to bypass the optically-transparent body [440] Further in those examples [300] of the lighting system, causing relatively more of the visible- light emissions [438], [439] from the semiconductor light-emitting device(s) [332], [333], [366] to enter into the optically-transparent body [440] and causing relatively less of the visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light-emitting device(s) [332], [333], [366] to bypass the optically-transparent body [440] may result in more of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] as having a partially- collimated, substantially-collimated, or generally-collimated distribution [465] Additionally in those examples [300] of the lighting system, a space [487] occupying the small distance [486] may be filled with an ambient atmosphere, e.g., air.

[00212] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the side surface [446] of the optically-transparent body [440] may include a plurality of vertically-faceted sections schematically represented by dashed line [371] being mutually spaced apart around and joined together around the central axis [318] In some of those further examples [300] of the lighting system, each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets [371] of the side surface [446], and each one of the facets [371] may have a generally flat surface [375]

[00213] In some examples [300] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [442], [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] may respectively have circular perimeters [488], [489] and the optically-transparent body [440] may generally have a circular-cylindrical shape. As additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the first base [442] of the optically-transparent body [440] may have a generally-planar surface [490] In further examples [300] of the lighting system (not shown), the first base [442] of the optically-transparent body [440] may have a non- planar surface, such as, for example, a convex surface, a concave surface, a surface including both concave and convex portions, or an otherwise roughened or irregular surface.

[00214] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may have a spectrum of transmission values of visible-light having an average value being at least about ninety percent (90%). In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may have a spectrum of transmission values of visible-light having an average value being at least about ninety-five percent (95%). As some examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may have a spectrum of absorption values of visible-light having an average value being no greater than about ten percent (10%). As further examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may have a spectrum of absorption values of visible-light having an average value being no greater than about five percent (5%).

[00215] As additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may have a refractive index of at least about 1.41. In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may be formed of: a silicone composition having a refractive index of about 1.42; or a polymethyl-methacrylate composition having a refractive index of about 1.49; or a polycarbonate composition having a refractive index of about 1.58; or a silicate glass composition having a refractive index of about 1.67. As examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light emissions [438], [439] entering into the optically-transparent body [440] through the first base [442] may be refracted toward the normalized directions of the central axis [318] because the refractive index of the optically-transparent body [440] may be greater than the refractive index of an ambient atmosphere, e.g. air, filling the space [487] occupying the small distance [486]

[00216] In some examples [300] of the lighting system, the side surface [446] of the optically- transparent body [440] may be configured for causing diffuse refraction; as examples, the side surface [446] may be roughened, or may have a plurality of facets, lens-lets, or micro-lenses.

[00217] As further examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may include light-scattering particles for causing diffuse refraction. Additionally in these examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may be configured for causing diffuse refraction, and the lighting system may include a plurality of semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333], [366] being collectively configured for generating the visible- light emissions [438], [439] as having a selectable perceived color.

[00218] In other examples [300], the lighting system may include another optically- transparent body being schematically represented by a dashed box [491], the another optically- transparent body [491] being located between the visible-light source [330] and the optically- transparent body [440] In those examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may have a refractive index being greater than another refractive index of the another optically-transparent body [491] Further in those examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light emissions [438], [439] entering into the another optically-transparent body [491] before entering into the optically-transparent body [440] through the first base [442] may be further refracted toward the normalized directions of the central axis [318] if the refractive index of the optically-transparent body [440] is greater than the refractive index of the another optically-transparent body [491]

[00219] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the optically-transparent body [440] may be integrated with the funnel-shaped body [416] of the funnel reflector [314] As examples [300] of the lighting system, the funnel-shaped body [416] may be attached to the second base [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] Further in those examples of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] may be attached to the second base [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] may be directly attached to the second base [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] to provide a gapless interface between the second base [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] and the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] In examples [300] of the lighting system, providing the gapless interface may minimize refraction of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] that may otherwise occur at the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] As additional examples [300], the gapless interface may include a layer (not shown) of an optical adhesive having a refractive index being matched to the refractive index of the optically-transparent body [440]

[00220] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, each one of the array of axes of symmetry [458], [460] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] may form an acute angle with a portion of the central axis [318] extending from the second point [462] to the first point [456] In some of those examples [300] of the lighting system, each one of the array of axes of symmetry [458], [460] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] may form an acute angle being greater than about 80 degrees with the portion of the central axis [318] extending from the second point [462] to the first point [456] Further, in some of those examples [300] of the lighting system, each one of the array of axes of symmetry [458], [460] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] may form an acute angle being greater than about 85 degrees with the portion of the central axis [318] extending from the second point [462] to the first point [456] In these further examples [300] of the lighting system, the acute angles formed by the axes of symmetry [458], [460] of the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] with the portion of the central axis [318] extending from the second point [462] to the first point [456] may cause the visible-light emissions [438], [439] to pass through the side surface [446] of the optically-transparent body [440] at downward angles (as shown in Figure 4) below being parallel with the horizon [304] of the bowl reflector [302] Upon reaching the side surface [446] of the optically-transparent body [440] at such downward angles, the visible-light emissions [438], [439] may there be further refracted downward in directions being below parallel with the horizon [304] of the bowl reflector [302], because the refractive index of the optically-transparent body [440] may be greater than the refractive index of an ambient atmosphere, e.g. air, or of another material, filling the cavity [410] In examples [300] of the lighting system, the downward directions of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] upon passing through the side surface [446] may cause relatively more of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] to be reflected by the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] and may accordingly cause relatively less of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] to directly reach the emission aperture [406] after bypassing the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] Visible-light emissions [438], [439] that directly reach the emission aperture [406] after so bypassing the bowl reflector [302] may, as examples, cause glare or otherwise not be emitted in intended directions. Further in these examples [300] of the lighting system, the reductions in glare and propagation of visible-light emissions in unintended directions that may accordingly be achieved by the examples [300] of the lighting system may facilitate a reduction in a depth of the bowl reflector [302] in directions along the central axis [318] Hence, the combined elements of the examples [300] of the lighting system may facilitate a more low-profiled structure having reduced glare and providing greater control over propagation directions of visible-light emissions [438], [439]

[00221] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] may be a specular light - reflective surface. Further, in examples [300] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] may be a metallic layer on the flared funnel-shaped body [416] In some of those examples [300] of the lighting system [300], the metallic layer of the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] may have a composition that includes: silver, platinum, palladium, aluminum, zinc, gold, iron, copper, tin, antimony, titanium, chromium, nickel, or molybdenum.

[00222] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety percent (90%). As some examples [300] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%). In an example [300] of the lighting system wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%), the metallic layer of the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] may have a composition that includes silver. In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about ten percent (10%). As some examples [300] of the lighting system, the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%). In an example [300] of the lighting system wherein the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] of the funnel-shaped body [416] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%), the metallic layer of the second visible-light - reflective surface [420] may have a composition that includes silver. [00223] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may be a specular light - reflective surface. As examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] may be a metallic layer on the bowl reflector [302] In some of those examples [300] of the lighting system, the metallic layer of the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] may have a composition that includes: silver, platinum, palladium, aluminum, zinc, gold, iron, copper, tin, antimony, titanium, chromium, nickel, or molybdenum.

[00224] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety percent (90%). As some examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%). In an example [300] of the lighting system wherein the first visible- light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may have a minimum visible-light reflection value from any incident angle being at least about ninety-five percent (95%), the metallic layer of the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] may have a composition that includes silver. In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about ten percent (10%). As some examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%). In an example [300] of the lighting system wherein the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may have a maximum visible-light transmission value from any incident angle being no greater than about five percent (5%), the metallic layer of the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] may have a composition that includes silver.

[00225] In other examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may have another central axis [418]; and the another central axis [418] may be aligned with the central axis [318] of the funnel-shaped body [416] In some of those examples [300] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [442], [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] may respectively have circular perimeters [488], [489], and the optically-transparent body [440] may generally have a circular-cylindrical shape, and the funnel reflector [314] may have a circular perimeter [303]; and the horizon [304] of the bowl reflector [302] may likewise have a circular perimeter [305] In other examples [300] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [442], [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] may respectively have elliptical perimeters [488], [489] (not shown), and the optically- transparent body [440] may generally have an elliptical-cylindrical shape (not shown), and the funnel reflector [314] may have an elliptical perimeter (not shown); and the horizon [304] of the bowl reflector [302] may likewise have an elliptical perimeter (not shown).

[00226] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [442], [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] may respectively have multi-faceted perimeters [488], [489] being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal, and the optically- transparent body [440] may generally have a side wall bounded by multi-faceted perimeters [488], [489] being rectangular-, hexagonal-, octagonal-, or otherwise polygonal-cylindrical (not shown), and the funnel reflector [314] may have a perimeter [303] being rectangular-, hexagonal- , octagonal-, or otherwise polygonal-cylindrical; and the horizon [304] of the bowl reflector [302] may likewise have a multi-faceted perimeter [305] being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal (not shown).

[00227] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may have the another central axis [418]; and the another central axis [418] may be spaced apart from and not aligned with the central axis [318] of the funnel-shaped body [416] As an example [300] of the lighting system, the first and second bases [442], [444] of the optically-transparent body [440] may respectively have circular perimeters [488], [489] and the optically-transparent body [440] may generally have a circular-cylindrical shape, and the funnel reflector [314] may have a circular perimeter [303]; and the horizon [304] of the bowl reflector [302] may have a multi-faceted perimeter [305] being rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal, or otherwise polygonal (not shown) not conforming with the circular shape of the perimeter [488] of the first base [442] or with the circular perimeter [303] of the funnel reflector.

[00228] In examples [300] of the lighting system as earlier discussed, the visible-light source [330] may be at the second position [364] being located, relative to the first position [354] of the ring [348] of focal points [350], [352], for causing some of the visible-light emissions [438] - [439] to be reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] in a partially- collimated, substantially-collimated, or generally-collimated beam [465] being shaped as a ray fan of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] Further in those examples [300] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [412] of the bowl reflector [302] may have a second array of axes of symmetry being represented by arrows [405], [407] being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions [438], [439] from the semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333] having been refracted by the side surface [446] of the optically-transparent body [440] after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] of the funnel-shaped body [416] In examples [300] of the lighting system, providing the first light - reflective parabolic surface [412] of the bowl reflector [302] as having the second array of axes of symmetry as represented by the arrows [405], [407] may cause some of the visible-light emissions [438], [439] to be remain as a partially-collimated, substantially-collimated, or generally-collimated beam upon reflection by the bowl reflector [302]

[00229] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] may include another semiconductor light-emitting device [334], and may also include another semiconductor light-emitting device [335]; and the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may include another portion as being a third light - reflective parabolic surface [415]; and the third light - reflective parabolic surface [415] may have a third array of axes of symmetry [417], [419] being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions [434], [435] from the another semiconductor light-emitting devices [334], [335] having been refracted by the side surface [446] of the optically-transparent body [440] after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] of the funnel-shaped body [416] In examples [300] of the lighting system, providing the third light - reflective parabolic surface [415] of the bowl reflector [302] as having the third array of axes of symmetry as represented by the arrows [417], [419] may cause some of the visible-light emissions [434], [435] to be emitted as a partially-collimated or substantially-collimated beam upon reflection by the bowl reflector [302]

[00230] In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the visible-light source [330] may include a further semiconductor light-emitting device [336], and may include a further semiconductor light-emitting device [337]; and the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may include a further portion as being a fourth light - reflective parabolic surface [425]; and the fourth light - reflective parabolic surface [425] may have a fourth array of axes of symmetry [427], [429] being generally in alignment with directions of propagation of visible-light emissions [436], [437] from the further semiconductor light-emitting devices [336], [337] having been refracted by the side surface [446] of the optically-transparent body [440] after being reflected by the second light - reflective parabolic surface [424] of the funnel-shaped body [416] In examples [300] of the lighting system, providing the fourth light - reflective parabolic surface [425] of the bowl reflector [302] as having the fourth array of axes of symmetry as represented by the arrows [427], [429] may cause some of the visible-light emissions [436], [437] to be emitted as a partially-collimated beam upon reflection by the bowl reflector [302]

[00231] As additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [434] - [439] toward the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] for emission from the lighting system in a partially-collimated beam [443] having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions [434] - [439], as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis [318], being no greater than about forty -five degrees. As further examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [434] - [439] toward the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] for emission from the lighting system in a substantially-collimated beam [443] having an average crossing angle of the visible- light emissions [434] - [439], as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the central axis [318], being no greater than about twenty -five degrees.

[00232] In other examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [434] - [439] toward the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°). Still further in these examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [434] - [439] toward the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a selectable range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°), being, as examples, about: 3 - 7°; 8-12°; 13-17°; 18-22°; 23-27°; 28-49°; 50-70°; 5°; 10°; 15°; 20°; 25°; 40°; or 60°.

[00233] In examples [300] of the lighting system, the rim [401] of the bowl reflector [302] may define the horizon [304] as having a diameter [402] As examples [300] of the lighting system, configuring the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] for reflecting the visible-light emissions [434] - [439] toward the emission aperture [406] for emission from the lighting system with a selectable beam angle being within a range of between about 3° and about 70° may include selecting a bowl reflector [302] having a rim [401] defining a horizon [304] with a selected diameter [402] In examples [300] of the lighting system, increasing the diameter [402] of the horizon [304] may cause the first beam [453] of visible-light emissions [438], [439] and the second beam [455] of visible-light emissions [434], [435] and the third beam [457] of visible- light emissions [436], [437] to mutually intersect in the beam [443] with a greater beam angle and at a relatively greater distance away from the emission aperture [406] Further in those examples [300] of the lighting system, increasing the diameter [402] of the horizon [304] of the bowl reflector [302] may cause each of the first, second and third beams [453], [455], [457] to meet the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] at reduced incident angles.

[00234] In some examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [434] - [439] toward the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about five degrees (5°); and as having a field angle being no greater than about eighteen degrees (18°). Further in those examples [300], emission of the visible-light emissions [434] - [439] from the lighting system as having a beam angle being within a range of between about 3 - 5° and a field angle being no greater than about 18° may result in a significant reduction of glare.

[00235] In examples [300] of the lighting system, the first visible-light - reflective surface [408] of the bowl reflector [302] may be configured for reflecting, toward the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] for partially-controlled emission from the lighting system, some of the visible-light emissions from the semiconductor light-emitting devices [332], [333] and some of the visible-light emissions from the another semiconductor light-emitting devices [334], [335] and some of the visible-light emissions from the further semiconductor light-emitting devices [336], [337]

[00236] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [412] of the bowl reflector [302] may be a multi-segmented surface. In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the third light - reflective parabolic surface [415] of the bowl reflector [302] may be a multi-segmented surface. In other examples [300] of the lighting system, the fourth light - reflective parabolic surface [425] of the bowl reflector [302] may be a multi-segmented surface.

[00237] In additional examples [300] of the lighting system, the first light - reflective parabolic surface [412] of the bowl reflector [302] may be a part of an elliptic paraboloid or a part of a paraboloid of revolution. In further examples [300] of the lighting system, the third light - reflective parabolic surface [415] of the bowl reflector [302] may be a part of an elliptic paraboloid or a part of a paraboloid of revolution. In other examples [300] of the lighting system, the fourth light - reflective parabolic surface [425] of the bowl reflector [302] may be a part of an elliptic paraboloid or a part of a paraboloid of revolution. [00238] In other examples [300], the lighting system may include a lens [461] defining a further portion of the cavity [410], the lens [461] being shaped for covering the emission aperture [406] of the bowl reflector [302] For example, the lens [461] may be a bi-planar lens having non-refractive anterior and posterior surfaces. Further, for example, the lens may have a central orifice [463] being configured for attachment of accessory lenses (not shown) to the lighting system [300] Additionally, for example, the lighting system [300] may include a removable plug [467] being configured for closing the central orifice [463]

[00239] In examples [300], the lighting system may also include the bowl reflector [102] as being removable and interchangeable with the bowl reflector [302], with the bowl reflector [102] being referred to in these examples as another bowl reflector [102] Additionally in these examples, the another bowl reflector [102] may have another rim [201] defining a horizon [104] and defining another emission aperture [206] and may have a third visible-light - reflective surface [208] defining a portion of another cavity [210], a portion of the third visible-light - reflective surface [208] being a fifth light - reflective parabolic surface [212] Further in these examples, the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface [212] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [238], [239] toward the another emission aperture [206] of the another bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system in a partially-collimated beam [243] having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions [238], [239], as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the another central axis [118], being no greater than about forty-five degrees. Also in these examples, the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface [212] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [238], [239] toward the another emission aperture [206] of the another bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system in a substantially-collimated beam [243] having an average crossing angle of the visible-light emissions [238], [239], as defined in directions deviating from being parallel with the another central axis [118], being no greater than about twenty-five degrees. In these examples [300] of the lighting system, the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface [212] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [238], [239] toward the another emission aperture [206] of the another bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system with the beam [243] as having a beam angle being within a range of between about three degrees (3°) and about seventy degrees (70°). In some of these examples [300] of the lighting system, the horizon [304] may have a uniform or average diameter [402] being greater than another uniform or average diameter of the another horizon [104] In these examples [300] of the lighting system, the bowl reflector [302] may reflect the visible-light emissions [438], [439] toward the emission aperture [406] with the beam [443] as having a beam angle being smaller than another beam angle of the visible-light emissions [238], [239] as reflected toward the emission aperture [206] by the another bowl reflector [102] In these examples [300] of the lighting system, the fifth light - reflective parabolic surface [212] may be configured for reflecting the visible-light emissions [238], [239] toward the another emission aperture [206] of the another bowl reflector [102] for emission from the lighting system with the beam as having a field angle being no greater than about eighteen degrees (18°).

[00240] Fig. 5 is a schematic top view showing an additional example [500] of an alternative optically-transparent body [540] that may be substituted for the optically-transparent bodies [240], [440] in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system. Fig. 6 is a schematic cross- sectional view taken along the line 6-6 showing the additional example [500] of the alternative optically-transparent body [540] Referring to Figs. 5-6, the additional example [500] of an alternative optically-transparent body [540] may include a plurality of vertically-faceted sections each forming one of a plurality of facets [571] of a side surface [546] of the optically-transparent body [540], and each one of the facets [571] may have a concave surface [675]

[00241] Fig. 7 is a schematic top view showing a further example [700] of an alternative optically-transparent body [740] that may be substituted for the optically-transparent bodies [240], [440] in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system. Fig. 8 is a schematic cross- sectional view taken along the line 8-8 showing the further example [700] of the alternative optically-transparent body [740] Referring to Figs. 7-8, the further example [700] of an alternative optically-transparent body [740] may include a plurality of vertically-faceted sections each forming one of a plurality of facets [771] of a side surface [746] of the optically-transparent body [740], and each one of the facets [771] may have a convex surface [875]

[00242] Fig. 9 is a schematic top view showing an example [900] of an alternative bowl reflector [902] that may be substituted for the bowl reflectors [102], [302] in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system. Fig. 10 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 10- 10 showing the example [900] of an alternative bowl reflector [902] Fig. 11 shows a portion of the example [900] of an alternative bowl reflector [902] Referring to Figs. 9-11, a first visible- light reflective surface [908] of the bowl reflector [902] may include a plurality of vertically- faceted sections [977] being mutually spaced apart around and joined together around the central axis [118], [318] of the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system. Additionally in the examples [900], each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets [977] of the first visible-light - reflective surface [908], and each one of the facets [977] may have a generally flat visible-light reflective surface [908] In some of the further examples [900], each one of the vertically-faceted sections [977] may have a generally pie-wedge - shaped perimeter [1179]

[00243] Fig. 12 is a schematic top view showing an example [1200] of an alternative bowl reflector [1202] that may be substituted for the bowl reflectors [102], [302] in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system. Fig. 13 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 13-13 showing the example [1200] of an alternative bowl reflector [1202] Fig. 14 shows a portion of the example [1200] of an alternative bowl reflector [1202] Referring to Figs. 12-14, a first visible-light reflective surface [1208] of the bowl reflector [1202] may include a plurality of vertically-faceted sections [1277] being mutually spaced apart around and joined together around the central axis [118], [318] of the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system. Additionally in the examples [1200], each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets [1277] of the first visible-light - reflective surface [1208], and each one of the facets [1277] may have a generally convex visible-light reflective surface [1208] In some of the further examples [1200], each one of the vertically-faceted sections [1277] may have a generally pie-wedge - shaped perimeter [1479]

[00244] Fig. 15 is a schematic top view showing an example [1500] of an alternative bowl reflector [1502] that may be substituted for the bowl reflectors [102], [302] in the examples

[100], [300] of the lighting system. Fig. 16 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 16-16 showing the example [1500] of an alternative bowl reflector [1502] Fig. 17 shows a portion of the example [1500] of an alternative bowl reflector [1502]

[00245] Referring to Figs. 15-17, a first visible-light reflective surface [1508] of the bowl reflector [1502] may include a plurality of vertically-faceted sections [1577] being mutually spaced apart around and joined together around the central axis [118], [318] of the examples

[100], [300] of the lighting system. Additionally in the examples [1500], each one of the vertically-faceted sections may form a one of a plurality of facets [1577] of the first visible-light - reflective surface [1508], and each one of the facets [1577] may have a visible-light reflective surface [1508] being concave, as shown in Fig. 16, in directions along the central axis [118], [318] In some of the further examples [1500], each one of the vertically-faceted sections [1577] may also have a generally pie-wedge - shaped perimeter [1779]

[00246] The examples [100], [300], [500], [700], [900], [1200], [1500], [1800], [2000] may provide lighting systems having lower profile structures with reduced glare and offering greater control over propagation directions of visible-light emissions. Accordingly, the examples [100], [300], [500], [700], [900], [1200], [1500], [1800], [2000] may generally be utilized in end-use applications where light is needed having a partially-collimated distribution, and where a low- profile lighting system structure is needed, and where light is needed as being emitted in partially-controlled directions having a selectable beam angle, for reduced glare. The light emissions from these lighting systems [100], [300], [500], [700], [900], [1200], [1500], [1800], [2000] may further, as examples, be utilized in generating specialty lighting effects being perceived as having a more uniform appearance in applications such as wall wash, corner wash, and floodlight. The visible-light emissions from these lighting systems may, for the foregoing reasons, accordingly be perceived as having, as examples: an aesthetically-pleasing appearance without perceived glare; a uniform color point; a uniform brightness; a uniform appearance; a stable color point; and a long-lasting stable brightness.

[00247] EXAMPLES. A simulated lighting system is provided that includes some of the features that are discussed herein in connection with the examples of the lighting systems [100], [300], [500], [700], [900], [1200], [1500] Fig. 18 is a schematic top view showing an example [1800] of an alternative bowl reflector [1802] that may be substituted for the bowl reflectors [102], [302] in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system. Fig. 19 is a schematic cross- sectional view taken along the line 19-19 showing the example [1802] of an alternative bowl reflector. Fig. 20 is a schematic top view showing another example [2000] of an alternative bowl reflector [2002] that may be substituted for the bowl reflectors [102], [302] in the examples [100], [300] of the lighting system. Fig. 21 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line 21-21 showing the example [2002] of an alternative bowl reflector. In the following simulations, the lighting system further includes the features of the example [100] that are discussed in the earlier paragraph herein that begins with "As shown in Figs. 1 and 2." In a first simulation, the example of the lighting system [100] includes the bowl reflector [1802] shown in Figs. 18-19. In this first simulation, the lighting system [100] generates visible-light emissions having a beam angle being within a range of between about 17.5° and about 17.8°; and as having a field angle being within a range of between about 41.9° and about 42.0°. In a second simulation, the example of the lighting system [100] includes the bowl reflector [2002] shown in Figs. 20-21. In this second simulation, the lighting system [100] generates visible-light emissions having a beam angle being within a range of between about 57.4° and about 58.5°; and as having a field angle being within a range of between about 100.2° and about 101.6°.

[00248] While the present invention has been disclosed in a presently defined context, it will be recognized that the present teachings may be adapted to a variety of contexts consistent with this disclosure and the claims that follow. For example, the lighting systems and processes shown in the figures and discussed above can be adapted in the spirit of the many optional parameters described.