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Title:
LIGHTNING ARRESTER OF MODULAR CONFIGURABLE ARCHITECTURE AND METHOD OF ITS PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/030430
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The lightning arrester and the method of modular configurable architecture for protection against lightning enables arbitrary change of the lightning arrester's configuration (80) by programming, connecting or removing assemblies having special functions (30)÷(43) so that the lightning arrester (80) acts independently or jointly networked in a framework of one lightning protection system, it communicates and acts in collaboration with other systems and lightning arresters with similar technology, it communicates with the user, audiovisually and electronically alarms in case of lightning danger, performs self-diagnostics, statistics etc.

Inventors:
RISTESKI, Petre (Alekso Demnievski str. no.7, 1060 Skopje, MK)
Application Number:
MK2016/000001
Publication Date:
February 23, 2017
Filing Date:
June 13, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DARIS INŽENERING (Alekso Demnievski str. no.7, 1060 Skopje, MK)
International Classes:
H02G13/00; H01T4/10
Domestic Patent References:
WO2011067481A22011-06-09
WO1998000898A11998-01-08
Foreign References:
US20090308630A12009-12-17
US20100284118A12010-11-11
US20080023210A12008-01-31
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BERIN LTD (Macedonia str. 27/2/22, 1000 Skopje, MK)
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Claims:
PATENT CLAIMS

1. A lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) characterized in that, it comprises of galvanic incessant central electrode (2) which at its upper end finishes in a tip (1), at its base (14) it has a mechanically gnawed off detail (15) and at the lower end it finishes by mechanical threaded connection (16).

2. A lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) according to the patent claim 1, characterized in that, on the central electrode (2) are assembled upper hemisphere electrode (6) and lower hemisphere electrode (12) having built-in one or more connectors (17) and galvanically directly connected and mechanically fixated on the central electrode (2) by the fastening element (13), facing their equatorial plains one against the another and mutually mechanically and galvanically separated by the upper insulator plate (9), the middle insulator plate (10) and the lower insulator plate (11), where between the upper insulator plate (9) and the middle insulator plate (10) is positioned the upper stellate electrode (7), and between the middle insulator plate (10) and the lower insulator plate (11) is positioned the lowerstellate electrode (8).

3. A lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) according to the patent claim 2, characterized in that, the upper stellate electrode (7) is directly galvanically connected to the central electrode (2) and is at the same electric potential with it and with the associated galvanically directly connected elements (3) and (12), and the lower stellate electrode (8) is galvanically insulated from the central electrode (2) but is directly galvanically connected to the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the reflecting electrode (5) and is at the same electric potential with them, where the sharpen ends (22) of the upper stellate electrode (7) and of the lower stellate electrode (8) are formed in such way that they are bent and alternately directed upwards and downwards and are mutually inversely positioned so that between the perimeter of the equatorial plain of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the sharpen ends (22) of the upper stellate electrode (7), between the perimeter of the equatorial plain of the lower hemisphere electrode (12) and the sharpen ends (22) of the lower stellate electrode (8), as well as between the sharpen ends (22) of the upper stellate electrode (7) and of the lower stellate electrode (8), the central spark gaps (20) are created.

4. A lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) according to the patent claim 2, characterized in that, at the zenith of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) the reflecting electrode (5) is mechanically laid having drainage orifices (95) and shaped in such way that its edge is created with at least two sharpened details (21) bent towards the tip (1) of the central electrode (2), so that the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the reflecting electrode (5) have a galvanic contact between them but are still galvanically insulated relative to the central electrode (2) by the insulation ring (4) and mechanically fixated on the central electrode (2) by an electrically conductive clamp (3) in such way that the electrically conductive clamp (3), the insulation ring (4) and the reflecting electrode (5) create the top spark gap (18).

5. A lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) according to the patent claim 2, characterized in that, into the internal space of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) or into the internal space of the lower hemisphere electrode (12) an electronic PCB (printed circuit board) is built-in having integrated the basic electronic assembly (99) which is passive untill the rise of the value of the gradient ΔΕ/ΔΤ of the local ambiental electric field (70) reaches a value higher than ΔΕ/ΔΤ=109 VrrfV1 and that has the role to multiply the electric potential between the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the associated galvanically connected elements (5) and (8), relative to the central electrode (2) and the associated galvanically connected elements (3), (7) and (12).

6. A lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) according to the patent claim 2, characterized in that, on the same electronic PCB (printed circuit board) along with the basic electronic assembly (99) are integrated or via the connectors (17) are connected one or more electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) described in the technical description, having built-in input connector (90) and output connector (91) intended for mutual interconnection.

7. A lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) according to the patent claim 2, characterized in that, into the internal space of the upper hemisphere electrode (B) or into the internal space of the lower hemisphere electrode (12) an electronic PCB (printed circuit board) is built-in having integrated the drainage electric circuit (19) whose electrical impendance is proportional to the velocity of rise of the value of the local ambiental electric field (70) gradient ΔΕ/ΔΤ and is connected between the galvanically connected elements (5), (6) and (8) and the central electrode (2).

The method of modular configurable architecture for protection against lightning (Figure 1), characterized in that, the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) could be configurated by arbitrary connecting, programming, re- programming or disconnecting one or more electronic assemblies (30)÷(43).

The method of modular configurable architecture for protection against lightning (Figure 14), characterized in that, new or existing lightning arrester or system for protection against lightning (60) of another type, of another technology and from another manufacturer could be configurated by arbitrary connecting, programming, re- programming or disconnecting one or more electronic assemblies (30)÷(43).

10. The method of modular configurable architecture for protection against lightning (Figure 1), characterized in that, the electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) are manufactured as a standalone devices or as a group of standalone and integrated devices, independent from the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) or from any other lightning arrester or system for protection against lightning (60).

Description:
LIGHTNING ARRESTER OF MODULAR CONFIGURABLE ARCHITECTURE AND METHOD OF ITS PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING

Technical field the innovation refers to

The lightning arrester (lightning rod, lightning conductor) and the method of protection against lightning of modular configurable architecture is an innovation in the field of electrotechnic. Its usage is intended for prevention of damage to objects, opened or closed areas and protection from injuries and killing of people and animals, caused by lightning. According to the International Classification of Patents (ICP), the subject of the invention is classified and marked with the symbol H02H 1/00.

Technical problem solved by the invention

The proposed method provides arbitrary change of the lightning arrester's characteristics according to special needs, in a way that the lightning arrester's configuration is changed with one or more electronic assemblies that have special purpose, by adding them to or removing them from the lightning arrester or to/from previously installed electronic assemblies.

State of the art

Several common deficiencies characterize all existing types of lightning arresters: they behave as passive impact points regarding the lightning; they have no interaction to other lightning arresters nor to the nearby lightning protection systems; they act disorganized to the lightning strike threat; they don't have a self-diagnostic system; they don't own the ability of alarming; once dimensioned, it is impossible to change their protective parameters during the exploitation period; they don't have a possibility for networking into local or global isokeraunic activity monitoring systems; they have no electronic circuits with algorithms of ^intelligent" action; they have no option of reporting to the end-user and interaction with him; etc.

Description of drawings

This invention can be most clearly described through examples with reference to the accompanying drawings in which are presented: principle scheme of the method of protection against lightning of modular configurable architecture;

sideview of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture;

sideview of the structural parts of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture;

sideview of the electric field lines in the space around the lightning arrester of modular ' configurable architecture;

top view and sideview of the stellate electrodes of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture;

sideview of the formed spark gaps by the hemisphere and stellate electrodes;

topview of the reflecting electrode of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture;

sideview of the reflected and directed free electric charge carriers by the reflecting electrode;

topview of the local corona and electric discharges and the electric charge carriers generated in the moments of the lightning's leader approaching; sideview of the spark gap formed by the central electrode and the reflecting electrode;

topview of the spark gap formed by the central electrode and the reflecting electrode;

sideview of the electronic assemblies of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture;

sideview of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture with built-in electronic assemblies;

a principled scheme for the application of the method of modular configurable architecture for protection against lightning on lightning arresters of another type, of another technology or from another manufacturer;

sideview of the electronic assembly for upgrade of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture; Figure 16 - topview of the electronic assembly for upgrade of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture.

Description of technical solution of the technical problem

The lightning arrester and the method of protection against lightning of modular configurable architecture enables unlimited and arbitrary change of the lightning arrester's configuration by connection of one or more specific electronic assemblies having special functions. Via its modular architecture the lightning arrester could be arbitrary configurated to upgrade it or decompose it with one or more electronic assemblies with special function by adding them to or removing them from the lightning arrester or to/from the previously installed electronic assemblies.

The solution given by this innovation refers to the method for protection against lightning and to the lightning arresters that apply this method into practice. Citting the drawings, the principled scheme of the method for protection against lightning of modular configurable architecture is presented in Figure 1. The method provides arbitrary configuration of the lightning arrester's characteristics by connection or disconnection of one or more electronic assemblies to/from the lightning arrester or to/from previously connected electronic assemblies, each one having a special purpose (electronic assembly 1A, electronic assembly IB, ... , electronic assembly In; electronic assembly 2A, electronic assembly 2B, ... , electronic assembly 2n; electronic assembly ΩΑ, electronic assembly ΩΒ, ... , electronic assembly Ωη), via one or more connectors built on the lightning arrester or on the connected electronic assemblies.

Sideview of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) is shown on Figure 2, and its construction and structural parts are presented on Figure 3. The construction core of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) is the central electrode (2) which is galvanically continuous from the tip (1) to the base (14). On the central electrode (2) at the pedestal (14) there are made machined threaded connection (16) and a gnawed off detail (15) for mounting and hand tool usage for tightening of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) on the support structure. The central electrode (2) serves to intercept the lightning electrical discharge and to transfer the lightning current towards the ground. On the central electrode (2) there are mounted the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the lower hemisphere electrode (12) facing their equatorial plains one against the another. The upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the lower hemisphere electrode (12) are mutually mechanically and galvanically separated by the upper insulator plate (9), the middle insulator plate (10) and the lower insulator plate (11). The upper hemisphere electrode (6) is galvanically insulated from the central electrode (2). The lower hemisphere electrode (12) is galvanically connected to the central electrode (2). The role of both hemisphere electrodes (6) and (12) is to shape the electric field (70) - Figure 4 - in the space around the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80), with negligible disorder of regular electric field equipotential lines.

Between the upper insulator plate (9) and the middle insulator plate (10), the upper stellate electrode (7) is positioned - Figure 3.

Between the middle insulator plate (10) and the lower insulator plate (11), the lower stellate electrode (8) is positioned - Figure 3.

The upper stellate electrode (7) and the lower stellate electrode (8) are shaped to have at least four sharpen ends (22) that are bent and alternately directed upwards and downwards - Figure 5.

The upper stellate electrode (7) is galvanically connected to the central electrode (2) and with the lower hemisphere electrode (12) and is at the same electric potential with them. The lower stellate electrode (8) is galvanically insulated from the central electrode (2), but is galvanically connected to the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the reflecting electrode (5) and is at the same electric potential with them.

In the configuration between the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the upper stellate electrode (7), between the lower hemisphere electrode (12) and the lower stellate electrode (8), as well as between the upper stellate electrode (7) and the lower stellate electrode (8), the central spark gaps (20) are created - Figure 6.

At the zenith of the upper hemisphere electrode (6), the reflecting electrode (5) is mechanically laid in such way that a galvanic contact is created between them - Figure 3. The reflecting electrode (5) is galvanically insulated from the central electrode (2). The reflecting electrode (5) is shaped in such way that its edge is created with at least two sharpened details (21) - Figure 7 - that are bent towards the tip (1) of the central electrode (2) - Figure 10. On the reflecting electrode (5) a drainage orifices (95) are made through which the accumulated atmospheric precipitation can drain - Figure 7 and Figure 11.

The insulation ring (4) - Figure 10 - makes galvanic insulation of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the reflecting electrode (5) from the central electrode (2).

The mechanical fixation of the upper hemisphere electrode (6), the reflecting electrode (5) and the insulation ring (4) to the central electrode (2) is made by the electrically conductive clamp (3) - Figure 10.

By mechanical fixation of the elements (3), (4), (5) and (6) to the central electrode (2), the top spark gap (18) is created between the electrically conductive clump (3) and the reflecting electrode (5) - Figure 10 and Figure 11.

The reflecting electrode (5) has a triple function:

- To equlize the local electric field (70) above the tip (1) of the central electrode (2) in conditions when the lightning leader approaches the earth ;

- To generate additional electric charge carriers (82) at the sharpened details (21) in conditions when the lightning leader approaches towards the earth;

. - To reflect towards the tip (1) the electric charge carriers (81) generated during the electric discharge at the top spark gap (18) and the electric charge carriers (82) generated during corona discharge at the sharpened details (21) - Figure 8.

The lower hemisphere electrode (12) is gaivanically and mechanically fixated to the central electrode (2) by the fastening element (13) - Figure 3.

On the lower hemisphere electrode (12) there are built-in one or more connectors (17) where the electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) are connected or disconnected. A sideview of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) with bult-in electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) is shown on Figure 13.

The basic electronic assembly (99) of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) is built-in into the internal space of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) or into the internal space of the lower hemisphere electrode (12) - Figure 3 - or it is made as an exterior basic electronic assembly (30) connected via the connector (17) or connected to any of the electronic assemblies (31)÷(43) via the connector (90) - Figure 15 and Figure 16. The role of the basic electronic assembly (99), respectively the exterior basic electronic assembly (30) is to multiply the electrical potential between the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the associated gaivanically connected elements (5) and (8), relative to the central electrode (2) with the associated galvanically connected elements (3), (7) and (12) and by that to provide timely outbreak of electrical discharges at the top spark gap (18) and at the central spark gaps (20) when the lightning leader causes the change of the local ambiental electric field gradient in amount over ΔΕ/ΔΤ=10 9 VrrfV 1 which provides creating a stable tracer above the tip (1).

The basic electronic assembly (99), respectively the exterior basic electronic assembly (30) is passive untill the rise of the value of the local ambiental electric field gradient ΔΕ/ΔΤ reaches the value higher than ΔΕ/ΔΤ=10 9 VrrfV 1 .

Because of the shape and dimensions of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80), it presents the point body in relation to the physical dimensions of the surrounding atmospheric vastness. The deformation of the local electric field (70) by the point body is insignificant in the surrounding of the lightning arrester (80) - Figure 4.

The progress of the lightning leader towards the earth results to rise of the value of the local ambiental electric field gradient ΔΕ/ΔΤ. In doing so, as a result of the capacitive coupling effect, the electric charge induces on the upper hemisphere electrode (6). This electric charge is distributed both on the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and on the galvanically connected elements (5) and (8).

A drainage electronic circuit (19) is built-in into the internal space of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) or into the internal space of the lower hemisphere electrode (12). The drainage electronic circuit (19) is connected between the upper hemisphere electrode (6) with galvanically connected elements (5) and (8) and the central electrode (2) - Figure 3.

The drainage electronic circuit (19) is an electronic assembly whose electrical impedance rises proportionally to the velocity of rise of the value of the local ambiental electric field (70) gradient ΔΕ/ΔΤ.

In a sunny weather and in conditions of small or insignificant change of the velocity of rise of the value of the local ambiental electric field (70) gradient ΔΕ/ΔΤ, the electrical impedance of the drainage electronic circuit (19) is small and enables the induced electric charge on the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the galvanically connected elements (5) and (8) to drain via the central electrode (2) towards the earth.

When the lightning leader approaches towards the earth, the value of local ambiental electric field (70) gradient ΔΕ/ΔΤ rises, thus proportionally rises the electrical impedance of the drainage electronic circuit (19). By increasing the electrical impedance of the drainage electronic circuit (19), decreases the drainage of the induced electric charge via the central electrode (2) towards the earth, thus this electric charge accumulates on the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the associated galvanically connected elements (5) and (8). The continuous accumulation of electric charge causes rise of the electric potential of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the associated galvanically connected elements (5) and (8) relative to the central electrode (2) and the associated galvanically connected elements (3), (7) and (12) - Figure 3.

When the rise of the value of the local ambiental electric field (70) gradient ΔΕ/ΔΤ reaches value higher than ΔΕ/ΔΤ=10 9 Vm ' V 1 then the basic electronic assembly (99), respectively the exterior basic electronic assembly (30) activates in such way that its electronic circuit multiplies the electric potential between the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the associated galvanically connected elements (5) and (8) relative to the central electrode (2) and the associated galvanically connected elements (3), (7) and (12). High electric potential of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the associated galvanically connected elements (5) and (8) relative to the central electrode (2) and the associated galvanically connected elements (3), (7) and (12) causes the occurence of electric discharges at the top spark gap (18) and at the central spark gaps (20) and release of electric charge carriers (81) and (83)— Figure 9 and Figure 10. Even more, when the electric potential of the upper hemisphere electrode (6) and the associated galvanically connected elements (5) and (8) reaches value 3·10 4 V, then the corona discharge and release of electric charge carriers (82) appears at the sharpened details (21) on the reflecting electrode (5) - Figure 8, Figure 9 and Figure 10.

Under the influence of the accompanying physical processes the generated electric charge carriers (81) and (83) disperse into the surrounding space thus the surrounding local ambiental space around and above the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) becomes electrically more conductive than the wider surrounding ambiental space. By approach of the lightning leader towards the earth, these processes gain intensity. Generated electric charge carriers (81) created at the top spark gap (18) and the electric charge (82) generated during the corona discharge at the sharpened details (21) are reflected and directed by the reflecting electrode (5) into the space towards the tip (1) - Figure 8.

The existence of a large concentration of electric charge carriers (81), (82) and (83) creates controlled conditions for earlier creation of a stable tracer from the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) relative to the other exposed objects in the surroundings. The created tracer continuously propagates and rises untill it is connected to the lightning leader, resulting the creation of an electric conductive path from the cloud to the ground, whose constituent part is the central electrode (2) of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80).

Thus, the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) presents the preferential point of the lightning strike, via which the lightning current can be safely conducted to the ground.

Because of its modular architecture, the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) can be upgraded anytime with new functions by connecting one or more electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) or be disburden of unnecessary functions by disconnecting one or more electronic assemblies (30)÷(43), each of them with a special purpose - Figure 12. The connection between the electronic assemblies is made via the input connectors (90) and the output connectors (91) - Figure 15 and Figure 16.

One or more electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) and/or the drainage electronic circuit (19) can also be integrated on the same electronic PCB (printed circuit board) as is the basic electronic assembly (99) in the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80), instead to be an exterior electronic assemblies (30)÷(43).

The proposed method of modular configurable architecture for protection against lightning - Figure 1 - enables every new or existing lightning arrester or system for protection against lightning (60) of another type, of another technology or from another manufacturer also to be upgraded with new functions by connecting one or more electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) or to be disburden of unnecessary functions by disconnecting one or more electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) - Figure 14.

The electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) - Figure 12 - are the following:

- An external basic electronic assembly (30);

- An electronic assembly (31) for continuous monitoring of the isokeraunic activity;

- An electronic assembly (32) for communication and interchange of data with the satellite and terrestrial isokeraunic devices and systems;

- An electronic assembly (33) for communication and interchange of data with the specific and with the programmable stationary or portable devices and systems; - An electronic assembly (34) for communication and interchange of data with the lightning arresters and systems for protection against lightning with similar technology;

- An electronic assembly (35) for observation of the lightning leader progress towards the earth;

- An electronic assembly (36) for audiovisual alarming in the vicinity via light and sound alarm signals (in case of a coming thunderstorm, in case of a coming danger of atmospheric electric discharge, after received lightning strike);

- An electronic assembly (37) for alarming to the end user by electric signals and by electronic messages, to the other lightning arresters or systems for protection against lightning with similar technology, to the systems for isokeraunic monitoring or to the other type of devices or systems (in case of a coming thunderstorm, in case of a coming danger of atmospheric electric discharge, in case of detection of atmospheric electric discharge in the surroundings, after received lightning strike);

- An electronic assembly (38) for automatic electronic record of data about isokeraunic and atmospheric events, monitoring, observations and measurements (a distance to the lightning events in the surroundings, a calendar with a number and timing of the lightning events, number and timing of received lightning strikes, parameters of the conducted lightning current, local meteorological parameters);

- An electronic assembly (39) for electronic record of status, statistical and technical data for the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) and for the electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) (manufacturing serial number, identifying sign, type, assigned name, date of installation, object where it is installed, GPS location, isokeraunic monitoring systems integration, connected electronic assemblies);

- An electronic assembly (40) for self-diagnostics and electronic record of the data for the functionality of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) and the electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) (number and timing of diagnostic controls, status of functionality, a schedule of diagnostic events, sent diagnosed status reports);

- An electronic assembly (41) for power supply of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) and the electronic assemblies (30)÷(43);

- An electronic assembly (42) for function emulation of one or more electronic assemblies

(30)÷(43); - An electronic assembly (43) for carrying out arithmetic-logic operations with the data gained from the electronic assemblies (30)÷(43).

The electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) have re-programmable electronic circuits whose functions that they execute according to their technical description could be programmed using special software application tools.

The electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) have electronic circuits that could exist as a functional unit or as a functional group independently of the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80).

The electronic assemblies (30)÷(43) enable the lightning arrester of modular configurable architecture (80) or another new or existing lightning arrester or system for protection against lightning (60) of another type, of another technology and from another manufacturer upgraded in compliance with the proposed method of modular configurable architecture for protection against lightning, to be integrated into a network of lightning arrester systems with similar technology, for coordinated and synchronized action and activation of the built-in systems in the event of potential lightning strike.