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Title:
MAN-MADE CELLULOSIC FIBRE AND NONWOVEN PRODUCT OR FABRIC COMPRISING THE CELLULOSIC FIBRE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/078094
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a modified cellulosic fibre that comprises anionic moieties in an amount of more than 0.25mol/kg of dry fibre and has applied theron a polymeric modifying agent in an amount of from 0.5 wt.% to 5.0 wt.%, based on dry fibre, the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties with a charge of at least 1.5meq per gram of polymer and the molar ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties contained in the fibre is in the range of from 1:1 to 25:1. The fibre according to the present invention is characterized in that the anionic moieties are incorporated in the fibre and are from carboxymethylcellulose, and that the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties is selected from the group consisting of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (poly-DADMAC), poly(acrylamide-co- diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM-DADMAC) and mixtures thereof. The invention furthermore relates to a nonwoven product or fabric comprising the modified cellulosic fibre.

More Like This:
WO/2002/099181ANTIMICROBIAL NONWOVEN FABRICS
WO/2018/183060COATINGS FOR MATERIALS
WO/1997/002381IRONING AID
Inventors:
KÜHN, Jörg (Rastatter Straße 39A, Ötigheim, 76470, DE)
BERNT, Ingo (Lisztstraße 4, Regensburg, 93053, DE)
ROGGENSTEIN, Walter (Elsterweg 6, Bad Abbach, 93077, DE)
SEGER, Bernd (Am Kirchköpfel 4, Gaggenau, 76571, DE)
Application Number:
EP2017/077598
Publication Date:
May 03, 2018
Filing Date:
October 27, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
KELHEIM FIBRES GMBH (Regensburger Straße 109, Kelheim, 93309, DE)
GLATFELTER GERNSBACH GMBH (Hoerdener Strasse 5, Gernsbach, 76593, DE)
International Classes:
D06M15/356; D01F2/08; D04H1/4258; D04H3/013; D21C9/00; D21H11/20; D21H13/08
Domestic Patent References:
WO2001029309A12001-04-26
WO2000039389A12000-07-06
WO2000039398A12000-07-06
WO1996026220A11996-08-29
WO2011012423A12011-02-03
WO2001029309A12001-04-26
WO2000039389A12000-07-06
WO2000039398A12000-07-06
WO2011012423A12011-02-03
Foreign References:
GB1394553A1975-05-21
GB1394553A1975-05-21
US4199367A1980-04-22
US4289824A1981-09-15
US20040129632A12004-07-08
US3905864A1975-09-16
Other References:
A. TORGNYSDOTTER ET AL.: "The link between the fibre contact zone and the physical properties of paper: a way to control paper properties", JOURNAL OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS, vol. 41, no. 13, 2007, pages 1619 - 1633, XP055362440, DOI: doi:10.1177/0021998306069875
NORDIC PULP AND PAPER RESEARCH, vol. 18, no. 4, 2003, pages 455 - 459
F. WEBER ET AL., CELLULOSE, vol. 20, no. 6, 2013, pages 2719 - 2729
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SCHWARZ & PARTNER PATENTANWÄLTE OG et al. (Wipplingerstrasse 30, 1010 Wien, 1010, AT)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims:

1. Modified cellulosic fibre characterized in that:

it comprises anionic moieties in an amount of more than 0.25mol/kg of dry fibre and has applied theron a polymeric modifying agent in an amount of from 0.5 wt.% to 5.0 wt.%, based on dry fibre, the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties with a charge of at least 1.5meq per gram of polymer, and the molar ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties contained in the fibre is in the range of from 1: 1 to 25: 1, characterized in that the anionic moieties are incorporated in the fibre and are from

carboxymethylcellulose, and that the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties is selected from the group consisting of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (poly-DADMAC), poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM- DADMAC) and mixtures thereof.

2. Modified cellulosic fibre according to claim 1, characterized in that

the cellulosic fibre is a man-made cellulosic staple fibre, such as a viscose fibre or a lyocell fibre.

3. Modified cellulosic fibre according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that

the molar ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties is in the range of from 4: 1 to 12: 1.

4. Modified cellulosic fibre according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties exhibits a molar weight of from 100,000 g/mol to 500,000 g/mol, in particular of from 200,000 g/mol to 300,000 g/mol.

5. Modified cellulosic fibre according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that it comprises carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) incorporated into the fibre in an amount such that the fibre comprises of from 1 wt.% to 4 wt.% COOH-groups, preferably 1.5 wt.% to 3 wt.% COOH-groups, based on dry fibre.

6. Modified cellulosic fibre according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that the amount of the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties is from 0.75 wt.% to 2.0 wt.%, based on dry fibre.

7. Modified cellulosic fibre according to any of the preceding claims, characterized in that it is capable of providing reversible bonds to another modified cellulosic fibre, and/or it is dispersible in an aqueous fluid.

8. Use of a modified cellulosic fibre according to any of the preceding claims for the

manufacture of a nonwoven product or paper.

9. Nonwoven product or paper comprising a modified cellulosic fibre according to any one of claims 1 to 7.

10. Nonwoven product or paper according to claim 9, characterized in that

it comprises the modified cellulosic fibre according to any of claims 1 to 13 in an amount of at least 5 wt.%, in particular of from 25 wt.% to 100 wt.%, in particular of from 50 wt.% to 80 wt.%.

11. Nonwoven product or paper according to claims 9 or 10, characterized in that

it further comprises one or more substances selected from the group consisting of cellulose, viscose, lyocell, cotton, hemp, manila, jute, sisal, rayon, abaca soft wood pulp, hard wood pulp, synthetic fibres or heat-sealable fibres, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyester, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA), bicomponent fibres, including PET/PET fibres, PE/PP fibres, PET/PE and PLA/PLA fibres, preferably bicomponent fibres of the sheath-core type.

12. Nonwoven product or paper according to any one of claims 9 to 11, characterized in that it does not comprise or substantially does not comprise any binder.

13. Process for the manufacture of a modified cellulosic fibre according to any one of claims 1 to 7, comprising the steps of providing a cellulosic fibre with the anionic moieties in an amount of more than 0.25 mol/kg, and

treating the cellulosic fibre comprising anionic moieties with the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties with a charge of at least 1.5 meq per gram of polymer.

Description:
Man-made cellulosic fibre and nonwoven product or fabric comprising the cellulosic fibre

The present invention relates to a modified cellulosic fibre, especially a modified viscose staple fibre, and to a nonwoven product or fabric comprising the modified cellulosic fibre.

In particular, the present invention relates to a man-made modified cellulosic fibre which is useful for applications like filtration papers, specialty papers and nonwoven products, especially hydroentangled nonwovens.

Under "specialty papers", papers are to be understood whose properties can be improved by the addition of fibres with defined geometrical parameters, such as cross section, length and diameter. Improved paper properties are e.g.: Increased or reduced porosity, improved strength (tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength), higher bulk, improved pliability.

It is known that the properties of papers and nonwoven products can be influenced by the addition of modified cellulosic compounds.

WO 1996/026220 discloses modified cellulosic particles which exhibit cationic groups also in the interior of the particles, and the use of said particles in the manufacture of paper.

WO 2011/012423 discloses regenerated cellulosic staple fibres in which carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is incorporated, and their use in the manufacture of papers and nonwoven products. These fibre, therefore, have anionic properties. The improved binding properties of anionic viscose fibres are known.

An extensive overview of the interaction of polyelectrolytes in the fibre-fibre bonding is presented in the 2005 STFI-Packforsk report„On the nature of joint strength in paper - A review of dry and wet strength resins used in paper manufacturing "

(http://www.innventia.com/documents/rapporter/stfi-packforsk %20report%2032.pdf). In this report the following article is cited:

"The link between the fibre contact zone and the physical properties of paper: a way to control paper properties"; A. Torgnysdotter et al, Journal of composite materials; Vol. 41; No 13/2007, 1619-1633 (in the following referred to as "Torgnysdotter 2007"). Therein, the influence of cationic polelectrolytes on bond strength between anionic fibres is described. Especially, in this document, inter alia the properties of carboxymethylated cellulose which is modified with Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (Poly-DADMAC) were investigated. Further studies in this regard have been published by the same author in Nordic Pulp and Paper Research 18(4), 2003, 455-459 (in the following referred to as "Torgnysdotter 2003").

Both in Torgnysdotter 2003 and Torgnysdotter 2007, rayon fibres were either surface charged or bulk charged by carboxymethylation. This means that the cellulose material of the fibre itself was derivatized to a certain degree to form carboxymethylcellulose.

According to Torgnysdotter 2003, both surface charged and bulk charged fibres were treated with poly-DADMAC. The maximum amount of poly-DADMAC adsorbed in both surface charged and bulk charged fibres was found to be about 3 mg/g fibres (=0.3%).

According to Torgnysdotter 2007, bulk charged fibres were treated with 25g/kg poly-DADMAC, while Torgnysdotter 2007 is silent about the amount of poly-DADMAC absorbed onto the fibres.

In a dissertation written by R. Sczech„Haftvermittlung von Polyelektrolyten zwischen

Celluloseoberflachen" PAM-DADMAC is mentioned as a well suited adhesion promotor between cellulosic surfaces (http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2006/733/pdf/sczech.pdf).

The use of cationic polymers as dry-strength agents is well known in the paper industry.

In none of the documents of the prior art, however, a positive influence on the binding strength of anionic fibres by addition of PAM-DADMAC or poly-DADMAC is described. On the contrary, in Torgnysdotter 2007 a negative influence on tensile strength of paper made from anionically charged fibres is described (cf. figure 3, p. 1623). This is explained with a reduced contact area between the fibres caused by a de-swelling of anionic fibres upon addition of cationic polymers.

As regards the proposal of WO 2011/012423, the binding strength between anionic fibres alone is not strong enough to produce commercial quality papers from 100% viscose fibre, or to use the fibre as a full substitute for abaca fibres which are currently used for the modification of papers and nonwoven products.

Finally, cationic polyelectrolytes can be added to the paper recipe only in smaller amounts and are not washproof.

Further state of the art is known from WO 01/29309 Al, WO 00/39389, WO 00/39398 Al and GB 1 394 553A. It is an object of the present invention to provide a modified man-made cellulosic staple fibre which can be added in significant amounts to paper or to nonwoven products or the precursors thereof, whereby the properties of the end products are modified without a significant drop in the strength of the product.

It is in particular an object of the present invention to provide a modified man-made cellulosic staple fibre which enables reversible fibre-fibre bondings and/or which, when applied to paper or to nonwoven products, allows a redispersibility of the fibres in liquids or an aqueous fluid, such as water, without substantial deterioration of the strength of the paper or nonwoven products.

These objects are solved by a modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention that is characterized in that it comprises anionic moieties in an amount of more than 0.25mol/kg of dry fibre and has applied thereon a polymeric modifying agent in an amount of from 0.5 wt.% to 5.0 wt.%, based on dry fibre, the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties with a charge of at least 1.5meq per gram of polymer and the molar ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties contained in the fibre being in the range of from 1: 1 to 25: 1 and which is characterized in that the anionic moieties are incorporated in the fibre and are from carboxymethylcellulose, and that the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties is selected from the group consisting of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (poly-DADMAC), poly(acrylamide-co- diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM-DADMAC) and mixtures thereof.

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig.l shows the influence on various properties of papers produced from various anionic and non-ionic viscose fibres with and without addition of PAM-DADMAC.

DETAILLED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Surprisingly, and contrary to the indications given in the documents of the prior art, it has been shown that a man-made cellulosic fibre having the combination of features according to the present invention is very useful in modifying the properties of papers and nonwoven products. In particular, the modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention may enable reversible fibre-fibre bondings and may impart a paper or nonwoven product when applied to it with redispersibility in liquids or an aqueous fluid, such as water. In the following, the term "polymeric modifying agent" means a polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties with a charge of at least 1.5meq per gram of polymer.

Furthermore, such a polymeric modifying agent is also referred to as "(cationic) polyelectrolyte" or "polymeric (cationic) polyelectrolyte".

In a preferred embodiment the modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention is characterized in that the cellulosic fibre is a man-made cellulosic staple fibre, such as a viscose fibre or a lycoell fibre.

The term "man-made fibre" denotes a fibre that has been prepared by dissolving a cellulosic starting material, either with or without prior derivatisation, and spinning a fibre from the solution obtained by said dissolution. Thus, the term "man-made fibre" excludes natural cellulosic fibres, such as cotton. Further, cellulosic material such as cellulose pulp which has not been obtained by spinning a spinning solution, is also excluded. Well-known man-made cellulosic fibres include viscose fibres, including standard viscose fibres, modal fibres or polynosic fibres and lyocell fibres.

The term "staple fibre" is well known to the skilled artisan and denotes a fibre that has been cut into discrete lengths after having been spun.

Viscose fibres are fibres which are produced by the viscose process, wherein an alkaline solution of cellulose xanthogenate is spun into an acidic spin bath, whereupon underivatized cellulose is regenerated and precipitated in the form of a fibre.

Lyocell fibres are a type of solvent spun fibres produced according to the aminoxide process typically involving the dissolution of cellulose in N-methylmorpholine N-oxide and subsequent spinning to fibres.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the modified cellulosic fibre is characterized in that the molar ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties contained in the fibre is in the range of from from 2: 1 to 20: 1, in particular of from 3: 1 to 15: 1, more in particular of from 4: 1 to 12: 1.

The modified cellulosic fibre of the present invention is characterized in that the anionic moieties comprise carboxyl (COOH) groups. The amount of anionic moieties in the fibre can be measured by methods well-known to the skilled artisan. For example, the amount of COOH-groups in the fibre can be measured by way of e.g. acid-base titration. Other methods may rely on analytical derivatization. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis methods are also available, cf. for example The surface charge of regenerated cellulose fibres, F. Weber et al., Cellulose, 2013, 20(6), 2719-2729. The

measurement of the anionic moieties may be performed prior to treatment of the fibre with the polymeric modifying agent.

Furthermore, the modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention is characterized in that the cationic moieties comprise ammonium groups, in particular quaternary ammonium groups.

Similar to the quantifaction of anionic moieties, the skilled artisan will be able to choose a suitable method for quantification of cationic moieties on the modified fibre. For example, in case the cationic moieties stem from nitrogen containing compounds, measurements based on the Kjeldahl method would be applicable.

Preferably the modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention is characterized in that the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties exhibits a molar weight of from 100,000 g/mol to 500,000 g/mol, in particular of from 200,000 g/mol to 300,000 g/mol.

It has been found that the use of a polymeric cationic polyelectrolyte with a medium molecular weight, such as from 200,000 g/mol to 300,000 g/mol, results in advantageous properties of papers produced from the fibre according to the present invention.

The cellulosic staple may be treated with the polymeric cationic polyelectrolyte in a known way, especially by contacting the fibre with a solution or dispersion containing said polyelectrolyte in the desired amount.

The modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention is characterized in that it comprises the anionic moieties incorporated in the fibre and has applied thereon the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties in an amount of from 0.5 wt.% to 5.0 wt.%, based on dry fibre.

This is, again, in contrast to Torgnysdotter 2003 wherein it is reported that the maximum amount of poly-DADMAC adsorbed onto to the fibre was about 0.3 wt.%. Without wishing to be bound to any theory, it is believed that the higher amount of polyelectrolyte which is adsorbed onto the fibre is due to the fact that the fibre is not carboxymethylated itself, but contains CMC incorporated in the fibre.

The modified cellulosic fibre according to the invention is characterized in that the anionic moieties, which are incorporated in the fibre, are from carboxymethylcellulose (CMC).

The manufacture of cellulosic staple fibre having CMC incorporated therein is well-known to the skilled artisan, such as, e.g. from US 4,199,367 A and US 4,289,824 A. Especially CMC is mixed into the spinning dope, e.g. a viscose dope, before spinning the fibre.

The CMC to be used may be a commercial product, with a degree of substitution (DS) of from 0.6 - 1.2, preferably 0.65 - 0.85, and a viscosity (2 wt.% solution; 25°C) of from 30-800 mPas, preferably 50-100 mPas.

In contrast to Torgnysdotter 2003 and Torgnysdotter 2007, the fibre according to the invention is not surface charged or bulk charged by carboxymethylation. Rather, the cellulose fibre material of the fibre of the present invention is not derivatized itself, but carboxymethylcellulose is incorporated, i.e. dispersed within the matrix of the cellulose fibre material. As known to the skilled artisan, a cellulose fibre incorporating CMC can be produced by adding CMC to the spinning dope before spinning the fibre, such as a viscose spinning dope in the case of viscose fibres. Thus, the CMC is evenly distributed in the spinning dope and, as a consequence, is evenly distributed in the fibre spun therefrom, without derivatization of the cellulose fibre matrix itself.

In a preferred embodiment, the modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention is characterized in that it comprises carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) incorporated in the fibre in an amount such that the fibre comprises of from 1 wt.% to 4 wt.% COOH-groups, preferably 1.5 wt.% to 3 wt.% COOH-groups, based on dry fibre.

The modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention is characterized in that it comprises anionic moieties and has applied thereon a polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties in amount of from 0.5 wt.% to 5.0 wt.%, based on dry fibre, wherein the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties is selected from the group consisting of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (poly-DADMAC), poly(acrylamide-co- diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM-DADMAC) and mixtures thereof. Preferably the modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention is characterized in that the amount of the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties is from 0.6 wt.% to 4.0 wt.%, in particular of from 0.7 wt.% to 3.0 wt.%, in particular of from 0.75 wt.% to 2.0 wt.%, such as of from 1.0 wt.% to 1.75 wt.%, each based on dry fibre.

In a preferred embodiment the modified cellulosic fibre according to the invention is

characterized in that it is capable of providing reversible bonds to another modified cellulosic fibre, and/or it is dispersible in an aqueous fluid.

Preferably the modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention is used for the manufacture of a nonwoven product or paper.

It has been found that, in terms of the properties of papers containing the fibre according to the present invention, very advantageous results can be obtained with a combination of comparably high anionic charge of the fibre (in terms of the amount of COOH-groups) with a comparably low content of polymeric cationic polyelectrolyte.

Thus, in a further aspect the present invention provides paper or non-woven product comprising a modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention.

The paper or non- woven material according to the present invention can for instance be a packaging material, such as a packaging material for food packaging; a filter material, especially a filtration paper, such as for infusion beverages, e.g. tea and coffee, or a filter material for oil filtration; a composite laminate, such as an overlay paper; an air-laid non- woven web, such as a hygiene and personal care product, home care product, e.g. wipes, towels, napkins and tablecloths, a speciality paper, e.g. wallcoverings (wall paper), mattress and upholstery padding. Preferably, the paper or non- woven web according to the present invention is a filter material for tea and coffee.

The paper or non- woven material according to the present invention may in particular be a wet- laid or an air-laid paper or non-woven material, preferably a wet-laid paper or non-woven material. In other words, the paper or non- woven material may be formed for instance by a wet- laid process, such as by a conventional paper-making process using a paper machine, e.g. an inclined wire paper machine, or an air-laid process, such as a dry-forming air-laid non- woven manufacturing process. A conventional paper-making process is described for instance in US 2004/0129632 Al, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. A suitable dry- forming air-laid non-woven manufacturing process is described for instance in US 3,905,864, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

The grammage of the paper or non- woven web is not particularly limited. Typically, the paper or non-woven web has a grammage of from 5 - 2000g/m 2 , preferably of from 5 - 600g/m 2 , more preferable of from 8.5 - 120g/m 2 .

Preferably a nonwoven product or paper according to the present invention is characterized in that it comprises the modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention in an amount of at least 5 wt.%, in particular of from 25 wt.% to 100 wt.%, in particular of from 40 wt.% to 90 wt.%., in particular of from 50 wt.% to 80 wt.%.

In a preferred embodiment a nonwoven product or paper according to the present invention is characterized in that it further comprises one or more substances selected from the group consisting of cellulose, viscose, lyocell, cotton, hemp, manila, jute, sisal, rayon, abaca soft wood pulp, hard wood pulp, synthetic fibres or heat-sealable fibres, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyester, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA), bicomponent fibres, preferably bicomponent fibres of the sheath-core type.

Bicomponent fibres are composed of two sorts of polymers having different physical and/or chemical characteristics, in particular different melting characteristics. A bicomponent fibre of the sheath-core type typically has a core of a higher melting point component and a sheath of a lower melting point component. Examples of bicomponent fibres, suitable for use in the present invention, include PET/PET fibres, PE/PP fibres, PET/PE and PLA/PLA fibres.

Instead of specialty natural fibres (e.g. abaca, hemp, kenaf), regenerated cellulosic fibres can be used, either in 100% or in a blend with wood pulp. It is in the nature of natural cellulosic fibres that their properties may vary considerably, and also the supply of these fibres can vary depending on each harvest. Man made cellulosic fibres are of consistent quality, and their supply is stable due to the use of commonly available wood pulp as a raw material.

Preferably a nonwoven product or paper according to the present invention is characterized in that it does not comprise or substantially does not comprise any binder. With regard to embodiments comprising "substantially no binder", binders if any may still be present in relatively minor amounts of up to 3 wt.%, up to 2 wt.%, or up to 1 wt.% based on the total weight of the nonwoven product or paper. In the art of paper making the term "binder" denotes chemicals that are added during the paper-making process to modify strength of the paper. A process for the manufacture of a modified cellulosic fibre according to the present invention comprises the steps of providing a cellulosic fibre with anionic moieties as defined above in an amount of more than 0.25 mol/kg and treating the cellulosic fibre comprising anionic moieties with the polymeric modifying agent comprising cationic moieties as defined above.

If the fibre of the present invention is to be used for the production of wet-laid nonwovens or papers, the decitex of the fibre according to the present invention is preferably of from 0.5 dtex to 12 dtex, most preferably of from 0.5 dtex to 3.5 dtex. The length of the fibre may range of from 2 mm to 15 mm, preferably of from 3 mm to 12 mm. The cross-section of the fibre may have a broad variety of shapes, e.g. round, serrated, flat, or multilobal such as trilobal.

If the fibre of the present invention is to be used for the production of dry-laid nonwovens, such as for spunlace applications, the decitex of the fibre according to the present invention is preferably of from 0.5 dtex to 12 dtex, most preferably of from 0.5 dtex to 3.5 dtex. The length of the fibre may range of from 20 mm to 80 mm, preferably of from 30 mm to 60 mm. The cross- section of the fibre may have a broad variety of shapes, e.g. round, serrated, flat, or multilobal such as trilobal.

It has been found that the fibre of the present invention allows an addition of more than 10 wt.% of the fibre in a recipe for filtration papers without a significant drop in paper strength.

The use of fibres according to the present invention enables the production of papers with high porosity while maintaining sufficient strength for the target applications.

Examples

Throughout the following examples, the parameter "porosity" (air permeability) was determined with an AKUSTRON Air-Permeability apparatus (Thwing-Albert, West Berlin, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Tensile strength was measured according DIN EN ISO 1924-2.

Tear strength was measured based on DIN EN 21974 grammage related.

Example 1: Material used:

- Reference fibre:

Viscose fibre Danufil® 0.9dtex/6mm (Fibre 1.1)

- Anionic viscose fibre:

Viscose fibre with CMC-Incorporation and 2.4 wt.% COOH (see WO 2011/012423A1) was produced in 0.9dtex/6mm (Fibre 1.2)

- PAM-DADMAC:

Poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM-DADMAC), 98%

CAS: 26590-05-6

Molecular weight: 10 5 g/mol

55 wt.% Acrylamide

(Sigma- Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen)

Procedure:

Production of fibres:

200g of Fibre 1.2 were added to 2 liters of a 1 wt. % PAM-DADMAC solution in H 2 0 and stirred for 5 minutes.

The fibres were filtered off and the remaining liquid was squeezed out, until a total weight of 800g was reached. The fibre was then washed with de-ionized water and squeezed out again. The fibre prepared by this procedure (Fibre 1.3) was analyzed to have a nitrogen content of 0.89 wt.% which corresponds to a level of 6 wt.% PAM-DADMAC on fibre.

Test paper production:

The paper was produced in a Rapid Kothen Lab sheet former. The test sheets were dried in an oven at 105°C without any pressure load.

The fibres 1.1-1.3 were added to previously refined reference pulps in an overall amount of 20 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 80 wt%, respectively. Test sheets were produced in a grammage of 30 g/m 2 . The test sheets were tested for tensile strength, tear strength and porosity (air permeability). Test results:

Compared to the sheets produced with the reference fibre (Fibre 1.1) the following improvements were achieved (Mixture share of 80% viscose fibre and 20 % reference pulp):

# Sheets with anionic viscose-fibre (Fibre 1.2)

Tensile strength: approx. + 65%

Tear strength: approx. + 100%

Porosity: approx. - 9%

# Sheets with Viscose fibre according to invention (Fibre 1.3)

Tensile strength: approx. + 400%

Tear strength: approx. + 650%

Porosity: approx. - 14%

Compared to a sheet made from 100% reference pulp, with all viscose fibres the porosity is increased as desired (+50% - +300%, depending on % viscose fibre).

Example 2:

Material used: - Anionic viscose fibre:

Anionic viscose fibres were produced in 1.3dtex/6mm (see WO 2011/012423A1) with different percentages of CMC incorporation. The grade of CMC incorporation was characterized by the percentage of carboxylic groups in the fibre.

Fibre 2.1: 1.3 wt.% COOH

Fibre 2.2: 1.7 wt.% COOH

Fibre 2.3: 2.3 wt.% COOH

- PAM-DADMAC:

Poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM-DADMAC), 98%

CAS: 26590-05-6

Molecular weight: 10 5 g/mol

55 wt.% Acrylamide

(Sigma- Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen)

Procedure:

Production of fibres:

The fibres were treated with polyelectrolyte in a bath procedure analogous to Example 1.

Different levels of polyelectrolyte were set by using different bath concentrations.

The add-on level of polyelectrolyte on the fibres was determined by nitrogen analysis on the produced test paper sheets.

Polyelectrolyte

Fibre ID wt.% COOH Polyelectrolyte on fibre wt. %

Fibre PAM-

1.3 2.3

2.1.1 DADMAC

Fibre PAM-

1.3 2

2.1.2 DADMAC

Fibre PAM-

1.3 2.5

2.1.2 DADMAC

Fibre PAM-

1.7 2.4

2.2.1 DADMAC

Fibre PAM-

1.7 2.6

2.2.2 DADMAC Polyelectrolyte

Fibre ID wt.%COOH Polyelectrolyte on fibre wt. %

Fibre PAM-

1.7 3.3

2.2.3 DADMAC

Fibre PAM-

2.3 2.2

2.3.1 DADMAC

Fibre PAM-

2.3 3.2

2.3.2 DADMAC

Fibre PAM-

2.3 4

2.3.3 DADMAC

Test paper production:

The test paper was produced in a Rapid Kothen Lab sheet former. The test paper sheets were dried in an oven at 105°C without any pressure load.

Test sheets were produced in a basis weight of 30 g/m 2 from 100% modified viscose fibre and from 80 wt.% modified viscose fibre with addition of 20 wt.% of a reference pulp.

The test sheets were tested for tensile strength, tear strength and porosity (air permeability).

Test results:

Breaking

length -

80% Porosity Breaking Porosity

Polyelectrolyte modified - 80 % length - - 100 % wt.% Polyon Fibre viscose fibre m.v.f. 100% m.v.f. m.v.f.

ID COOH electrolyte [wt.%] [m] [l/m 2 *s] [m] [l/m 2 *s]

Fibre PAM- 2.1.1 1.3 DADMAC 2.3 1552 2250 374 3259

Fibre PAM- 2.1.2 1.3 DADMAC 2.0 1086 2146 256 3082

Fibre PAM- 2.1.3 1.3 DADMAC 2.5 1107 2184 234 3104

Fibre PAM- 2.2.1 1.7 DADMAC 2.4 1857 1815 741 2538

Fibre PAM- 2.2.2 1.7 DADMAC 2.6 1285 1793 347 2565

Fibre PAM- 2.2.3 1.7 DADMAC 3.3 1336 1823 383 2648 Breaking

length -

80% Porosity Breaking Porosity

Polyelectrolyte modified - 80 % length - - 100 % wt.% Poly- on Fibre viscose fibre m.v.f. 100% m.v.f. m.v.f.

ID COOH electrolyte [wt.%] [m] [l/m 2 *s] [m] [l/m 2 *s]

Fibre PAM-

2.3.1 2.3 DADMAC 2.2 2312 1696 1384 2328

Fibre PAM-

2.3.2 2.3 DADMAC 3.2 1739 1714 811 2398

Fibre PAM-

2.3.3 2.3 DADMAC 4.0 1568 1736 755 2338 m.v.f modified viscose fibre

A reference sheet with 80 wt.% untreated anionic fibre (Fibre 1.2) showed a breaking length of only 539m, which is 30%-40% of the strength achieved with the treated fibre, depending on the PAM-DADMAC add-on.

The porosity of the produced sheets was within the desired range.

It is shown that a higher anionic charge of the fibre (wt.% COOH) and a lower level of the cationic polyelectrolyte give the best results for tensile strength.

Example 3:

Material used:

- Anionic viscose fibre:

Fibre 2.3 from Example 2

- Cationic viscose fibre:

Danufil® DeepDye 1.7dtex/5mm (Kelheim Fibres GmbH, Kelheim)

- Non ionic (regular) viscose fibre:

Danufil® 1.7dtex/5mm (Kelheim Fibres GmbH, Kelheim)

- PAM-DADMAC:

Poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM-DADMAC), 98% CAS: 26590-05-6 Molecular weight: 10 5 g/mol

55 wt.% Acrylamide

(Sigma- Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen) Procedure:

The fibres were treated with polyelectrolyte in a bath procedure analogous to Example 1. Different levels of polyelectrolyte were set by using different bath concentrations.

Test paper production:

The paper was produced in a Rapid Kothen Lab sheet former. The test paper sheets with 30 were dried in an oven at 105°C without any pressure load.

Test results are depicted in Fig.1 and show that only the combination of anionic fibre with cationic polyelectrolyte gives a significant improvement in paper strength.

Figure legend for Fig.1 :

X no sheet formation achievable

A.... Tensile strength (breaking length) [m]

B.... Porosity [l/m 2 *s]

C.... Tear strength [-]

1 .... 50 % anionic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC

2 .... 50 % cationic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC

3 .... 50 % non-ionic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC

4 .... 50 % anionic viscose without PAM DADMAC

5 .... 50 % cationic viscose without PAM DADMAC

6 .... 50 % non-ionic viscose without PAM DADMAC

7 .... 80 % anionic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC

8 .... 80 % cationic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC

9 .... 80 % non-ionic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC

10.... 80 % anionic viscose without PAM DADMAC

11.... 80 % cationic viscose without PAM DADMAC

12.... 80 % non-ionic viscose without PAM DADMAC

13....100 % anionic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC

14....100 % cationic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC 15....100 % non-ionic viscose + 1.3 % PAM DADMAC

16....100 % anionic viscose without PAM DADMAC

17....100 % cationic viscose without PAM DADMAC

18....100 % non-ionic viscose without PAM DADMAC

Example 4:

Material used:

- Anionic viscose fibre:

Anionic viscose fibres were produced in 1.3dtex/4mm (see WO2011/012423A1) with CMC incorporation. The grade of CMC incorporation was characterized by the percentage of carboxylic groups in the fibre, which was analyzed as 2 wt.%.

- Poly-DADMAC:

Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)

CAS.: 26062-79-3

Mw < 100,000 (low molecular weight)

(Sigma- Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen)

- Poly-DADMAC:

Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)

CAS.: 26062-79-3

Mw 200,000 - 300,000 (medium molecular weight)

(Sigma- Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen)

- Poly-DADMAC:

Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)

CAS.: 26062-79-3

Mw 400,000 - 500,000 (high molecular weight)

(Sigma- Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen)

- PAM-DADMAC 1:

Poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM-DADMAC)

CAS: 26590-05-6

Mackernium 007 ® (Rhodia UK Ltd; Oldbury)

- PAM-DADMAC 2:

Poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PAM-DADMAC)

CAS: 26590-05-6

Mackernium 007N ®

(Rhodia UK Ltd, Oldbury)

- Polyethylenimine (PEI):

CAS: 25987-06-8

Lupasol G35 ®

(BASF Corporation, Ludwigshafen) Procedure:

The viscose fibres were treated with the different cationic polyelectrolytes in a bath procedure analogous to Example 1. Different levels of polyelectrolyte were set by using different bath concentrations. Polyethylenimine was added with a target of 1,5% polyelectrolyte on fibre, but it was observed that this polymer had a very high affinity to the anionic fibre resulting in an add-on level of 3,62%.

The add-on level of polyelectrolyte on the fibres was determined by nitrogen analysis:

Test paper production:

The paper was produced in a Rapid Kothen Lab sheet former. The test paper sheets were dried in an oven at 105°C without any pressure load.

Test sheets were produced in a basis weight of 30 g/m 2 from 100% of modified viscose fibre and from 80 wt.% of modified viscose fibre with addition of 20 wt.% of a reference fibre.

The test sheets were tested for tensile strength, tear strength and porosity (air permeability). Test results:

m.v.f modified viscose fibre

The results show that Poly-DADMAC in a medium molecular weight is an especially suited polymer for the use in the present invention.

On the other hand side the fibre with a high level of polyethylenimine on fibre showed inferior performance in terms of paper strength. In this example the molar ratio of anionic moieties to cationic moieties (in mEq/mEq) is only 0,5 and thus smaller than 1, resulting in an insufficient improvement of paper strength.

Example 5:

Material used:

- Anionic viscose fibre: Anionic viscose fibres were produced in l,3dtex/4mm (see WO 2011/012423A1) with CMC incorporation. The grade of CMC incorporation was characterized by the percentage of carboxylic groups in the fibre, which was analyzed as 2.6 wt.%.

- Poly-DADMAC:

Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)

CAS-Nr.: 26062-79-3

Mw < 100,000 (low molecular weight)

(Sigma- Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen)

- Poly-DADMAC:

Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)

CAS-Nr.: 26062-79-3

Mw 200,000 - 300,000 (medium molecular weight)

(Sigma- Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Taufkirchen)

Procedure:

The viscose fibres were treated with the different cationic polyelectrolytes in a bath procedure analogous to Example 1, with the exception that no washing of the treated fibre took place.

Different levels of polyelectrolyte were set by using different bath concentrations.

The add-on level of polyelectrolyte on the fibres was determined by nitrogen analysis:

Test paper production: The paper was produced in a Rapid Kothen Lab sheet former. The test sheets were dried in an oven at 105°C without any pressure load. Test sheets were produced in a basis weight of 30 g/m 2 from 100% of modified viscose fibre, after applying a series of washes.

The add-on level of polyelectrolyte on the fibres was determined by nitrogen analysis on selected test sheets:

Even after 10 washes the Poly-DADMAC level on the paper sheets is identical to the level on the provided modified viscose fibre. This shows that in the chosen concentration the polyelectrolyte is quantitatively retained on the fibre and is not washed out in the paper making process or the final application.

The test sheets were tested for tensile strength (breaking length) and porosity (air permeability).

Test results: a) Retention of polyelectrolyte after washing

Even after several washings of the fibre, the same tensile strength in the paper is achieved, confirming the quantitative retention of the polyelectrolyte on the fibre, without losing efficiency. b) Influence of Add-on level of polyelectrolyte on breaking length

In papers from 100% viscose fibre, those made with polyelectrolyte add-ons >1% showed significant higher strength than those which were made from fibres with < 1% add-on. Together with the results from Example 4 this indicates, that there is an optimum add-on level of around 1% polyelectrolyte. c) Influence of molecular weight of the polyelectrolyte

Papers were formed after different wash cycles:

without 6x lOx washing 2x washing 4x washing washing washing

100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Medium Medium MW Medium MW Medium Medium

MW Poly- Poly- Poly- MW Poly- MW Poly- DADMAC DADMAC DADMAC DADMAC DADMAC

Parameter 0.75 wt.% 0.75 wt.% 0.75 wt.% 0.75 wt.% 0.75 wt.%

Breaking

length [m] 901 1166 1161 1275 1104

Porosity

[l/m 2 *s] 2791 2885 2730 2620 2760 In each case the medium molecular weight poly-DADMAC gives a higher strength in the produced test sheets, indicating that there is a preferred molecular weight for Poly-DADMAC > 100,000.

Porosity of the produced papers was within expectation and no porosity losses were observed.