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Title:
MACHINE FOR EXPELLER MAINTENANCE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/151054
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An expeller maintenance machine comprises a docking station for engaging an expeller, and a ground contacting module coupled to the docking station for supporting the docking station and transporting the expeller on the ground.

Inventors:
THAM, Chek Chung (7 Jalan Anggerik Vanilia 31/99A, Kota KemuningShah Ala, Selangor ., 40460, MY)
KHOO, Chee Wee (No. JR52, Lot 1818,Jalan Raja, Kawasan Perindustrian Bukit Pasir,Mua, Johor ., 84300, MY)
Application Number:
SG2017/050049
Publication Date:
September 08, 2017
Filing Date:
February 02, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
APICAL GROUP LIMITED (Portcullis TrustNet ChambersPostal Office Box 3444, Road Town, Tortola, VG)
LIM, Suwandi (93 Pasir Ris Grove, #14-33, Singapore 1, 518191, SG)
International Classes:
B30B9/12; B30B15/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015162472A12015-10-29
Foreign References:
US20140373736A12014-12-25
EP2314446A22011-04-27
CN203876258U2014-10-15
US3450034A1969-06-17
Other References:
PALM KERNEL EXPELLER MACHINE, 7 February 2013 (2013-02-07), Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170418]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SYNERGY IP PTE. LTD. (150 Cecil Street, #07-02, Singapore 3, 069543, SG)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . A machine for expeller maintenance, the machine comprising

> a docking station for engaging a screw cage unit of an expeller; and

> a ground contacting module for coupling to the docking station in order to transport the docking station on a ground.

2. The machine of claim 1 , wherein

wherein the docking station is configured to shift locally for engaging the screw cage unit.

The machine of claim 1 or 2, wherein

the docking station comprises a fixture for engaging the screw cage unit. The machine of claim 3, wherein

the fixture comprises at least one yoke for supporting weight of the screw cage unit.

The machine of claim 4, wherein

the yoke comprises at least one carrying pole.

The machine of claim 4 or 5, wherein

the yoke further comprises at least one fork mounted on the carrying pole for engaging an underside of the screw cage unit.

The machine of any of the preceding claims, wherein

the docking station further comprises a load unit for adjusting a position of the carrying pole.

The machine of claim 7, wherein

the load unit comprises a turntable swivel for adjusting the carrying pole around the load unit.

9. The machine of claim 7 or 8, wherein

the load unit comprises a levelling plate for levelling the carrying pole around the load unit. 10. The machine of any of the preceding claims, wherein

the docking station comprises a drive for raising the screw cage unit on the carrying pole.

1 1 . The machine of claim 10, wherein

the drive comprises a hydraulic pump that is connected to the load unit for pushing the screw cage unit up.

12. The machine of claim 10 or 1 1 , wherein

the drive further comprises a manifold that is connected between the hydraulic pump and the at least one load unit.

13. The machine of any of the preceding claims, wherein

the ground contacting module comprises at least one load skate for supporting the load unit.

14. The machine of any of the preceding claims, wherein

the ground contacting module further comprises a first rail for supporting the yoke, the drive, the at least load skate or a combination of any of these. 15. The machine of any of the preceding claims, wherein

the ground contacting module further comprises a second rail for aligning with the first rail.

16. The machine of any of the preceding claims, wherein

the ground contacting module further comprises a trolley for receiving the first rail, the second rail or both.

17. The machine of any of the preceding claims, wherein

the ground contacting module further comprises an alignment tool for aligning or connecting the first rail to the second rail.

18. The machine of any of the preceding claims further comprising

a powertrain that is connected to the docking station, the ground contacting module or both.

19. The machine of any of the preceding claims further comprising

a controller that is connected to the powertrain for moving the machine automatically.

20. A palm kernel treatment plant for extracting palm kernel oil, the palm kernel treatment plant comprising

at least one levelled ground for supporting the ground contacting module.

21 . The palm kernel treatment plant of claim 20, wherein

the at least one levelled ground comprises a first levelled ground for supporting the first rail and a second levelled ground for supporting the second rail.

22. The palm kernel treatment plant of claim 20 or 21 further comprising

a third levelled ground for supporting another expeller, another machine or both, the second levelled ground being located between the first and third levelled ground.

The palm kernel treatment plant of claim 23, wherein

the first levelled ground and the second levelled ground are positioned at opposite sides of the third levelled ground.

The palm kernel treatment plant of any of the preceding claims 20 to 22, further comprising

a pier for detachably fastening the screw cage unit.

25. The palm kernel treatment plant of claim 24, wherein

the pier comprises rails for fastening the screw cage unit, the powertrain or both to the first levelled ground.

A method of using a machine for expeller maintenance, the method comprising

> disconnecting a powertrain from a screw cage unit of an expeller;

> removing the screw cage unit from the powertrain; and

> connecting another screw cage unit to the powertrain.

The method of claim 26 further comprising

dislodging the screw cage unit from a pier.

28. The method of claim 26 or 27, wherein

the removing the screw cage unit from the powertrain comprises lifting the screw cage unit off the pier.

29. The method of any of the preceding claims 26 to 28, wherein

the removing the screw cage unit from the powertrain further comprises moving the screw cage unit onto a trolley.

30. The method of any of the preceding claims 26 to 30, wherein

the connecting another screw cage unit to the powertrain comprises aligning the other screw cage unit with the powertrain. 31 . The method of any of the preceding claims 26 to 30 comprising

collecting sensor data of the expeller for determining if the screw cage unit needs to be maintained.

Description:
MACHINE FOR EXPELLER MAINTENANCE

[0001 ] The present application claims the priority date of patent application number (SG)10201601521 S that was filed on 29 February 201 6 with Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS). All subject matter or content of the earlier Singapore priority patent application is hereby incorporated by reference.

[0002] The present application relates to one or more machines for expeller maintenance. The application also relates methods for making, assembling, disassembling, installing, configuring, maintaining, repairing and using the one or more machines.

[0003] Expellers are used to squeeze raw materials under high pressure for extracting food oils. Typical raw materials are nuts, seeds and algae, which are fed to the expellers continuously during production. A typical expeller (also known as expeller press) is a screw-type machine that mainly compresses oil seeds through a caged barrel-like cavity. The expeller utilises friction and continuous pressure from one or more of its compression screw to move and squash the oil seeds. Oil seeps through small openings that prevent crushed seed fibre solids to pass through. After being extracted with the oil, crushed seeds or shells are compacted as hardened cakes, which are removed from the expeller subsequently.

[0004] Large and heavy expellers are widely used to extract palm kernel oil from palm kernel palm kernels harvested from palm trees. Palm kernel crushing plants often operate continuously at a fixed geographical location so that palm kernels can be processed as fast as possible in order to provide fresh palm kernel oil with excellent quality and large quantity reliably.

[0005] Since palm kernels are usually tough and soiled after being harvested, compression screws of the expellers have to be frequently replaced or repaired in order to operate effectively. In practice, most expellers require regular maintenance after being used every 200 to 400 hours. Replacement process of the compression screws at the expellers is often time consuming, labour intensive and disruptive to production. In a typical maintenance operation, about 21 man-hours is required to restore an expeller to operative condition. Frequent maintenance of spoiled expellers in a palm kernel crushing plant is widely considered as inevitable hassle for palm kernel oil production. [0006] The present invention aims to provide new and useful machines for expeller maintenance. The invention also wishes to offer one or more new and useful methods for making, assembling, disassembling, installing, configuring, maintaining, repairing and using the one or more machines. Essential features of the invention are provided by one or more independent claims, whilst preferred features are presented by their dependent claims respectively.

[0007] According to a first aspect, the present application provides an expeller maintenance machine (also known as machine) that comprises a docking station for detachably or removably for engaging, fastening, holding or attaching to a screw cage unit of an expeller at its bottom. The expeller is alternatively known as an expeller press as a screw-type machine that mainly presses oil seeds through a caged barrellike cavity. The expeller uses friction and continuous pressure from one or more screw drives to move and compress seed material (e.g. palm kernel). The one or more screw drives are held with in a cage, which collectively known as the screw cage unit. The screw cage unit is further optionally connected to a gearbox and an electric motor so that the press screw is driven with suitable force and speed for oil extraction.

[0008] The expeller maintenance machine further comprises a ground contacting module for detachably or permanently coupling to the docking station in order to support the docking station and possibly the expeller such that the ground contacting module is able to transport the screw cage unit on a flat or uneven ground. The ground contacting module is also known as ground engaging module or ground contact elements that provide static stability or dynamic stability. The ground contacting module includes wheel (e.g. Mecanum wheel), continuous track (tank tread or caterpillar track), rollers or any other types of mechanism for supporting weight and moving on the ground (e.g. electromagnets). [0009] In contrast to dismantling the expeller in order to service or retrieve a worn screw, the expeller maintenance machine is configured to engage and remove only an affected part of the expeller (e.g. screw cage unit) such that a replacement part (e.g. a refurbished screw cage unit) is brought in and connected to unaffected parts (e.g. gearbox and electric motor) of the expeller. Instead of stopping oil press production due to onsite press screw repair, the machine is able to exchange the screw cage unit with the worn screw with another screw cage unit with a new or reconditioned press screw quickly. Precious production time is saved by the fast exchange, whilst the affected screw cage unit can be repaired or repaired offsite, at a place surrounded by suitable tools and technicians with ease and comfort.

[0010] Hence, the expeller maintenance machine will greatly expedite expeller maintenance and make offsite expeller maintenance easier, faster and better. The machine is simple to construct, and suitable for maintaining many expellers in a palm kernel crushing plant. The machine is further suitable to be adapted or modified for maintaining expellers of different types or sizes because the docking station is able to detached, extended or shortened for match diverse expellers. In one example, the docking station is able to carry the entire spoiled expeller away so that a fully functioning or good expeller can be placed at the original position of the spoiled expeller for resuming oil extraction.

[001 1 ] The docking station or at least a part of the docking station can be configured to shift, raise, lower or laterally move the screw cage unit, whether independent of the ground contacting module or not, for engaging the screw cage unit or vice versa. Hence, the docking station is flexible or adaptable to size or location of the screw cage unit or the expeller for securely holding, engaging or coupling the screw cage unit or the expeller. Particularly, since the expeller or the screw cage unit is typically heavy and large (e.g. about 1 ,000kG excluding motor, 2 metres by 3 metres as footprint), the docking station is able to manoeuvre around its object (e.g. screw cage unit) with translational, linear, rotational movement or in combination such that the object will be properly centred, engaged or held. The docking station thus provides sturdy, light-weight frame or platform that is versatile to carry objects of varied contours, weights and dimensions. [0012] In one embodiment, the docking station comprises a fixture for engaging the screw cage unit. The fixture is adapted to conform a profile or external contour of the expeller or the screw cage unit so that the docking station can be fastened to the screw cage unit. The fixture is a work-holding or support device used for expeller maintenance, which is used to securely locate (i.e. position in a specific location or orientation) and support the screw cage unit. The fixture creates a secure mounting point for the screw cage unit, allowing for support during transportation and increased accuracy, precision, reliability, and interchangeability. [0013] In certain embodiments, the fixture comprises one or more yokes for supporting weight of the screw cage unit. The one or more yokes has plate(s), rod(s), clip(s) or shaft(s) that are resilient, flexible or robust. For example, the yoke includes a slender beam made of spring steel so that the machine is able to move on an uneven ground without harming the screw cage unit.

[0014] In some embodiment, the yoke comprises one or more carrying poles that is/are configured to extend across the expeller in a lateral direction or bottom side of the expeller. For example, the carrying pole extends across a bottom side of the screw cage unit so that opposite ends of the carrying pole are symmetrically located at opposed sides of the screw cage unit. A centre of gravity of the screw cage unit thus is located at a centre of the carrying pole for balanced weight carrying. In some other embodiments, the yoke comprises two carrying poles for being disposed at opposite ends of the screw cage unit. The two carrying poles are substantially parallel to each other. The two carrying poles are able to lift a worn screw cage unit from its opposite ends so that the screw cage unit can be removed steadily, without rolling or tumbling off. Additional carrying pole(s) or yoke(s) are able to be introduced so that the additional carrying pole(s) or yoke(s) can raise the screw cage unit, other yoke(s) or carrying pole(s). [0015] The yoke further may comprise one or more forks mounted on optionally a top side of the carrying pole for engaging an underside of the expeller. The fixture, the yoke or the carrying pole is alternatively known as lift support. The one or more forks may be movable along the carrying pole so that a gap between the forks may be adjusted. An opening of the fork may further be adjusted to capture bolts of different diameters. The one or more fixtures, the yokes, the carrying poles or the forks may be resilient or spring-loaded so that they are to absorb mechanical shocks and resist disturbance, whether laterally or vertically to the screw cage unit. The forks provide self-guidance or self-locating to the heavy screw cage unit, which avoids tedious and laborious fastening of the screw cage unit. The one or more forks may additionally comprise two forks that are mounted at opposite ends or sides of the carrying pole so that the carrying pole is able to keep a centre of gravity of expeller in the middle position of the carrying pole. [0016] In particular embodiments, the docking station further comprises a load unit, optionally on a bottom side of the carrying pole, for adjusting position of the carrying pole on the docking station. The load unit is also known as lift set because the load unit is able to carry heavy weight of the carrying pole, the yoke or the fixture. Additionally, the load unit is able to extend or retract in its longitudinal direction or cylindrical axis such that the carrying pole, the yoke or the fixture is able to be raised up or lowered down. Similar to a hydraulic jack or a mechanical jack, the load unit acts as lifting device for lifting the screw cage unit.

[0017] The load unit may comprise a turntable swivel for adjusting the carrying pole or other parts around the load unit, which may be self-centring, or self-balancing. Freedom of rotational movement as provided by the turntable swivel dismisses internal tension between opposite ends of the screw cage unit so that the screw cage unit may not cause extra stress to the docking station. [0018] The load unit can comprise a levelling plate for levelling the carrying pole around the load unit automatically or self-adjusting. The levelling plater can additionally make the carrying pole horizontal so that the expeller does not tilt toward any side. The entire screw cage unit thus become levelled when resting on the docking station. Since the levelling plate prevents lateral twisting, the docking station also become steady when transporting the heavy screw cage unit.

[0019] The docking station may comprise a drive (e.g. jack, screw hand jack or hoist) for raising or lowering the screw cage unit on the carrying pole. The drive offers force or energy that propels the docking station up or down. Instead of relying on human physical strength, the drive utilises mechanical tools, electrical power, hydraulic strength or a combination of any of these to levitate the screw cage unit, making the task easier, faster, more accurate, more precise and steady. [0020] The drive can comprise a hydraulic pump that is connected to the load unit for pushing the expeller up. The hydraulic pump is a hydraulic drive system that can be hydrostatic or hydrodynamic. The hydraulic pump is either electrically powered or rely on human labour (e.g. via a handle pumping). The hydraulic pump is simple, cheap and reliable such that the hydraulic pump can be portable for connecting to different docking stations.

[0021 ] In certain embodiment, the drive comprises a manifold that is connected between the hydraulic pump and the at least one load unit for regulating flow rate and pressure of hydraulic fluid to one or more load units. The manifold is alternatively known as split flow manifold, which distribute hydraulic fluid or pressure to multiple output terminals. One or each output of the manifold is optionally regulated so that one or each output of the manifold is able to regulate speed or pressure on movement. The manifold is optionally separate or being integrated with the drive or hydraulic pump for complicity or convenience.

[0022] The hydraulic pump, the manifold and the one or more load unit can be connected by flexible, extendable or resilient hoses (e.g. hydraulic hose) so that the hydraulic pump and the manifold can be flexibly put around the expeller. The hydraulic hoses are detachable from the hydraulic pump, the split flow manifold or both. These components can be flexibly chosen, combined or connected so that the machine can handle expellers or screw cage units of diverse sizes, weights and shapes.

[0023] Additionally, embodiments of the application present the one or more load units comprise detachable connectors that join hydraulic pump, the manifold and the hoses together. These components (e.g. load units, hydraulic pump) are able to connected onsite or disconnected anywhere for offering different docking stations in order to meet task requirements. [0024] In certain embodiments, the ground contacting module comprises one or more load skate for supporting the load unit. The one or more load units are optionally on an underside of the load unit. [0025] In some embodiments, the ground contacting module further comprises a first rail for supporting the yoke, the drive, the one or more load skates or a combination of any of these on the ground. The first rail or rail is a stiff, strong or hard bar, often made of metal (e.g. steel). The first rail provides a strong and steady support to the docking station so that an object (e.g. screw cage unit) is held and moved securely with little resistance or effort. The first rail optionally includes a single rail for supporting two yokes or two load units. Alternatively, the first rail incorporates multiple rails that are lineally joined, aligned or locked. The first rail further possibly includes multiple rails that are parallel rails or intersect with each other, whether of equal or disparate lengths. The first rail is further optionally flexible, pliable or rigid, whether partially or completely.

[0026] The ground contacting module further can comprise a second rail for aligning with the first rail in order to receive the screw cage unit onto the second rail. The first rail and the second rail joins together in providing an extended rail so that a screw cage unit is able to be transferred from the first rail to the second rail, without experiencing interruption. The first rail and second rail can further be locked temporarily so that the movement of the two rails will not dislodge the rails. Any of the two rails can have profiles that conform to surroundings (e.g. factory floor), which allows the ground contacting station to move around easily.

[0027] The ground contacting module may further comprise a trolley for receiving the first rail, the second rail or both in order to remove the screw cage unit. The trolley is a mobile carrier having flexibility to carry diverse goods. If powered electrically, the trolley may become a tram (tramcar), streetcar or rail push trolley that may operate as a shuttle between a production floor of the expeller and a maintenance site, without requesting hoists to lift the screw cage unit or the expeller.

[0028] The ground contacting module can further comprise an alignment tool for aligning or detachably connecting the first rail and the second rail together in order to transfer the screw cage unit from the first rail to the second rail, or vice versa. For example, the alignment tool includes a laser pen that can guide connection between the first rail and the second rail. [0029] The machine may further comprise a powertrain (e.g. engine, electric motor, hydraulic engine, diesel engine, transmission, drive shafts, differentials and final drives) that is connected to the docking station, the ground contacting module or both. The powertrain, connecting a power source (e.g. electric motor or engine) and a press screw, provides flexibility in adjusting speed, force and angle of driving force to the press screw. The powertrain may, for example, include an assembly of a gearbox and an engine together.

[0030] The machine can further comprise a controller (e.g. microcontroller, microprocessor) and a memory that are connected to the powertrain for moving the machine and/or the expeller automatically. Therefore, the machine optionally incorporates an automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV), becoming a mobile robot for maintaining the expeller.

[0031 ] The present application furthermore provides a palm kernel treatment plant for extracting palm kernel oil. The palm kernel treatment plant comprises one or more levelled grounds for supporting the ground contacting module. The one or more levelled grounds can comprise a first levelled ground for supporting the first rail and a second levelled ground for supporting the second rail, which is possibly on the trolley. The first levelled ground can be adjacent to the second levelled ground. The second levelled ground can comprise tracks (e.g. rails, slots, chains or conveyors) for guiding movement of the trolley. Hence, the palm kernel treatment plant provides environment that facilitates the machine, making expeller maintenance easier and more efficient.

[0032] The palm kernel treatment plant may further comprise a third levelled ground for supporting another expeller, another machine or both. The second levelled ground is located between the first and third levelled ground. Since the trolley is tall, a platform or rails of the trolley are able to be aligned or locked with the first rails on the first levelled ground. A spoiled screw cage unit may be easily tugged from the first levelled ground to the third levelled ground, which is dislodged from the gearbox to be loaded onto the trolley.

[0033] The first levelled ground and the second levelled ground can be positioned at opposite sides of the third levelled ground for sharing the third levelled ground. This geometrical arrangement makes the third levelled ground as a lane for transporting expellers or screw cage units from the first and second grounds. The palm kernel treatment plant becomes more efficiently used for maintenance. [0034] The palm kernel treatment plant may further comprise a pier for detachably fastening a screw cage unit, which include a housing enclosing a worm-shaft or palm kernel oil press-screw of the expeller. The pier provides a sturdy and secure bay that holds the screw cage unit or the expeller during prolonged periods of production, even for years.

[0035] The pier can comprise rails for fastening the cage, a powertrain (including or excluding electric motor and gearbox) or both to the first levelled ground. The rails, whether emerge above or submerged below a levelled ground (e.g. first levelled ground), provide reliable and strong anchor to the expeller or the screw cage unit.

[0036] According to a second aspect, the present application provides a method for using a machine for expeller maintenance. The method comprises a first step of disconnecting a powertrain from a cage having a worn press-screw of the expeller; a second step of removing the cage from the powertrain; and a third step of connecting another cage having an intact press-screw to the powertrain. Some of these steps may be combined or changed in sequence. Instead of replacing a press screw or repairing a spoiled expeller onsite, the method simply replaces a worn press crew with its casing or screw cage unit altogether. The method is able to carried out by the machine automatically or operated by technician(s), reducing downtime of production from 6~7 hours to less than 30 minutes.

[0037] In certain embodiments, the method further comprises a step of dislodging the screw cage unit from a pier. During production, the screw cage unit is typically fastened to the pier. In contrast, when requiring maintenance, the screw cage unit is dislodged, such that a replacement screw cage unit is brought over for connecting to a gearbox and an electric motor. Oil extraction is efficiently restored by the replacement screw cage unit. [0038] The step of removing the screw cage unit from the powertrain can comprise a step of lifting the cage off the pier. Once lifted, the screw cage unit is easily transported without much labour.

[0039] The step of removing the screw cage unit from the powertrain may further comprise a step of moving the screw cage unit onto a trolley. Alternatively, the entire faulty expeller may be loaded onto the trolley so that a replacement screw cage unit or new expeller may be quickly brought in place. Movement of the screw cage unit or the expeller is made easy by the trolley. [0040] The step of connecting another screw cage unit having an intact press-screw to the powertrain can comprise another step of positioning or aligning the other cage with the powertrain. Once aligned, shafts or other rotary parts of the screw cage unit can seamless and properly joined to the powertrain, which provides efficient and effective oil extraction.

[0041 ] The method may additionally comprise a step of collecting sensor data of the expeller or the screw cage unit for determining if the cage needs to be replaced. Sensors or traducers are temporarily or permanently attached to the expeller or the screw cage unit so that a data logger or computer is able to amass data of light, motion, temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, humidity, moisture, vibration, pressure, electrical fields, sound, and other physical aspects of the expeller, the screw cage unit or environment of the palm kernel treatment plant for automatic monitoring, controlling or maintenance of the expeller and oil production control. The step may greatly reduce labour, transportation or material consumption so that the expeller or the palm kernel treatment plant become reliable and efficient.

[0042] According to third aspect, the present application provides a machine for replacing palm kernel oil processing apparatus is disclosed. The machine comprises a set of rail; at least one cart platform having a set of wheels mounted on a portion of the set of rail, each of the at least one cart platform having at least one lifting arm, wherein the at least one lifting arm configured to extend and retrieve a malfunction palm kernel oil processing apparatus, the at least one lifting arm configured to also extend and replace a workable palm kernel oil processing apparatus; and the at least one cart platform configured to traverse along the set of rail from a first location at a workshop to a second location at a site where more than one of the palm kernel oil processing apparatus is located.

[0043] In certain embodiments, a set of engagement pins configured to ensure that the at least one cart platform does not overrun from an intended position at the palm kernel oil processing plant.

[0044] In certain embodiments, a set of sensors positioned at an angle configured to retrieve movement of the more than one of the palm kernel oil processing apparatus.

[0045] In certain embodiments, the set of sensors emits a beam configured to continuously retrieve information whether the more than one of the palm kernel oil processing apparatus is operating. [0046] In certain embodiments, the one or more cart platforms having one or more (i.e. at least one) sensors configured to send proximity signals. The one or more sensors are configured to provide a feedback to a control unit within the one or more cart platforms so that the one or more cart platforms do not overrun from an intended position within the palm kernel pressing plant.

[0047] In certain embodiments, wherein each the more than one of the palm kernel oil processing apparatus further comprising an identification tag, wherein the identification tag configured to emit signals to a control station. [0048] In certain embodiments, wherein upon receiving of signals from any of each of the more than one of the palm kernel oil processing apparatus, a team decides whether to replace any of each of the more than one of the palm kernel oil processing apparatus. [0049] In certain embodiments, wherein the at least one lifting arm positioned at a top surface, a distance away from the ground.

[0050] According to a fourth aspect, a method of replacing palm kernel oil processing apparatus is provided. The method comprises traversing at least one cart platform from a first location to another second location, the first location positioned at a housing, the second location positioned at one of a palm kernel oil processing apparatus; ejecting at least one supporting arm from a top surface of the at least one cart platform; raising the at least one supporting arm from a first height positioned at the top surface of the at least one cart platform to a second height positioned at a base of a stationary palm kernel oil processing apparatus located at a palm kernel pressing plant; protruding the at least one supporting arm towards the base of the stationary palm kernel oil processing apparatus; lifting the at least one supporting arm with the stationary palm kernel oil processing apparatus resting on surface of the at least one supporting arm to a third height; and retrieving the at least one supporting arm with the stationary palm kernel oil processing apparatus to the top surface of the at least one cart platform; traversing back the at least one cart platform from the second location to the first location at the housing. [0051 ] In certain embodiments, the at least one cart platform having a first cart platform positioned at a first housing, a second cart platform positioned at a second housing.

[0052] In certain embodiments, the first cart platform configured to traverse to a first position to retrieve a malfunction palm kernel oil processing apparatus.

[0053] In certain embodiments, the second cart platform configured to traverse to a second position to replace a workable palm kernel oil processing apparatus. [0054] In certain embodiments, the stationary palm kernel oil processing apparatus is a malfunction palm kernel oil processing apparatus or a workable palm kernel oil processing apparatus. [0055] The accompanying figures (Figs.) illustrate embodiments and serve to explain principles of the disclosed embodiments. It is to be understood, however, that these figures are presented for purposes of illustration only, and not for defining limits of relevant inventions.

illustrates an expeller maintenance machine together with other palm kernel oil expellers in a palm kernel treatment plant;

illustrates the expeller maintenance machine attached to a faulty palm kernel oil expeller;

illustrates the expeller maintenance machine;

illustrates an isometric view of a screw hand jack of the expeller maintenance machine that connects a gearbox and a screw-cage of the expeller maintenance machine.

illustrates a front view of the screw hand jack;

illustrates a load unit with a turntable swivel;

illustrates an exploded view of the load unit with the turntable swivel; illustrates another load unit with a levelling plate;

illustrates an exploded view of the other load unit with the levelling plate; illustrates a split flow manifold and a hydraulic pump;

illustrates rails and a trolley of the expeller maintenance machine;

illustrates a step of removing anchoring bolts and nuts of the screw cage unit;

illustrates a step of detaching the screw cage unit from gearbox;

illustrates a step of providing a first pair of rails and load units;

illustrates a step of raising the screw cage unit with a hydraulic hand pump;

illustrates a step of hauling the screw cage unit onto the trolley;

illustrates a step of removing the screw cage unit;

illustrates a step of shipping a replacement screw cage unit; illustrates a step of coupling the replacement screw cage unit with the gearbox;

illustrates a top view of another expeller maintenance machine; and illustrates a side or front view of an apparatus supporting two palm kernel oil expellers. [0056] Exemplary, non-limiting embodiments of the present application will now be described with references to the above-mentioned figures.

[0057] Figs. 1 to 19 relate to an embodiment of the present application. In particular, Fig. 1 illustrates an expeller maintenance machine 50 together with palm kernel oil expellers 52, 54 in a palm kernel treatment plant 56. The expeller maintenance machine 50 may be simply known as machine 50, whilst the palm kernel oil expellers 52 may be similarly known as first expeller 52 and second expeller 54. The palm kernel treatment plant 56 includes a first expeller 52 and a second expeller 54 that face each other. The palm kernel treatment plant 56 further has a first levelled ground 58 supporting the first expeller 52, a second levelled ground 60 supporting the second expeller 54 and a third levelled ground 62 between the first 58 and second levelled grounds 60. The third levelled ground 62 is lower than the first 58 and second levelled grounds 60, whilst the first 58 and second levelled grounds 60 have the same height. The palm kernel treatment plant 56 additionally contains trolleys and rails for mounting and transporting the expellers 52, 54.

[0058] Fig. 2 illustrates the expeller maintenance machine 50 attached to a faulty palm kernel oil expeller 52, which is also known as the first expeller 52. A worm screw (not shown) of the faulty palm kernel oil expeller 52 is worn after 350 hours of operation such that the first expeller 52 needs to be repaired.

[0059] According to Fig. 2, the first expeller 52 comprises an electric motor 63, a gearbox 64 and a screw cage unit 66 that are coupled together. The screw cage unit 66 has four elongated longitudinal bolts 68 that are located four corners of the screw cage unit 66 respectively. The four elongated longitudinal bolts 68 extend throughout an entire length of the screw cage unit 66, and provide structural support to the screw cage unit 66. The four elongated longitudinal bolts 68 hold parts of the screw cage unit 66 together such that the screw cage unit 66 becomes structurally intact and ready be carried by any of the four elongated longitudinal bolts 68.

[0060] Fig. 3 illustrates the expeller maintenance machine 50, which is also partially visible in Figs. 1 & 2. The machine 50 comprises a docking station 70 and a ground engaging module 72. The docking station 70 is provided for supporting the first expeller 52 at its lower elongated longitudinal bolts 68 so that weight of the screw cage unit 66 is steadily held by the docking station 70. In contrast, the ground engaging module 72 holds the docking station 70 and stands on a flat ground so that any heavy object on the docking station 70 will be steadily supported by the ground engaging module 72 on the flat ground.

[0061 ] Particularly, the docking station 70 comprises a first yoke 74, a second yoke 76 and four load units 78, 80, 82, 84. The load units 78, 80, 82, 84 are alternatively known as lifting sets 78, 80, 82, 84. The first yoke 74 includes a first carrying pole 86 and two forks 88 fixed on a top side of the first carrying pole 86. The two forks 88 are symmetrically distributed over a length of the first carrying pole 86. Moreover, a distance between the two forks 88 on the same carrying pole 86 is identical to a gap between the two elongated longitudinal bolts 68 at a bottom of the screw cage unit 66 such that the two first yoke 74 is able to closely match the two elongated longitudinal bolts 68 for securing the screw cage unit 66. Similarly, the second yoke 76 contains a second carrying pole 90 and two other forks 88 fixed on a top side of the second carrying pole 90. The two forks 88 are symmetrically distributed over a length of the second carrying pole 90. Additionally, a distance between the two forks 88 on the same carrying pole 90 is the same as a gap between the two elongated longitudinal bolts 68 at a bottom of the screw cage unit 66 such that the two second yoke 76 is able to closely match the two elongated longitudinal bolts 68 for securing the screw cage unit 66. Both the first carrying pole 86 and the second carrying pole 90 are flat, resilient and slender steel bars that are able to support heavy objects, up to about 2,000 kilograms. The four forks 88 are welded onto the two carrying poles 86, 90 respectively, and they have openings with contours conforming to external profiles of the elongated longitudinal bolts 68. The carrying poles 86, 90 are alternatively known as two lift supports 86, 90 respectively.

[0062] Fig. 3 additionally illustrates a hydraulic drive of the docking station 70. The hydraulic drive 92 has a hydraulic hand pump 94, a split flow manifold 96, and hydraulic hoses 98. The hydraulic hand pump 94 is connected to the split flow manifold 96 via a single tube 98, whilst the split flow manifold 96 is connected to the load units 78, 80, 82, 84 via four separate hydraulic hoses 98 respectively. Details of the load units 78, 80, 82, 84 are bettered depicted by Figs. 6 to 9. [0063] The ground engaging module 72 is portrayed by Fig. 3 too, which comprises a first pair of rails 102, a second pair of rails 104, an alignment tool 106 and a trolley 108. Each of the first pair of rails 102 and the second pair of rails 104 have two rails that are parallel to each other and respective rails of the first pair of rails 102 and the second pair of rails 104 are aligned, which provide two parallel straight tracks. The alignment tool 106 is a laser torch, as used by technicians for aligning the two pair of rails 102, 104. Particularly, the ground engaging module 72 additionally comprises detachable clamps (not shown) that join opposite ends of the two pair of rails 102, 104. Once aligned, respective rails of the two pairs 102, 104 are attached together by the detachable clamps so that two aligned rails 102, 104 provide a track with a continuous path over two aligned rails 102, 104 and are able to carry heavy objects. Alternatively, instead using the detachable clamps for aligning the two pair of rails 102, 104, the rails 102, 104 have cooperative recesses and protrusions their ends so that respective rails 102, 104 engage each other and are aligned. For example, the first pair of rails 102 support the second pair of rails 104 in the processing pulling the screw cage unit 66. The second pair of rails 104 are mounted on top of the trolley 108, whilst four wheels 1 10 are attached to a bottom side of the trolley 108 at four corners. The four wheels 1 10 are heavy-duty with rubber surface so that the trolley 108 is able to be moved around silently and smoothly, even when carrying heavy objects.

[0064] Fig. 4 illustrates an isometric view of a first screw hand jack 1 14 of the expeller maintenance machine 50 that connects the gearbox 64 and the screw cage unit 66 of the expeller maintenance machine 50. The first screw hand jack 1 14 is a threaded fastener that comprises an elongated nut 1 16 and a bolt 1 18 paired together. Opposite ends of the first screw hand jack 1 14 are attached to the gearbox 64 and the screw cage unit 66. A second screw hand jack 120 (not shown) is installed on another side of the first expeller 52 such that the first screw hand jack 1 14 and the second screw hand jack 120 are symmetrical with respect to a central rotary axis of the screw cage unit 66. When rotated, the screw hand jacks 1 14, 120 are able to pull the gearbox 64 and the screw cage unit 66 together or apart. Fig. 5 illustrates a front view of the first screw hand jack 1 14. [0065] Fig. 6 illustrates the first load unit 78 with a turntable swivel 122. Fig. 7 illustrates an exploded view of the first load unit 78 with the turntable swivel 122. In detail, the first load unit 78 comprises, from bottom to top, a load skate 124, the turntable swivel 122, a hydraulic cylinder 126 and a cylinder holder 128. The hydraulic cylinder 126 is contiguously enclosed by the cylinder holder 128, whilst the cylinder holder 126 is tightened to the turntable swivel 122. The load skate 124 has cylindrical rollers at its bottom so that the load skate 124 is able to move along a lane tray 100 of the first pair of rails 102 easily with heavy load. Both the first load unit 78 and the second load unit 80 have similar structures. For example, each of the first load unit 78 and the second load unit 80 have the turntable swivel 122. The turntable swivel 122 allows the cylinder holder 128 of the first load unit 80 to rotate with respect to the load skate 124 of the first load unit 80 so that the first expeller 52 on the hydraulic cylinder 126 of the first load unit 82 may be revolved around the first load unit 82. [0066] Fig. 8 illustrates another load unit 82 with a levelling plate 130. Fig. 9 illustrates an exploded view of the other load unit 82 with the levelling plate 130. Particularly, the other load unit 78 is also termed as the third load unit 82 that comprises, from bottom to top, a load skate 124, the levelling plate 130, a hydraulic cylinder 126 and a cylinder holder 128. The hydraulic cylinder 126 is contiguously enclosed by the cylinder holder 128, whilst the cylinder holder 126 is tightened to the levelling plate 130. Both the third load unit 78 and the fourth load unit 80 have similar structures. For example, each of the third load unit 78 and the fourth load unit 80 have the levelling plate 130. The levelling plate 130 allows the cylinder holder 128 of the third load unit 82 to tilt with respect to the load skate 124 of the third load unit 80 so that the first expeller 52 supported by the hydraulic cylinder 126 of the third load unit 82 may be levelled.

[0067] Fig. 10 illustrates the split flow manifold 96 and the hydraulic hand pump 94 that are detached from each other for clarity of view. Fig. 1 1 illustrates rails 102, 104 and the trolley 108 of the expeller maintenance machine 50. The first and second pair of rails 102, 104 have lane trays 1 00 of identical shapes and sizes such that the cylindrical rollers of the load skates 124 can move from the first pair of rails 102 to the second pair of rails 104 almost effortlessly, or vice versa. Fig. 10 further illustrate that the wheels 1 10 of the trolley 108 are supported by a third pair of rails 132 on the third levelled ground 62.

[0068] When in use, the expeller maintenance machine 50 is used to replace a faulty screw cage unit 66 with a refurbished screw cage unit (not shown). Fig. 12 illustrates a step 150 of loosening and removing anchoring bolts and nuts of the screw cage unit 66. Referring also to Fig. 1 , the first expeller 52 is fastened to rails 152 on the first levelled ground 58. The anchoring bolts and nuts are located around a bottom frame of the first expeller 52 such that they are fully tighter and locked during palm kernel oil production.

[0069] Fig. 13 illustrates a subsequent step 154 of detaching the screw cage unit 66 from the gearbox 64. To disconnect the screw cage unit 66 from the gearbox 64, the two screw hand jacks 1 12 are installed onto opposite sides of the first expeller 52. Opposite ends of the two screw hand jacks 1 12 push against the screw cage unit 66 from the gearbox 64 tightly. Elongated nuts 1 16 of the two screw hand jacks 1 12 are rotated such that the screw cage unit 66 from the gearbox 64 are pushed apart, disconnecting coupling between driving shafts (not shown) of the screw cage unit 66 from the gearbox 64. In view of the fact that the gearbox 64 and the electric motor 63 are still anchored onto the first levelled ground 58, the screw cage unit 66 is pressed forward, being removed from the gearbox 64.

[0070] Fig. 14 illustrates a succeeding step 156 of providing the first pair of rails 102 (also known as lane trays) and the load units 78, 80, 82, 84 (also known as lift sets). In the step 156, two straight rails 102 are spaced apart and placed at opposite sides of the screw cage unit 66 on the first levelled ground 58. The two straight rails 102 are symmetrical with respect to a rotary axis of a press-screw (not shown) of the screw cage unit 66 such that a gap between the first pair of rails 102 is identical to that of that of the second pair of rails 104. The load units 78, 80, 82, 84 are placed on top of the first pair of rails 102 such that the first load unit 78 and the second load unit 80 are placed near a front end of the screw cage unit 66, near the third levelled ground 62. In contrast, the third load unit 82 and the fourth load unit 84 are deployed near a back end of the screw cage unit 66. The first yoke 74 is mounted on top of the first load unit 78 and the second load unit 80, whilst the second yoke 76 is straddled on top of the third load unit 82 and the fourth load unit 84. The split flow manifold 96 and the hydraulic hand pump 94 are readily available because they 94, 96 are fixed to the load units 78. 80, 82, 84 via the hydraulic hoses 98. Once the forks 88 are aligned with the elongated longitudinal bolts 68 at the bottom of the screw cage unit 66, a service technician presses a handle of the hydraulic hand pump 94 such that both the first carrying pole 86 and the second carrying pole 90 are raised up via the contact between the forks 88 and the elongated longitudinal bolts 68. Hence, the entire weight of the screw cage unit 66 is supported by the first pair of rails 102 on the four load units 78, 80, 82, 84.

[0071 ] Fig. 15 illustrates a following step 158 of raising the screw cage unit 66 with the hydraulic hand pump 94. Height of the screw cage unit 66 continues to increase following reciprocal movement of the handle on the hydraulic hand pump 94. The service technician stops pumping when the screw cage unit 66 is raised above the first levelled ground 58 at about 20 to 30 millimetres.

[0072] Fig. 16 illustrates a next step 160 of hauling the screw cage unit 66 onto the trolley 108. Two rails of the second pair of rails 104 are aligned and locked to the two rails of the first pair of rails 102 respectively. Since the load units 78, 80, 82, 84 have rollers on their load skates 124, the service technician pushes the screw cage unit 66 easily from the first pair of rails 102 onto the second pair of rails 104. Parts or ends of the first pair of rails 102 that connect the second pair of rails 104 are temporarily supported on pillars (not shown) from below in order to prevent toppling of the trolley 108 when transferring the screw cage unit 66 between the two pairs of rails 102, 104.

[0073] Fig. 17 illustrates an ensuing step of removing the screw cage unit 66 from the trolley 108. Once the trolley 108 receives the screw cage unit 66 at its centre, the screw cage unit 66 is locked to the second pair of rails 104. Since the trolley 108 is held by the wheels 1 10 on tracks of the third levelled ground 62, the service technician further easily tows the screw cage unit 66 away from product floor to a separate service area (not shown) of the palm kernel treatment plant or plant 56. At the service area, the screw cage unit 66 is removed from the trolley 108 for servicing, whilst a refurbished screw cage unit 164 is placed onto of the trolley 108 and securely locked onto the trolley 108. The refurbished screw cage unit 164 is alternatively known as a replacement screw cage unit 164.

[0074] Fig. 18 illustrates a later step 166 of shipping the replacement screw cage unit 164. The trolley 108 that carries the replacement screw cage unit 164 is towed back to the third levelled ground 62, having the second pair of rails 104 aligned with the first pair of rails 102. Once unlocked, the replacement screw cage unit 164 is rolled from the second pair of rails 104 onto the first pair of rails 102. The replacement screw cage unit 164 is drawn to the original position of the screw cage unit 66. At the original position, the replacement screw cage unit 164 is lowered onto the first levelled ground 58 such that the replacement screw cage unit 164 is additionally fastened onto rails 152 of the first levelled ground 58.

[0075] Fig. 19 illustrates a successive step 168 of coupling the replacement screw cage unit 164 with the gearbox 64. The replacement screw cage unit 164 and the gearbox 64 are brought close so that driving shafts of the replacement screw cage unit 164 and the gearbox 64 are coupled together. Consequently, the first expeller 52 is refurbished and become operational again. [0076] Figure 20 & 21 relates to another embodiment of the present application. The other embodiment comprises parts or objects that are similar or identical to those of other embodiments. The similar or identical parts or objects are labelled with similar or identical reference numerals. Description of the similar or identical parts of objects is hereby incorporated by reference wherever appropriate.

[0077] Particularly, Fig. 20 illustrates a top view of a second expeller maintenance machine 200. The expeller maintenance machine 200 is alternatively known as a machine 200 for changing a palm kernel oil pressing apparatus. Fig. 21 illustrates a side or front view of an apparatus 202 supporting two palm kernel oil expellers.

[0078] Reference is made to Fig. 1 which show the second machine 200 for changing the palm kernel oil pressing apparatus according to one embodiment. The machine 200 includes a railway or a set of predefined tracks or channels configured to provide transport connectivity between a housing and a palm kernel pressing plant. In order for a cart platform to traverse seamlessly from the housing to the palm kernel pressing plant, the set of predefined tracks connected from a first bay, continuously towards a second bay located close to a set of palm kernel oil pressing apparatus. The first bay position at the housing includes a workshop, where at least one set of working or non-working palm kernel oil pressing apparatus located ready for change over. In order to replace the malfunction palm kernel oil pressing apparatus, a set of sensor proximally located at the palm kernel pressing plant configured to receive information whether any of the set of palm kernel oil pressing apparatus becomes malfunction. In the alternative, physical inspection at the palm kernel pressing plant on each of the set of palm kernel oil pressing apparatus may be observed to review the performance to decide whether any of each of the set of palm kernel oil pressing apparatus needs maintenance, repairing or overhauling.

[0079] The cart platform with a set of wheels or rollers mounted thereto for transporting the set of palm kernel oil pressing apparatus. The cart platform with wheels adapted to traverse from a first bay position at the housing to a second bay position at the palm kernel pressing plant. The housing includes at least one serviceable palm kernel oil pressing apparatus, ready to be transported from the first bay position to the second bay position for changeover or replacement of the malfunctioned palm kernel oil pressing apparatus.

[0080] Additionally, the cart platform further includes at least one supporting element or arm configured to contain and support the palm kernel oil pressing apparatus and provide a lifting, forward insertion or slide out, retrieval of the palm kernel oil pressing apparatus, slide back and lowering down the retrieved palm kernel oil pressing apparatus to the cart platform.

[0081 ] Once the set of sensor detects that any of each of the set of palm kernel oil pressing apparatus malfunctions, the set of sensor sends a signal to a control machine within the housing so that appropriate measures be taken such as sending out a serviceable palm kernel oil pressing apparatus on the cart platform towards the site where the malfunction palm kernel oil pressing apparatus is located. [0082] In the alternative, the machine includes more than one cart platform where plying along the set of predefined tracks may be controlled at the control machine. Prior to retrieval of the malfunction unit, appropriate measures are taken to dislodge the more than one screws or nuts that keeps the palm kernel oil pressing apparatus stationed at the palm kernel pressing plant. During the dislodgement process, a first cart platform conveys or traverses from the housing to and towards the malfunction palm kernel oil pressing apparatus, raises a set of lifting arms to a first predefined height. In the dislodgement process, a set of nuts at the base of each of the palm kernel oil pressing apparatus unloosen and removed. Thereafter, the set of lifting arms powered by hydraulic or pneumatic or electrical motor protrudes towards a base portion of the malfunction palm kernel oil pressing apparatus, then further lifts up to a second predefined height, thereafter retracts back to the cart platform with the malfunction palm kernel oil pressing apparatus on the set of lifting arms, lowers down to the base of the cart platform.

[0083] Meanwhile, a second cart platform traverse along the set of predefined tracks from another direction opposite at another end towards or close to the location of the malfunction unit. After the first cart platform with the malfunction palm kernel oil pressing apparatus moves back to the housing, the second cart platform traverse to the location of the previously held location of the first cart platform. Alternatively, the second cart platform may include a handler configured to move in more than one direction so that the second cart platform need not make an additional movement to the previously held location of the first cart platform. [0084] In order to prevent overrun by the first and second cart platform, each of the first and second cart platform includes an alignment machine such as a set of sensor or locking mechanism or centring pins to prevent collision between each other and to also ensure that either of the first and second cart platform is aligned properly prior to either retrieval or replacement of either of the malfunction palm kernel oil pressing apparatus or workable palm kernel oil pressing apparatus.

[0085] In certain situations, there may be more than one malfunction unit. A cart platform having a sufficiently large platform or space or receiving bay for more than one palm kernel oil pressing apparatus to be placed. The cart platform includes more than one set of lifting arms, a first set of lifting arm for retrieving the malfunction unit, a second set of lifting arm for sending in a workable unit. The cart platform may also be used to retrieve more than one malfunction unit where the first and second set of lifting arm adapted to retrieve back a first and second malfunction unit, respectively. In this way, if more than one machine becomes malfunction, the machine is able to at least retrieve two malfunction machines, and/or replace at least two serviceable machine by deploying the first and second cart platform simultaneously and respectively to the desired sites for retrieval and replacement of the machine. [0086] Alternatively, the machine may comprise of more than one cart platform, a first cart platform positioned at a first housing, a second cart platform positioned at a second housing, the first and second housing positioned at opposite ends of each other. [0087] The control of the more than two cart platform may be achieved through logic approaches. If the malfunction machine is closer to the first housing, the first cart platform translates or moves towards the malfunction machine, thereby, retrieving the malfunction machine, thereafter replacing the standby machine. [0088] In relation to the control mechanism, the machine may be manually or automatically controlled. More ideally, at least one set of sensors coupled to each machine, adapted to send data to inform of mal-functionality. The machine includes a station adapted to transmit and receive data from each of the set of sensors to identify and track functionality of each of the machine.

[0089] Once the station receives data and information of the machine or unit being malfunction, the machine checks whether there is any available machine for change from the malfunction machine to the working machine. If the machine includes at least one working machine, the machine sends a signal to inform the MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Operations) engineers whether to release the platform from the housing.

[0090] In the alternative, the machine may be override by way of a manual button. In this way, signal on the malfunction machine is sent to the MRO engineers. The MRO engineers may then decide on an appropriate time to send out the cart platform to receive the malfunction machine and thereafter replace the void with the working machine. In order to minimise layout of the plant kernel processing plant, the changeover machine is designed in a manner to facilitate easy maintenance job repair and reduce downtime significantly by 90%. The replacement of the work screw and collars will be performed at the housing instead of at the site of the palm kernel processing plant.

[0091 ] In furtherance to the above, the method of replacing the plant kernel oil processing apparatus involves following steps of:

a) A cart platform having at least two bays, one of the bay to send in a refurbished palm kernel oil processing apparatus, the other bay to retrieve the malfunction palm kernel oil processing apparatus;

b) The cart platform having a set of alignment sensors or locking pin, configured to ensuring that of the at least one palm kernel oil processing apparatus is placed and aligned properly;

c) The identified malfunctioned palm kernel oil processing apparatus at the palm kernel processing plant shut down so that unbolting of the bolts at the base of the palm kernel oil processing apparatus may be effectuated;

d) The cart platform having more than one motorised or hydraulic powered puller adapted to retrieve or extract the malfunction palm kernel oil processing apparatus from the space of the palm kernel processing plant;

e) Thereafter, a workable palm kernel oil processing apparatus delivered to the space where the previously known malfunction palm kernel oil processing apparatus was removed; and

f) Finally, the bolts are re-bolted or reinstalled to ensure for the workable palm kernel oil processing apparatus is stationed properly to prevent as much vibration as possible.

[0092] Some of these steps may be separated, combined or changed in sequence.

[0093] In the application, unless specified otherwise, the terms "comprising", "comprise", and grammatical variants thereof, intended to represent "open" or "inclusive" language such that they include recited elements but also permit inclusion of additional, non-explicitly recited elements. [0094] As used herein, the term "about", in the context of concentrations of components of the formulations, typically means +/- 5% of the stated value, more typically +/- 4% of the stated value, more typically +/- 3% of the stated value, more typically, +/- 2% of the stated value, even more typically +/- 1 % of the stated value, and even more typically +/- 0.5% of the stated value.

[0095] Throughout this disclosure, certain embodiments may be disclosed in a range format. The description in range format is merely for convenience and brevity and should not be construed as an inflexible limitation on the scope of the disclosed ranges. Accordingly, the description of a range should be considered to have specifically disclosed all the possible sub-ranges as well as individual numerical values within that range. For example, description of a range such as from 1 to 6 should be considered to have specifically disclosed sub-ranges such as from 1 to 3, from 1 to 4, from 1 to 5, from 2 to 4, from 2 to 6, from 3 to 6 etc., as well as individual numbers within that range, for example, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. This applies regardless of the breadth of the range.

[0096] It will be apparent that various other modifications and adaptations of the application will be apparent to the person skilled in the art after reading the foregoing disclosure without departing from the spirit and scope of the application and it is intended that all such modifications and adaptations come within the scope of the appended claims.