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Title:
LIPIDIC SYSTEM WITH ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES FOR FOOD AND NON-FOOD APPLICATIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/017138
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is a composition that includes, in embodiments, an oil phase having at least one vegetable oil, at least one fatty acid in free form and a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate; and an aqueous phase comprising sodium lactate or potassium lactate. The composition exhibits antimicrobial properties for food and non-food applications.

Inventors:
DIAZ, Luz Indira Sotelo (Autopista Norte Km 7, vía Chía Campus Universitario del Puente del ComúnDirección General de Investigación,Universidad de la Saban, Chia Cundinamarca, Cundinamarca, CO)
LIZARAZO, Olga Carla María Blanco (Calle 45A SurNo. 56-21, Bogotá D.C., D.C., CO)
Application Number:
US2016/049663
Publication Date:
January 25, 2018
Filing Date:
August 31, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DIAZ, Luz Indira Sotelo (Autopista Norte Km 7, vía Chía Campus Universitario del Puente del ComúnDirección General de Investigación,Universidad de la Saban, Chia Cundinamarca, Cundinamarca, CO)
LIZARAZO, Olga Carla María Blanco (Calle 45A SurNo. 56-21, Bogotá D.C., D.C., CO)
International Classes:
A23B4/20; A23D7/01; A23P10/35
Foreign References:
US20110091553A12011-04-21
US4606913A1986-08-19
US20150051298A12015-02-19
JP2014114291A2014-06-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MALINO, Joshua C. (Greenberg Traurig LLP, 500 Campus DriveFlorham Park, New Jersey, 07932-0677, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A composition comprising:

i) an oil phase comprising at least one vegetable oil, at least one fatty acid in free form and a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate; and ii) an aqueous phase comprising sodium lactate or potassium lactate.

2. The composition according to claim 1 wherein the vegetable oil is selected from the group consisting of palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil.

3. The composition according to claim 2, where the vegetable oil is palm oil.

4. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 3, wherein the at least one fatty acid in free form is a medium chain fatty acid.

5. The composition according to claim 4, wherein the fatty acid in free form is selected from at least one of capric acid, caprylic acid, or caproic acid as the fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof.

6. The composition according to claim 5, wherein the fatty acid in free form is capric acid.

7. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 6, wherein the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate is suspended in the vegetable oil.

8. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 7 wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between 10% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O) or the aqueous phase corresponds to 50% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV).

9. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 8, further comprising an emulsifying agent.

10. The composition according to claim 9, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20.

11. The composition according to any of claims 9 or 10 wherein the emulsifying agent is present in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9%.

12. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 11, further comprising an essential oil.

13. The composition according to claim 12, where the essential oil is thyme.

14. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 13, further comprising an antioxidant.

15. The composition of claim 14 wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

16. The composition of any of claims 14 or 15, wherein the antioxidant agent is present in a concentration of between 0.05 and 0.1%.

17. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 16, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1% and 2%.

18. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 17, wherein the concentration of the fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm.

19. The composition according to any of claims 1 to 18, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

20. An additive comprising the composition as defined in any of claims 1 to 19.

21. The additive according to claim 20, for food preservation having a minimum content of 5% fat, with or without the presence of proteins.

22. The additive according to claim 20, for controlling pathogens in the food industry related items.

23. The additive according to any of claims 20 to 22, wherein the additive is in liquid or solid state.

24. The additive according to any of claims 20 to 23, in the form of water in oil (W/O) or oil in water (OAV) emulsions.

Description:
LIPIDIC SYSTEM WITH ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES FOR FOOD AND NONFOOD APPLICATIONS

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of Colombian patent application, entitled "LIPIDIC SYSTEM WITH ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES FOR FOOD AND NONFOOD APPLICATIONS" filed July 22, 2016, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety for all purposes.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The products and methods detailed herein relate to industries requiring bacteria control.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] The presence of microorganisms of Gram positive psychotropic and anaerobic such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in food has caused worldwide concern in terms of health and economy because of its ability to grow in a pH range of 5 to 9.6 and in salt concentrations higher to 10%. (Pagadala et al. Food Microbiol. 2012, 31 : 263-70) L. monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a disease with a high mortality rate (Apostolidis et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2008, 128: 317-324). Moreover, Listeria monocytogenes may have horizontal gene transfer, which impacts on the acquisition of new genetic information that influence the resistance of this organism to the processing technologies in food, so it is interesting to evaluate the mechanisms of action and bacterial response facing the proposal of new technologies for microbial control (Allen et al. Food Microbiol. 2016, 54: 178 - 189).

[0004] Nitrites and nitrates are used in most meat products for microbial control, with emphasis on Clostridium botulinum and its neurotoxins; and for its antioxidant effect and to develop sensory characteristics of color, aroma and flavor. However, nitrites do not exhibit high antimicrobial effect on Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli; whose control is relevant at industrial level. Statistics indicate that higher incidence microorganisms, number of hospitalizations and deaths worldwide are Campylobacter sp., Listeria sp., Salmonella sp. and i?. coli 0157- and non 0157 serotypes.

[0005] Substantial growth has been seen in the consumption of healthy products, natural and organic foods; without or with low levels of chemical additives, antibiotics, pesticides and hormones. Consumers pay between 10 to 40% more for organic products without addition of nitrite and/or sodium or potassium nitrate, and in meat products this price increases a 200%. Because of this growing demand, the industry is seeking new ingredients and processes, which can help to change the negative image of some meat products, whose consumption has been linked to increased cancer, cardiovascular risks and arterial hypertension (Weiss et al. Meat Sci. 2010, 86: 196-213; Castro et al. Meat Sci. 201 1, 87: 321-329).

[0006] Therefore, it would be desirable to provide a composition with antimicrobial effect which avoids the nitrites addition.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

[0007] In embodiments, the present invention is a composition comprising: an oil phase comprising at least one vegetable oil, at least one fatty acid in free form and a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate; and an aqueous phase comprising sodium lactate or potassium lactate.

[0008] In other embodiments, the vegetable oil is selected from the group consisting of palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil. In yet another embodiment, the vegetable oil is palm oil.

[0009] In embodiments, the at least one fatty acid in free form is a medium chain fatty acid.

[00010] In yet other embodiments, the fatty acid is selected from at least one of capric acid, caprylic acid, or caproic acid as the fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof. In the embodiments, the fatty acid in free form is capric acid. [00011] In yet other embodiments, the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate are suspended in the vegetable oil.

[00012] In other embodiments, the aqueous phase corresponds to between 10% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O) or the aqueous phase corresponds to 50% of an oil in water emulsion (O/W).

[00013] In yet other embodiments, the composition further comprises an emulsifying agent. In embodiments, the emulsifying agent is Tween 20. In embodiments, the emulsifying agent is present in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9%.

[00014] In some embodiments, the composition further comprises an essential oil. In embodiments, the essential oil is thyme.

[00015] In yet other embodiments, the composition further comprises an antioxidant. In embodiments, the antioxidant is a-tocopherol. In embodiments, the antioxidant agent is present in a concentration of between 0.05 and 0.1 %.

[00016] In yet other embodiments, the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1% and 2%. In some embodiments, the concentration of the fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm. In other embodiments, the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[00017] In yet another embodiment, the composition is an additive. In embodiments, the composition is an additive for food preservation having a minimum content of 5% fat, with or without the presence of proteins. In yet another embodiment, the additive is configured for controlling pathogens in the food industry related items.

[00018] In yet another embodiment, the additive is in liquid or solid state.

[00019] In another embodiment, the additive is in the form of water in oil (W/O) or oil in water (O/W) emulsions. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[00020] The present invention will be further explained with reference to the attached drawings, wherein like structures are referred to by like numerals throughout the several views. The drawings shown are not necessarily to scale, with emphasis instead generally being placed upon illustrating the principles of the present invention. Further, some features may be exaggerated to show details of particular components.

[00021] FIG. 1 shows the ATPase activity of L. monocytogenes of distilled water with 0.5 v/v% Tween 20 (B), 200 ppm of NaN0 2 (N), 2 v/v% sodium lactate (L), 100 ppm of capric acid with 1.5 v/v% sodium lactate (C1+), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2), 100 ppm of thyme essential oil (Tl), 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate with 2 v/v% sodium lactate (P1+), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2 ).

[00022] FIGs. 2a and 2b show the growth dynamics relationship of L. monocytogenes at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN0 2 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (N) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (-A -), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (--A --), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[00023] FIGs. 3a and 3b show the growth dynamics relationship of E. coli at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN0 2 (N) (- ■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A -), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (—A—), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (—·—).

[00024] FIGs. 4a and 4b show the growth dynamics relationship of S. aureus at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN0 2 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A-), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (--A --), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[00025] FIGs. 5a and 5b show the growth dynamics relationship of S. enteritidis at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaNC>2 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A-), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (- A-), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[00026] FIGs. 6a and 6b show the growth dynamics relationship of C. sporogenes at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaNC>2 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A-), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (- A-), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[00027] FIGs. 7a and 7b show the growth dynamics relationship of total bacteria count at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of: 200 ppm of NaN0 2 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (-A -), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (- A-), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[00028] FIGs. 8a and 8b show changes in color over L* on external part (a) and internal part (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (·) and with addition of 200 ppm NaN0 2 (N) (■), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (A), 100 ppm thyme E.O (Tl). (·), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (□), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (■), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (Δ) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) ( A).

[00029] FIGs. 9a and 9b show changes in color over a* on external part (a) and internal part (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (·) and with addition of 200 ppm NaNC^ (N) (■), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) ( A), 100 ppm thyme E.O. (Tl) (·), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2)(D), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (■), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (Δ) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) ( A).

[00030] FIGs. 10a and 10b show changes in color over b* on external part (a) and internal part (b) in a sausage meat product (Β)(·) and with addition of: 200 ppm NaNC>2 (N) (■), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (A ), 100 ppm thyme E.O. (Tl) (·), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (□), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (■), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (Δ) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (A ).

[00031] FIGs. 11a and l ib show changes in the TBARS content of sausages stored at 8 °C (a) and 30 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN0 2 (N) (-■-), 1.5% of sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A -), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (—A—), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (--·-).

[00032] The figures constitute a part of this specification and include illustrative embodiments of the present invention and illustrate various objects and features thereof. Further, the figures are not necessarily to scale, some to features may be exaggerated show details of particular components. In addition, any measurements, specifications and the like shown in the figures are intended to be illustrative, and not restrictive. Therefore, specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting, but merely as a representative basis for teaching one skilled in the art to variously employ the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[00033] The present invention will be further explained with reference to the attached drawings, wherein like structures are referred to by like numerals throughout the several views. The drawings shown are not necessarily to scale, with emphasis instead generally being placed upon illustrating the principles of the present invention. Further, some features may be exaggerated to show details of particular components.

[00034] The figures constitute a part of this specification and include illustrative embodiments of the present invention and illustrate various objects and features thereof. Further, the figures are not necessarily to scale, some features may be exaggerated to show details of particular components. In addition, any measurements, specifications and the like shown in the figures are intended to be illustrative, and not restrictive. Therefore, specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting, but merely as a representative basis for teaching one skilled in the art to variously employ the present invention.

[00035] Among those benefits and improvements that have been disclosed, other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying figures. Detailed embodiments of the present invention are disclosed herein; however, it is to be understood that the disclosed embodiments are merely illustrative of the invention that may be embodied in various forms. In addition, each of the examples given in connection with the various embodiments of the invention which are intended to be illustrative, and not restrictive.

[00036] Throughout the specification and claims, the following terms take the meanings explicitly associated herein, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. The phrases "in one embodiment" and "in some embodiments" as used herein do not necessarily refer to the same embodiment(s), though it may. Furthermore, the phrases "in another embodiment" and "in some other embodiments" as used herein do not necessarily refer to a different embodiment, although it may. Thus, as described below, various embodiments of the invention may be readily combined, without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention.

[00037] In addition, as used herein, the term "or" is an inclusive "or" operator, and is equivalent to the term "and/or," unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. The term "based on" is not exclusive and allows for being based on additional factors not described, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. In addition, throughout the specification, the meaning of "a," "an," and "the" include plural references. The meaning of "in" includes "in" and "on. "

[00038] As used herein, the phrase "fatty acids in free form" and the like refer to fatty acids that are not present in the vegetable oil detailed herein.

[00039] As used herein, the term "medium chain fatty acid" refers to free medium chain fatty acid or monoglyceride, TCM are esters of medium chain fatty acids (from 6 to 12 carbon atoms) and glycerol (1 ,2,3-propanetriol). The TCM passively diffuse from the gastrointestinal tract to the portal system (the long chain fatty acids are absorbed in the lymphatic system) without requiring any processing as occurs with long chain fatty acids or very long chain fatty acids. Additionally, the TCM do not require the use of bile salts for its digestion. Patients with malnutrition or malabsorption syndrome are usually treated with medium chain fatty acids because they do not require energy to be absorbed, stored or used. Some of the sources of TCM are palm oil, coconut oil and camphor tree nuts. The fatty acids that can be found in the TCM are caprylic, capric and caproic.

[00040] As used herein, the term "antimicrobial" is a substance which eliminates or inhibits the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi or parasites. Based on this, the following may relate to antibacterial agents (antibiotics). [00041] In embodiments, the present invention is a composition comprising: an oil phase comprising at least one vegetable oil, at least one fatty acid in free form and a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate; and an aqueous phase comprising sodium lactate or potassium lactate.

[00042] In other embodiments, the vegetable oil is selected from the group consisting of palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil. In yet another embodiment, the vegetable oil is palm oil.

[00043] In embodiments, the at least one fatty acid in free form is a medium chain fatty acid.

[00044] In yet other embodiments, the fatty acid is selected from at least one of capric acid, caprylic acid, or caproic acid as the fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof. In the embodiments, the fatty acid in free form is capric acid.

[00045] In yet other embodiments, the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate are suspended in the vegetable oil.

[00046] In other embodiments, the aqueous phase corresponds to between 10% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O) or the aqueous phase corresponds to 50% of an oil in water emulsion (O/W).

[00047] In yet other embodiments, the composition further comprises an emulsifying agent. In embodiments, the emulsifying agent is Tween 20. In embodiments, the emulsifying agent is present in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9%.

[00048] In some embodiments, the composition further comprises an essential oil. In embodiments, the essential oil is thyme.

[00049] In yet other embodiments, the composition further comprises an antioxidant. In embodiments, the antioxidant is a-tocopherol. In embodiments, the antioxidant agent is present in a concentration of between 0.05 and 0.1 %. [00050] In yet other embodiments, the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1% and 2%. In some embodiments, the concentration of the fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm. In other embodiments, the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[00051] In yet another embodiment, the composition is an additive. In embodiments, the composition is an additive for food preservation having a minimum content of 5% fat, with or without the presence of proteins. In yet another embodiment, the additive is configured for controlling pathogens in the food industry related items.

[00052] In yet another embodiment, the additive is in liquid or solid state.

[00053] In another embodiment, the additive is in the form of water in oil (W/O) or oil in water (OAV) emulsions.

[00054] In a first aspect, the present invention refers to a composition comprising: an oil phase comprising at least one vegetable oil, at least one medium chain fatty acid in free form and a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate; and an aqueous phase comprising sodium lactate or potassium lactate.

[00055] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil. In other embodiments, the vegetable oil is palm oil or Refined, Blanched and Deodorized (RBD) palm oil.

[00056] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof. In the embodiment, the fatty acid is selected from capric acid, caprylic, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof. In embodiments, the fatty acid in free form is capric acid. [00057] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the fatty acid is in the form of sodium or potassium salt.

[00058] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil and the fatty acid in free form is a medium chain fatty acid selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid or a salt thereof.

[00059] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; and the fatty acid in free form is a medium chain fatty acid selected from capric acid. In another embodiment the fatty acid is in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt selected from sodium salt or potassium salt.

[00060] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil.

[00061] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil.

[00062] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil.

[00063] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil.

[00064] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil.

[00065] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil.

[00066] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 10% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O) or 50% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV).

[00067] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 12% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 15% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 20% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 25% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 27% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O).

[00068] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 10% and 50% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 10% and 40% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 10% and 30% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 10% and 20% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 20% and 50% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 30% and 50% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to between the 40% and 50% of a water in oil emulsion (W/O).

[00069] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 50% of an oil in water emulsion (O/W). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 50% to 95% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 50% to 90% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 50% to 80% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 50% to 70% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 50% to 60% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 60% to 95% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 70% to 95% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV). In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the aqueous phase corresponds to about 80% to 95% of an oil in water emulsion (OAV). [

[00070] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; and the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition. [00071] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, and the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition.

[00072] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, and the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition.

[00073] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, and the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition.

[00074] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, and the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition. [00075] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, further comprising an emulsifying agent. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is Tween 20.

[00076] In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2 weight% and 0.9 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.3 weight% and 0.9 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.4 weight% and 0.9 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.5 weight% and 0.9 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.6 weight% and 0.9 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.7 weight% and 0.9 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.8 weight% and 0.9 weight%.

[00077] In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2 weight% and 0.8 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2 weight% and 0.7 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2 weight% and 0.6 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2 weight% and 0.5 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2 weight% and 0.4 weight%. In some embodiments, the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2 weight% and 0.3 weight%.

[00078] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; and further comprising an emulsifying agent. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; and further comprising an emulsifying agent.

[00079] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20.

[00080] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %.

[00081] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %.

[00082] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %.

[00083] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition and further comprising an emulsifying agent.

[00084] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20.

[00085] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition, and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %.

[00086] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition, and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %.

[00087] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, further comprising an essential oil. In some embodiments, the essential oil is thyme.

[00088] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; and further comprising an essential oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; and further comprising an essential oil.

[00089] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[00090] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an essential oil, and wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[00091] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and further comprising an essential oil, and wherein the essential oil is thyme. [00092] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; and further comprising an essential oil, and wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[00093] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; and further comprising an essential oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; and further comprising an essential oil.

[00094] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[00095] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; further comprising an essential oil, and wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[00096] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; and further comprising an essential oil, and wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[00097] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; and further comprising an essential oil, and wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[00098] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; and the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition and further comprising an essential oil.

[00099] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme.

[000100] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition, and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme.

[000101] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition, and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme.

[000102] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; further comprising an emulsifying agent; and further comprising an essential oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; further comprising an emulsifying agent and further comprising an essential oil.

[000103] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20; and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[000104] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[000105] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[000106] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[000107] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition and further comprising an essential oil.

[000108] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000109] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition, and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000110] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition, and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000111] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; further comprising an the emulsifying agent; wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; further comprising an the emulsifying agent; wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition and further comprising an essential oil.

[000112] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, further comprising an the emulsifying agent; wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9%, the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000113] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, further comprising an the emulsifying agent; wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9%; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition, and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000114] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil, further comprising an the emulsifying agent; wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9%; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition, and further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000115] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the antioxidant is present in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the antioxidant is present in a concentration of between 150 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the antioxidant is present in a concentration of between 200 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the antioxidant is present in a concentration of between 250 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the antioxidant is present in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 250 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the antioxidant is present in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 200 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the antioxidant is present in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 150 ppm.

[000116] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, further comprising an antioxidant. In an embodiment, the antioxidant is a-tocopherol. In yet another embodiment, the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05% and 0.1%.

[000117] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; and further comprising an antioxidant. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; and further comprising an antioxidant.

[000118] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000119] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000120] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000121] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a- tocopherol.

[000122] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05% and 0.1%.

[000123] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme; and further comprising an antioxidant. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme; and further comprising an antioxidant.

[000124] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000125] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol. [000126] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000127] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; further comprising an essential oil, wherein the essential oil is thyme; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000128] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05% and 0.1%.

[000129] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an antioxidant. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the oil phase is suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an antioxidant.

[000130] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, the oil phase is suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition;; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000131] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase is suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000132] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase is suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000133] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is capric acid; the oil phase is suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a- tocopherol.

[000134] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05% and 0.1%.

[000135] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; further comprising an antioxidant; and further comprising an essential oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; further comprising an antioxidant; and further comprising an essential oil.

[000136] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, the oil phase is suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a- tocopherol; further comprising an essential oil; and wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme.

[000137] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase is suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol; further comprising an essential oil; and wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme.

[000138] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol; further comprising an essential oil; and wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme. [000139] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; the aqueous phase corresponds to 30% of total composition; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol; further comprising an essential oil; and wherein the essential oil is selected from thyme.

[000140] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05% and 0.1%.

[000141] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; further comprising an emulsifying agent; and further comprising an essential oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; further comprising an emulsifying agent and further comprising an antioxidant.

[000142] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000143] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000144] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000145] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; and further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol.

[000146] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05% and 0.1%.

[000147] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; further comprising an emulsifying agent; and further comprising an essential oil. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; further comprising an emulsifying agent; further comprising an antioxidant; and further comprising an essential oil.

[000148] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20; further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol; and further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme.

[000149] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; and further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol; and further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme in a concentration between 100 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000150] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is α-tocopherol; and further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme in a concentration between 100 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000151] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20, and wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration of between 0.2% and 0.9 %; further comprising an antioxidant, wherein the antioxidant is α-tocopherol; and further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme in a concentration between 100 ppm and 300 ppm. [000152] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05% and 0.1%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of 0.1%.

[000153] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the essential oil is in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the essential oil is in a concentration of between 150 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the essential oil is in a concentration of between 200 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the essential oil is in a concentration of between 250 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the essential oil is in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 250 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the essential oil is in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 200 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein the essential oil is in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 150 ppm.

[000154] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1 % and 2%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1.2% and 2%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1.4% and 2%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1.6% and 2%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1.8% and 2%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1% and 1.8%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1% and 1.6%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1% and 1.4%. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sodium lactate is between 1 % and 1.2%.

[000155] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 50 ppm and 500 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 100 ppm and 500 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 200 ppm and 500 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 300 ppm and 500 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 400 ppm and 500 ppm.

[000156] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 400 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 200 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 100 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of fatty acid in free form is between 7 ppm and 50 ppm.

[000157] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 100 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 150 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 200 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 250 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 55 ppm and 250 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 200 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 55 ppm and 150 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 55 ppm and 100 ppm.

[000158] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein the concentration of sucrose palmitate is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm. In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein: sodium lactate concentration is between 1% and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000159] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition described above, wherein: further comprising an essential oil that is thyme in a concentration of between 100 ppm and 300 ppm; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000160] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000161] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000162] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; sodium lactate concentration is between 1% and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm. [000163] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000164] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an essential oil; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000165] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000166] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme; sodium lactate concentration is between 1% and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm. [000167] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid in free form is capric acid; further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme; sodium lactate concentration is between 1% and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000168] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; further comprising an emulsifying agent; further comprising an antioxidant; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000169] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20; further comprising an antioxidant; wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000170] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is capric acid, further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20; wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration between 0.2% and 0.9%; further comprising an antioxidant; wherein the antioxidant is a- tocopherol; wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05 and 0.1%; sodium lactate concentration is between 1% and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000171] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil, soybean oil, olive oil, canola oil and sunflower oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof; the oil phase constituents other than vegetable oil such as the at least one fatty acid in free form and the sucrose ester are suspended in the vegetable oil; further comprising an emulsifying agent; further comprising an antioxidant; further comprising an essential oil; sodium lactate concentration is between 1% and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000172] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is selected from capric acid, caprylic acid, caproic acid as fatty acid in free form, as monoglyceride or a salt thereof, further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20; further comprising an antioxidant; wherein the antioxidant is a-tocopherol; further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme; sodium lactate concentration is between 1% and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000173] In another embodiment the invention relates to the composition defined above, wherein: the vegetable oil is selected from palm oil and RBD palm oil; the fatty acid is a medium chain fatty acid that is capric acid, further comprising an emulsifying agent, wherein the emulsifying agent is Tween 20; wherein the emulsifying agent is in a concentration between 0.2% and 0.9%; further comprising an antioxidant; wherein the antioxidant is a- tocopherol; wherein the antioxidant is in a concentration of between 0.05 and 0.1 %; further comprising an essential oil; wherein the essential oil is thyme; sodium lactate concentration is between 1 % and 2%; fatty acid in free form concentration is between 7 ppm and 500 ppm; and sucrose palmitate concentration is between 55 ppm and 300 ppm.

[000174] In another aspect of the invention, the present invention is an additive comprising the composition as defined above. In embodiments, the additive is in a liquid or a solid state.

[000175] In another embodiment the invention relates to an additive and as defined above, for the preservation of food having a minimum content of 5% of fat, with or without the presence of proteins.

[000176] In another embodiment the invention relates to the additive as defined above, for control of pathogens in food industry related items.

[000177] In another embodiment the invention relates to the additive as defined above, in the form of water in oil (W/O) or oil in water (O/W) emulsions.

[000178] In embodiments, the present invention is a composition comprising:

i) an oil phase comprising at least one vegetable oil, at least one fatty acid in free form and a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate; and

ii) an aqueous phase comprising sodium lactate or potassium lactate; and wherein the composition has a first sufficient amount of vegetable oil, a second sufficient amount of at least one fatty acid in free form, a third sufficient amount of a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate, and a fourth sufficient amount of sodium lactate or potassium lactate, such that, when the composition is applied to a food product in a concentration of 200 parts per million, a concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli in the food product is reduced.

[000179] In embodiments, the first sufficient amount of vegetable oil, the second sufficient amount of at least one fatty acid in free form, the third sufficient amount of a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate, and the fourth sufficient amount of a sodium lactate or potassium lactate includes the concentration ranges of the vegetable oil, at least one fatty acid in free form, sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate, and sodium lactate or potassium lactate detailed herein.

[000180] In embodiments, the present invention is a method comprising:

[000181] obtaining a composition comprising:

iii) an oil phase comprising at least one vegetable oil, at least one fatty acid in free form and a sucrose ester as sucrose palmitate; and

iv) an aqueous phase comprising sodium lactate or potassium lactate; and

[000182] applying a sufficient amount of the composition to a food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli.

[000183] In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 100 to 400 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 100 to 300 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 100 to 200 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 200 to 400 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 300 to 400 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 200 to 300 parts per million.

[000184] In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is about equal to the concentration of nitrates in the food product required to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli.

[000185] In embodiments, the present invention is a method comprising:

[000186] obtaining a composition and applying a sufficient amount of the composition to a food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli; wherein the composition includes any of the compositions detailed herein.

[000187] In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 100 to 400 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 100 to 300 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 100 to 200 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 200 to 400 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 300 to 400 parts per million. In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is 200 to 300 parts per million.

[000188] In embodiments, the sufficient amount of the composition applied to the food product to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli is about equal to the concentration of nitrates in the food product required to reduce the concentration of at least one of C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli.

[000189] FIG. 1 shows the ATPase activity of L. monocytogenes of distilled water with 0.5 v/v% Tween 20 (B), 200 ppm of NaN02 (N), 2 v/v% sodium lactate (L), 100 ppm of capric acid with 1.5 v/v% sodium lactate (C1+), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2), 100 ppm of thyme essential oil (Tl), 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate with 2 v/v% sodium lactate (P1+), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2 ).

[000190] FIGs. 2a and 2b show the growth dynamics relationship of L. monocytogenes at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN02 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (N) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (-A-), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (--A --), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[000191] FIGs. 3a and 3b show the growth dynamics relationship of E. coli at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN02 (N) (- ■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A -), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (—A—), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (—·—).

[000192] FIGs. 4a and 4b show the growth dynamics relationship of S. aureus at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN02 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A-), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (--A --), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[000193] FIGs. 5a and 5b show the growth dynamics relationship of S. enteritidis at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN02 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A-), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (- A-), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[000194] FIGs. 6a and 6b show the growth dynamics relationship of C. sporogenes at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of NaN02 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A-), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (- A-), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-.-).

[000195] FIGs. 7a and 7b show the growth dynamics relationship of total bacteria count at 30 °C (a) and 8 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of: 200 ppm of NaN02 (N) (-■-), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (-A -), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (- A-), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (-·-).

[000196] FIGs. 8a and 8b show changes in color over L* on external part (a) and internal part (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (·) and with addition of 200 ppm NaN02 (N) (■), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (A), 100 ppm thyme E.O (Tl). (·), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (□), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (■), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2)

(Δ) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) ( A).

[000197] FIGs. 9a and 9b show changes in color over a* on external part (a) and internal part (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (·) and with addition of 200 ppm NaN02 (N) (■),

1.5% sodium lactate (L) ( A), 100 ppm thyme E.O. (Tl) (·), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2)(D),

100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (■), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2)

(Δ) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) ( A).

[000198] FIGs. 10a and 10b show changes in color over b* on external part (a) and internal part (b) in a sausage meat product (Β)(·) and with addition of: 200 ppm NaN02 (N)

(■), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) (A ), 100 ppm thyme E.O. (Tl) (·), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2)

(□), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (■), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate

(P2) (Δ) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (A ).

[000199] FIGs. 11a and l ib show changes in the TBARS content of sausages stored at 8

°C (a) and 30 °C (b) in a sausage meat product (B) (-) and with addition of 200 ppm of

NaN02 (N) (-■-), 1.5% of sodium lactate (L) (-·-), 100 ppm of thyme E.O. (Tl) (-·-), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2) (- A -), 100 ppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+) (—A—),

200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) (-·-) and 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+) (--·-).

[000200] Non-Limiting Examples

[000201] Hereafter, the invention will be illustrated through tests performed by the inventors, which shows the effectiveness of embodiments of the invention.

[000202] Materials and methods

[000203] Evaluation of L. monocytogenes ATPase activity in vitro

[000204] The ATPase activity was evaluated in L. monocytogenes by phosphate determination method on cellular extracts based on the method proposed by Munoz and De La Campa (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1996; 40: 2252 - 2257). Crude cellular extracts were obtained with the activation of the microorganism in 10 ml of TSB medium (Sharlau) for 8h at 37°C until the half-exponential phase (OD 6 20mn = 0.25).

[000205] The phosphate determination method was employed (Chen et al, Anal Chem.1956; 28: 1756 - 1758), in which 20 μΐ of crude cell extracts was added to a buffer (O. lMTrisHCl, pH 7.5, 1 mM MgC^). The substances corresponding to treatments and sterile water with Tween 20 at 0.5% w/w as negative control. The mixture was incubated at 20°C for 20 min and then at 37°C for 8 min. The reaction was initiated with the addition of 25 μΐ of 0.1 M ATP and then incubated at 37°C for 30 min. Then, 97.5 μΐ of trichloroacetic acid and 852.5 μΐ of H 2 0 were added to stop the reaction.

[000206] Each treatment was centrifuged at 5,000 x g at 4°C for 15 min. To 1 ml of supernatant, a solution of 0.5% w/v ammonium molybdate, 2% w/v ascorbic acid and 1.5 N H 2 S0 4 was added. After 90 min at 20°C, the absorbance was measured at 725 nm. The calibration curve was plotted with solutions of monopotassium phosphate with concentration ranging between 1.6 and 11 μΜ. The ATPase activity was defined as the activity necessary for the production of 1 μιτιοΐ of inorganic phosphate per ml in 30 min.

[000207] Membrane damage assessment by fluorescence microscopy

[000208] The membrane damage analysis was performed according to the protocol proposed by Unal et al (Innovative Food Sci. and emerging Technol. 2002, 3: 247 - 254), was added 0.1% v/v of a cell culture of L. innocua and C. sporogenes in mid-exponential phase, in solutions of 100 ppm of thyme, essential oil (Tl), 100 ppm of capric acid in combination with 1.5% of sodium lactate (C1+), 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate in combination with 1.5% of sodium lactate (P1+), 1.5% of sodium lactate (L) , 200 ppm of NaN02 (N) prepared in 0.1% m/m peptone water and 0.5% m/m Tween 20. It was taken as negative control 0.1% m/m peptone water and 0.5% m/m Tween 20 and as positive control lml of cell culture with 20 ml of a solution of 70% ethanol. Each treatment was incubated at 37 °C for 2 hours.

[000209] Subsequently, each treatment 10,000 x g at 4 °C was centrifuged for 15 min, the extracts were resuspended in 0.1% m/m peptone water, twice, and then mixed 1 ml of resuspended cell extract with 1.5μ1 of 20 mM propidium iodide (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL, USA) in dimethyl sulfoxide anhydride (DMSO) (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL, USA) and 1.5μ1 of 3.34 mM SYTO 9 (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL, USA) in DMSO (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL, USA) were mixed. The resultant product was then incubated in the dark at 25 °C for 15 min.

[000210] Each treatment was performed in duplicate completely independent based on different cell cultures. From each treatment and each duplicate, two samples of 20μ1 each were obtained and placed under a glass sheet for microscopy. Five optical fields for each sheet were evaluated. Digital images acquired with a fluorescence microscope were obtained. Each replica was observed in duplicate in five fields in the fluorescence microscope (Olympus U-RFL-T, Millville, NY) by two filters (excitation 485" 15 nm, emission 505" 15 nm) and (excitation 585" 15 nm, emission 625" 15 nm).

[000211] The digital images were analyzed with ImageJ 1.5 software (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/index.html). The images obtained with each filter were transposed and the black background was adjusted for each image. The histograms of each image were analyzed in RGB scale through average in red and green. Then the relationships for each treatment were compared between red and green associated with damaged cells/viable cells.

[000212] Statistical analysis

[000213] ATPase activity for each treatment was compared through F-test, assuming quantitative planned test approach by orthogonal contrasts (P <0.05) and by Tukey test. SAS 9.2 statistical software (32) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was used. [000214] Preparation and inoculation of sausage prototypes

[000215] Beef tenderloin, leg and pork back fat were received and conditioned as the raw material for sausage prototypes. The meat raw materials and back fat were placed in a refrigerated storage period of 24 hours at 4 °C in forced air chamber. The materials were then subjected to a milling process with particle diameter of 5 mm. Different batches of sausage were made for each treatment under formulation: beef tenderloin (40%), pork leg (19%), back fat (6%), ice (21%), isolated soy protein (6%), potato starch (5%), salt (1%), phosphates (0.3%), monosodium glutamate (0.3%) and RBD palm oil with antimicrobial substances (3%). The emulsification process was performed on cutter incorporating all formulation ingredients with temperature control up to 8 °C for 40 s. Emulsified meat paste was inlaid in cellulose gut of diameter of 20mm. Sample units of 10 ± 0.5 g of sausages were obtained and then stored for 12 h at 4 °C.

[000216] Each sample unit was injected with insulin needle with inoculum in mid- exponential phase of each pathogenic microorganism, which was previously activated at 37 °C for 12 h in TSB medium (ScharlauChemie S.A., Barcelona, Spain). Each inoculated experimental unit was vacuum packed in bags F.T. VACUUM POUCH 62,5μιη (Plafilm®). Samples were subjected to cooking by water immersion at 70±1 °C, to 60±0.1 °C (The cooking process was carried out at 60 °C with holding time for 1 min, because the heat treatment at 73 °C for lmin holding time in vitro generated complete inactivation of 6 Log CFU/g of inoculated pathogens into the meat product) in the geometrical center and maintained for 1 min, followed by cooling by immersion in ice-water to 10 °C. This point was considered as time 0 of the experiment, samples were stored for monitoring at 8 and 30 °C.

[000217] Prototypes of suspended treatments in RBD were then developed: 100 ppm of thyme essential oil (Tl), lOOppm of capric acid + 1.5% sodium lactate (C1+), 200 ppm of capric acid (C2), lOOppm sucrose palmitate + 1.5% sodium lactate (P1+), 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate (P2) and as controls: 200ppm of NaNC>2 (N), 1.5% sodium lactate (L) and carrier without addition of antimicrobials (B).

[000218] Count of pathogenic microorganisms in sausage meat product prototype

[000219] For the bacterial growth analysis of sausages prototypes, from duplicates of sample units of 10 ± 0.5 g, of stored product at 30 °C in times: 0, 2, 4, 6, 24 h and 3, 7 and 14 days; and at 8 °C in times: 0, 6, 24 h and 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 30 days. For L. monocytogenes at 8 °C only were evaluated at times of 37 and 41 days because this microorganism is psychrophilic.

[000220] Each sample unit was homogenized with 100 ml of 0.1% peptone water (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) for 120 s with Stomacher (BA7021, Serward, England). The sample were made six decimal serial dilutions with 0.1% peptone water and deep planting, in agar plates, in triplicate, incubated at 37±1 °C for 48 h under anaerobic conditions only for C. sporogenes. For L. monocytogenes was sowed in Palcamagar with specific supplement (ScharlauChemie S.A., Barcelona, Spain), E. coli in EMB (ScharlauChemie S.A., Barcelona, Spain), S. enteritidis in Salmonella-Shigella (ScharlauChemie S.A., Barcelona, Spain), S. aureus in Baird Parker with egg yolk, potassium tellurite (ScharlauChemie S.A., Barcelona, Spain) and C. sporogenes in TSN (ScharlauChemie S.A., Barcelona, Spain). Total bacteria count was measured in inoculated samples in PAC (ScharlauChemie S.A., Barcelona, Spain).

[000221] Modelling of microbial growth in sausage prototypes during storage

[000222] The model by Baranyi and Roberts (Int. J. Food Microbiol. 1994; 23: 277 - 294) was used to determine the maximum growth rate and lag phase (λ) in the sausage prototypes because this model considers the organism's behavior both as individual bacteria and as a population based on the intracellular conditions (physiological state) and the history of extracellular conditions. [000223] Color kinetics in sausage prototypes

[000224] The internal and external part of nine prototypes was evaluated, with thickness of 15 mm with three replications corresponding to different lots, for each storage time at 8 °C (0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, 30, 37 and 40 days). Color coordinates (CIE L *a *b *colour system 1976) and the reflectance were determined, in accordance with the protocols proposed by American Meat Science Association (AMSA) (Meat Color Measurement Guidelines. 2012, Illinois, USA) with spectro-colorimeter ColorquestXE (HunterLab, Germany) (A light source, geometric standard observation at 10°/45°/0° at 1 pur away, standard white). The reflectance between 400 nm and 700 nm was measured at intervals of 10 nm, where the concentration of the myoglobin chemical forms were calculated according to the protocols proposed by Tang, Faustman, and Hoagland (J. Food Sci. 2006; 69, 717-720), the reflectance values of (503, 557 and 582 nm) were calculated using linear interpolation, which represent metmyoglobine (MMb), deoxymyoglobin (DMb) and oxymyoglobin (OMb) respectively.

[000225] Determination of lipid oxidation by TBARS method

[000226] Malonaldehydes and other aldehydes were determined as lipid oxidation indicators products in the presence of thiobarbituric acid (TBA). Through the methodology proposed by AMSA (Meat Color Measurement Guidelines. 2012, Illinois, USA)), because it corrects the interference by the presence of sugars and nitrites-nitrates, 0.25 g of the internal part and 0.25 g of the external part of each sausage sample were taken, they were homogenized with 2.5 ml of 0.375% TBA solution, 15% trichloroacetic acid and 0.25 N HC1. The resultant product was heated for 10 min in water at 90 °C, followed by cooling in ice- water for 10 min. The solutions were then centrifuged at 5,000 x g for 15 min at 4 °C; the supernatant was measured at 530 nm, with blank prepared according to the procedure described, without meat sample. TBA value expressed in (MDA mg/kg) was determined in the following equation: [000227]

[000228] Sodium nitrite reduction kinetics in sausage prototypes

[000229] According to the method protocol AO AC 973.31, with minor modifications 1± 0.1 g of sample were homogenized with 50 ml of water at 80 °C in Stomacher for 120s. The resultant product was then heated to 80 °C for 2h and filtered with filter paper reference 392 to retain particles of 5 to 8μιη (sartorius). 60 ml was then gauged with distilled water, 0.5 ml of sulfanilamide solution was added, dissolving 0.5g of sulfanilamide in 150ml of 15% (v/v) acetic acid, and after 5 min rest, 0.5 ml of N-(-l-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (NED) was added, previously prepared by dissolving 0.2 g of NED in 150 ml of 15% (v/v) acetic acid. The resultant product was allowed to stand for 15 minutes to change to pink color, Abs540nm was measured by triplicate.

[000230] Statistical analysis

[000231] Microbial growth parameters (final population density, color profile parameters (L * a* b* and ΔΕ) and mg MDA/kg sample for each treatment through F-test, were compared assuming quantitative planned test approach by orthogonal contrasts (P O.05) and by Scheffe and Tukey test. SAS 9.2 statistical software (32) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was used.

[000232] Results and discussion

[000233] Evaluation of the inhibition of lipid nature substances over ATPase activity of Listeria monocytogenes

[000234] The inhibition of the ATPase activity generated by the addition of the lipidic nature substances with antimicrobial potential according to embodiments of the present invention was determined by the quantitation of the production of L. monocytogenes inorganic phosphate in 30 min. ATPase activity is related to the control of intracellular pH by proton pumps, Abee and Wouters (Int J Food Microbiol 1999; 50: 65-91), highlight the correlation of chaperone-proteases with ATPase and therefore low resistance under stress conditions such as pH decrease.

[000235] The use of different food additives affects a portion of the population, where the surviving microorganisms can grow under processing conditions of the food industry. Simpson et al. (Int J Food Microbiol 1999; 48: 1-10) emphasize the importance of the ATPase, by its position in the membrane, ATP production and regulation of internal pH; inactivation of this enzyme can generate inability in bacteria to export protons and cytoplasm acidification. On the other hand, it is relevant to assess the ATPase inhibition, because it is associated with L. monocytogenes resistance to stress conditions, such as acid pH, high temperatures, osmotic pressures and high concentrations of alcohol. ATPase activity is closely related to maintaining the intracellular homeostasis using the proton transport through the membrane, the control of intracellular pH by proton pumps and the expression of chaperone-proteases (Int J Food Microbiol 2007; 113: 1 -15, and Int J Food Microbiol 1999; 50: 65-91).

[000236] The results indicated that the treatments with 200 ppm of NaN0 2 , C1+, C2 and P1+ do not showed significant differences (P> 0.01) with blank treatment (sterile water with 0.5% tween 20). Inhibition of the ATPase activity over L. monocytogenes by adding 1.5% sodium lactate was the greater 44.1%, in the P2 treatments was 19.7% and for Tl was 19% (Figure 1). Marounek et al. (Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2003;48:731-5) indicate that the lactate can generate hyperacidity via proton donation, which breaks the H+-ATPase complex required for ATP synthesis; the monoterpenes and lactate can chelate free electrons from the electron transport chain or inhibit the dehydrogenases linked to the flow thereof, besides decreasing the cytochromes levels and inhibiting the growth of the microorganism through the disruption of the proton motive force required for the oxidative phosphorylation. Potassium lactate, can inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes due to a change in metabolism generating inefficient energy production pathways, also alters the expression of genes involved in transport systems and cellular permeability as proton pumps and ABC transporters.

[000237] The antimicrobial effect of thyme essential oil (Tl), is attributed to its major components thymol indicate that its addition inhibits the ATPase activity in L. monocytogenes, which causes reduction of sublethal concentrations; however in

ranges of inhibitory concentrations close to those of membrane disruption, the ATPase inhibition can be a secondary cause of cell death. Essential oils mainly composed of thymol, eugenol and carvacrol have been recognized for causing the disruption of the cell membrane, inhibit the ATPase activity, and release ATP and other constituents in microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Salmonella enteritidis, S. aureus , among others. [000238] The hydrophobic molecules interact generating conformational changes in membrane proteins, high concentrations of these can stimulate the ATPase activity, by uncoupling the respiration generated by the membrane disruption. L. monocytogenes can generate resistance to substances with antimicrobial potential of lipid nature and stress conditions like low pH by changing the length and degree of saturation of fatty acids in the membrane (Usta et al. Hum Exp Toxicol 2003;22:355-62; McEntire et al. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004;70:2717-21).

The reduction generated in the ATPase activity by capric acid in combination with sodium lactate (C1+) and sucrose palmitate in combination with sodium lactate (P1+) showed no significant differences compared to treatment with addition of 200 ppm NaN0 2 . Sucrose palmitate to sublethal concentrations of 100 ppm increased the ATPase activity, without differences compared to the blank, and reduced the inhibitory effect of lactate, by stimulation in response to moderate stress. Sucrose palmitate is a protonophore, which stimulates the electron transference in the respiratory chain with a decrease related to the membrane potential, as well as promotes ATPase activity, however inhibits the exchange reaction between ATP and inorganic phosphate, which indicates is a decoupler of the oxidative phosphorylation (Shinohara et al. Biophys Acta. 1995;1228:229-34). Also, long or medium chain fatty acids such as palmitic acid can translocate or link to the electron carriers and increase the membrane fluidity, which restricts the movement of the carriers through the membrane. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are directly linked to ATPase reducing the ATP synthesis by increasing the membrane permeability to the protons, associated with the entry of protons to the cytosol, the reduction of the gradient thereof and the membrane potential is generated (Desbois et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;85: 1629-42)

[000239] Membrane damage assessment by fluorescence microscopy

[000240] Propidium iodide (PI) allows to evaluate the integrity and pores generated in the cell membrane, it binds to DNA and penetrates only in damaged membranes of bacteria, causing a reduction in fluorescence of SYTO 9 when both fiuorochromes are mixed.

[000241] The design of new conservation technologies in food requires evaluating the sublethal damage, because these cells could regenerate and grow during storage of the food.

In Table 1, the intensity ratios between cells with damaged membranes respect to viable cells per each treatment are observed. For L. innocua considered an appropriate model of L. monocytogenes because of its genetic closeness, it was observed membrane damage in all treatment respect to the blank. Thus, the treatment showed the highest N damaged cells, followed by Tl treatment. On the other hand, the N, L, C1+, P1+ and Tl treatments showed higher proportion of cells with membrane damage than the treatment with 70% ethanol.

Furthermore, although the L and P2 treatments do not show proportion of membrane damage higher than the blank, they showed the greatest inhibition in the ATPase activity, which can be attributed to the interaction of sucrose palmitate and sodium lactate with the cell membrane, causing sufficient distortion to disperse the proton motive force through the release of small ions but without release of large molecules such as ATP.

[000242] It was observed C. sporogenes membrane damage for all treatments greater than in blank, likewise L does not had a higher proportion of cells with membrane damage regarding viable cells. While, Tl treatment had the highest proportion of cells with membrane damage followed control with ethanol and by N. Since the fluorescence microscopy methodology can evaluate the behavior of individual bacterial cells the standard deviation of the intensities between damaged/viable cells is raised (Table 1).

[000243] In the Tl treatment, the highest proportions of membrane damage for L. innocua and C. sporogenes were observed as inhibition of ATPase in L. monocytogenes about 19% occurred, indicating that the ATPase is not the primary site action of the 100 ppm thyme essential oil, but its inactivation contributes to cell death.

Table 1. Color intensity relation RGB, from histogram of microorganisms stained with propidium iodide (PI) correspond to cells with membrane damage and SYTO 9 corresponds to viable cells

[000244] Effect of Antimicrobial potential of lipid nature substances over kinetics of growth of pathogenic microorganisms on meat prototype

[000245] The final population density of L. monocytogenes at 30 °C (Figure 2a) showed the greatest inhibition by the addition of L and C2 treatments, followed by Tl and N treatments without statistical differences (P>0.05) between them. C1+ and P1+ treatments do not showed inhibitory activity at this temperature. At 8 °C where abusive conditions of cooling (Figure 2b) are imitated, the treatments with greater inhibition of the final population density were C2, L and N without differences (P> 0.05), while treatments Tl, C1+, P1+ and P2 showed no inhibition on this growth parameter.

[000246] Due to the physicochemical properties of fatty acids, they can act as protonophore in function of conditions such as pH and temperature; likewise medium chain fatty acids such as capric acid have antimicrobial potential associated with its ability to interfere with the signal transduction and the disruption of the phospholipid membrane (Teixeira et al. Prog Lipid Res 2012;51 : 149-77), which compared with the analysis of the parameters of growth of L. monocytogenes (Tables 2a and 2b), the inhibition of specific growth rate is shown by the storage under abuse conditions of refrigeration 0.002h " Versus 0.021h _1 at 30 °C in blank treatments (B). Table 2a details the estimation of growth parameters at 30 °C of pathogens growth using the Baranyi model. Specific growth rate (μη^χ)[η-1], lag phase (λ)[η], standard error (S.E) and Table 2b details the estimation of growth parameters at 8 °C of pathogens growth using the Baranyi model. Specific growth rate standard error (S.E). For this microorganism, the

inhibition generated by the addition of 200ppm of NaN0 2 at 30 °C was comparable to that presented by storage at 8 °C. At 30 °C, the L treatment had the highest inhibition over with negative values, followed by Tl, C1+ and P2 treatments with negative values near 0. Furthermore, at 8 °C the inhibition of μ max for L. monocytogenes was directed to the addition of N and L.

[000247] At 30 °C the addition of C1+, P2 and Tl inhibited the population density at day 14 of E. coli to 3 Log CFU.g "1 relative to negative control (B) without antimicrobials (Figure 3a). At 8 °C after 14 days storage the microorganism was completely inhibited based on an initial concentration of 5 Log CFU.g "1 , and at 21 days by the addition of P1+ and C2 (Figure 3b). For this microorganism the addition of sodium nitrite did not show an inhibitory effect at both evaluated temperatures.

[000248] In Tables 2a and 2b, large inhibition in E. coli over μ max associated to the storage temperature at 8 °C was showed, in the blank treatment (B) corresponded to -0.004h _1 versus 0.079h _1 at 30 °C, which indicates high sensitivity of E. coli at low abuse refrigerating temperatures at 8 °C, where inactivation of the microorganism was evidenced. At 30 °C the nitrite addition showed inhibition of 97.5% in relation to the blank treatment, likewise C1+ and P2 treatments showed greater inhibition over μ max of E. coli (P <0.05).

[000249] S. aureus showed marked decrease in the growth from day 3 at 30 °C in L, C2 and C1+ treatments, which could indicate a bacteriostatic effect by the addition of capric acid and sodium lactate, with difference of about 3 Log CFU.g -1 compared to controls with N and B. The inactivation rate was lower in P1+ and Tl treatments, and growth of the microorganism for B, N and P2 treatments (Figure 4a) remained. By contrast, at 8 °C S. aureus, showed no tendency to decrease (Figure 4b), however, the treatments that showed greater inhibition were C2 and P1+, followed by C1+, P2 and N treatments. For S. aureus the addition of 200ppm NaNC^ (N) had no significant effect on the inhibition of microbial concentration after 14 days (336h) of storage at 30 °C and 30 days (576h) at 8 °C. [000250] The storage temperature was a high influence factor over μ max of S. aureus, wherein at 8 °C it presented and at 30 °C was 0.012. The addition of N

showed inhibition around ten times on treatment B, however Tl, C2, C1+ and P1+ treatments showed negative μ max this behavior may indicate a bacteriostatic effect on S. aureus of NaN0 2 , and a bactericidal effect generated by the addition of capric acid and sucrose palmitate in combination with sodium lactate (Tables 2a and 2b).

[000251] The growth dynamics of Salmonella enteritidis (Figure 5a) showed the reduction about 1.5 Log CFU.g -1 after the first 6 hours of storage at 30 °C in the treatment C1+ and a maintenance period at this bacterial concentration until day 3 (72h), followed by an increase and subsequent decrease; C1+ treatment had the lowest population density after 14 days of storage without differences (P>0.05) with C2 treatment; this behavior was confirmed over μ max for C2, C1+ and P2 treatments, wherein the values for this parameter were negative, showing a possible bactericidal effect. However, the addition of N showed and increment of μ max until 0.625h -1 .

[000252] In general at 8 °C the growth of Salmonella enteritidis was maintained for all treatments, and negative μ max occurred during the 30 days of the experiment, with the greatest inhibition showed by C2 treatment. The addition of NaNO 2 does not show an inhibitory effect on the population density of S. enteritidis, on the contrary increased its μ max However, the analysis of growth parameters exhibits high sensitivity to storage under abuse conditions of refrigeration for this microorganism (Figure 5b).

[000253] It was confirmed that the antimicrobial action of NaN0 2 is focused on the inhibition of Clostridium sporogenes, wherein after 14 days of storage at 30 °C, had the lowest population density. However, inhibition of C. sporogenes for all treatments showed no statistical differences (P>0.05) (Figure 6a), in C1+ treatment was observed a decrease in the first 6 hours of 0.5 Log CFU.g -1 .

[000254] Notwithstanding, at 8 °C (Figure 6b) C1+ and L treatments showed the greatest concentration inhibition of C. sporogenes after 30 days, with no difference between them (P> 0.05); followed by P1+ treatment which, in combination with the reduction of temperature, show a bacteriostatic effect on the organism. The N, Tl, P2 treatments showed no inhibition on the population density of the microorganism without differences from B (P> 0.05). [000255] It was observed that the inhibitory effect on C. sporogenes is strongly linked to the addition of sodium lactate, without difference with treatments in combination with capric acid and sucrose palmitate at 100 ppm; likewise pure capric acid and sucrose palmitate at concentrations of 200 ppm showed no inhibitory effect on the concentration of the microorganism after 30 days of storage.

[000256] For C. sporogenes showed inhibition of the growth of the microorganism associated with the temperature around 65.5% versus the comparison of blank treatments, which is associated to the physiology of the bacteria.

[000257] At 30 °C, NaN0 2 (N) showed inhibition of respect to the blank (B), without

differences with C2 and C1+ treatments. Similarly, the addition of treatments

inhibited about ten times the μ max of C. sporogenes. However at 8 °C the addition of P2 increased the μ ma respect to the blank; the inhibition over of N was statistically equal for it was negative implying a bactericidal effect on C. sporogenes.

[000258] Treatments with capric acid alone and in combination with sodium lactate, showed antimicrobial potential against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms; whose effect depends on the structure of the surface of the bacterial membrane, since the hydrocarbon chains of lipids are inserted into the membrane generating perturbation and permeability (Sado-Kamdem et al. Int J Food Microbiol 2009; 129:288-94). Therefore, the external membrane of Gram negative bacteria acts as a barrier against fatty acids, whereas in Gram-positive may allow the partition of fatty acids in the internal membrane. However, the rate of dissociation of the fatty acid that affects the partition within the cell membrane is dependent on the pH conditions (Sado-Kamdem et al. Int J Food Microbiol 2009;129:288- 94).

[000259] The dynamics of growth of native microbiota as total bacteria count was evaluated referred to microorganisms that can develop in vacuum and then grow after the opening of the package simulating the storage generated by the consumer. Wherein, the growth of these microorganisms those are normal inhabitants of raw materials like meat at high concentrations; can relate to the behavior of alterative microbiota with lipolytic and proteolytic activity.

[000260] Because of the product cooking conditions (60 °C for 1 min), it was possible to analyze the performance in high concentrations of these microorganisms during storage. In storage at 30 °C (Figure 7a) no significant differences (P> 0.05) between treatments N, B, C1+, L and T1 were presented; however the treatments that showed significant inhibition on the growth of total bacteria count were C2, P1+ and P2. These results demonstrate a synergistic effect of the combination of sodium lactate and sucrose palmitate on the reduction of total bacteria count because the inhibitory effect was greater than the presented by sodium lactate, with no significant differences (P <0.05) between 100 and 200 ppm concentrations of sucrose palmitate.

[000261] Regarding the conditions of storage at 8 °C (Figure 7b), the addition of sodium nitrite (N) and thyme essential oil (Tl) had no inhibitory effect, without differences (P>0.05) versus blank treatment (B). Treatments that showed inhibition on the density of total bacteria count after storage of 14 days were P2, C1+ and L.

[000262] The population of total bacteria count at 30 °C showed no significant differences (P> 0.05) between treatments B, N, L, C1+ and P1+; on the other hand Tl and P2 treatments showed inhibition over μ max about ten times. The growth of these microorganisms showed higher μ max in the CI + and P2 treatments relative to B (Table 3).

Table 3. Estimation of biokinetic parameters of total bacterial count (Psychrotolerant mesophilic facultatives) through Baranyi model. Specific growth rate (μπ [h "1 ], lag phase (λ) [h], standard error (S.E.)

Because of the addition of carvacrol L. monocytogenes increased the saturation level of the fatty acids of its membrane; whereas the fatty acids of E. coli increased its chain length due to the addition of 40ppm of thymol and S. enteritidis increased the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids and decreased cyclopropanic fatty acids after addition of 40 and 70 ppm of carvacrol. According to these results the increase of the unsaturated levels of membrane fatty acids independent of the species was associated, to which the resistance of microorganisms to the addition of essential oils and other stress conditions such as high and low temperatures, increased osmotic pressure, and oxidative stress was attributed. Particularly Gram negative microorganisms showed variation of cyclopropanic fatty acids content associated with the stability of the structural and dynamic properties of the membrane, where the concentration of cyclopropanicacids is proportional to the fluidity and therefore the tolerance to distortion factors. L. monocytogenes, E. coli and S. enteritidis presented as stress response mechanism the increase in the chain length of fatty acids and trans isomers to offset the effect of proportional fluidization with the increment of the unsaturation degree, related to survival and adaptation. However L. monocytogenes as a result of the addition of thymol does not showed increase in the chain length (Siroli et al. Food Chem 2015;182: 185-92). [000263] Evaluation of changes in color on meat product with lipid nature substances

[000264] Color changes were evaluated at 8 °C for 41 days of storage, to simulate the changes of the product generated in a temperature of abuse conditions of refrigeration or commercial refrigeration. The changes in the internal and extemal part of the sausage prototypes were independently evaluated. The color differences were estimated by colorimetric distances in the CIE LAB scale and reflectance between 400 and 700 nm.

[000265] For L *, from day 0 to 21 of storage no significant differences (P> 0.05) on the extemal part of the meat product appeared, however, from day 30 treatments with higher L* were P1+ and C1+, followed by N and L treatments and with lower values P2, Tl, B and C2; these differences persisted until day 41 of storage (Figure 8a). In the internal part of the product (Figure 8b) the variation trend remained similar to those found on the extemal part of the product, wherein treatments with greater /, * remain P1+ and C1+, followed by L, C2, P2 and Tl and finally N and B with no significant differences (P> 0.05).

[000266] The a* parameter describing the variation of green to red colors, changed significantly in the external (9a) and internal (9b) part of the product based on the evaluated treatments. On the external part of the product a downtrend as a function of storage time is observed. It is possible to observe that for both the internal and the external part of the product without storage (time Oh) the treatments with addition of 200 ppm of NaN02 (N) presented the lowest values for a*, without statistically significant differences between any treatment (P>0.05). However, from the second day of storage N showed the highest values of a* on the external part of the product, with significant differences (P<0.05) compared to other treatments. From day 37, the variation of a* on the external part remained without significant differences between N and L treatments (P>0.05) until day 41. Finally C2, C1+, P1+ and Tl treatments showed the lowest values of the a*parameter on the external an internal part of the product without significant differences regarding the B treatment (P>0.05).

[000267] Changes from blue to yellow color described by the b * parameter did not change significantly for the treatments evaluated, wherein no significant differences for any treatment (P>0.05) occurred until day 21 of storage on the external part of the product (Figure 10a), however, on days 37 and 41 b* does not present differences between L, P2, C2 and P 1+ treatments versus control with NaN02 (N). In addition, on the internal part of the product the b* parameter showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between treatments during the evaluation period of 41 days at 8 °C (Figure 10b).

[000268] The overall color variation (ΔΕ) indicates the total color differences (Table 4), for time 0 N had the lowest ΔΕ regarding the other treatments, after 7 days of storage treatment B had the lowest ΔΕ, and N did not presented differences compared to other treatments. However, on days 30 and 41 the differences over ΔΕ were maximized, wherein the B showed the lowest variation, which is comparable to Tl treatment. On the other hand, N presented the ΔΕ highest values similar to those found in C1+ and P 1+ treatments.

Table 4. Global color change (ΔΕ) in the external and internal surface of the sausage meat product.

[000269] Evaluation of lipid oxidation over meat product with lipid nature substances (Malonaldehydes and other aldehydes)

[000270] Figure 11a shows the trend of generating mg of malondialdehydes per kg of sample at 8 °C, wherein it is observed as a turning point the day 17 from which begins the accelerated trend of oxidation products that exceed the allowable limit for meat products (MDA 2mg/kg sample), with no differences associated to treatment; after 41 days of storage they were not observed significant differences (P>0.05).On the other hand, Figure l ib that shows the lipid oxidation of sausage product stored at 30 °C, maximizes the differences presented by the treatments, wherein the limit of 2mg MDA/kg sample is reached at 14 days, wherein after this time the highest concentration of malondialdehydes was presented by the N, B, L and Tl treatments without significant differences between them (P>0.05); the treatments with lower lipid oxidation were: C2, C1+, P2 and P1+.

[000271] Based on the Arrhenius model, they were determined the activation energies (Ea) of lipid oxidation reaction, according to a first order kinetics (Table 5). Where the Ea corresponds to the energy required for a reaction to occur, in this case the oxidation reaction, therefore at higher Ea the spontaneous reaction degree decreases. Thus, treatments with lower Ea corresponding to N, C1+, P2 and P1+ presented higher lipid oxidation; while B, L and especially Tl treatments had lower lipid oxidation rate, which is consistent with the antioxidant activity reported by the thyme essential oil.

Table 5. Activation energies (Ea) of lipid oxidation for sausage meat product at different treatments

[000272] Conclusions

[000273] Inhibition of the ATPase activity over L. monocytogenes by adding 1.5% sodium lactate was the greater 44.1%, in the P2 treatments was 19.7% and for Tl was 19%, where the enzyme activity inhibition could be related with \i ms ^ reduction. Sucrose palmitate at sublethal concentrations of 100 ppm increased the ATPase activity, without differences compared with the blank, and reduced the inhibitory effect of lactate, by stimulation in response to moderate stress.

[000274] The addition of propidium iodide (PI) allowed to evaluate the integrity and pores generated in the cell membrane, as well as the sublethal damage. For L. innocua and C. sporogenes the N treatment had the highest proportion of damaged cells, followed by Tl treatment. Nonetheless, the L and P2 treatments showed no proportion of membrane damage higher than blank, but showed the greatest inhibition of ATPase activity, which can be attributed to the interaction of sucrose palmitate and sodium lactate with the cell membrane, causing sufficient distortion to disperse the proton motive force through the release of small ions but without release of large molecules such as ATP. Furthermore, in the P1+ treatment it did not show an inhibitory effect on the two tested mechanisms, which could be related to changes in resistance and stress response of L. monocytogenes/L. innocua generated by the addition of sublethal concentrations of 100 ppm of sucrose palmitate.

[000275] Gram positive microorganisms as L. monocytogenes/L. innocua and C. sporogenes, present as major components of its membrane phosphatidylglycerol and lysyl- phosphatidylglycerol, which are hydroxylated phospholipids typical of pathogens and having net negative charge at pH close to neutral. Because these phospholipids tend to be highly electronegative, this would explain the antimicrobial effect associated to the interactions with capric acid and sucrose palmitate.

[000276] The nitrite addition (200 ppm) did not result on the inhibition of the microorganisms most prevalent in Colombia, i.e., S. aureus, S. enteritidis and E. coli, or the growth of native microbiota (aerobic mesophilic bacteria) which may be considered as spoilage microorganisms that diminish the quality of meat product and its useful life. This confirms that the current use of NaN0 2 is directed towards the control of L. monocytogenes and C. sporogenes, which can survive under other control systems currently applied at industrial level (high and low processing temperatures, wide range of disinfectants).

[000277] C1+ treatment showed inhibition on S. aureus and E. coli, high prevalence in Colombia, as well as C. sporogenes and native microbiota.

[000278] P1+ treatment showed inhibition on S. aureus, C. sporogenes, E. coli and native microbiota. [000279] It was found that NaN0 2 does not inhibit the generation of secondary oxidation compounds (malondialdehydes); C1+ and P1+ treatments showed lower lipid oxidation than NaNC>2, however they cannot be classified as substances with antioxidant potential, because the kinetics of lipid oxidation was higher than for the blank treatment (B).

[000280] Regarding changes of color, the differences are maximized on the external part of the product. Likewise, changes are presented in terms of L * and a*, wherein P1+ and C1+ treatments showed the highest values for L *, however N showed the highest values of a*, with significant differences compared to other treatments.

[000281] Adding 200 ppm capric acid (C2) inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis, in greater proportion than 200 ppm of NaNC^.

[000282] Evaluation of lipidic nature substances and sodium lactate, for application in systems with concentrations of proteins and lipids lower than 1% or non- food systems.

[000283] Inhibition generated by the addition of capric acid at 30, 50, 100 and 250 ppm did not differ statistically (P<0.05) with NaN0 2 control, the MCI was lOppm capric acid on

C. sporogenes .

[000284] Linolenic acid exhibited no inhibitory effect between 10 and 100 ppm on microorganisms tested. In addition, for E. coli, Salmonella enteritidis and S. aureus adding linolenic acid had antagonistic effect on the inhibition, canceling the antimicrobial effect of capric acid.

[000285] It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial potential of sucrose palmitate directly relates with its concentration on C. sporogenes and L. monocytogenes; when combined with sodium lactate inhibition of C. sporogenes was additive. [000286] E. coli showed an extreme sensitivity to sucrose palmitate without significant difference with the evaluated concentrations (PO.05), however this bacteria was not susceptible 1.5% to sodium lactate.

[000287] S. enteritidis and S. Aureus were not susceptible to the addition of sucrose palmitate. Inhibition for S. aureus by combination of 1.5% sodium lactate and 200 ppm of sucrose palmitate significantly increased (P>0.05). Sucrose palmitate presented an antimicrobial effect on C. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes and E. coli, with no effect on S. enteritidis and S. aureus, this behavior indicates that its action is not associated with bacterial physiology.

[000288] While a number of embodiments of the present invention have been described, it is understood that these embodiments are illustrative only, and not restrictive, and that many modifications may become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. Further still, the various steps may be carried out in any desired order (and any desired steps may be added and/or any desired steps may be eliminated).