Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
MANNOSE DERIVATIVES AS ANTAGONISTS OF BACTERIAL ADHESION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/073112
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Compounds of the formula (I) wherein n is 0, 1 or 2, R1 is aryl, heteroaryl or heterocyclyl, and R2 and R3 are hydrogen or a substituent as described in the specification, are useful for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections, in particular of urinary infections caused by E. coli.

Inventors:
ERNST, Beat (Höhenweg 1, Magden, CH-4312, CH)
HEROLD, Janno (Hechtweg 18, Basel, CH-4052, CH)
Application Number:
EP2010/069436
Publication Date:
June 23, 2011
Filing Date:
December 13, 2010
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
UNIVERSITY OF BASEL (Petersgraben 35, Basel, CH-4003, CH)
ERNST, Beat (Höhenweg 1, Magden, CH-4312, CH)
HEROLD, Janno (Hechtweg 18, Basel, CH-4052, CH)
International Classes:
C07H15/18; A61K31/7034; A61P31/04; C07H15/26
Domestic Patent References:
WO2005089733A22005-09-29
WO1998021220A21998-05-22
Foreign References:
US5444050A1995-08-22
CN101230079A2008-07-30
Other References:
B. FOXMAN, DIS. MON., vol. 49, 2003, pages 53 - 70
P. CHOWDHURY; S.H. SACKS; N.S. SHEERIN, KIDNEY INT., vol. 66, 2004, pages 1334 - 1344
H. CONNELL; M. HEDLUND; W. AGACE; C. SVANBORG, ADV. DENT. RES., vol. 11, 1997, pages 50 - 58
I. OFEK; D.L. HASTY; N. SHARON, FEMS IMMUNOL MED MICROBIOL, vol. 38, 2003, pages 181 - 191
A. IMBERTY; Y.M. CHABRE; R. ROY, CHEM. EUR J, vol. 14, 2008, pages 7490 - 7499
M. RUBENS; S.L. BUCHWALD, ACCOUNTS CHEM. RES., vol. 41, 2008, pages 1461 - 1473
N.A. BOKACH; V.Y. KUKUSHKIN, RUSS. CHEM. BULL., vol. 55, 2006, pages 1869 - 1882
T.W. GREENE; P.G.M. WUTS: "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", 1999, WILEY
CARBOHYDR. RES., vol. 317, 1999, pages 210 - 216
N. FIRON; I. OFEK; N. SHARON, BIOCHEM. BIOPHYS. RES. COMM., vol. 105, 1982, pages 1426 - 1432
D. STOKMAIER; B. ERNST ET AL., BIOORG. MED. CHEM., vol. 17, 2009, pages 7254 - 7264
K. GUPTA; M.Y. CHOU; A. HOWELL; C. WOBBE; R. GRADY; A.E. STAPLETON, J. UROL., vol. 177, 2007, pages 2357 - 2360
J.R. JOHNSON ET AL., INFECT. IMMUN., vol. 73, 2005, pages 965 - 971
W.J. HOPKINS ET AL., INFEC. DIS., vol. 187, 2003, pages 418 - 23
C.K. GAROFALO ET AL., INFECT. IMMUN., vol. 75, 2007, pages 52 - 60
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BECKER, Konrad (Aeschenvorstadt 24, Postfach 318, Basel, CH-4010, CH)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . A compound of formula (I)

wherein

n is 0, 1 or 2;

R1 is phenyl connected to the phenyl ring of formula (I) in meta- or para-position and substituted by one, two or three substituents selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopropyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl;

para-hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy;

mercapto, alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkylsulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl,

hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroarylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl and di-lower alkylamino-lower alkyl, or by one substituent cycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, optionally substituted pyridylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or aminocarbonyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; lower alkylcarbonyl, halo-lower alkylcarbonyl, para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl; aminocarbonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

cyano, halogen, and nitro;

and wherein two substituents in ortho-position to each other can form a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two oxygen atoms and/or one or two nitrogen atoms, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl; or R1 is aryl other than optionally substituted phenyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl with 5 or more atoms, optionally substituted phenylamino, or optionally substituted phenyl- thioureido; and

R2 and R3 are, independent of each other, hydrogen, lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cycloalkyi, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy; mercapto, alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkyl- sulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl, hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroaryl- sulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; lower alkylcarbonylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridinylcarbonylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; carboxy, lower alkylcarbonyl, benzoyl, pyridinecarbonyl, pyrimidinecarbonyl, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl or lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; tetrazolyl, cyano, halogen, or nitro; or wherein two substituents in ortho-position to each other form a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two oxygen atoms and/or one or two nitrogen atoms, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl; and prodrugs and salts thereof.

2. The compound according to claim 1 of formula (I) wherein n is 0 or 1 ; and prodrugs and salts thereof. 3. The compound according to claim 1 of formula (I) wherein n is 0; and prodrugs and salts thereof.

4. The compound according to claim 1 , 2 or 3 of formula (I) wherein R1 is meta- or para-phenyl substited by lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, cyclopropyl, para-hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, methylenedioxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylaminosulfonyl, di-lower alkyaminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkyl- carbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridylcarbonylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; para- carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, morpholinocarbonyl, pyrrolidinocarbonyl, piperidinocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, halo, cyano or nitro; optionally substituted 1 -naphthyl, optionally substituted 2-naphthyl, optionally substituted indanyl, or optionally substituted dihydro- or tetrahydronaphthyl; pyrrolyl, thienyl, furyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, pyridyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, indolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuryl, pyridopyrrolyl, pyridoimidazolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, quinazolinyl, or purinyl, all optionally substituted; pyrrolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, dioxolanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, benzoxazolidinyl,

benzothiazolidinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, or benzodihydrofuryl, all optionally substituted; optionally substituted phenylamino, or optionally substituted phenylthioureido; and prodrugs and salts thereof.

5. The compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 4 wherein R2 and R3 are hydrogen, lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, cyclopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, halo, cyano or nitro; and

prodrugs and salts thereof.

6. The compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 4 wherein R2 and R3 are hydrogen, lower alkoxy, or halo; and prodrugs and salts thereof.

7. The compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 6 of formula (I) wherein R1 is a residue of formula (A) connected to the phenyl ring of formula (I) in meta- or para-position

(A)

wherein R4 is trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, para-hydroxy, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylaminosulfonyl, di-lower alkylaminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, morpholinocarbonyl, pyrrolidinocarbonyl, piperidinocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo;

and wherein the phenyl ring of formula (A) may be further substituted by chloro or fluoro; or of formula (B) or (C) wherein R5 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenyl-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (D)

wherein R6 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (E) or (F) 7

wherein R7 is hydrogen, lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, lower alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, or aminomethylcarbonyl substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; or of formula (G)

wherein RB is carboxy or lower alkoxycarbonyl; X or Y or Z, or X and Z, or Y and Z are nitrogen atoms and the other atoms X, Y and Z are carbon atoms; or of formula (H)

wherein R9 is carboxy or lower alkoxycarbonyl; and

prodrugs and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

8. The compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 6 of formula (I) wherein R1 is a residue of formula (A) connected to the phenyl ring of formula (I) in meta- or para-position

(A)

wherein R4 is para-hydroxy, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylaminosulfonyl, di-lower alkylaminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, morpholinocarbonyl, pyrrolidinocarbonyl, piperidino- carbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; and wherein the phenyl ring of formula (A) may be further substituted by chloro or fluoro; or of formula (B) or (C)

R' R

wherein R5 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, lower alkoxy, such as methoxy, benzyloxy, amino, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (D)

wherein R6 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, lower alkoxy, such as methoxy, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (E) or (F)

wherein R7 is hydrogen or lower alkyl, such as methyl; or of formula (G)

wherein R is carboxy or lower alkoxycarbonyl; X or Y or Z, or X and Z, or Y and Z are nitrogen atoms and the other atoms X, Y and Z are carbon atoms; or of formula (H)

wherein R9 is carboxy or lower alkoxycarbonyl; and prodrugs and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

9. The compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 6 of formula (I) wherein R1 is a residue of formula (A) connected to the phenyl ring of formula (I) in meta- or para-position

(A)

wherein R4 is para-hydroxy, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylaminosulfonyl, di-lower alkylaminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, morpholinocarbonyl, pyrrolidinocarbonyl, piperidino- carbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo;

and wherein the phenyl ring of formula (A) may be further substituted by chloro or fluoro; and prodrugs and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

10. The prodrug of a compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 10 which is the tetraacetate.

A compound of formula (I)

wherein

n is 0, 1 or 2; R1 is a residue of formula (A)

(A)

wherein R4 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethyl- amino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (B) or (C)

wherein R5 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethyl- amino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (D) wherein R6 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethyl- amino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (E)

wherein R7 is hydrogen, lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, lower alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, or aminomethylcarbonyl substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids;

prodrugs and salts thereof

for use in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

12. The compound according to claim 1 1 , prodrugs and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for use in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections caused by virulent strains of E.coli.

13. A process for the manufacture of a compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 12, wherein a compound of formula (I), wherein the hydroxy functions of the a-D-manno- pyranoside are protected and wherein R1 is halogen, is condensed with a reagent replacing halogen by aryl, heteroaryl of heterocyclyl, the protective groups are removed, and, if so desired, an obtainable compound of formula (I) is converted into another compound of formula (I), compound of formula (I) is converted into a prodrug, a free compound of formula (I) is converted into a salt, an obtainable salt of a compound of formula (I) is converted into the free compound or another salt, and/or a mixture of isomeric compounds of formula (I) is separated into the individual isomers.

14. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 12.

15. A method of treating a mammal having a bacterial infection comprising administering a compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 12 in a therapeutically effective amount to a mammal in need thereof.

16. A method of preventing a bacterial infection in a mammal comprising administering a compound according to anyone of claims 1 to 12 in a prophylactically effective amount to a mammal in need thereof.

Description:
Mannose derivatives as antagonists of bacterial adhesion

Field of the invention The invention relates to derivatives of a-D-mannopyranosides useful as antagonists of bacterial adhesion, and to their use in preventing and treating bacterial infections.

Background of the invention Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an inflammatory, pathogen-caused disease that occurs in any part of the urinary tract. UTI is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild irritative voiding (dysuria), frequent voiding (polakisuria) or suprapubic tenderness to invasion of bacteria into the kidney (acute pyelonephritis) or blood circulation (urosepsis) with potential local and distant bacterial seeding (abscess), multiorgan failure or even death (B. Foxman, Dis. Mon. 2003, 49, 53-70).

UTIs are among the most prevalent infectious diseases in general and of any organ system. Its magnitude can be estimated in the United States by the number of visits to physicians (about 8 million/year) or hospital discharge diagnoses (about 1 .5 million/year). Particularly affected are women, who face a 40-50% risk experiencing a symptomatic UTI at some time during their life; more than half of them will experience consecutive infection within 6 months. In approximately 3-5% of women, multiple recurrences of UTI develop over the following years. Frequent sexual intercourse, diaphragm use and lack of urinating after sexual intercourse are risk factors for UTI, further increasing the prevalence of UTI in this subpopulation.

The predominant pathogen in UTIs is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) causing >80% of all infections in otherwise healthy people with normal urinary tracts and no systemic predisposing factors (uncomplicated UTI). These strains express a number of well-studied virulence factors of UTI (e.g. fimbriae and toxins), which define tropism to and within the urinary tract, bacterial persistence and the degree of inflammation.

UTI can be described as an imbalance of "physiological inflammation", where both immune system and antimicrobial factors of the host are no longer able to control bacterial growth. In healthy individuals, most uropathogens originate from the rectal microbiota and enter the normally sterile urinary bladder via the urethra where they can trigger an infection (cystitis). If the bacterial invasion is not controlled by the immune system response or prompt treatment, bacteria may ascend the ureters to reach the kidneys and pyelonephritis occurs. Inadequate or delayed treatment of UTI may result in severe complications like life-threatening urosepsis, renal scarring or, rarely, end-stage renal disease and hypertension.

Once in the urinary tract, pathogens need to constantly avoid host defense mechanisms. Host defense consists mainly of the following three elements: First, the unidirectional flow of urine that supports the clearance of the urinary tract from bacteria. Second, the epithelial cells, which form a physical barrier, and third the local production of

inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial proteins to recognize and trap bacteria or interfere with their ability to attach (P. Chowdhury, S.H. Sacks, N.S. Sheerin, Kidney Int. 2004, 66, 1334-1344). In order to overcome these protective elements, bacteria attach to the urinary tract epithelium via fimbrial adhesion molecules (H. Connell, M. Hedlund, W. Agace, C. Svanborg, Adv. Dent. Res. 1997, 11, 50-58). They are presumably internalized in an active process similar to phagocytosis once they are bound.

All symptomatic UTIs should be treated with antibiotics to prevent potential devastating complications. Uncomplicated UTI can be effectively treated with an oral antibiotic such as fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin), cotrimoxazol or amoxicillin/clavanulate, depending on the susceptibility of the causing pathogen. However, recurrent infections with subsequent antibiotic exposure can lead to emergence of antimicrobial resistance, which often leads to treatment failure and reduces the range of therapeutic options. Hence, there is an urgent need for public health to develop an efficient, cost-effective and safe non-antibiotic therapy to both prevent and treat UTIs without facilitating antimicrobial resistance. Inhibition of type 1 fimbriae-mediated bacterial attachment to the bladder epithelium is a very promising approach to achieve this aim. The lectin FimH on the tip of type 1 fimbriae of E. coli binds to oligomannosides located on epithelial cells of the urinary tract. This specific binding plays an important role in the development of UTIs. E. coli adhere specifically to the terminal mannose moieties of uroplakin receptors on the surface of urinary tract epithelia. More than two decades ago, Sharon and coworkers have investigated various

mannosides and oligomannosides as antagonists for type 1 fimbriae-mediated specific bacterial adhesion (I. Ofek, D.L. Hasty, N. Sharon, FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2003, 38, 181 -191 ). However, when binding affinities for various mannosides were tested in ELISA formats, only weak interactions with IC 50 values in the milli- to micromolar range were observed. Attempts to improve the affinity followed two different approaches: (i) the design of multivalent carbohydrate ligands and (ii) the rational design of ligands guided by information obtained from the crystal structure of FimH (A. Imberty, Y.M. Chabre, R. Roy, Chem. Eur J .2008, 14, 7490-7499).

Anti-adhesive a-D-mannopyranoside derivatives for prevention and treatment of bacterial infections are described in WO 2005/089733. Further anti-adhesive saccharide derivatives such as thio-a-L-fucopyranosides are described in WO 98/21220.

Summary of the invention The invention relates to compounds of the formula (I)

R 1 is phenyl connected to the phenyl ring of formula (I) in meta- or para-position and substituted by one, two or three substituents selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopropyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl;

para-hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy;

mercapto, alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkylsulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl,

hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroarylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl and di-lower alkylamino-lower alkyl, or by one substituent cycloalkyi, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, optionally substituted pyridylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or aminocarbonyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids;

lower alkylcarbonyl, halo-lower alkylcarbonyl, para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl; aminocarbonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

cyano, halogen, and nitro;

and wherein two substituents in ortho-position to each other can form a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two oxygen atoms and/or one or two nitrogen atoms, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl; or R 1 is aryl other than optionally substituted phenyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl with 5 or more atoms, and

R 2 and R 3 are, independent of each other, hydrogen, lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cycloalkyi, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy; mercapto, alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkyl- sulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl, hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroaryl- sulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; lower alkylcarbonylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridinylcarbonylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; carboxy, lower alkylcarbonyl, benzoyl, pyridinecarbonyl, pyrimidinecarbonyl, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl or lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; tetrazolyl, cyano, halogen, or nitro; or wherein two substituents in ortho-position to each other form a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two oxygen atoms and/or one or two nitrogen atoms, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl; and prodrugs and salts thereof.

Furthermore the invention relates to compounds of formula (I), wherein

n is 0, 1 or 2;

R 1 is aryl, heteroaryl or heterocyclyl; and

R 2 and R 3 are, independent of each other, hydrogen, lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cycloalkyi, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy; mercapto, alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkyl- sulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl, hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroaryl- sulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; lower alkylcarbonylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridinylcarbonylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; carboxy, lower alkylcarbonyl, benzoyl, pyridinecarbonyl, pyrimidinecarbonyl, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl or lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; tetrazolyl, cyano, halogen, or nitro; or wherein two substituents in ortho-position to each other form a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two oxygen atoms and/or one or two nitrogen atoms, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl; and prodrugs and salts thereof for use in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, such as infectious diseases caused by virulent strains of E.coli, in particular urinary tract infections.

Furthermore the invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising these compounds, to a method of manufacture of these compounds, to the use of the

compounds for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections, in particular urinary tract infections, and to a method of prevention and treatment of such bacterial infections.

Brief Description of the Figure

Treatment efficacy of the reference compound (HM, heptyl a-D-mannopyranoside) and three FimH antagonists (8f, 8a and 7a, FimH = receptor binding domain of a fimbrial tip adhesin) at a dosage of 50 mg/kg in the UTI mouse model after 3 h of infection, compared to a 6 h infection study (n = 6, control). HM, 8f and 8a were applied i.v. into the tail vein, whereas 7a was applied orally. As baseline (reference), the mean counts of the 3 h infection were subtracted from the results of the tested antagonists and the 6 h control group. In all treated animals, bacterial counts were only marginally reduced in the kidneys. This lower response to the treatment with FimH antagonists is probably due to different bacterial adhesion mechanisms in bladder and kidney. Whereas in the bladder adhesion is mediated by type I pili (via the CRD of FimH), P pili-dependent interactions are crucial for the adhesion in the kidneys. P - values were calculated by comparing the treatment groups with the 3 h control group. ( * ) P < 0.05, ( ** ) P < 0.01 , ( *** ) P < 0.001 , (-) not significant (determined by Mann Whitney test).

C = control; U = urine; B = bladder; K= kidney;

ALog10 CFU = ALog10 CFU/ml (urine) or ALog10 CFU/organ (bladder, 2 kidneys).

Detailed description of the invention e formula (I)

wherein n is 0, 1 or 2;

R 1 is phenyl connected to the phenyl ring of formula (I) in meta- or para-position and substituted by one, two or three substituents selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopropyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl;

para-hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy;

mercapto, alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkylsulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl,

hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroarylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl and di-lower alkylamino-lower alkyl, or by one substituent cycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, optionally substituted pyridylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or aminocarbonyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids;

lower alkylcarbonyl, halo-lower alkylcarbonyl, para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl; aminocarbonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl;

cyano, halogen, and nitro;

and wherein two substituents in ortho-position to each other can form a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two oxygen atoms and/or one or two nitrogen atoms, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl; or R 1 is aryl other than optionally substituted phenyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl with 5 or more atoms, and

R 2 and R 3 are, independent of each other, hydrogen, lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cycloalkyi, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy; mercapto, alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkyl- sulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl, hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroaryl- sulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; lower alkylcarbonylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridinylcarbonylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; carboxy, lower alkylcarbonyl, benzoyl, pyridinecarbonyl, pyrimidinecarbonyl, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl or lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; tetrazolyl, cyano, halogen, or nitro; or wherein two substituents in ortho-position to each other form a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two oxygen atoms and/or one or two nitrogen atoms, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl; and prodrugs and salts thereof.

Furthermore the invention relates to compounds of formula (I), wherein

n is 0, 1 or 2;

R 1 is aryl, heteroaryl or heterocyclyl; and

R 2 and R 3 have the meanings indicated above; and

prodrugs and salts thereof

for use in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, such as infectious diseases caused by virulent strains of E.coli, in particular urinary tract infections. Mannose-specific (type 1 ) fimbriae are among the most commonly found lectins in enterobacteriae. The adhesion of pathogenic organisms to host tissue mediated by such lectins is considered an important initial event in bacterial infection. Soluble carbohydrates recognized by the bacterial surface lectins inhibit the adhesion to complementary tissue resulting in the lack of the ability to initiate infection. The present invention relates to a particularly active group of mannoside derivatives, which can be successfully applied as FimH antagonists (FirmH = receptor binding domain of a fimbrial tip adhesin). The compounds of the invention show a substantially higher activity than currently known mannosides.

A further aspect of the invention is the use of the compounds of the invention as drugs for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, in particular urinary tract infections. The advantage of the mannoside derivatives of the invention over state-of-the-art antibiotics is the fact that formation of resistance to carbohydrates leads to mutated lectins rendering themselves ineffective with respect to adhesion to host tissue.

The general terms used hereinbefore and hereinafter preferably have within the context of this disclosure the following meanings, unless otherwise indicated: The prefix "lower" denotes a radical having up to and including a maximum of 7, especially up to and including a maximum of 4 carbon atoms, the radicals in question being either linear or branched with single or multiple branching.

Where the plural form is used for compounds, salts, and the like, this is taken to mean also a single compound, salt, or the like.

Double bonds in principle can have E- or Z-configuration. The compounds of this invention may therefore exist as isomeric mixtures or single isomers. If not specified both isomeric forms are intended.

Any asymmetric carbon atoms may be present in the (R)-, (S)- or (R,S)-configuration, preferably in the (R)- or (S)-configuration. The compounds may thus be present as mixtures of isomers or as pure isomers, preferably as enantiomer-pure diastereomers. The invention relates also to possible tautomers of the compounds of formula (I). Alkyl has from 1 to 12, preferably from 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and is linear or branched. Alkyl is preferably lower alkyl.

Lower alkyl has 1 to 7, preferably 1 to 4 carbon atoms and is butyl, such as n-butyl, sec- butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, propyl, such as n-propyl or isopropyl, ethyl or methyl. Preferably lower alkyl is methyl or ethyl. C 2 -C 7 -alkyl is lower alkyl with at least two carbon atoms, for example ethyl, propyl or butyl.

Cycloalkyl has preferably 3 to 7 ring carbon atoms, and may be unsubstitued or substituted, e.g. by lower alkyl or lower alkoxy. Cycloalkyl is, for example, cyclohexyl, cyclopentyl, methylcyclopentyl, or cyclopropyl, in particular cyclopropyl.

Aryl stands for a mono- or bicyclic fused ring aromatic group with 5 to 10 carbon atoms optionally carrying substituents, such as phenyl, 1-naphthyl or 2-naphthyl, or also a partially saturated bicyclic fused ring comprising a phenyl group, such as indanyl, dihydro- or tetrahydronaphthyl, all optionally substitued. Preferably, aryl is phenyl or indanyl or tetrahydronaphthyl, in particular phenyl.

The term„aryl carrying substituents" stands for aryl substituted by up to four substituents independently selected from lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, carboxy- lower alkyl, lower alkoxycarbonyl-lower alkyl; arylalkyl or heteroarylalkyl, wherein aryl or heteroaryl are unsubstituted or substituted by up to three substituents selected from lower alkyl, cyclopropyl, halo-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, tetrazolyl, carboxy, halogen, amino, cyano and nitro; hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy- lower alkyl, aryloxy-lower alkyl, heteroaryloxy-lower alkyl, aryl-lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, heteroaryl-lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; aminoalkyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substituents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, alkoxy-lower alkyl and amino-lower alkyl, or by one substituent alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, amino-lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl and aminocarbonyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo- lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, cycloalkyl-lower alkoxy, aryloxy, aryl-lower alkoxy, aryloxy-lower alkoxy, heteroaryloxy, heteroaryl-lower alkoxy, heteroaryloxy-lower alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkinyloxy, cycloalkyloxy, heterocyclyloxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy; alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkylsulfinyl, halo- lower alkylsulfinyl, hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroarylsulfonyl;

aminosulfonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, cycloalkyi, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, di-lower alkylamino- lower alkyl, cycloalkyi, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or by one substituent optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, optionally substituted pyridylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or aminocarbonyl, and wherein alkyl or lower alkyl in each case may be substituted by halogen, lower alkoxy, aryl, heteroaryl or optionally substituted amino, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; lower alkylcarbonyl, halo-lower alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, optionally substituted heteroarylcarbonyl, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl; aminocarbonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, cycloalkyi, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; cyano, halogen, and nitro; and wherein two substituents in ortho- position to each other can form a 5-, 6- or 7-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring containing one, two or three oxygen atoms, one or two nitrogen atoms and/or one sulfur atom, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy- lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl.

In particular, the substituents may be independently selected from lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopropyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy; alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, alkylsulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl, hydroxysulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroarylsulfonyl; aminosulfonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl and optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, di-lower alkylamino-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl, or by one substituent optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, optionally substituted pyridylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or aminocarbonyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; lower alkylcarbonyl, halo-lower alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl; aminocarbonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; cyano, halogen, and nitro; and wherein two substituents in ortho-position to each other can form a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two oxygen atoms and/or one or two nitrogen atoms, wherein the nitrogen atoms are optionally substituted by lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or lower alkylcarbonyl.

In optionally substituted phenyl, substituents are preferably lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, cyclopropyl, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, methylenedioxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, halo, cyano or nitro, in particular carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, or aminosulfonyl.

Heteroaryl represents an aromatic group containing at least one heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and is mono- or bicyclic, optionally carrying substituents. Monocyclic heteroaryl includes 5 or 6 membered heteroaryl groups containing 1 , 2, 3 or 4 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Bicyclic heteroaryl includes 9 or 10 membered fused-ring heteroaryl groups. Examples of heteroaryl include pyrrolyl, thienyl, furyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, pyridyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, and benzo or pyridazo fused derivatives of such monocyclic heteroaryl groups, such as indolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuryl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, quinazolinyl, pyrrolopyridine, imidazopyridine, or purinyl, all optionally substituted. Preferably, heteroaryl is pyridyl, pyrimdinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, thienyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, pyrrolopyridine or

imidazopyridine; in particular pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, indolyl, pyrrolopyridine or imidazopyridine.

The term "heteroaryl carrying substituents" stands for heteroaryl substituted by up to three substituents independently selected from lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, aryloxy-lower alkyl, heteroaryloxy- lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy-lower alkyl; aminoalkyl, wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substituents selected from lower alkyl, hydroxy- lower alkyl, alkoxy-lower alkyl, amino-lower alkyl, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, amino- lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl and aminocarbonyl; optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cycloalkyl; aryl, heteroaryl, arylalkyl or heteroarylalkyl, wherein aryl or heteroaryl are unsubstituted or substituted by up to three substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy, halogen, amino, cyano and nitro; hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, cycloalkyl-lower alkoxy, aryloxy, aryl-lower alkoxy, heteroaryloxy, heteroaryl-lower alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkinyloxy, alkylmercapto, alkylsulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroarylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two

substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, di-lower alkylamino-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or aminocarbonyl, and wherein alkyl or lower alkyl in each case may be substituted by halogen, lower alkoxy, aryl, heteroaryl or optionally substituted amino, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; lower alkylcarbonyl, halo-lower alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl; aminocarbonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted phenyl- lower alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; cyano, halogen, and nitro.

In particular, the substituents on heteroaryl may be independently selected from lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, alkenyloxy, alkinyloxy, alkyl- mercapto, alkylsulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted phenyl-lower alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and optionally substituted heteroaryl-lower alkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, di-lower alkylamino-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or aminocarbonyl, and wherein alkyl or lower alkyl in each case may be substituted by lower alkoxy or optionally substituted amino, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; lower alkylcarbonyl, halo-lower alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxycarbonyl; aminocarbonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl- lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl or cycloalkyl, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; cyano, halogen, and nitro.

In optionally substituted heteroaryl, substituents are preferably lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy- lower alkoxy, methylenedioxy, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl,

hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, aminosulfonyl, halo, cyano or nitro. Alkenyl contains one or more, e.g. two or three, double bonds, and is preferably lower alkenyl, such as 1 - or 2-butenyl, 1 -propenyl, allyl or vinyl. Alkinyl is preferably lower alkinyl, such as propargyl or acetylenyl.

In optionally substituted alkenyl or alkinyl, substituents are preferably lower alkyl, lower alkoxy, halo, optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl, and are connected with a saturated or unsaturated carbon atom of alkenyl or alkinyl.

Heterocyclyl designates preferably a saturated, partially saturated or unsaturated, mono- or bicyclic ring containg 4-10 atoms comprising one, two or three heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, which may, unless otherwise specified, be carbon or nitrogen linked, wherein a ring nitrogen atom may optionally be substituted by a group selected from lower alkyl, amino-lower alkyl, aryl, aryl-lower alkyl and acyl, and a ring carbon atom may be substituted by lower alkyl, amino-lower alkyl, aryl, aryl-lower alkyl, heteroaryl, lower alkoxy, hydroxy or oxo, or which may be fused with an optionally substituted benzo ring. Substituents considered for substituted benzo are those mentioned above for optionally substituted aryl. Examples of heterocyclyl are pyrrolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, dioxolanyl, tetrahydro- furanyl and tetrahydropyranyl, and optionally substituted benzo fused derivatives of such monocyclic heterocyclyl, for example indolinyl, benzoxazolidinyl, benzothiazolidinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, and benzodihydrofuryl. Acyl designates, for example, alkylcarbonyl, cycloalkylcarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, aryl-lower alkylcarbonyl, or heteroarylcarbonyl. Lower acyl is preferably lower alkylcarbonyl, in particular propionyl or acetyl.

Hydroxyalkyl is especially hydroxy-lower alkyl, preferably hydroxymethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl or 2-hydroxy-2-propyl.

Cyanoalkyl designates preferably cyanomethyl and cyanoethyl.

Haloalkyl is preferably fluoroalkyl, especially trifluoromethyl, 3,3,3-trifluoroethyl or pentafluoroethyl. Halogen is fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.

Lower alkoxy is especially methoxy, ethoxy, isopropyloxy, or tert-butyloxy. ArylalkyI includes aryl and alkyl as defined hereinbefore, and is e.g. benzyl, 1 -phenethyl or 2-phenethyl.

Heteroarylalkyl includes heteroaryl and alkyl as defined hereinbefore, and is e.g. 2-, 3- or 4-pyridylmethyl, 1 - or 2-pyrrolylmethyl, 1 -pyrazolylmethyl, 1 -imidazolylmethyl,

2-(1 -imidazolyl)ethyl or 3-(1 -imidazolyl)propyl.

In substituted amino, the substituents are preferably those mentioned as substituents hereinbefore. In particular, substituted amino is alkylamino, dialkylamino, optionally substituted arylamino, optionally substituted arylalkylamino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridylcarbonylamino, lower alkoxycarbonylamino or optionally substituted aminocarbonylamino.

Prodrugs are especially compounds wherein a -COOH, -S(0)OH, -S(0) 2 OH or

-P(0)(OH) 2 group of a compound of formula (I) is derivatized as linear or branched alkyl, hydroxyalkyi, methoxyalkyi, aminoalkyi, alkenyl, alkinyl, phenyl, benzyl and phenethyl ester. Most typically, the alkyl, hydroxyalkyi, methoxyalkyi, aminoalkyi, alkenyl and alkinyl group contains 1 to 12 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to 7 or more preferably 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Further prodrugs according to this invention are compounds wherein one or more, for example one, two, three or four hydroxy groups of the mannose ring and/or a hydroxy group in one of the residues R 1 , R 2 or R 3 are derivatized by conversion into a group such as, but not limited to, a phosphate ester, acetate, fluoroacetate, chloroacetate,

hemisuccinate, dimethylaminoacetate, or phosphoryloxy-methoxycarbonyl group.

Carbamate prodrugs of hydroxy groups are also included, as are carbonate prodrugs, sulfonate esters and sulfate esters of hydroxy groups. Hydroxy groups are derivatized as (acyloxy)methyl and (acyloxy)ethyl ethers, wherein the acyl group is lower alkylcarbonyl optionally substituted by halogen, hydroxyl, lower alkoxy, amino and/or carboxy. More specific examples include replacement of the hydrogen atom of the hydroxy group with a group such as lower alkanoyloxymethyl, 1 -(lower alkanoyloxy)ethyl, 1 -methyl-1 -(lower alkanoyloxy)ethyl, lower alkoxycarbonyloxymethyl, lower alkoxycarbonylaminomethyl, succinoyl, lower alkanoyl, halo-lower alkanoyl, a-amino-lower alkanoyl, arylcarbonyl, substituted a-aminoacetyl or a-(a-aminoacetylamino)acetyl, wherein each substituted o aminoacetyl group is independently derived from a naturally occurring L-amino acid, -P(0)(OH) 2 , -P(0)(lower alkoxy) 2 , or glycosyl (the radical resulting from the removal of a hydroxy group of the hemiacetal form of a carbohydrate).

Particular prodrugs are compounds of formula (I) wherein all four hydroxy groups of the mannose ring are acetylated. Salts are especially the pharmaceutically acceptable salts of compounds of formula (I).

Such salts are formed, for example, as acid addition salts, preferably with organic or inorganic acids, from compounds of formula (I) with a basic nitrogen atom, especially the pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Suitable inorganic acids are, for example, halogen acids, such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, or phosphoric acid. Suitable organic acids are, for example, carboxylic, phosphonic, sulfonic or sulfamic acids, for example acetic acid, propionic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, amino acids, such as glutamic acid or aspartic acid, maleic acid, hydroxymaleic acid, methylmaleic acid, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, adamantane- carboxylic acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, 4-aminosalicylic acid, phthalic acid, phenylacetic acid, mandelic acid, cinnamic acid, methane- or ethane-sulfonic acid, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, ethane-1 ,2-disulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid,

2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 1 ,5-naphthalene-disulfonic acid, 2-, 3- or 4-methyl- benzenesulfonic acid, methylsulfuric acid, ethylsulfuric acid, dodecylsulfuric acid,

N-cyclohexylsulfamic acid, N-methyl-, N-ethyl- or N-propyl-sulfamic acid, or other organic protonic acids, such as ascorbic acid.

From compounds of formula (I) with acid functional groups, e.g. substituted by carboxy, salts may be formed with suitable cations, especially with pharmaceutically acceptable cations. Suitable cations are, e.g., sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium or ammonium cations, or also cations derived by protonation from primary, secondary or tertiary amines containing, for example, lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl or hydroxy-lower alkoxy-lower alkyl groups, e.g., 2-hydroxyethylammonium, 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyldimethyl- ammonium, diethylammonium, di(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium, trimethylammonium, triethylammonium, 2-hydroxyethyldimethylammonium, or di(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl- ammonium, also from correspondingly substituted cyclic secondary and tertiary amines, e.g., N-methylpyrrolidinium, N-methylpiperidinium, N-methylmorpholinium, N-2-hydroxy- ethylpyrrolidinium, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperidinium, or N-2-hydroxyethylmorpholinium, and the like.

For isolation or purification purposes it is also possible to use pharmaceutically unacceptable salts, for example picrates or perchlorates. For therapeutic use, only pharmaceutically acceptable salts or free compounds are employed (where applicable in the form of pharmaceutical preparations), and these are therefore preferred.

In view of the close relationship between the novel compounds in free form and those in the form of their salts, including those salts that can be used as intermediates, for example in the purification or identification of the novel compounds, any reference to the free compounds hereinbefore and hereinafter is to be understood as referring also to the corresponding salts, as appropriate and expedient.

The compounds of formula (I) have valuable pharmacological properties. The invention also relates to compounds of formula (I), their prodrugs and salts as defined hereinbefore for use as medicaments. A compound of formula (I) according to the invention shows prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy especially against bacterial infections, in particular against infective diseases caused by Escherichia coii (£. coii), a Gram negative bacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most £ coii strains are harmless and part of the normal flora of the gut, however, the compounds of the invention are useful in the treatment of infective diseases caused by virulent strains of £. coii, in particular in the treatment of gastroenteritis, diarrhea, food poisoning, urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, and neonatal meningitis caused by £ coii strains, also in the treatment of unusual infective diseases caused by virulent £ coii strains, in particular in the treatment of haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), peritonitis, mastitis, sepsis, and pneumonia caused by £ coii.

Particularly preferred is the use of a compound of formula (I), a prodrug or a salt thereof according to the invention as a medicament for the prevention and treatment of urinary infections caused by £ coii. A compound of formula (I) can be administered alone or in combination with one or more other therapeutic agents, possible combination therapy taking the form of fixed combinations, or the administration of a compound of the invention and one or more other therapeutic agents being staggered or given independently of one another, or the combined administration of fixed combinations and one or more other therapeutic agents. Therapeutic agents for possible combination are especially trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol (co-trimoxazol), fluoroquinolone (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin or norfloxacin), amoxicilin/clavulanic acid, and nitrofurantoin.

With the groups of preferred compounds of formula (I) mentioned hereinafter, definitions of substituents from the general definitions mentioned hereinbefore may reasonably be used, for example, to replace more general definitions with more specific definitions or especially with definitions characterized as being preferred.

In particular, the invention refers to compounds of formula (I), wherein n is 0 or 1 , preferably 0.

Preferred substituents for R 1 with the meaning substituted meta- or para-phenyl are lower alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, cyclopropyl, para-hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, methylenedioxy, hydroxysulfonyl- oxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylaminosulfonyl, di-lower alkyaminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridylcarbonyl- amino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, morpholino- carbonyl, pyrrolidinocarbonyl, piperidinocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, halo, cyano or nitro. In another particular embodiment, the invention refers to compounds of formula (I), wherein R 1 is aryl other than optionally substituted phenyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl with 5 or more atoms.

Aryl other than optionally substituted phenyl is preferably optionally substituted 1 -naphthyl, optionally substituted 2-naphthyl, optionally substituted indanyl, or optionally substituted dihydro- or tetrahydronaphthyl. Preferably, R 1 with the meaning aryl other than optionally substituted phenyl is optionally substituted indanyl or optionally substituted tetrahydro- naphthyl.

Aryl R 1 in compounds of formula (I) claimed for use in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases is optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted 1 -naphthyl, optionally substituted 2-naphthyl, optionally substituted indanyl, or optionally substituted dihydro- or tetrahydronaphthyl. Preferably, such R 1 is optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted indanyl, or optionally substituted tetrahydronaphthyl. In particular such R 1 is optionally substituted phenyl, for example unsubstituted phenyl, or also phenyl connected to the phenyl ring of formula (I) in ortho-position, phenyl substituted by ortho- or meta-hydroxy, or phenyl substituted by ortho- or meta-carboxy.

Heteroaryl R 1 is preferably pyrrolyl, thienyl, furyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, pyridyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, indolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuryl, pyridopyrrolyl, pyridoimidazolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, quinazolinyl, or purinyl, all optionally substituted. Such groups R 1 are usually carbon-linked, but, in the case where the nitrogen of the heteroaryl group carries hydrogen, may also be nitrogen-linked. Preferably, R 1 is pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, thienyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, benzimidazolyl, pyridopyrrolyl, or pyridoimidazolyl, all optionally substituted, in particular pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, benzimidazolyl, pyridopyrrolyl, or pyridoimidazolyl, all optionally subtituted. Particularly preferred is pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, benzimidazolyl, pyridopyrrolyl, or pyridoimidazolyl, all optionally substituted.

Preferred substituents considered for R 1 with the meaning of the mentioned heteroaryl groups are alkyl, halo-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkinyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, cycloalkyloxy, alkenyloxy, alkinyloxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy, lower alkylmercapto, hydroxysulfinyl, lower alkylsulfinyl, halo-lower alkylsulfinyl, hydroxysulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl; amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, hydroxy-lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl and di-lower alkylamino-lower alkyl; or one substituent cycloalkyl, lower alkylcarbonyl, phenylcarbonyl, pyrimidinylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or aminocarbonyl, and wherein alkyl or lower alkyl in each case may be substituted by lower alkoxy or optionally substituted amino; carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, amino- methylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; lower alkylcarbonyl, halo-lower alkylcarbonyl, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy- carbonyl; aminocarbonyl wherein amino is unsubstituted or substituted by one hydroxy or amino group or one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyi, cycloalkyl-lower alkyi, hydroxy-lower alkyi, lower alkoxy-lower alkyi or cycloalkyi, or wherein the two substituents on nitrogen form together with the nitrogen heterocyclyl; cyano, halogen, and nitro.

Preferred substituents considered for R 1 with the meaning of the mentioned preferred heteroaryl groups are lower alkyi, halo-lower alkyi, lower alkoxy-lower alkyi, cyclopropyl, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, methylene- dioxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridylcarbonylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, amino- methylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, halo, cyano or nitro. Most preferred substituents are halo-lower alkyi, lower alkoxy, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, tetrazolyl, cyano and nitro.

Heterocyclyl R 1 with 5 or more atoms is preferably pyrrolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, piperazinyl, dioxolanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, benzoxazolidinyl, benzothiazolidinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, or benzodihydrofuryl, wherein such group R 1 may be carbon-linked or, if possible, nitrogen- linked, wherein a ring nitrogen atom may optionally be substituted by a group selected from lower alkyi, amino-lower alkyi, aryl, aryl-lower alkyi and acyl, and a ring carbon atom may be substituted by lower alkyi, amino-lower alkyi, aryl, aryl-lower alkyi, heteroaryl, lower alkoxy, hydroxy or oxo, or wherein the benzo ring, if present, is optionally substituted by lower alkyi, halo-lower alkyi, lower alkoxy-lower alkyi, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, methylenedioxy, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, aminosulfonyl, halo, cyano or nitro.

More preferably, R 1 is pyrrolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, or benzodihydrofuryl, in particular indolinyl, wherein such group R 1 may by carbon- or, if possible, nitrogen-linked, wherein a ring nitrogen atom may optionally be substituted by lower alkyi, aryl-lower alkyi or acyl, and a ring carbon atom may be substituted by lower alkyi, amino-lower alkyi, aryl, aryl-lower alkyi, heteroaryl, lower alkoxy, hydroxy or oxo, or wherein the benzo ring, if present, is optionally substituted by lower alkyi, halo-lower alkyi, lower alkoxy-lower alkyi, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, methylenedioxy, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, aminosulfonyl, halo, cyano or nitro, more preferably by halo-lower alkyi, lower alkoxy, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, tetrazolyl, cyano or nitro. Preferred as R 2 and R 3 are, independent of each other, hydrogen, lower alkyi, halo-lower alkyi, lower alkoxy-lower alkyi, cyclopropyl, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, halo-lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyloxy, methylenedioxy, hydroxysulfinyl, hydroxysulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, amino optionally substituted by one or two substitutents selected from lower alkyi, hydroxy-lower alkyi, lower alkoxy-lower alkyi; lower alkylcarbonylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, benzoylamino, pyridinylcarbonylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, aminosulfonyl, halo, cyano or nitro.

Particularly preferred substituents R 2 and R 3 are hydrogen, lower alkyi, halo-lower alkyi, cyclopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, amino- sulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylaminoamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, halo, cyano or nitro. Most preferred substituents R 2 and R 3 are hydrogen, lower alkoxy, such as methoxy, and halo, such as chloro and fluoro.

Preferably, the invention refers to compounds of formula (I), wherein R 1 is a residue of formula (A) connected to the phenyl ring of formula (I) in meta- or para-position

(A)

wherein R 4 is trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, para-hydroxy, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylaminosulfonyl, di-lower alkylaminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, morpholinocarbonyl, pyrrolidinocarbonyl, piperidinocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo;

preferably para-hydroxy, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylaminosulfonyl, di-lower alkylaminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, para-carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, morpholinocarbonyl, pyrrolidinocarbonyl, piperidino- carbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo;

and wherein the phenyl ring of formula (A) may be further substituted by chloro or fluoro; or of formula (B) or (C)

wherein R 5 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenyl-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo;

preferably hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, lower alkoxy, such as methoxy, benzyloxy, amino, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (D)

wherein R 6 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethyl- amino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo;

preferably hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, lower alkoxy, such as methoxy, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (E)

wherein R 7 is hydrogen, lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, lower alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, or aminomethylcarbonyl substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids;

preferably hydrogen or lower alkyl, such as methyl; or of formula G)

wherein R is carboxy or lower alkoxycarbonyl; X or Y or Z, or X and Z, or Y and Z are nitrogen atoms and the other atoms X, Y and Z are carbon atoms; or of formula (H)

wherein R 9 is carboxy or lower alkoxycarbonyl; and

prodrugs and salts thereof.

Also preferred are compounds of formula (I), wherein R 1 is a residue of formula (A)

(A)

wherein R 4 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethyl- amino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (B) or (C) wherein R 5 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethyl- amino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (D)

wherein R 6 is hydrogen, trifluoromethyl, cylcopropyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkoxy-lower alkoxy, phenoxy, hydroxysulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, lower alkylsulfonyl, amino, lower alkylcarbonylamino, benzoylamino, carboxymethylamino or lower alkoxycarbonylmethyl- amino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting substituent corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, aminomethylcarbonylamino substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids, carboxy, lower alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, hydroxylaminocarbonyl, tetrazolyl, nitro, cyano, or halo; or of formula (E)

wherein R 7 is hydrogen, lower alkyl, lower alkoxy-lower alkyl, lower alkylcarbonyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbonyl, or aminomethylcarbonyl substituted at the methyl group such that the resulting acyl group corresponds to one of the 20 naturally occurring standard amino acids; and

prodrugs and salts thereof

for use in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, such as infectious diseases caused by virulent strains of E.coli, in particular urinary tract infections.

Preferred prodrugs are the tetraacetates.

Most preferred are the compounds of the examples, in particular the examples 1 -71 .

A compound of the invention may be prepared by processes that, though not applied hitherto for the new compounds of the present invention, are known per se, in particular a process, wherein a compound of formula (I), wherein the hydroxy functions of the a-D- mannopyranoside are protected and wherein R 1 is halogen, is condensed with a reagent replacing halogen by aryl, heteroaryl of heterocyclyl, the protective groups are removed, and, if so desired, an obtainable compound of formula (I) is converted into another compound of formula (I), a compound of formula (I) is converted into a prodrug, a free compound of formula (I) is converted into a salt, an obtainable salt of a compound of formula (I) is converted into the free compound or another salt, and/or a mixture of isomeric compounds of formula (I) is separated into the individual isomers.

Suitable reagents for replacing halogen R 1 by aryl, carbon-linked heteroaryl or carbon- linked heterocyclyl are, e.g., boronic acids in the presence of a palladium catalyst, a reaction known under the name of Suzuki reaction. Other reagents that can be used are described, for example, in M. Rubens, S.L. Buchwald, Accounts Chem. Res. 2008, 41, 1461 -1473. Alternatively, halogen R 1 may be replaced by cyano and the heteroaryl or heterocyclyl group constructed by addition and further ring elaboration starting by addition reactions to the cyano function, see, for example, N.A. Bokach, V.Y. Kukushkin, Russ. Chem. Bull. 2006, 55, 1869-1882. Suitable reagents for replacing halogen R 1 by nitrogen-linked heteroaryl or nitrogen-linked heterocyclyl are, e.g., the corresponding heteroaryl or heterocyclyl compound in the presence of strong base and optionally a catalyst, whereby halogen R 1 is preferably iodine.

The protecting groups may already be present in precursors and should protect the functional groups concerned against unwanted secondary reactions, such as acylations, etherifications, esterifications, oxidations, solvolysis, and similar reactions. It is a characteristic of protecting groups that they lend themselves readily, i.e. without undesired secondary reactions, to removal, typically by solvolysis, reduction, photolysis or also by enzyme activity, for example under conditions analogous to physiological conditions, and that they are not present in the end products. The specialist knows, or can easily establish, which protecting groups are suitable with the reactions mentioned.

The protection of such functional groups by such protecting groups, the protecting groups themselves, and their removal reactions are described for example in standard reference books for peptide synthesis and in special books on protective groups such as T.W.

Greene & P.G.M. Wuts, "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", Wiley, 3 rd edition 1999.

In the additional process steps, carried out as desired, functional groups of the starting compounds which should not take part in the reaction may be present in unprotected form or may be protected for example by one or more of the protecting groups mentioned hereinabove under "protecting groups". The protecting groups are then wholly or partly removed according to one of the methods described there.

In the conversion of an obtainable compound of formula (I) into another compound of formula (I), an amino group may be alkylated or acylated to give the correspondingly substituted compounds. Alkylation may be performed with an alkyl halide or an activated alkyl ester. For methylation, diazomethane may be used. Alkylation may also be performed with an aldehyde under reducing conditions. For acylation the corresponding acyl chloride is preferred. Alternatively, an acid anhydride may be used, or acylation may be accomplished with the free acid under conditions used for amide formation known per se in peptide chemistry, e.g. with activating agents for the carboxy group, such as 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole, optionally in the presence of suitable catalysts or co-reagents. Furthermore amine may be transformed into heteroaryl and heterocyclyl under reaction conditions typical for such cyclizations.

A hydroxy group may be alkylated (etherified) or acylated (esterified) to give the correspondingly substituted compounds in a procedure related to the one described for an amino group. Alkylation may be performed with an alkyl halide or an activated alkyl ester. For methylation, diazomethane may be used. For acylation the corresponding acyl chloride or acid anhydride may be used, or acylation may be accomplished with the free acid and a suitable activating agent.

Reduction of a nitro group in a nitro-substituted aryl or heteroaryl group to give the corresponding amino group is done, e.g., with iron powder in alcohol or with other reducing agents.

A carboxy group in a carboxy-substituted aryl or heteroaryl group may be amidated under conditions used for amide formation known per se in peptide chemistry, e.g. with the corresponding amine and an activating agent for the carboxy group, such as 1 -hydroxy- benzotriazole, optionally in the presence of suitable catalysts or co-reagents.

A chloro, bromo or iodo substitutent in an aryl or heteroaryl group may be replaced by phenyl or a phenyl derivative by reaction with a suitable phenylboronic acid in a Suzuki reaction as described above. Prodrugs of a compound of formula (I) are prepared in a manner known per se, in particular by a standard esterification reaction. Tetraacetates are usually formed already at the stage of an intermediate, since the acetyl group is also a customary protecting group in sugar chemistry. In this case, benzyl esters are used in the aglycone to allow their selective deprotection.

Salts of a compound of formula (I) with a salt-forming group may be prepared in a manner known per se. Acid addition salts of compounds of formula (I) may thus be obtained by treatment with an acid or with a suitable anion exchange reagent. Salts can usually be converted to free compounds, e.g. by treating with suitable basic agents, for example with alkali metal carbonates, alkali metal hydrogencarbonates, or alkali metal hydroxides, typically potassium carbonate or sodium hydroxide.

It should be emphasized that reactions analogous to the conversions mentioned in this chapter may also take place at the level of appropriate intermediates. All process steps described here can be carried out under known reaction conditions, preferably under those specifically mentioned, in the absence of or usually in the presence of solvents or diluents, preferably such as are inert to the reagents used and able to dissolve these, in the absence or presence of catalysts, condensing agents or neutralising agents, for example ion exchangers, typically cation exchangers, for example in the H + form, depending on the type of reaction and/or reactants at reduced, normal, or elevated temperature, for example in the range from -100°C to about 190°C, preferably from about -80°C to about 150°C, for example at -80 to +60°C, at -20 to +40°C, at r.t., or at the boiling point of the solvent used, under atmospheric pressure or in a closed vessel, where appropriate under pressure, and/or in an inert atmosphere, for example under argon or nitrogen.

Salts may be present in all starting compounds and transients, if these contain salt- forming groups. Salts may also be present during the reaction of such compounds, provided the reaction is not thereby disturbed.

At all reaction stages, isomeric mixtures that occur can be separated into their individual isomers, e.g. diastereomers or enantiomers, or into any mixtures of isomers, e.g.

racemates or diastereomeric mixtures.

The invention relates also to those forms of the process in which one starts from a compound obtainable at any stage as a transient and carries out the missing steps, or breaks off the process at any stage, or forms a starting material under the reaction conditions, or uses said starting material in the form of a reactive derivative or salt, or produces a compound obtainable by means of the process according to the invention and further processes the said compound in situ. In the preferred embodiment, one starts from those starting materials which lead to the compounds described hereinabove as preferred, particularly as especially preferred, primarily preferred, and/or preferred above all. In the preferred embodiment, a compound of formula (I) is prepared according to or in analogy to the processes and process steps defined in the Examples.

The compounds of formula (I), including their salts, are also obtainable in the form of hydrates, or their crystals can include for example the solvent used for crystallization, i.e. be present as solvates. New starting materials and/or intermediates, as well as processes for the preparation thereof, are likewise the subject of this invention. In the preferred embodiment, such starting materials are used and reaction conditions so selected as to enable the preferred compounds to be obtained.

Starting materials of formula (I) are known, commercially available, or can be synthesized in analogy to or according to methods that are known in the art. In particular, compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is halogen are obtained in a reaction of a suitably activated and protected a-D-mannopyranoside, for example the corresponding trichloroacetimidate, or also 1 -haloglycosides or thioglycosides, with a phenol, benzyl alcohol or phenylethanol, respectively, bearing the proper substituents R 2 and R 3 , and R 1 as halogen.

The present invention relates also to pharmaceutical compositions that comprise a compound of formula (I) as active ingredient and that can be used especially in the treatment of infective diseases mentioned at the beginning. Compositions for enteral administration, such as nasal, buccal, rectal, uretal or, especially, oral administration, and for parenteral administration, such as intravenous, intramuscular or subcutaneous administration, to warm-blooded animals, especially humans, are especially preferred. The compositions comprise the active ingredient alone or, preferably, together with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The dosage of the active ingredient depends upon the disease to be treated and upon the species, its age, weight, and individual condition, the individual pharmacokinetic data, and the mode of administration.

The present invention relates especially to pharmaceutical compositions that comprise a compound of formula (I), a tautomer, a prodrug or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or a hydrate or solvate thereof, and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

The invention relates also to pharmaceutical compositions for use in a method for the prophylactic or especially therapeutic management of the human or animal body, in particular in a method of treating infective disease, especially those mentioned

hereinabove.

The invention relates also to processes and to the use of compounds of formula (I) thereof for the preparation of pharmaceutical preparations which comprise compounds of formula (I) as active component (active ingredient). A pharmaceutical composition for the prophylactic or especially therapeutic management of an infective disease, of a warm-blooded animal, especially a human, comprising a novel compound of formula (I) as active ingredient in a quantity that is prophylactically or especially therapeutically active against the said diseases, is likewise preferred.

The pharmaceutical compositions comprise from approximately 1 % to approximately 95% active ingredient, single-dose administration forms comprising in the preferred embodiment from approximately 20% to approximately 90% active ingredient and forms that are not of single-dose type comprising in the preferred embodiment from

approximately 5% to approximately 20% active ingredient. Unit dose forms are, for example, coated and uncoated tablets, ampoules, vials, suppositories, or capsules.

Further dosage forms are, for example, ointments, creams, pastes, foams, tinctures, lip-sticks, drops, sprays, dispersions, etc. Examples are capsules containing from about 0.05 g to about 1 .0 g active ingredient.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention are prepared in a manner known per se, for example by means of conventional mixing, granulating, coating, dissolving or lyophilizing processes. Preference is given to the use of solutions of the active ingredient, and also suspensions or dispersions, especially isotonic aqueous solutions, dispersions or suspensions which, for example in the case of lyophilized compositions comprising the active ingredient alone or together with a carrier, for example mannitol, can be made up before use. The pharmaceutical compositions may be sterilized and/or may comprise excipients, for example preservatives, stabilizers, wetting agents and/or emulsifiers, solubilizers, salts for regulating osmotic pressure and/or buffers and are prepared in a manner known per se, for example by means of conventional dissolving and lyophilizing processes. The said solutions or suspensions may comprise viscosity-increasing agents, typically sodium carboxymethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, dextran, polyvinylpyrrolidone, or gelatins, or also solubilizers, e.g. Tween 80 ® (polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan mono-oleate).

Suspensions in oil comprise as the oil component the vegetable, synthetic, or semisynthetic oils customary for injection purposes. In respect of such, special mention may be made of liquid fatty acid esters that contain as the acid component a long-chained fatty acid having from 8 to 22, especially from 12 to 22, carbon atoms. The alcohol component of these fatty acid esters has a maximum of 6 carbon atoms and is a monovalent or polyvalent, for example a mono-, di- or trivalent, alcohol, especially glycol and glycerol. As mixtures of fatty acid esters, vegetable oils such as cottonseed oil, almond oil, olive oil, castor oil, sesame oil, soybean oil and groundnut oil are especially useful. The manufacture of injectable preparations is usually carried out under sterile conditions, as is the filling, for example, into ampoules or vials, and the sealing of the containers.

Suitable carriers are especially fillers, such as sugars, for example lactose, saccharose, mannitol or sorbitol, cellulose preparations, and/or calcium phosphates, for example tricalcium phosphate or calcium hydrogen phosphate, and also binders, such as starches, for example corn, wheat, rice or potato starch, methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl

methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, and/or polyvinylpyrrolidone, and/or, if desired, disintegrators, such as the above-mentioned starches, also carboxymethyl starch, crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone, alginic acid or a salt thereof, such as sodium alginate. Additional excipients are especially flow conditioners and lubricants, for example silicic acid, talc, stearic acid or salts thereof, such as magnesium or calcium stearate, and/or polyethylene glycol, or derivatives thereof.

Tablet cores can be provided with suitable, optionally enteric, coatings through the use of, inter alia, concentrated sugar solutions which may comprise gum arabic, talc, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol and/or titanium dioxide, or coating solutions in suitable organic solvents or solvent mixtures, or, for the preparation of enteric coatings, solutions of suitable cellulose preparations, such as acetylcellulose phthalate or hydroxypropyl- methylcellulose phthalate. Dyes or pigments may be added to the tablets or tablet coatings, for example for identification purposes or to indicate different doses of active ingredient.

Pharmaceutical compositions for oral administration also include hard capsules consisting of gelatin, and also soft, sealed capsules consisting of gelatin and a plasticizer, such as glycerol or sorbitol. The hard capsules may contain the active ingredient in the form of granules, for example in admixture with fillers, such as corn starch, binders, and/or glidants, such as talc or magnesium stearate, and optionally stabilizers. In soft capsules, the active ingredient is preferably dissolved or suspended in suitable liquid excipients, such as fatty oils, paraffin oil or liquid polyethylene glycols or fatty acid esters of ethylene or propylene glycol, to which stabilizers and detergents, for example of the polyoxy- ethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester type, may also be added. Pharmaceutical compositions suitable for rectal administration are, for example, suppositories that consist of a combination of the active ingredient and a suppository base. Suitable suppository bases are, for example, natural or synthetic triglycerides, paraffin hydrocarbons, polyethylene glycols or higher alkanols.

For parenteral administration, aqueous solutions of an active ingredient in water-soluble form, for example of a water-soluble salt, or aqueous injection suspensions that contain viscosity-increasing substances, for example sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sorbitol and/or dextran, and, if desired, stabilizers, are especially suitable. The active ingredient, optionally together with excipients, can also be in the form of a lyophilizate and can be made into a solution before parenteral administration by the addition of suitable solvents.

Solutions such as are used, for example, for parenteral administration can also be employed as infusion solutions.

Preferred preservatives are, for example, antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, or microbicides, such as sorbic acid or benzoic acid. The present invention relates furthermore to a method for the prevention and treatment of an infective disease, which comprises administering a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the radicals and symbols have the meanings as defined above for formula (I), in a quantity effective against said disease, to a warm-blooded animal requiring such treatment. The compounds of formula (I) can be administered as such or especially in the form of pharmaceutical compositions, prophylactically or therapeutically, preferably in an amount effective against the said diseases, to a warm-blooded animal, for example a human, requiring such treatment. In the case of an individual having a bodyweight of about 70 kg the daily dose administered is from approximately 0.01 g to approximately 1 g, preferably from approximately 0.05 g to approximately 0.1 g, of a compound of the present invention.

The following Examples serve to illustrate the invention without limiting the invention in its scope. Examples

General methods Commercially available reagents were purchased from Fluka, Aldrich, Merck, AKSci, ASDI or Alfa Aesar. Methanol was dried by distillation from sodium methoxide. Dichloromethane (CH 2 CI 2 ) was dried by filtration through Al 2 0 3 (Fluka, basic; 0.05-0.15 mm). Toluene was dried by distillation from sodium/benzophenone. Optical rotations were measured at 20°C on a Perkin Elmer 341 polarimeter with a path length of 1 dm. Concentrations are given in g/100 ml_.

NMR spectra were obtained on a Bruker Avance 500 UltraShield spectrometer at 500.13 MHz ( 1 H) or 125.76 MHz ( 13 C). Chemical shifts are given in ppm and were calibrated on residual solvent peaks or to tetramethyl silane as internal standard. Multiplicities are specified as s (singulet), d (doublet), dd (doublet of a doublet), t (triplet), q (quartet) or m (multiplet). Assignment of the 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra was achieved using 2D methods (COSY, HSQC). Microanalyses were performed at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Switzerland. ESI mass spectra were recorded on a Waters micromass ZQ instrument. High resolution mass spectra were obtained on an ESI Bruker Daltonics micrOTOF spectrometer equipped with a TOF hexapole detector. Microwave-assisted reactions were carried out with CEM Discover and Explorer.

Reactions were monitored by TLC using glass plates coated with silica gel 60 F 25 4 and visualized by using UV light and/or by charring with a molybdate solution (a 0.02 M solution of ammonium cerium sulfate dihydrate and ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate in aqueous 10% H 2 S0 4 ) with heating to 140°C for 5 min.

Column chromatography was performed on a CombiFlash Companion (ISCO, Inc.) using RediSep normal phase disposable flash columns (silica gel). Reversed phase

chromatography was performed on LiChroprep ® RP-18 (Merck, 40- 63 μηη). For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-methoxycarbonylphenyl or 4-carboxyphenyl (Examples 1 to 21 ) the following procedure is used: Glycosylation of different halogenated phenols 4a-f with trichloracetimidate 3 (obtainable from acetylated a-D-mannopyranoside 1 by selective deacetylation followed by condensation of 2 with trichloracetonitrile) under Lewis acid catalysis gives the mannosylated phenylhalides 5a-d (Scheme 1 ) and 5e-f (Scheme 2). In a following palladium catalyzed Suzuki coupling, the mannosylated phenylhalides 5a-f and 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid are converted under microwave conditions to the para-substituted biphenyls 6a-d (Scheme 1 ) and to the meta-substituted biphenyls 6e-f (Scheme 2). Compounds 7a-d (Schemel ) and 7e-f (Scheme 2) are obtained by Zemplen deprotection. Saponification of the methyl esters finally gives the sodium salts 8a-b (Scheme 1 ) and 8e-f (Scheme 2).

Scheme 1 . Synthesis of the para-series of biphenyl mannosides. (i) TMSOTf, PhMe, r.t, 5 h; (ii) 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid, Cs 2 C0 3 , Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 , dioxane, 120°C, 8.3 h; (iii) NaOMe, MeOH, r.t., 24 h; (iv) NaOH/H 2 0, r.t., 24 h.

6e-f 7e-f, R"=CH 3

(iv) Q

8e-f, R"=Na

Scheme 2. Synthesis of the meia-series of biphenyl mannosides. (i) TMSOTf, PhMe, r.t., 5 h; (ii) 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid, Cs 2 C0 3 , Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 , dioxane, 120°C, 8.3 h; (iii) NaOMe, MeOH, r.t., 24 h; (iv) NaOH/H 2 0, r.t., 24 h.

Example 1 : 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranose (2)

1 ,2,3,4, 6-Penta-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (1 , 10 g, 25.6 mmol) is dissolved in DMF (55 mL). Hydrazine acetate (3.54 mg, 38.5 mmol) is added and the mixture is stirred at r.t. under argon for 3 h. Subsequently, the reaction mixture is dissolved in ethyl acetate (80 mL). The organic layer is washed with water (2 x 100 mL) and brine (1 x 100 mL). The aqueous layers are extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 100 mL) and the combined organic layers are dried over Na 2 S0 4 . The solvent is removed in vacuo and the resulting residue purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with petroleum ether/EtOAc (4:1 to 1 :1 ) to give (2) (7.9 g, 89%).

Example 2: 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (3)

2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranose (2, 7.80 g, 22.4 mmol) is dissolved in dry dichloromethane (50 mL). Trichloroacetonitrile (1 1.25 mL) and cesium carbonate (730 mg, 2.24 mmol) are added and the reaction is flushed with argon. The mixture is stirred for 3.5 h at r.t. Removal of the solvent by evaporation under reduced pressure leaves a residue that is purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with petroleum ether/EtOAc (19:1 to 1 :1 ) to yield 3 (10.6 g, 96%). Example 3: 4-Bromo-2-chlorophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (5a) To a stirred solution of 2,3,4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl trichloracetimidate 3 (2.38 g, 4.84 mmol, 1 .0 equiv) and 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol (4a, 1 .20 g, 5.80 mmol, 1.2 equiv) in toluene (20 mL) under argon, TMSOTf (107 mg, 0.484 mmol, 0.1 equiv) is added dropwise via syringe. The reaction is stirred at r.t. for 5 h and then diluted with toluene (15 mL) and quenched with saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 solution (15 mL). The layers are separated and the aqueous layer is extracted with toluene (3 x 15 mL). The combined organic layers are dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 19:1 to 1 .5:1 ) to yield 5a (538 mg, 85%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +60.6 (c = 0.40, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.05 (dd, J = 2.3 Hz, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.10 (ddd, J = 2.7 Hz, 5.3 Hz, 7.6 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.24 (dd, J = 5.4 Hz, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.35 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.48 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-2), 5.56 (dd, J = 3.2 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 7.03 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.30 (dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 8.8 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.53 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.9, 21.1 (4C, 40Ac), 62.3 (C-6), 65.9 (C-4), 68.9 (C3), 69.4 (C-2), 70.1 (C-5), 96.9 (C-1 ), 1 15.9 (Ar-C 1 ), 1 18.4 (Ar-C), 125.7 (Ar-C 1 ), 130.8 (Ar-C), 133.3 (Ar-C), 150.6 (Ar-C'), 169.9, 170.0, 170.1 , 170.7 (4C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 22 BrCIOi 0 [M+Na] + : 559.0; found 559.0; Anal.: Calcd. for C 20 H 22 BrCIOi 0 : C 44.67, H 4.12; found C 45.08, H 4.14.

Example 4: 4-Bromo-3-chlorophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (5b) Compound 3 (900 mg, 1 .83 mmol) is treated with 4-bromo-3-chlorophenol (4b, 455 mg, 2.19 mmol) and TMSOTf (41 mg, 0.18 mmol) in toluene (9 mL) according to the procedure for 5a, Example 3. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/ EtOAc, 19:1 to 1 .5:1 ) to yield 5b (580 mg, 59%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +76.9 (c = 1 .00, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.01 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.17 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.01 (ddd, J = 2.3 Hz, 6.0 Hz, 9.8 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.05 (dd, J = 2.3 Hz, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.25 (dd, J = 6.0 Hz, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.32 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.39 (dd, J = 1 .9 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.44 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.48 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.87 (dd, J = 2.8 Hz, 8.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.26 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.50 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.9, 21.1 (4C, 40Ac), 62.3 (C-6), 66.0 (C-4), 68.8 (C3), 69.2 (C-2), 69.7 (C-5), 96.2 (C-1 ), 1 16.0 (Ar-C'), 1 16.9 (Ar-C), 1 18.8 (Ar-C), 134.3 (Ar-C), 135.3 (Ar-C'), 155.3 (Ar-C'), 169.9, 170.1 , 170.1 , 170.7 (4C=0); ESI-MS calcd for C 2 oH 22 BrCIOi 0 [M+Na] + : 561.0; found 561 .0; Anal.: Calcd. for C 2 oH 2 2BrCIOio: C 44.67, H 4.12; found C 44.79, H 4.10.

Example 5: 4-Bromo-2,6-dichlorophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (5c) Compound 3 (900 mg, 1 .83 mmol) is treated with 4-bromo-2,6-dichlorophenol (4c, 530 mg, 2.19 mmol) and TMSOTf (41 mg, 0.18 mmol) in toluene (9 mL) according to the procedure for 5a, Example 3. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 19:1 to 1 .5:1 ) to yield 5c (438 mg, 42%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +58.2 (c = 1 .07, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.01 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.16 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.15 (dd, J = 2.3 Hz, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.27 (dd, J = 5.1 Hz, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.67 (ddd, J = 2.2 Hz, 5.0 Hz, 10.2 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 5.33 (d, J = 1 .8 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.37 (t, J = 10.2 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.56 (dd, J = 3.3 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.75 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 7.46 (s, 2H, C 6 H 2 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.9, 21.0, 21 .1 (4C, 40Ac), 62.4 (C-6), 65.9 (C-4), 68.7 (C3), 69.4 (C-2), 71 .0 (C-5), 101 .3 (C-1 ), 1 17.9, 130.0, 132.1 , 149.2 (6C, 6Ar-C), 169.9, 170.0, 170.1 , 170.8 (4C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 21 BrCI 2 Oio [M+Na] + : 595.0; found 594.9; Anal.: Calcd. for C 20 H 21 BrCI 2 Oi 0 : C 41 .98, H 3.70; found C 42.22, H 3.73.

Example 6: 4-Bromo-3,5-dichlorophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (5d) Compound 3 (907 mg, 1 .84 mmol) is treated with 4-bromo-3,5-dichlorophenol (4d, 535 mg, 2.21 mmol) and TMSOTf (41 mg, 0.18 mmol) in toluene (9 mL) according to the procedure for 5a, Example 3. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 19:1 to 1 .5:1 ) to yield 5d (807 mg, 77%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +76.3 (c = 1 .00, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (2s, 6H, 20Ac), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.99 (m, 1 H, H-5), 4.05 (dd, J = 2.2 Hz, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.25 (dd, J = 6.4 Hz, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.31 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.38 (dd, J = 1 .9 Hz, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.45 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 7.19 (s, 2H, C 6 H 2 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.8, 20.9, 21 .0 (4C, 40Ac), 62.4 (C-6), 65.9 (C-4), 68.7 (C3), 69.1 (C-2), 69.8 (C-5), 96.3 (C-1 ), 1 17.3, 1 17.5, 137.0, 154.8 (6C, 6Ar-C), 170.0, 170.1 , 170.7 (4C, 4C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 21 BrCI 2 Oio [M+Na] + : 595.0; found 595.0; Anal.: Calcd. for C 20 H 21 BrCI 2 Oi 0 : C 41 .98, H 3.70; found C 41 .64, H 3.69.

Example 7: 5-Bromo-2-chlorophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (5e) Compound 3 (900 mg, 1 .83 mmol) is treated with 5-bromo-2-chlorophenol (4e, 455 mg, 2.19 mmol) and TMSOTf (41 mg, 0.18 mmol) in toluene (9 mL) according to the procedure for 5a, Example 3. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/ EtOAc, 19:1 to 1 .5:1 ) to yield 5e (654 mg, 67%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +52.2 (c = 0.96, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.10 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 4.26 (dd, J = 6.2 Hz, 12.1 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.33 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.49 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-2), 5.56 (m, 1 H, H-3), 7.14 (dd, J = 2.1 Hz, 8.5 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.24 (m, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.35 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.9, 21 .1 (4C, 40Ac), 62.4 (C-6), 66.0 (C-4), 68.8 (C3), 69.3 (C-2), 70.0 (C-5), 96.9 (C-1 ), 120.6 (Ar-C 1 ), 120.7 (Ar-C), 123.6 (Ar-C 1 ), 127.2 (Ar-C), 131 .6 (Ar- C), 152.0 (Ar-C'), 170.0, 170.1 , 170.8 (4C, 4C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 22 BrCIOi 0

[M+Na] + : 561.0; found 561.0; Anal.: Calcd. for C 2 oH 22 BrCIOi 0 : C 44.67, H 4.12; found C 45.18, H 4.21 .

Example 8: 3-Bromophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (5f)

Compound 3 (900 mg, 1 .83 mmol) is treated with 3-bromophenol (4f, 379 mg, 2.19 mmol) and TMSOTf (41 mg, 0.18 mmol) in toluene (9 mL) according to the procedure for 5a,

Example 3. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 19:1 to 1 .5:1 ) to yield 5f (645 mg, 70%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +66.8 (c = 1 .08, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.01 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.03 (2s, 6H, 20Ac), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.05 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 4.25 (dd, J = 6.4 Hz, 12.6 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.32 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.40 (dd, J = 1 .9 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.47 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H- 1 ), 5.50 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 7.00 (ddd, J = 1 .3 Hz, 2.3 Hz, 7.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.15 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.18 (dt, J = 1.4 Hz, 7.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.29 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.9, 21.1 (4C, 40Ac), 62.4 (C-6), 66.1 (C-4), 68.9 (C3), 69.4 (C-2), 69.5 (C-5), 95.9 (C-1 ), 1 15.7 (Ar-C), 120.1 (Ar-C), 123.0 (Ar-C'), 126.4 (Ar-C), 130.9 (Ar-C), 156.4 (Ar-C'), 169.9, 170.1 , 170.2, 170.8 (4C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 23 BrOio [M+Na] + : 525.0; found 525.1 ; Anal.: Calcd. for C 20 H 23 BrOi 0 : C 47.73, H 4.61 ; found C 47.81 , H 4.56.

Example 9: Methyl 4'-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-3'-chloro- biphenyl- 4-carboxylate (6a)

A microwave tube is charged with 5a (720 mg, 1 .34 mmol, 1 equiv), 4-methoxycarbonyl- phenylboronic acid (289 mg, 1 .61 mmol, 1 .2 equiv), cesium carbonate (1 .31 g, 4.02 mmol, 3 equiv) and Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (77.4 mg, 0.067 mmol, 0.05 equiv). The tube is closed, evacuated through a needle and flushed with argon. Dioxane (15 mL), already degassed for 30 min and flushed with argon for another 20 min, is added. The closed tube is degassed in ultrasonic bath for 15 min, flushed again with argon for 20 min and exposed to microwave irradiation at a controlled temperature of 120°C for 500 min. The solvent is evaporated in vacuo. The residue is dissolved in CH 2 CI 2 (10 ml_), washed with brine (2 x 10 ml_), dried (Na 2 S0 4 ), and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 5:1 to 0.5:1 ) to yield 6a (333 mg, 42%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +66.3 (c = 1 .06, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.03 (2s, 6H, 20Ac), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.20 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.92 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.08 (dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.17 (m, 1 H, H-5), 4.28 (dd, J = 5.4 Hz, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.39 (t, J = 10.6 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.54 (dd, J = 1.9 Hz, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.59 (d, J = 1 .8 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.62 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 7.24 (s, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.44 (dd, J = 2.2 Hz, 8.5 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.57 (A, A' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.65 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 8.08 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ); δ 20.9, 21 .0, 21 .1 (4C, 40Ac), 52.5 (OCH 3 ), 62.3 (C-6), 66.0 (C-4), 69.0 (C-3), 69.5 (C-2), 70.0 (C-5), 96.8 (C-1 ), 1 17.4, 126.7, 126.9, 129.5, 129.5, 130.5 (9C, 7Ar-C, 2ΑΓ-^), 136.4 (Ar-C 1 ), 143.6 (Ar-C 1 ), 151 .3 (Ar-C 1 ), 167.0, 169.9, 170.0, 170.2, 170.7 (5C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 28 H 29 CIOi2 [M+Na] + : 615.1 ; found 615.2; Anal.: Calcd. for C 28 H 29 CIOi 2 : C 56.71 , H 4.93; found C 56.79, H 4.92.

Example 10: Methyl 4'-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-2'-chloro- biphenyl-4-carboxylate (6b)

5b (50 mg, 0.09 mmol) is treated with 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid (20 mg, 0.1 1 mmol), cesium carbonate (91 mg, 0.28 mmol) and Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (5.4 mg, 0.006 mmol) in dioxane (1 mL) according to the procedure for 6a, Example 9. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 5:1 to 0.5:1 ) to yield 6b (41 mg, 74%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +78.1 (c = 0.98, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 1 .98 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.00 (2s, 6H, 20Ac), 2.14 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.87 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.04 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 4.23 (dd, J = 6.2 Hz, 12.8 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.30 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.39 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.48 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 7.01 (dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 8.5 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.22 (m, 2H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.41 (A, A' of AA'BB', J = 2.2 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.02 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 2.2 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ); δ 20.9, 21 .1 (4C, 40Ac), 52.4 (OCH 3 ), 62.2 (C-6), 66.1 (C-4), 68.9 (C-3), 69.4 (C- 2), 69.6 (C-5), 96.2 (C-1 ), 1 15.7, 1 18.3, 129.4, 129.6, 129.8, 132.8 (8C, 7Ar-C, Ar-C 1 ), 133.2 (Ar-C 1 ), 134.6 (Ar-C 1 ), 143.4 (Ar-C 1 ), 155.8 (Ar-C 1 ), 167.1 , 169.9, 170.1 , 170.2, 170.7 (5C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 28 H 29 CIOi 2 [M+Na] + : 615.1 ; found 615.2; Anal.: Calcd. for C 28 H 29 CIOi 2 : C 56.71 , H 4.93; found C 56.59, H 4.94. Example 1 1 : Methyl 4'-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-3',5'-dich loro- biphenyl-4-carboxylate (6c)

5c (50 mg, 0.09 mmol) is treated with 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid (19 mg, 0.10 mmol), cesium carbonate (85 mg, 0.26 mmol) and Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (5.1 mg, 0.004 mmol) in dioxane (1 mL) according to the procedure for 6a, Example 9. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 5:1 to 0.5:1 ) to yield 6c (26 mg, 30%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +60.6 (c = 1 .00, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (2s, 6H, 20Ac), 2.17 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.92 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.19 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.29 (dd, J = 5.0 Hz, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.75 (ddd, J = 2.0 Hz, 4.7 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 5.40 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-4), 5.61 (dd, J = 3.3 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.80 (s, 1 H, H-2), 7.55 (s, 2H, C 6 H 2 ), 7.56 (A, A of AA'BB', J = 9.5 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.09 (B, B' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.3 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.9, 21 .0, 21 .1 (4C, 40Ac), 52.4 (OCH 3 ), 62.5 (C-6), 65.9 (C- 4), 68.9 (C-3), 69.5 (C-2), 71.0 (C-5), 101 .4 (C-1 ), 127.1 (2C, 2Ar-C), 128.1 (2C, 2Ar-C), 129.6 (2C, 2Ar-C i ), 130.2 (Ar-C 1 ), 130.6 (2C, 2Ar-C), 138.6 (Ar-C 1 ), 142.3 (Ar-C 1 ), 149.4 (Ar-C 1 ), 166.8, 169.9, 170.0, 170.1 , 170.9 (5 C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 8H 28 CI 2 Oi2

[M+Na] + : 649.1 ; found 649.2; Anal.: Calcd. for CzsHzsC Oiz: C 53.60, H 4.50; found C 52.90, H 4.53. Example 12: Methyl 4'-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-2',6'-dich loro- biphenyl-4-carboxylate (6d)

5d (50 mg, 0.09 mmol) is treated with 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid (19 mg, 0.10 mmol), cesium carbonate (85 mg, 0.26 mmol) and Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (5.0 mg, 0.004 mmol) in dioxane (1 mL) according to the procedure for 6a, Example 9. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 5:1 to 0.5:1 ) to yield 6d (24 mg, 28%) as a white foam.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.92 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.08 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 4.29 (dd, J = 6.3 Hz, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H- 6b), 5.34 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.42 (dd, J = 1 .9 Hz, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.50 (m, 2H, H- 1 , H-3), 7.21 (s, 2H, C 6 H 2 ), 7.30, 8.10 (A, A' and B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.5 Hz, 4H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.9, 21 .1 (4C, 40Ac), 52.5 (OCH 3 ), 62.4 (C-6), 65.9 (C-4), 68.7 (C- 3), 69.2 (C-2), 69.7 (C-5), 96.3 (C-1 ), 1 16.9 (2C, 2Ar-C), 129.7 (2C, 2Ar-C), 130.1 (Ar-C 1 ), 130.3 (2C, 2Ar-C), 133.7 (Ar-C 1 ), 135.4 (2C, 2ΑΓ-^), 141.2 (Ar-C 1 ), 155.5 (Ar-C 1 ), 167.0, 169.9, 170.1 , 170.2, 170.7 (5C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 8H 28 CI 2 Oi2 [M+Na] + : 649.1 ; found 649.1 ; Anal.: Calcd. for CzsHzsC Oiz: C 53.60, H 4.50; found C 53.74, H 4.52. Example 13: Methyl 3'-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-4'-chloro- biphenyl-4-carboxylate (6e)

5e (355 mg, 0.66 mmol) is treated with 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid (143 mg, 0.79 mmol), cesium carbonate (645 mg, 1 .98 mmol) and Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (38.2 mg, 0.033 mmol) in dioxane (12 mL) according to the procedure for 6a, Example 9. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 5:1 to 0.5:1 ) to yield 9e (179 mg, 46%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +64.8 (c = 0.37, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 1 .85 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.19 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.92 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.06 (m, 1 H, H-6a), 4.19 (m, 1 H, H-5), 4.26 (dd, J = 5.8 Hz, 12.1 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.37 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.55 (s, 1 H, H-2), 5.62 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 7.26 (dd, J = 1 .4 Hz, 8.2 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.42 (s, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.46 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.59, 8.07 (A, A' and B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.2 Hz, 4H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.7, 20.9, 21.1 (4C, 40Ac), 52.4 (OCH 3 ), 62.4 (C-6), 66.0 (C-4), 68.9 (C-3), 69.5 (C-2), 70.0 (C-5), 96.7 (C-1 ), 1 15.9 (Ar-C), 122.9 (Ar-C), 124.5 (Ar-C'), 127.1 (2C, 2Ar-C), 129.7 (Ar-C'), 130.4 (2C, 2Ar-C), 131 .2 (Ar-C), 140.2 (Ar-C'), 144.0 (Ar-C'), 151 .7 (Ar-C'), 166.9, 170.0, 170.0, 170.2, 170.7 (5 C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 28 H 29 CIOi 2 [M+Na] + : 615.1 ; found: 615.2. Example 14: Methyl 3'-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4 - carboxylate (6f)

5f (48 mg, 0.10 mmol) is treated with 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid (21 mg, 0.1 1 mmol), cesium carbonate (93 mg, 0.29 mmol) and Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (5.5 mg, 0.006 mmol) in dioxane (1 mL) according to the procedure for 6a, Example 9. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 5:1 to 0.5:1 ) to yield 6f (29.6 mg, 56%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +69.8 (c = 1 .01 , CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (2s, 6H, 20Ac), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.19 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.92 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.09 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 4.26 (dd, J = 5.5 Hz, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.36 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.46 (dd, J = 1 .8 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.57 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.60 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.10 (dd, J = 1 .6 Hz, 8.1 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.31 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.35 (m, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.38 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.63 (A, A of AA'BB', J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.08 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.8, 20.9, 21.1 (4C, 40Ac), 52.4 (OCH 3 ), 62.4 (C-6), 66.1 (C- 4), 69.0 (C-3), 69.5 (C-5), 69.6 (C-2), 96.1 (C-1 ), 1 15.5, 1 16.3, 122.2, 127.3, 129.5, 130.3 (9C, 8Ar-C, Ar-C'), 141 .9 (Ar-C'), 144.9 (Ar-C'), 156.2 (Ar-C'), 167.1 , 170.0, 170.2, 170.2, 170.7 (5C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 8H 3 oOi2 [M+Na] + : 581 .2; found: 581.1 ; Anal.: Calcd. for C28H30O12: C 60.21 , H 5.41 ; found C 59.78, H 5.48.

Example 15: Methyl 3'-chloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (7a) To a solution of 6a (764 mg, 1 .29 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL), 3 M NaOMe in MeOH (1 10 μΙ_) is added. After stirring at r.t. for 24 h, the mixture is diluted with MeOH (40 mL), neutralized with Dowex 50 x 8 (H + ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 7a (69 mg, 12%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +97.4 (c = 1.01 , MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 3.64 (m, 1 H, H-5), 3.72 (m, 1 H, H-6a),

3.78 (m, 2, H-4, H-6b), 3.91 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.00 (dd, J = 3.4 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.1 1 (dd, J = 1 .8 Hz, 3.1 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.60 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.46 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.58 (dd, J = 2.2Hz, 8.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.69 (A, A' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.72 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 8.08 (B, B' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 52.7 (OCH 3 ), 62.8 (C-6), 68.3 (C-4), 71.9 (C-2), 72.5 (C-3), 76.2 (C-5), 100.8 (C-1 ), 1 18.7 (Ar-C), 125.58 (Ar-C'), 127.8 (2C, 2Ar-C), 127.9 (Ar-C), 129.9 (Ar-C), 130.3 (Ar-C'), 131.3 (2C, 2Ar-C), 136.4 (Ar-C'), 145.3 (Ar-C'), 153.5 (Ar-C'), 168.4 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 21 CI0 8 [M+Na] + : 447.0823; found 447.0820. Example 16: Sodium 3'-chloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (8a) To a solution of 6a (380 mg, 0.641 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL), 3 M NaOMe in MeOH (100 μΙ) is added. After stirring at r.t. for 24 h, 0.5 M NaOH (18 mL) is added and stirring continued for another 24 h. This solution is concentrated in vacuo and the residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 8a (222 mg, 80%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +61.6 (c = 1.00, H 2 0); 1 H NMR (D 2 0): δ 3.66 (m, 1 H, H-5), 3.73 (m, 2H, H-6a, H-6b),

3.79 (t, J = 9.8 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.07 (dd, J = 3.4 Hz, 9.8 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.14 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz,

1 H, H-2), 5.47 (bs, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.04 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.24 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.37 (A, A of AA'BB', J = 8.1 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.41 (bs, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.86 (B, B' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.1 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (D 2 0): δ 60.6 (C-6), 66.5 (C-4), 69.0 (C-2), 70.5 (C-3), 73.9 (C-5), 98.6 (C-1 ), 1 17.5 (Ar-C'), 123.9 (Ar-C'), 126.2 (2C, 2Ar-C), 126.4 (Ar-C), 128.4 (Ar- C), 129.6 (2C, 2Ar-C), 135.2 (Ar-C'), 135.3 (Ar-C'), 141.0 (Ar-C), 150.4 (Ar-C'), 175.0 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for Ci 9 H 18 CINa0 8 [M+H] + : 433.0666; found 433.0670. Example 17: Methyl 2'-chloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (7b) and sodium 2'-chloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (8b)

To a solution of 6b (240 mg, 0.404 mmol) in MeOH (10.5 mL), 3 M NaOMe in MeOH (35 μΙ) is added. After stirring at r.t. for 24 h, the mixture is split (1 :1 ). One part is diluted with MeOH (40 mL), neutralized with Dowex 50 x 8 (H + ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 7b (74 mg, 86%) as a white solid.

The other part is mixed with 0.5 M aqueous NaOH (6 mL) and stirred for another 24 h and then concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 8b (82.2 mg, 94%) as a white solid.

Methyl 2'-chloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (7b)

[a] D 20 +109.2 (c = 1 .02, MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 3.58 (ddd, J = 2.4 Hz, 5.4 Hz, 9.8 Hz,

1 H, H-5), 3.73 (m, 2H, H-4, H-6a), 3.79 (dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 12.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 3.90 (dd, J = 3.4 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.92 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.02 (dd, J = 1 .9 Hz, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.55 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.17 (dd, J = 2.5 Hz, 8.5 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.32 (m, 2H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.51 (A, A of AA'BB', J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.06 (B, B' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C- NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 52.9 (OCH 3 ), 62.8 (C-6), 68.3 (C-4), 71 .9 (C-2), 72.5 (C-3), 75.7 (C-5), 100.4 (C-1 ), 1 16.9, 1 19.3, 130.3, 131.0, 133.1 (9C, 7Ar-C, 2ΑΓ-^), 133.8 (Ar-C'), 134.8 (Ar-C'), 145.4 (Ar-C'), 158.2 (Ar-C'), 168.4 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 21 CI0 8 [M+Na] + : 447.0823; found 447.0823.

Sodium 2'-chloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (8b)

[a] D 20 +74.6 (c = 1.01 , H 2 0); 1 H NMR (D 2 0): δ 3.65 (ddd, J = 2.5 Hz, 5.1 Hz, 9.9 Hz, 1 H, H- 5), 3.75 (m, 3H, H-4, H-6a, H-6b), 4.03 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 9.6 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.12 (dd, J = 1 .8 Hz, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.58 (d, J = 1 .6 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.08 (dd, J = 2.5 Hz, 8.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.28 (m, 2H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.44 (A, A' of AA'BB', J = 8.3 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.90 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.3 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (D 2 0): δ 61.2 (C-6), 67.1 (C-4), 70.4 (C-2), 71 .0 (C-3), 74.1 (C-5), 98.7 (C-1 ), 1 16.3, 1 18.8, 129.3, 130.0, 132.7 (7C, 7Ar-C), 132.8 (Ar-C'), 134.3 (Ar-C'), 135.9 (Ar-C'), 141.9 (Ar-C'), 155.9 (Ar-C'), 175.8 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for Ci 9 H 18 CINa0 8 [M+H] + : 433.0666; found 433.0666. Example 18: Methyl 3',5'-dichloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxy late iZc)

To a solution of 6c (208 mg, 0.131 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL), 3 M NaOMe in MeOH (40 μΙ_) is added. After stirring at r.t. for 24 h, the mixture is diluted with MeOH (20 mL), neutralized with Dowex 50 x 8 (H + ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 7c (33 mg, 70%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +98.9 (c = 1 .01 , MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 3.79 (d, J = 3.4 Hz, 2H, H-6a, H-6b), 3.83 (t, J = 9.8 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 3.89 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 3.95 (dd, J = 3.3 Hz, 9.6 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.24 (dt, J = 3.3 Hz, 9.8 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.34 (dd, J = 1 .8 Hz, 3.1 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.43 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.68 (A, A' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.7 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.69 (s, 2H, C 6 H 2 ), 8.05 (B, B' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (MeOD): δ 52.9 (OCH 3 ), 62.6 (C-6), 67.9 (C- 4), 72.1 (C-2), 72.3 (C-3), 77.0 (C-5), 106.4 (C-1 ), 1 13.0 (Ar-C'), 128.2 (2C, 2Ar-C), 129.1 (2C, 2Ar-C), 130.9 (Ar-C'), 131.1 (Ar-C'), 131.4 (2C, 2Ar-C), 139.2 (Ar-C'), 143.6 (Ar-C'), 151 .5 (Ar-C'), 168.2 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 2 oCI 2 0 8 [M+Na] + : 481 .0433; found 481 .0430.

Example 19: Methyl 2',6'-dichloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxy late iZd]

To a solution of 6d (51 mg, 0.065 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL), 3 M NaOMe in MeOH (40 μΐ) is added. After stirring at r.t. for 24 h, the mixture is diluted with MeOH (20 mL), neutralized with Dowex 50 x 8 (H + ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 7d (29 mg, 77%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +96.7 (c = 1.01 , MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 3.54 (m, 1 H, H-5), 3.70 (m, 2H, H-4, H-6a), 3.78 (dd, J = 2.3 Hz, 12.1 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 3.85 (dd, J = 3.4 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.91 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.00 (dd, J = 1.8 Hz, 3.2 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.54 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.28 (s, 2H, C 6 H 2 ), 7.31 (A, A' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.3 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.06 (B, B' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.3 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (MeOD): δ 52.9 (OCH 3 ), 62.7 (C-6), 68.3 (C-4), 71.8 (C-2), 72.4 (C-3), 76.1 (C-5), 100.6 (C-1 ), 1 18.0 (2C, Ar-C), 130.6 (2C, 2Ar-C), 131.1 (Ar-C'), 131 .7 (2C, 2Ar-C), 133.8 (Ar-C'), 136.0 (2C, 2ΑΓ-^), 143.1 (Ar-C'), 158.0 (Ar-C'), 168.4 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 20 CI 2 0 8 [M+Na] + : 481 .0433; found 481.0432. Example 20: Methyl 4'-chloro-3'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (7e) and sodium 4'-chloro-3'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (8e)

To a solution of 6e (167 mg, 0.282 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL), 3M NaOMe in MeOH (35 μΙ) is added. After stirring at r.t. for 24 h, the mixture is split (1 :1 ). One part is diluted with MeOH (20 mL), neutralized with Dowex 50 x 8 (H + ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 7e (40 mg, 67%) as a white solid.

The other part is mixed with 0.5M aqueous NaOH (2.8 mL), stirred for another 24 h and then concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 8e (58 mg, 95%) as a white solid.

Methyl 4'-chloro-3'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (7e)

[a] D 20 +122.5 (c = 0.99, MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 3.75 (m, 3H, H-4, H-5, H-6a), 3.84

(m, 1 H, H-6b), 3.95 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 4.03 (dd, J = 3.4 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.16 (dd, J = 1 .8 Hz, 3.2 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.64 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.36 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 8.3 Hz, 1 H,

C 6 H 3 ), 7.51 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.70 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.77 (A, A' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.10 (B, B' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 52.8 (OCH 3 ), 62.8 (C-6), 68.5 (C-4), 72.0 (C-2), 72.5 (C-3), 76.1 (C-5), 101 .2 (C-1 ), 1 17.6 (Ar-C), 123.2 (Ar-C), 125.3 (Ar-C'), 128.4 (2C, 2Ar-C), 130.6 (Ar-C'), 131.3 (2C, 2Ar-C), 131 .8 (Ar-C), 141 .4 (Ar-C'), 145.8 (Ar-C'), 153.9 (Ar-C'), 168.4 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 21 CI0 8 [M+Na] + : 447.0823; found 447.0821.

Sodium 4'-chloro-3'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (8e)

[a] D 20 +108.3 (c = 1 .00, H 2 0); 1 H NMR (D 2 0): δ 3.77 (m, 4H, H-4, H-5, H-6a, H-6b), 4.1 1 (dd, J = 3.2 Hz, 8.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.23 (bs, 1 H, H-2), 5.59 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.24 (d, J = 8.2, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.40 (s, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.42 (d, J = 4.6, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.57 (A, A of AA'BB', J = 8.2 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.91 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.1 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (D 2 0): δ 60.7 (C-4), 66.6 (C-6), 69.8 (C-2), 70.5 (C-3), 74.0 (C-5), 100.0 (C-1 ), 1 16.4 (Ar-C), 122.6 (Ar-C), 123.5 (Ar-C'), 126.6 (2C, 2Ar-C), 129.5 (2C, 2Ar-C), 130.6 (Ar-C), 135.6 (Ar-C'), 139.9 (Ar- C), 141.5 (Ar-C'), 151 .0 (Ar-C'), 175.2 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for Ci 9 H 18 CINa0 8 [M+H] + : 433.0666; found 433.0665. Example 21 : Methyl 3'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (7f) and sodium 3'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (8f)

To a solution of 6f (195 mg, 0.349 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL), 3 M NaOMe in MeOH (40 μΙ_) is added. After stirring at r.t. for 24 h, the mixture is split (1 :1 ). One part is diluted with MeOH (30 mL), neutralized with Dowex 50 x 8 (H + ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by LC-MS (water + 0.2% HCOOH/MeCN + 0.2% HCOOH, 2.3:1 to 1 :1 ) to yield 7f (35 mg, 52%) as a white solid.

The other part is mixed with 0.5 M aqueous NaOH (3.5 mL), stirred for another 24 h and then concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by reversed-phase chromatography (water/MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 8f (51.9 mg, 75%) as a white solid.

Methyl 3'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (7f)

[a] D 20 +79.8 (c = 0.96, MeCN/H 2 0, 4:1 ); 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 3.47 (m, 3H, H-4, H-5, H- 6a), 3.61 (m, 1 H, H-6b), 3.71 (bs, 1 H, H-3), 3.87 (m, 4H, H-2, OCH 3 ), 4.51 (bs, 1 H, OH-6), 4.79 (bs, 1 H, OH-3), 4.86 (bs, 1 H, OH-4), 5.05 (bs, 1 H, OH-2), 5.47 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.14 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.41 (m, 3H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.84 (A, A' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.1 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.02 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.1 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 52.2 (OCH 3 ), 61 .1 (C- 6), 66.7 (C-4), 70.1 (C-2), 70.6 (C-3), 75.0 (C-5), 99.0 (C-1 ), 1 15.4 (Ar-C), 1 16.9 (Ar-C), 120.7 (Ar-C), 127.1 (2C, 2Ar-C), 128.5 (Ar-C'), 129.7 (2C, 2Ar-C), 130.2 (Ar-C), 140.2 (Ar- C), 144.4 (Ar-C'), 156.9 (Ar-C'), 166.0 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 22 0 8 [M+Na] + :

413.1212; found 413.1217.

Sodium 3'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylate (8f)

[a] D 20 +76.0 (c = 1.00, H 2 0); 1 H NMR (D 2 0): δ 3.78 (m, 4H, H-4, H-5, H-6a, H-6b), 4.09 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.19 (s, 1 H, H-2), 5.64 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.16 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.39 (bs, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.45 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.67 (A, A' of AA'BB', J = 8.0 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.94 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.0 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (D 2 0): δ 60.8 (C-4), 66.7 (C- 6), 70.0 (C-2), 70.5 (C-3), 73.5 (C-5), 98.4 (C-1 ), 1 15.9 (Ar-C), 1 16.5 (Ar-C), 121 .7 (Ar-C), 126.9 (2C, 2Ar-C), 129.6 (2C, 2Ar-C), 130.4 (Ar-C), 135.5 (Ar-C'), 141 .7 (Ar-C'), 142.5 (Ar- C), 156.0 (Ar-C'), 175.4 (C=0); HR-MS calcd. for Ci 9 H 19 Na0 8 [M+H] + : 399.1056; found 399.1055.

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-cyanophenyl and 4- tetrazolylphenyl (Examples 22-24) the following procedure is used:

(ίϋ) I

1 — I , R=H

Scheme 3. Synthesis of the tetrazole 11. (i) 4-cyanophenylboronic acid, Cs 2 C0 3 ,

Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 , dioxane, 120°C, 8.3 h; (ii) TMSN 3 , TBAF, THF, 85°C, 2 d; (iii) NaOMe, MeOH, r.t, 24 h.

Example 22: 4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-3'-chloro- biphenyl-4- carbonitrile (9)

Compound 5a (60 mg, 0.1 1 mmol) is treated with 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (20 mg, 0.13 mmol), cesium carbonate (109 mg, 0.34 mmol) and Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (6.5 mg, 0.006 mmol) in dioxane (2 mL) according to the procedure for 6a, Example 9. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 5:1 to 0.5:1 ) to yield 9 (22 mg, 35%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +75.1 (c = 1 .02, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.20 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.08 (dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.15 (ddd, J = 2.2 Hz, 5.1 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.27 (dd, J = 5.1 Hz, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.39 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.53 (dd, J = 1 .9 Hz, 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.61 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 7.25 (d, J = 9.1 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.41 (dd, J = 2.3 Hz, 8.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.60 (A, A' of AA'BB', J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.62 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.71 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.9, 21.1 (4C, 40Ac), 62.2 (C-6), 65.9 (C-4), 68.9 (C-3), 69.5 (C-2), 70.1 (C-5), 96.8 (C-1 ), 1 1 1 .5 (Ar-C'), 1 17.4 (Ar-C), 1 18.9 (CN), 125.3 (Ar-C'), 126.7 (Ar-C), 127.6 (2C, 2Ar-C), 129.5 (Ar-C), 133.0 (2C, 02Ar-C), 135.4 (Ar-C'), 143.7 (Ar-C'), 151 .8 (Ar-C'), 169.9, 170.0, 170.2, 170.7 (4C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 27 H 26 CINOio

[M+Na] + : 582.1 ; found 582.2; Anal.: Calcd. for C 27 H 26 CINOio: C 57.91 , H 4.68, N 2.50; found C 58.47, H 4.96, N 2.32. Example 23: 5-[4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-3'-chlo ro-biphenyl-4- yll-I H-tetrazole (10)

To a reaction vial equipped with a magnetic stirrer are added 9 (40 mg, 0.07 mmol, 1 equiv), trimethylsilyl azide (12 mg, 0.105 mmol, 1 .5 equiv) and 1 M tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) in THF (9.2 mg, 0.035 mmol, 0.5 equiv). The resulting mixture is heated under stirring at 85°C for 3 days. The crude reaction mixture is dissolved in ethyl acetate (10 mL) and TBAF is removed by washing the organic phase with 1 M HCI aqueous solution (3 x 5 mL). The organic layer is dried (Na 2 S0 4 ) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by silica gel chromatography (CH 2 Cl2/MeOH, 1 :0 to 4:1 ) to yield 10 (28 mg, 67%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +59.0 (c = 1 .00, CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.09 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.21 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.10 (dd, J = 1 .8 Hz, 12.1 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.18 (ddd, J = 1.9 Hz, 4.7 Hz, 9.9 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.29 (dd, J = 5.2 Hz, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.41 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.56 (m, 1 H, H-2), 5.60 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.63 (dd, J = 3.4 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 7.21 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.42 (dd, J = 1 .9 Hz, 8.5 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.62 (d, J =

2.1 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.64 (A, A' of ΑΑΒΒ', J = 8.3 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.16 (B, B' of AA'BB', J =

8.2 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 21.0, 21.1 (4C, 40Ac), 62.3 (C-6), 65.9 (C-4), 69.3 (C-3), 69.5 (C-2), 70.0 (C-5), 96.7 (C-1 ), 1 17.4 (Ar-C), 123.5 (Ar-C 1 ), 125.1 (Ar-C 1 ), 126.6 (Ar-C), 127.8 (2C, 2Ar-C), 128.1 (2C, 2Ar-C), 129.3 (Ar-C), 136.1 (Ar-C'), 142.1 (Ar-C'), 151 .2 (2C, 2ΑΓ-^), 170.1 , 170.5, 170.9, 171.0 (4C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 27 H 27 CIN 4 Oio [M+Na] + : 625.1 ; found 625.2.

Example 24: 5-[3'-Chloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-yll-1 /-/-tetrazole (1 1 ) To a solution of 10 (22 mg, 0.036 mmol) in MeOH (2 mL), 3 M NaOMe in MeOH (100 μΐ) is added. After stirring at r.t. for 24 h, the mixture is diluted with MeOH (10 mL), neutralized with Dowex 50 x 8 (H + ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by silica gel chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH, 1 :0 to 1 :1 ) to yield 1 1 (9 mg, 54%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +59.0 (c = 1.42, DMSO); 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 3.45 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 3.54 (t, J = 9.4 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 3.60 (d, J = 1 1.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 3.76 (dd, J = 3.1 Hz, 9.3 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.91 (bs, 1 H, H-2), 4.54, 4.82, 4.86, 5.18 (4bs, 4H, 4 OH), 5.55 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.46 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.69 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 8.6 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.83 (A, A' of AA'BB', J = 8.3 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.84 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 8.10 (B, B' of AA'BB', J = 8.2 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (DMSO-de): δ 60.9 (C-6), 66.5 (C-4), 69.9 (C-3), 70.6 (C-2), 75.5 (C-5), 99.3 (C- 1 ), 1 17.6 (Ar-C), 123.5 (2C, 2ΑΓ-^), 126.4 (Ar-C), 126.9 (2C, 2Ar-C), 127.0 (2C, 2Ar-C), 127.8 (Ar-C), 134.2 (Ar-C 1 ), 139.0 (Ar-C 1 ), 151 .3 (Ar-C 1 ), 157.2 (Ar-C 1 ); ESI-MS calcd. for Ci9H 19 CIN 4 06 [M+Na] + : 457.1 ; found 457.3.

In an alternative mode of synthesis, a-D-mannose pentaacetate is directly converted to the 4-bromophenyl derivative, which in turn is reacted to give a further compound of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-methoxycarbonylphenyl and 4-carboxyphenyl (Examples 25 to 27):

Scheme 4. (i) 4-Bromophenol (4g), BF 3 -Et 2 0, toluene, 30°C, 30 h; (ii) 4-methoxycarbonyl- phenylboronic acid, Cs 2 C0 3 , Pd 2 (dba) 3 , S-Phos, dioxane/toluene, 80°C, 14-134 h; (iii) NaOMe, MeOH, LiOH , H 2 0, r.t, 7d.

Example 25: 4-Bromophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (12)

1 ,2,3,4, 6-Penta-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (a-D mannose pentaacetate 1 , 500 mg, 1 .28 mmol, 1 .0 equiv) is dissolved in dry toluene (5 mL), 4-bromophenol (4g, 266 mg, 1 .53 mmol, 1 .2 equiv) is added and BF 3 etherate (30 μΙ_, 0.24 mmol, 0.2 equiv) is subsequently added via syringe. The mixture is stirred at 30°C for 30 h. The reaction mixture is cooled and dissolved in toluene (20 mL). The organic layer is subsequently washed with saturated NaHC0 3 solution (20 mL) and with brine (2 x 30 mL). The aqueous layers are extracted with toluene (2 x 40 mL). The organic layers are combined and dried over Na 2 S0 4 . Removal of the solvent by evaporation under reduced pressure leaves a residue that is purified by chromatography on silica gel (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 10:0.5 to 0: 10) to obtain 12 (248 mg, 38.5%) as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.06 (s, 9H , 3 OAc), 2.19 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.06 (m, 2H , H-5, H-6a), 4.27 (dd, J = 5.6 Hz, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.36 (t, J = 10.2 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.43 (dd, J = 1 .8 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.48 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.53 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.98 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.41 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.71 , 20.73, 20.74, 20.91 (4 OAc), 62.10 (C-6), 65.85 (C-4), 68.77 (C-3), 69.26 (C-2), 69.32 (C- 5), 95.88 (C-1 ), 1 15.59, 1 18.31 , 132.56, 154.65 (6C, C 6 H 4 ), 170.01 (4 C=0). Example 26: Methyl 4'-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4 - carboxylate (13)

Cs 2 C0 3 (176 mg, 0.54 mmol) is added to a dry Schlenk tube. After evacuating and subsequent flushing with argon 4'-bromophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno- pyranoside (12, 79 mg, 0.15 mmol, 1 .0 equiv) and 4-methoxycarbonylphenylboronic acid (42.3 mg, 0.23 mmol, 1.5 equiv) are added to the tube. Dioxane (2 mL) is injected and the tube degased in a ultrasonic bath for 10 min. Pd 2 (dba) 3 (1 .6 mg, 0.0015 mmol, 0.01 equiv) and S-Phos (3.2 mg, 0.0075 mmol, 0.05 equiv) are added, a change of colour from red to orange indicated formation of the activated catalyst. The reaction mixture is stirred and kept at 80 C for 14 h. The reaction mixture is diluted with CH 2 CI 2 (50 mL) and washed with saturated NaHC0 3 solution (30 mL), followed by brine (2 x 30 mL). The separated aqueous layers are extracted with CH 2 CI 2 (2 x 30 mL). The organic layers are combined and dried over Na 2 S0 4 . After evaporation of the solvent in vacuo the resulting crude product is purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with petroleum ether/EtOAc (10:2 to 10:4) to give 13 (60.7 mg, 69%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +80.8 (c = 1 , CHCIs); 1 H NMR (CDCI3): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.19 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.91 (s, 3H, CH 3 ), 4.08 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 4.27 (dd, J = 5.2 Hz, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 5.37 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.45 (dd, J = 1 .8 Hz, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.56 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-2), 7.16 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H, H ar), 7.57 (dd, J = 8.6 Hz, 18.0 Hz, 4H, H ar), 8.07 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, H ar); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.74, 20.75, 20.77, 20.95 (4 OAc), 52.19 (CH 3 ), 62.1 1 (C-6), 65.90 (C-4) 68.87 (C-3), 69.29, 69.37 (C-2, C-5), 95.79 (C-1 ), 1 16.91 , 126.70, 128.54, 128.69, 130.18, 134.84, 144.75, 155.70 (12C, C ar), 167.00, 169.78, 170.02, 170.05, 170.57 (5 C=0); MS (ESI) calcd. for C 28 H 3 oNaOi 2

[M+Na] + : 581 .2; found 581 .0.

Example 27: 4'-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (14)

Compound 13 (57 mg, 0.1 mmol) is dissolved in dry methanol (5 mL), a freshly prepared solution of sodium methoxide (0.3 mL) is added and the reaction mixture is stirred at r.t. After 95 h water (10 mL) is added to the reaction. LiOH (100 mg) is added. 7 days after start of the reaction, the mixture is neutralized by ion-exchange resin (Dowex 50 x 8), filtered and washed with MeOH. The solvent is removed in vacuo and the resulting residue purified by reverse phase chromatography (H 2 0/MeOH, 10:0 to 10:4) to yield 14 (14.3 mg, 37%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +103 (c = 0.1 , MeOH); 1 H NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ3.60 (m, 1 H, H-5), 3.72 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-6b, H-4), 3.89 (dd, J = 3.4 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.00 (dd, J = 1.8 Hz, 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.51 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.19 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.60 (dd, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 1.8 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.01 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.46 (s, 2H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (MeOD): δ 63.24 (C-6), 68.90 (C-4), 72.56 (C-2), 72.99 (C-3), 76.06 (C-5), 100.70 (C-1 ), 1 18.74, 128.00, 129.93, 131 .83 (12C, C 6 H 4 ); MS (ESI) calcd. for Ci 9 H 2 o0 8 [M] " : 376.12; found 376.12. For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 3-(5-nitroindolin-1 -yl)

(Examples 28 to 30) the following procedure is used:

Scheme 5. (i) 3-lodophenol (4h), BF 3 -Et 2 0, toluene, 40°C, 90 h; (ii) 5-nitroindoline, Cs 2 C0 3 , Pd 2 (dba) 3 , X-Phos, dioxane, Ac 2 0, pyridine, 80°C, 53 h; (iii) NaOMe, MeOH, r.t., 23 h.

Example 28: 3-lodophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (15)

A heated and evacuated flask is charged with a-D-mannose pentaacetate (1 , 2.00 g, 5.12 mmol, 1 .0 equiv) and 3-iodophenol (4h, 1 .36 g, 6.15 mmol, 1 .2 equiv). The reagents are dissolved in dry toluene under stirring and argon atmosphere. Then BF 3 -Et 2 0 (125 μΙ_, 1 .02 mmol, 0.2 equiv) is added dropwise. The reaction mixture is stirred for 90 h at 40°C. Ice-cold NaOH solution (1 M, 40 mL) and toluene (50 mL) are added to the reaction mixture and the phases separated. The organic layer is washed with brine (2 x 50 mL) and the aqueous layers are extracted with toluene (2 x 50ml_). The organic layers are combined and dried over Na 2 S0 4 . Removal of the solvent by evaporation under reduced pressure leaves a residue that is purified by chromatography on silica gel (petroleum ether/EtOAc, 10:1 .5 to 2:1 ) to obtain 15 (1 .57 g, 56%).

[a] D 20 +1 10.1 (c = 1 , CHCI3); 1 H NMR (CDCI3): 5 2.02, 2.16 (s, 12H, OAc), 4.04 (m, 2H, H- 5, H-6a), 4.25 (m, 1 H, H-6b), 5.32 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.39 (dd, J = 1 .9 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.47 (d, J = 1 .8 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.50 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 7.02 (m, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.38 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 7.3 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.47 (s, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.90, 20.99, 21 .06 (4 OAc), 62.36 (C-6), 66.07 (C-4), 68.90 (C-3), 69.40, 69.51 (2C, C-2, C-5), 95.98 (C-1 ), 1 16.33, 125.80, 131.16, 132.44, 156.16 (6C, C 6 H 4 ), 169.93, 170.1 1 , 170.15, 170.77 (4 C=0); MS (ESI) calcd. for C 20 H 23 INaOio [M+Na] + : 573.0; found 572.9. Example 29: 3-(5-Nitroindolin-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (16)

A dry Schlenk tube is charged with Cs 2 C0 3 (266 mg, 0.816 mmol, 3 equiv). The tube is evacuated for 30 min and then flushed with argon gas and 3-iodophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O- acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside 15 (150 mg, 0.272 mmol, 1 equiv) is added to the tube, followed by Pd 2 (dba) 3 (2.8 mg, 0.0027 mmol, 0.01 equiv) and X-Phos (6.5 mg, 0.0136 mmol, 0.05 equiv). The mixture is dissolved in dry dioxane (5 mL). The solvent is degassed in a ultrasonic bath for 20 min. Then 5-nitroindoline (67.3 mg, 0.41 mmol, 1 .5 equiv) is added. The mixture is heated to 80°C and stirred for 53 h. TLC (petroleum ether/ EtOAc 3:1 ) and mass spectroscopy helps monitoring the reaction and indicates formation of partially deacetylated mannoside during the progress of the reaction. For that reason dry pyridine (2 mL) and dry acetic anhydride (1 mL) are added 50 h after reaction start to regain fully protected mannoside. Then EtOAc (30 mL) and saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 solution (50 mL) are added to the reaction mixture. The layers are separated and the organic phase is washed with brine (2 x 50 mL). The aqueous layers are extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers are dried with Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is purified with silica gel

chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc, gradient from 10:1 to 1 :1 ). Compound 16 (128 mg, 80%) is obtained as an orange solid.

[a] D 20 + 59.3 (c = 1 , CHCI 3 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (m, 9H, OAc), 2.20 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.21 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.1 1 (m, 4H, CH 2 , H-6a, H-5), 4.26 (dd, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.37 (t, J = 9.9 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.43 (s, 1 H, H-2), 5.53 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 6.84 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 6.98 (m, 3H, C 6 H 4 , C 6 H 3 ), 7.30 (t, J = 8.1 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 8.00 (s, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 8.05 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.89, 20.92, 20.94, (3 OAc), 21.12 (OAc), 27.29 (CH 2 ), 53.36 (CH 2 ), 62.30 (C-6), 66.07 (C-4), 69.01 (C-3), 69.54, 69.56 (2C, C-2, C-5), 96.00 (C-1 ), 106.66, 107.96, 1 1 1.47, 1 14.09, 121.37, 126.13,130.70 (8C, arom. C), 143.38 (1 C, arom. C-O) 152.64, (1 C, arom. C-N), 169.92, 170.23, 170.25, 170.71 (4 C=0); MS (ESI) calcd. for C 28 H 31 N 2 0i 2 [M+H] + : 587.2; found 587.2. Example 30: 3-(5-Nitroindolin-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (17)

Acetylated compound 16 (127 mg, 0.21 mmol) is dissolved in dry methanol (5 mL), a freshly prepared solution of sodium methoxide (0.2 mL) is added and the reaction mixture is stirred at r.t. until TLC (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 4:1 ) shows disappearance of the starting material (23 h). Glacial acetic acid is used to neutralize the reaction mixture. The mixture is concentrated and purified by reversed phase chromatography (H 2 0/MeOH, gradient from 100:0 to 60:40) to yield the unprotected mannoside 17 (68 mg, 60%). [a] D 20 +105.5 (c = 1 , MeOH); 1 H NMR (MeOD): δ 3.07 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.53 (m, 1 H, H-5), 3.66 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-6b, H-4), 3.81 (dd, J = 3.3 Hz, 9.4 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.92 (dd, J = 1 .72 Hz, 3.1 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 4.00 (t, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.40 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 6.79 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 6.88 (m, 2H, C 6 H 4 , C 6 H 3 ), 6.98 (s, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.22 (t, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.85 (s, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.89 (d, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C-NMR (MeOD): δ 27.88 (1 C, CH 2 ), 54.34 (1 C, CH 2 ), 62.73 (C-6), 68.38 (C-4), 71.98 (C-2), 72.42 (C-3), 75.55 (C-5), 100.27 (C-1 ), 107.33 , 109.34, 1 13.37 (3C, C 6 H 4 ), 1 14.68, 121.91 , 126.81 (3C, C 6 H 3 ), 131.45 (1 C, C 6 H 4 ), 133.70, 144.43 (2C, arom. C-N), 154.32 (1 C, arom. C-O), 158.89 (1 C, arom. C-N); MS (ESI) calcd. for C 2 oH 22 N 3 0 8 [M+Na] + : 441.1 ; found 441 .2.

In an alternative mode of synthesis, compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(5-nitro- indolin-1 -yl) (Examples 31 to 40) are prepared:

3 4i,j 18, R = 4-I, R 2 = H

19. R 1 = 4-l, R 2 = 2-CI.

22, R 2 =H, R 5 =H 23, R 2 =H, R 5 =H

24, R 2 =CI, R 5 =N0 2 25, R 2 =CI, R 5 =N0 2

26, R 2 =CI, R 5 =H 27, R 2 =CI, R 5 =H

Scheme 6: (i) TMSOTf, PhMe, r.t.; (ii) Cs 2 C0 3 , 5-nitroindoline or indoline, x-Phos, Pd 2 (dba) 3 , PhMe, 80°C; (iii) NaOMe, MeOH.

Example 31 : 4-lodophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (18)

In a dry flask 3 (1 .0 g, 2.03 mmol) and 4-iodophenol (4i, 536 mg, 2.44 mmol) are dissolved in dry toluene (6 mL) under an atmosphere of argon. TMSOTf (45.1 mg, 0.203 mmol) is added and the mixture is stirred for 2.5 h at r.t.. The reaction mixture is diluted with EtOAc (50 mL) and saturated aqueous NaHC0 3 solution (100 ml_). The aqueous layers are extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic layer is dried over Na 2 S0 4 and the solvent is removed by evaporation under reduced pressure. The residue is purified by silica gel chromatography (gradient of 5%-20% EtOAc in petrol ether) to yield product 18 (2.7 g, 100%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +72 (c = 1 , CHCIs); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 6H, 20Ac), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.02 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 4.23 (dd, J = 5.6, 12.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.32 (t, J = 10.2 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.39 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.45 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.49 (dd, J = 3.5, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.84 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.56 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.86, 20.88, 21 .05, (4C, 40Ac), 62.24 (C-6), 66.00 (C-4), 68.92 (C-3), 69.41 , 69.48 (C-2, C-5), 86.01 (C 6 H 4 -I), 95.91 (C-1 ), 1 18.95, 138.69, (4C, C 6 H 4 ), 155.57 (C 6 H 4 - O), 169.89, 170.1 1 , 170.13, 170.67 (4 C=0 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 23 INaOio [M+Na] : 573.02; found 573.02. Example 32: 2-Chloro-4-iodophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (19) Following the procedure of Example 31 for the synthesis of 18, trichloroacetimidate 3 (500 mg, 1 .01 mmol) and 2-chloro-4-iodophenol (4j, 309 mg, 1 .22 mmol) are dissolved in dry (anhydrous) toluene (7 mL) under an atmosphere of argon. TMSOTf (22.56 mg, 0.1 mmol) is added and the mixture is stirred for 2.5 h at r.t. After work-up the residue is purified by silica gel chromatography (5-30% gradient of EtOAc in petrol ether to yield 19 (430 mg, 73%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +60.2 (c = 0.5, CH 2 CI 2 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 4.05 (dd, J = 2.3, 12.2 Hz 1 H, H-6a), 4.09 (ddd, J = 2.3, 5.3, 10.2 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.25 (dd, J = 5.3, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.35 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.48 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.50 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.55 (dd, J = 3.4, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.90 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.48 (dd, J = 2.1 , 8.7 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.70 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.90, 20.92, 21 .08 (4C, 40Ac), 62.24 (C-6), 65.90 (C-4), 68.85 (C-3), 69.38 (C-2), 70.04 (C-5), 85.77 (1 C, C 6 H 3 ), 96.72 (C-1 ), 1 18.78, 125.80, 136.85, 138.96, 151.42 (5C, C 6 H 3 ), 169.95, 169.97, 170.14, 170.66 (4 C=0). ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 22 CIIOi 0 [M+Na] + : 607.47; found 606.94.

Example 33: 4-(5-Nitroindolin-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside

To a mixture of 4-iodophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (18, 200 mg, 0.37 mmol), Cs 2 C0 3 (364 mg 1 .12 mmol) and 5-nitroindoline (91 .6 mg, 0.56 mmol) in a Schlenk tube under argon, x-Phos (9.1 mg, 0.019 mmol) and Pd 2 (dba) 3 (3.85 mg, 0.0037 mmol), which had been pre-stirred for 15 min at 40°C in dry toluene (3.5 mL), are added. The reaction mixture is degassed in an ultrasonic bath and stirred 140 h at 80°C. The reaction mixture is diluted in EtOAc (50 mL) and washed with aqueous satd. NaHC0 3 solution (2 x 50-100 mL) and brine (50-100 mL). The aqueous layers are each extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50-100 mL) and the combined organic layers are dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. 20 (163 mg, 75%) is obtained as an orange solid after silica gel chromatography (5-40% gradient of EtOAc in petrol ether). [a] D 20 +55 (c = 1 , CHCIs); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 6H, 20Ac), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.20 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.19 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.08 (m, 4H, CH 2 , H-6a, H- 5), 4.28 (dd, J = 5.2, 12.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.38 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.44 (dd, J = 1.8, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.50 (d, J = 1 .6 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.55 (dd, J = 3.5, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.73 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 4, C 6 H 3 ) 7.13 (m, 3H, C 6 H 4 , C 6 H 3 ), 7.21 (m, 1 H, C 6 H 4, C 6 H 3 ) , 7.95 (s, 1 H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ), 7.98 (dd, J = 2.3 Hz, 8.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C-NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.90, 20.92, 21 .09, 21 .65 (40Ac), 27.27 (CH 2 ), 53.85 (CH 2 ), 62.28 (C-6), 66.03 (C-4), 68.98 (C-3), 69.40 (C-2), 69.53 (C-5), 96.36 (C1 ), 105.52 (C 6 H 4 ), 1 17.81 ,1 17.92 (C 6 H 4 , C 6 H 3 ), 121 .32 (C 6 H 3 ), 122.03 (C 6 H 4 ), 126.27 (C 6 H 3 ), 128.40 (C 6 H 3 ), 137.21 (Car-N) , 169.90, 170.19, 170.23, 170.70 (C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 28 H 31 N 2 0i 2 [M+H] + : 587.19; found 587.29.

Example 34: 4-(5-Nitroindolin-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (21 )

Acetylated compound 20 (218 mg, 0.37 mmol) is dissolved in dry MeOH (2 mL). A freshly prepared solution of sodium methoxide (1 M, 1 mL) is added and the reaction is stirred at r.t, until complete consumption of starting material as observed by TLC (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 4:1 ). The reaction mixture is neutralized with acetic acid, concentrated and the residue purified by reversed phase chromatography (H 2 0/MeOH, gradient from 100% to 80% H 2 0) to yield the unprotected mannoside 21 (77.7 mg, 50%).

[a] D 20 +57 (c = 0.1 , MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 3.21 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.62 (m, 1 H, H-5), 3.75 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-6b, H-4), 3.90 (dd, J = 3.4, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.01 (t, J = 4.8, 13.1 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 5.48 (m, 1 H, H-1 ), 6.77 (m, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.20 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.3 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H, C 6 H 4 ), 7.99 (m, 2H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C-NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 28.03, 55.07, (2CH 2 ), 62.86 (C-6), 68.50 (C-4), 72.13 (C-2), 72.54 (C-3), 75.62 (C-5), 100.69 (C-1 ), 106.41 (C 6 H 3 ), 1 19.08 (2C, C 6 H 4 ), 122.02 (C 6 H 3 ), 123.52 (2C, C 6 H 4 ), 127.14 (C 6 H 3 ), 137.95 (Car-N), 154.98 (C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 23 N 2 O 8 [M+H] + : 419.14; found 419.17. Example 35: 4-(lndolin-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (22)

Following the procedure of Example 33, compound 18 (200 mg, 0.37 mmol) is reacted in a Schlenk tube with Cs 2 C0 3 (364 mg 1.12 mmol), x-Phos (9.1 mg, 0.019 mmol), Pd 2 (dba) 3 (3.85 mg, 0.0037 mmol) and indoline (91 .6 mg, 0.56 mmol) in toluene (3.5 mL) for 140 h. Compound 22 (94.3 mg, 47%) is obtained as a white solid after chromatography on silica gel (5-20% gradient of EtOAc in petrol ether).

[a] D 20 +39.3 (c = 1 , CH 2 CI 2 ); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.10 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.87 (t, J = 9.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.09 (dd, J = 2.2, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.14 (dd, J = 5.3, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.28 (dd, J = 5.3, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.36 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.43 (dd, J = 1.8, 3.4 Hz, 1 H,

H-2), 5.45 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.55 (dd, J = 3.4, 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.71 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ), 6.95 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ), 7.00 - 7.08 (m, 3H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ), 7.1 1 - 7.17 (m, 3H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.96, 21 .14 (4C, OAc), 28.42 (CH 2 ), 52.90 (CH 2 ), 62.41 (C-6), 66.23 (C-4), 69.14 (C-5), 69.27 (C-3), 69.70 (C-2), 96.62 (C-1 ), 107.80, 108.70, 1 10.20, 1 17.69, 1 18.88, 1 19.82, 125.22, 127.32 (12C, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ),

169.99, 170.19, 170.25, 170.3 (4 C=0); ESI-MS calcd. for C 28 H 31 NOi 0 [M+Na] + : 564.55; found 564.29.

Example 36: 4-(lndolin-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (23)

Compound 22 is dissolved in dry MeOH (3 mL), treated with NaOMe as described in

Example 34, and stirred over night at r.t. to afford the deprotected compound 23 (58 mg, 37%).

[a] D 20 +125.6 (c = 0.5, MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 2.99 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.64 (ddd, J = 2.4, 5.1 , 9.8 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 3.68 - 3.82 (m, 5H, H-6a, H-6b, H-4, CH 2 ), 3.89 (dd, J = 3.4, 9.4 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.99 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.39 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 6.58 - 6.67, 6.78 - 6.87, 6.88 - 6.99, 7.01 - 7.17 (m, 7H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 29.18 (CH 2 ), 54.02 (CH 2 ), 62.81 (C-6), 68.50 (C-4), 72.21 (C-2), 72.56 (C-3), 75.38 (C- 5), 100.91 (C-1 ), 108.61 , 1 18.96, 1 19.67, 121 .13, 125.97, 126.80, 128.08, 132.24, 141 .00, 149.39, 152.84 (12C, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 23 NO 6 [M+Na] + : 396.4; found 396.08.

Example 37: 2-Chloro-4-(5-nitroindolin-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno- pyranoside (24)

Following the procedure of Example 33, but using micro wave irradiation in place of heat, 2-chloro-4-iodophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside 19 (60 mg, 0.1 mmol) is microwave irradiated with Cs 2 C0 3 (100.2 mg 0.3 mmol), x-Phos (4.9 mg, 0.01 mmol), Pd 2 (dba) 3 (2.21 mg, 0.002 mmol) and 5-nitroindoline (50.5 mg, 0.3 mmol) in toluene (1 mL). Compound 24 (36 mg, 56%) is obtained as an orange solid after silica gel chromatography (0-35% gradient of EtOAc in petrol ether).

1H NMR (CDCIs): δ 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.19 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.20 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.06 (t, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.10 (dd, J = 2.2, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.21 (m, 1 H, H-5), 4.28 (dd, J = 5.1 , 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 5.39 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.46 - 5.54 (m, 2H, H-2, H-1 ), 5.59 (dd, J = 3.4, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.82 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.08 - 7.26 (m, 2H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.30 (d, J = 2.7 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.99 (m, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 8.03 (dd, J = 2.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 20.92, 20.94, 21 .1 1 (4C, 40Ac), 27.31 (CH 2 ), 53.70 (CH 2 ), 62.31 (C-6), 65.99 (C-4), 68.90 (C-5), 69.53 (C-2), 70.00 (C-3), 97.42 (C-1 ), 106.00, 1 18.45, 1 19.52, 121 .42, 122.33, 125.72, 128.43, 129.24, 131 .61 , 138.24, 147.91 , 152.91 (12C, 2C 6 H 3 ), 169.94, 170.04, 170.21 , 170.69 (4 C=0). Example 38: 2-Chloro-4-(5-nitroindolin-1 -yl)phenyl a-D-mannopyranoside (25)

According to Example 34, compound 24 (36 mg, 0.058 mmol) is treated with NaOMe (475 μΙ_) / MeOH (1 mL) and stirred over night to afford the deprotected compound 25 (16.5 mg, 63%).

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 3.19 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.60 - 3.82 (m, 6H, CH 2 , H-4, H-5, H- 6), 3.94 (dd, J = 3.3, 9.4 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.08 (dd, J = 5.2, 13.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.47 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 6.80 (m, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.21 (m, 1 H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.30 - 7.43 (m, 2H, C 6 H 3 ), 7.79 - 8.05 (m, 2H, C 6 H 3 ); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 27.93 (CH 2 ), 54.74 (CH 2 ), 62.73 (C-6), 68.27 (C- 4), 71 .88 (C-2), 72.40 (C-3), 76.04 (C-5), 101 .25 (C-1 ), 106.72, 1 19.65, 121 .31 , 121 .97, 123.31 , 126.83, 129.03, 130.67, 132.87, 133.05, 134.69 (12C, 2C 6 H 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 21 CIN 2 O 8 [M+Na] + : 475.8; found 474.96.

Example 39: 2-Chloro-4-(indolin-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (26J

Following the procedure of Example 34, compound 19 (60 mg, 0.1 mmol) is microwave irradiated with Cs 2 C0 3 (100.2 mg 0.3 mmol), x-Phos (4.9 mg, 0.01 mmol), Pd 2 (dba) 3

(2.21 mg, 0.002 mmol) and indoline (36.7 mg, 0.3 mmol) in toluene (1 mL). Compound 26 (25.6 mg, 43.3%) is obtained as an orange solid after silica gel chromatography (0-25% gradient of EtOAc in petrol ether).

[a] D 20 +42.6 (c = 1 , MeOH); 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 1 .97 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.00 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.01 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.14 (s, 3H, OAc), 3.06 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.82 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.05 (dd, J = 6.6, 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.14 - 4.28 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6b), 5.32 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 5.40 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.48 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.55 (dd, J = 3.4, 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 6.67 - 6.74, 6.94 - 7.19 (m, 7H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C NMR (CDCIs): δ 20.93, 20.96, 20.96, 21.13 (40Ac), 28.31 (CH 2 ), 52.60 (CH 2 ), 62.44 (C-6), 66.16 (C-4), 69.03 (C-3), 69.64 (C-2), 69.84 (C-5), 97.73 (C-1 ), 108.14, 1 17.18, 1 18.87, 1 19.53, 1 19.78, 125.38, 125.49, 127.37, 131 .30, 140.98, 145.58, 146.82 (12C, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ), 170.01 , 170.02, 170.19, 170.76 (4 C=0).

Example 40: 2-Chloro-4-(indolin-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (27)

According to the procedure of Example 34, compound 26 (26 mg, 0.045 mmol) is treated with NaOMe (370 μΙ_) / MeOH (1 mL) and stirred over night to afford the deprotected compound 27 (14.1 mg, 77%).

[a] D 20 +87.8 (c = 0.55, MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 3.05 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.59 - 3.88 (m, 6H, CH 2 , H-4, H-5, H-6), 3.94 (dd, J = 3.9, 8.3 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 4.08 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.2 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.39 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 6.68, 6.85- 7.02, 7.05 - 7.16, 7.19, 7.31 (m, 7H, C 6 H 3, C 6 H 4 ); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 29.29 (CH 2 ), 53.92 (CH 2 ), 63.02 (C-6), 68.60 (C-4), 72.26 (C-2), 72.70 (C-3), 76.16 (C-5), 101 .97 (C-1 ), 109.1 1 , 1 19.08, 120.50, 120.58, 120.87, 126.38, 128.35, 128.88, 130.59, 132.75, 142.02, 147.98. (12C, C 6 H 3 )

ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 22 CINO 6 [M+Na] + : 430.84; found 430.74.

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(1 -indolyl) (Examples 41 to 58) the following procedure is used:

19 28a, 5'-R 5 =H 29a, 5'-R 5 =H

28b, 5'-R 5 =N0 2 29b, 5'-R 5 =N0 2

28c, 5'-R 5 =C0 2 Bn 29c, 5'-R 5 =C0 2 Me

28d, 5'-R 5 =OMe 29d, 5'-R 5 =OMe

28e, 4'-R 5 =OCH 2 Ph 29e, 4'-R 5 =OCH 2 Ph 28f, 6'-R 5 =C0 2 Bn 29f, 6'-R 5 =C0 2 H

28g, 5'-R 5 = CF 3 29g, 5'-R 5 = CF 3 Scheme 7. (i)(a) Cul, K 2 C0 3 , L-proline, DMSO, 90°C, overnight or Cul, K 3 P0 4 , frans-1 ,2- cyclohexanediamine, dioxane, 106°C, overnight, (b) Ac 2 0/pyridine, DMAP, 2-4 h; (ii) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/lvleOH, r.t. Example 41 : 2-Chloro-4-(indol-1 -yl)phenyl a-D-mannopyranoside (29a)

Acording to Example 32, to a resealable Schlenk tube compound 19 (146 mg, 0.25 mmol), Cul (10 mg, 0.05 mmol), indole (35 mg, 0.3 mmol), K 2 C0 3 (86 mg, 0.625 mmol), L-proline (1 1 .5 mmol, 0.1 mmol), and a stir bar are added, and the reaction vessel fitted with a rubber septum. The vessel is twice evacuated and flashed with argon. Then DMSO is added under a stream of argon. The reaction tube is quickly sealed and the contents are stirred at 90°C overnight. The reaction mixture is cooled to r.t., diluted with ethyl acetate, and filtered through a plug of celite. The filtrate is concentrated and the resulting crude mixture acetylated with Ac 2 0/pyridine (DMAP). The reaction is quenched by addition of methanol, the mixture concentrated and the residue purified by silica-gel column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate 4:1 -1 :1 ) to provide 2-chloro-4-(indol-1 - yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside 28a (40 mg, 28%).

28a (40 mg, 0.07 mmol) is dissolved in dry methanol and treated at r.t. with 0.5 M

CH 3 ONa/MeOH (14 μί) until completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford the desired compound 29a (20 mg, 70%) as a white solid.

[a] 20 D +171 .6 (c = 0.18, MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.62-7.54 (m, 3H), 7.45-7.38 (m, 3H), 7.18 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.1 1 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.65 (s, 1 H), 5.61 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.14 (m, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.81 -3.69 (m, 4H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 151 .81 , 137.30, 136.22, 130.81 , 128.98, 127.04, 125.58, 124.98, 123.49, 122.06, 121.42, 1 19.23, 1 1 1 .00, 104.71 (Ar-C), 101 .03 (C-1 ), 76.1 1 (C-5), 72.38 (C-3), 71 .84 (C-2), 68.22 (C-4), 62.70 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 20 CIN0 6 [M+Na] + : 428.09, found 428.04. Example 42: 2-Chloro-4-(5-nitroindol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (29b)

Following the procedure of Example 41 , starting from 19 (1 17 mg, 0.2 mmol), but replacing indole by 5-nitroindole, compound 29b (54 mg, 60%) is obtained as a yellow solid.

[a] D 20 +85.7 (c = 0.25, MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 8.63 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.1 1 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.65-7.55 (m, 4H), 7.48 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.91 (d, J = 3.0 Hz,

1 H), 5.65 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.14 (m, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.83-3.72 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b), 3.66 (m, 1 H, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 152.73, 143.52, 140.14, 134.75, 132.99, 130.01 , 127.65, 125.75, 125.57, 1 19.1 1 , 1 18.95, 1 18.79, 1 1 1 .51 , 106.68 (Ar-C), 100.90 (C-1 ), 76.19 (C-5), 72.37 (C-3), 71 .78 (C-2), 68.18 (C-4), 62.69 (C-6); ESI- MS calcd. for C 2 oH 19 CIN 2 08 [M+Na] + : 473.07, found 473.03.

Example 43: Methyl 1 -[3-chloro-4-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyl)-1 /-/-indole-5- carboxylate (29c)

To a resealable Schlenk tube compound 19 (1 17 mg, 0.2 mmol), Cul (3.05 mg, 0.016 mmol), benzyl indole-5-carboxylate (55 mg, 0.22 mmol), K 3 P0 4 (159 mg, 0.72 mmol), frans-1 ,2-cyclohexanediamine (6.85 mg, 0.06 mmol), and a stir bar are added, and the reaction vessel fitted with a rubber septum. The vessel is twice evacuated and flashed with argon. Then 1 ,4-dioxane is added under a stream of argon. The reaction tube is quickly sealed and the contents stirred at 105°C overnight. The reaction mixture is cooled to r.t., diluted with ethyl acetate and filtered through a plug of celite. The filtrate is concentrated and the resulting crude mixture is acetylated with Ac 2 0/pyridine (DMAP). The reaction is quenched by addition of methanol, the mixture is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc 4:1 to 1 : 1 ) to provide 28c (57 mg, 40%).

28c (19 mg, 0.027 mmol) is dissolved in dry MeOH and treated at r.t. with 0.5 M

CH 3 ONa/MeOH (0.15 mL) until completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford the desired methyl ester 29c (10 mg, 80%) as an off-white solid.

1 H NMR (DMSO): δ 8.36 (s, 1 H), 7.82 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.77 (m, 2H), 7.56 (m, 3H), 6.86 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.57 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 3.93 (m, 1 H, H-2), 3.87 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 3.77 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.63 (m, 1 H, H-6a), 3.54 (t, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 3.50-3.44 (m, 2H, H-6b, H-5); ESI-MS calcd. for C 22 H 22 CIN0 8 [M+Na] + : 486.09, found 486.10.

Example 44: 2-Chloro-4-(5-methoxyindol-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno- pyranoside (28d)

According to Example 43, starting from 19 (100 mg, 0.17 mmol), but using 5- methoxyindole instead of benzyl indole-5-carboxylate, compound 28d (56 mg, 53%) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 7.55 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.38 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.33 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.29 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.22 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.12 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.89 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.60 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.64 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.60 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.57 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, H-2), 5.42 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.31 (dd, J = 10.0, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.23 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.13 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 3.87 (s, 3H, OMe), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.09 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 6H, 20Ac); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 170.47, 169.97, 169.80, 169.74 (4C, CH 3 CO), 154.68, 149.53, 135.79, 130.96, 129.78, 128.08, 126.07, 125.24, 123.20, 1 17.77, 1 12.74, 1 10.90, 103.73, 102.78 (Ar-C), 96.94 (C-1 ), 69.82 (C-3), 69.26 (C-2), 68.68 (C-4), 65.74 (C-6), 55.80 (OCH 3 ), 20.87, 20.70, 20.69, 20.68 (4C, CH 3 CO).

Example 45: 2-Chloro-4-(5-methoxyindol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (29d)

Acetylated glycoside 28d (50 mg, 0.08 mmol) is dissolved in dry methanol and treated at r.t. with 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH (17 μΙ_) until TLC control indicated the completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography

(CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford 29d (25 mg, 69%) as a white solid.

1H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.55-7.52 (m, 2H), 7.41 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.36-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.12 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.83 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.57 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.60 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.14 (m, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.82 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 3.81 - 3.67 (m, 4H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 156.06, 151 .61 , 136.41 , 132.45, 131 .45, 129.37, 126.65, 125.59, 124.59, 1 19.28, 1 13.47, 1 1 1.78, 104.55, 103.81 (ArC), 101 .04 (C-1 ), 76.08 (C-5), 72.38 (C-3), 71 .84 (C-2), 68.22 (C-4), 62.69 (C-6), 56.13 (OCH3); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 iH 22 CIN0 7 [M+Na] + : 458.10, found 458.1 1 .

Example 46: 2-Chloro-4-(4-benzyloxyindol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (29e)

According Example 43, starting from 19 (72 mg, 0.122 mmol), but using 4-benzyloxyindole instead of indole-5-carboxylic acid benzyl ester, 29e (20 mg, 34%) is obtained as an off- white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.76-7.26 (m, 9H), 7.07 (m, 2H), 6.75 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.66 (d, J = 6.5 Hz,1 H), 5.61 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.22 (s, 2H, OCH 2 Ph), 4.14 (s, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.83-3.67 (m, 4H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 153.85, 151 .82, 139.06, 138.75, 136.30, 129.49, 128.79, 128.48, 127.49, 127.05, 125.53, 124.99, 124.43, 121 .52, 1 19.17, 104.69, 103.09, 102.06 (ArC), 101 .01 (C-1 ), 76.08 (C-5), 72.38 (C-3), 71 .83 (C-2), 71 .01 (OCH 2 OPh), 68.22 (C-4), 62.69 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for

C 27 H 26 CIN0 7 [M+Na] + : 534.13, found 534.10. Example 47: 1 -[3-Chloro-4-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyl)-1 /-/-indole-6-carboxylic acid i29f]

Following the procedure of Example 43, starting from 28f (23 mg, 0.033 mmol) but using 2 N aqueous NaOH instead of sodium methoxide for deacylation, 29f (10 mg, 68%) is obtained as an off-white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 8.16 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 7.81 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.62-7.57 (m, 3H), 7.47 (m, 1 H), 6.73 (s, 1 H), 5.64 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.15 (s, 1 H, H-2), 4.02 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.83-3.73 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b), 3.68 (m, 1 H, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 173.12 (C=0), 152.27 136.87, 135.55, 134.00, 132.23, 127.42, 125.71 , 125.36, 122.69, 121.52, 1 19.21 , 1 13.29, 104.84 (ArC), 101 .02 (C-1 ), 76.14 (C-5), 72.39 (C-3), 71 .82 (C-2), 68.22 (C-4), 62.70 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 iH 2 oCIN0 8 [M+Na] + : 472.08, found 472.04.

Example 48: 2-Chloro-4-(5-trifluoromethylindol-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D- mannopyranoside (28g)

Following the procedure of Example 43, starting from 19 (146 mg, 0.25 mmol) but using 5- trifluoromethylindole instead of 5-methoxyindole, 28g (140 mg, 87%) is obtained as off- white foam.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 7.98 (s, 1 H), 7.56 (s, 1 H), (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.53 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.46 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.35 (m, 3H), 6.77 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.64 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.62 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.57 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.43 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.31 (dd, J =12.0, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.23 (ddd, J =10.0, 5.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.15 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 2.23 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.09 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 6H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 170.42, 169.97, 169.79, 169.71 (4 CO), 150.37, 137.23, 134.86, 129.51 , 128.50, 126.85, 125.49, 125.10 (q, J = 269.87 Hz), 123.20, 122.94,

1 19.42 (q, J = 3.5 Hz), 1 19.00 (q, J = 4.4 Hz,), 1 17.78, 1 10.41 , 104.75, 96.97 (C-1 ), 69.95 (C-5), 69.28 (C-2), 68.66 (C-3), 65.76 (C-4), 62.10 (C-6), 20.85, 20.68, 20.67 (4C, CH 3 CO). Example 49: 2-Chloro-4-(5-trifluoromethylindol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (29g) Acetylated glycoside 28g (1 10 mg, 0.17 mmol) is dissolved in dry methanol and treated at r.t. with 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH (34 μΙ_, 0.017 mmol). The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica- gel column chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford 29g (70 mg, 87%) as a white solid. 1 H N MR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.97 (s, 1 H), 7.61 -7.55 (m, 4H), 7.45 (m, 2H), 6.80 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.64 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.15 (m, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.83-3.73 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b), 3.66 (m, 1 H, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD) δ 152.41 , 138.75, 135.32, 131 .37, 130.14, 127.49, 126.75 (q, J = 268.75 Hz), 125.73, 125.41 , 123.64, 120.03 (q, J = 3.5 Hz), 1 19.65 (q, J = 4.13 Hz), 1 19.20, 1 1 1 .73, 105.43, 100.99 (C-1 ), 76.16 (C-5), 72.20 (C-3), 71 .81 (C-2), 68.23 (C-4), 62.71 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 iH 19 CIF 3 N0 6 [M+Na] + : 496.08, found 496.05.

33, R 5 =N0 2 34, R 5 =N0 2

Scheme 8. (i) 4A MS, TMSOTf, toluene, 2-fluoro-4-iodophenol (4k), r.t., 2 h; (ii)(a) Cul, K2CO 3 , L-proline, DMSO, 90°C, overnight, (b) (Ac) 2 0/pyridine, DMAP, 2-4 h; (iii) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH, r.t.

Example 50: 2-Fluoro-4-iodophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (30) A mixture of imidate 3 (4.05 g, 8.22 mmol), 2-fluoro-4-iodophenol (4k, 2.40 g, 10.08 mmol) and 4A molecular sieves in dry toluene is stirred at r.t. for 15 min, then TMSOTf (160 μΙ_, 0.84 mmol) is added at r.t. The mixture is stirred for 2 h, then filtered. The filtrate is diluted with EtOAc, washed with 5% aqueous NaHC0 3 , brine and dried over Na 2 S0 4 . The solvent is removed in vacuo and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc 4:1 to 2:1 ) to give compound 30 (4.44 g, 94%) as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 7.46 (dd, J = 10.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.38 (dt, J = 8.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.94 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.53 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.49 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.46 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.35 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.25 (dd, J = 12.0, 5.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.15 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.07 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 2.19 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.031 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.026 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 170.46, 169.90, 169.77, 169.71 (4 CO), 153.12 (d, ArC-2, 1 J CF =252.12 Hz), 143.37 (d, 2 J CF =10.75 Hz, ArC-1 ), 133.59 (d, J=4.0 Hz, ArC), 125.98 (d, 2 J CF =20.6 Hz, ArC-3), 120.61 (ArC), 97.29 (C-1 ), 85.26 (d, 3 J CF =6.8 Hz, ArC-4), 69.70 (C-5), 69.09 (C- 2), 68.55 (C-3), 65.70 (C-4), 62.02 (C-6), 20.83, 20.67, 20.65 (4C, CH 3 CO).

Example 51 : 2-Fluoro-4-(indol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (32)

Following the procedure of Example 43, starting from 30 (142 mg, 0.25 mmol) the iodo group is replaced by indole and the tetraacetate 31 hydrolysed to give compound 32 (22.3 mg, 23%) as a white solid.

[a] D 20 +125.7 (c = 0.19, MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.61 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.55 (t, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.50 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.39-7.36 (m, 2H), 7.30 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.17 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.1 1 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.64 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.56 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1 H, H- 1 ), 4.12 (dd, J = 3.0, 1.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.95 (dd, J = 8.5, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.77-3.72 (m, 4H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD) δ 154.70 (d, 1 J CF =245.88 Hz), 143.96 (d, J=10.88 Hz), 137.22, 136.46 (d, J=8.88 Hz), 130.87, 128.97, 123.51 , 122.06, 121 .44,

121 .35 (d, J=3.38 Hz), 121.00 (d, J=2.0 Hz), 1 13.74 (d, J=21.3 Hz), 1 1 1 .08, 104.74 (ArC), 101 .78 (C-1 ), 76.05 (C-5), 72.31 (C-3), 71 .83 (C-2), 68.21 (C-4), 62.70 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 2 oFN0 6 [M+Na] + : 412.12, found 41 1.97. Example 52: 2-Fluoro-4-(5-nitroindol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (34)

Following the procedure of Example 43, starting from 30 (1 14 mg, 0.2 mmol) the iodo group is replaced by 5-nitroindole and the tetraacetate 33 hydrolysed to give compound 34 (45 mg, 52%) as a yellow solid.

[a] D 20 +54.0 (c 0.44, MeOH); 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD) δ 8.63 (d, J = 2.0Hz, 1 H), 8.1 1 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.65-7.58 (m, 3H), 7.44 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.34 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H),

6.91 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.59 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.12 (m, 1 H, H-2), 3.95 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.5Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.84-3.69 (m, 4H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD) δ 154.62 (d, 1 J CF =252.12 Hz), 145.01 (d, J=10.63 Hz), 143.54, 140.08, 134.79 (d, J=8.88 Hz), 132.98, 130.06, 122.03 (d, J=3.50 Hz), 120.89 (d, J=1 .88 Hz), 1 18.95, 1 18.81 , 1 14.42 (d, J=21.25 Hz), 1 1 1 .60, 106.71 (ArC), 101.61 (C-1 ), 76.13 (C-5), 72.30 (C-3), 71.77 (C-2), 68.18 (C- 4), 62.70 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 oH 19 FN 2 0 8 [M+Na] + : 457.10, found 457.15.

Scheme 9. (i) 4A MS, TMSOTf, DCM, 4-iodo-2-methoxyphenol (41), r.t, 2 h; (ii)(a) Cul, K 3 PO4, irans-1 ,2-cyclohexanediamine, dioxane, 5-nitroindole, 106°C, overnight, (b) (Ac) 2 0/pyridine, DMAP, 2-4 h; (iii) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH, r.t.

Example 53: 4-lodo-2-methoxyphenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (35) Following the procedure of Example 50, imidate 3 (805 mg, 1 .64 mmol) is reacted with 4- iodo-2-methoxyphenol (4I), 4A molecular sieves, and TMSOTf in dry dichloromethane (in place of toluene), to give compound 35 (843 mg mg, 89%) as a white solid.

1H NMR (CDCI 3 ) δ 7.21 -7.17 (m, 2H), 6.82 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.57 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.51 (dd, J = 3.5, 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.42 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.34 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.28-4.23 (m, 2H, H-6a, H-5), 4.07 (m, 1 H, H-6b), 3.82 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.02 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ) δ 170.54, 169.93, 169.84, 169.76 (4 CO), 151 .54, 144.80, 129.81 , 121 .74, 120.81 (ArC), 97.42 (C-1 ), 69.46 (C-5), 69.37 (C-2), 68.81 (C-3), 66.08 (C-4), 62.27 (C-6), 56.06 (OCH 3 ), 20.88, 20.70, 20.68, 20.67 (COCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 iH 25 IOn [M+Na] + : 603.03, found 603.16.

Example 54: 2-Methoxy-4-(5-nitroindol-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno- pyranoside (36)

According to Example 43, starting from compound 35 (84 mg, 0.145 mmol) and replacing benzyl indole-5-carboxylate by 5-nitroindole, compound 36 (78 mg, 88%) is obtained as yellow solid.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ) δ 8.63 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.1 1 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.46 (d, J = 9.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.42 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.25 (m, 1 H), 6.99 (m, 2H), 6.84 (dd, J = 3.0, 0.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.63 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.57 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.21 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.40 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.34 (m, 1 H, H-5), 4.31 (m, 1 H, H-6a), 4.15 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 3.90 (s, 3H, OCH 3 ), 2.21 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.08 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ) δ 170.48, 169.98, 169.89, 169.72 (4 CO), 151 .72, 144.39, 142.18, 138.88, 134.80, 131.35, 128.27, 1 19.76, 1 18.29, 1 17.98, 1 16.95, 1 10.34, 109.58, 105.50 (ArC), 97.76 (C-1 ), 69.59 (C-5), 69.41 (C-2), 68.78 (C-3), 66.06 (C-4), 62.28 (C-6), 56.16 (OCH 3 ), 21.01 , 20.88, 20.70, 20.68 (COCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 29 H 30 N 2 Oi 3 [M+Na] + : 637.16, found 637.15. Example 55: 2-Methoxy-4-(5-nitroindol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (37)

Compound 36 (67 mg, 0.109 mmol) is dissolved in dry methanol and treated at r.t. with 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH (33 μΙ_) until completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford compound 37 (42 mg, 86%) as a yellow solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD) δ 8.62 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.08 (dd, J = 9.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.64 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.41 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.16 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.07 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.89 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.50 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.13 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.97 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.90 (s, 3H, OMe), 3.83-3.73 (m, 4H, H- 5, H-4, H-6a, H-6b); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD) δ 152.99, 146.56, 143.35, 140.30, 135.37, 133.22, 129.90, 120.56, 1 18.89, 1 18.58, 1 18.09, 1 1 1.70, 1 10.72, 106.26 (ArC), 101 .74 (C-1 ), 75.82 (C-5), 72.41 (C-2), 71 .97 (C-3), 68.37 (C-4), 62.77 (C-6), 56.76 (OCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C21 H22N2O 9 [M+Na] + : 469.12, found 469.19.

Scheme 10. (i) 4A MS, TMSOTf, DCM, 2,6-dichloro-4-iodophenol (4m), r.t., 2 h; (ii)(a) Cul, K 3 PO 4 , irans-1 ,2-cyclohexanediamine, dioxane, 5-nitroindole, 106°C, overnight, (b) (Ac) 2 0/pyridine, DMAP, 2 h; (iii) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH, r.t. Example 56: 2,6-Dichloro-4-iodophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranoside (38) Following the procedure of Example 50, imidate 3 (1 .37 g, 2.85 mmol) is reacted with 2,6- dichloro-4-iodophenol (4m, 988 mg, 3.42 mmol), 4A molecular sieves, and TMSOTf (77 μΙ_, 0.428 mmol) in dry CH 2 CI 2 to yield compound 38 (647 mg, 37%) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ) 5 7.46 (s, 2H), 5.76 (dd, J = 3.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.58 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.41 -5.36 (m, 2H, H-4, H-1 ), 4.68 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.28 (dd, J = 12.5, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.17 (dd, J = 12.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 2.18 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.08 (s, 6H, OAc), 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ) δ 170.60, 169.82, 169.71 , 169.65 (4 CO), 149.64, 137.61 , 129.84 (ArC), 101 .04 (C-1 ), 70.84 (C-5), 69.20 (C-2), 68.60 (C-3), 65.68 (C-4), 62.25 (C-6), 20.82, 20.72, 20.71 , 20.65 (COCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for

C 2 oH 21 CI 2 IOio [M+Na] + : 640.95, found 641 .06.

Example 57: 2,6-Dichloro-4-(5-nitroindol-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-manno- pyranoside (39)

According to Example 43, starting from 38 (124 mg, 0.2 mmol) and replacing benzyl indole-5-carboxylate by 5-nitroindole, 39 (74 mg, 57%) is obtained as yellow solid.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ) δ 8.63 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.17 (dd, J = 9.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.50 (m, 3H), 7.40 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.88 (dd, J = 3.0, 0.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.83 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.64 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.47-5.42 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-4), 4.76 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.32 (dd, J = 12.5, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.24 (dd, J = 12.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H- 6b), 2.21 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.1 1 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.10 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ) δ 170.59, 169.89, 169.72, 169.71 (4 CO), 148.95, 142.68, 138.38, 135.99, 130.60, 130.27, 128.68, 125.23, 1 18.60, 1 18.43, 1 10.16, 106.73 (ArC), 101 .40 (C-1 ), 71 .00 (C-5), 68.58 (C-2), 65.68 (C-3), 62.26 (C-4), 60.37 (C-6), 20.84, 20.74, 20.72, 20.66 (COCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 28 H 26 CI 2 N 2 Oi 2 [M+Na] + : 675.08, found 675.13.

Example 58: 2,6-Dichloro-4-(5-nitroindol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (40)

Compound 39 (57.2 mg, 0.0875 mmol) is dissolved in dry methanol (4 mL) and treated at r.t. with K 2 C0 3 (12 mg, 0.0875 mmol) until completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford compound 40 (21 mg, 50%) as a yellow solid. 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD) δ 8.63 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.14 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.70 (s, 2H), 7.68 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.62 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.94 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.51 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.39 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 4.27 (dt, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 3.99 (dd, J = 9.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.87 (d, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 3.83 (m, 2H, H-6a, H-6b); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD) δ 150.84, 143.85, 139.87, 136.99, 132.73, 131 .30, 130.34, 126.57,

1 19.15, 1 18.98, 1 1 1.58, 107.35 (ArC), 106.48 (C-1 ), 77.06 (C-5), 72.22 (C-3), 71.93 (C-2), 67.79 (C-4), 62.58 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for [M+Na] + : 507.03, found 507.16.

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(7-aza-5-chloroindol-1 -yl) and is 4-(7-aza-5-cyanoindol-1 -yl) (Examples 59-62) the following procedure is used:

Scheme 1 1 . (i) (a) Cul, K 3 P0 4 , frans-1 ,2-cyclohexanediamine, dioxane, azaindole, 105°C, 18 h, (b) (Ac) 2 0/pyridine, DMAP, 2 h; (ii) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH, r.t.

Example 59: 2-Chloro-4-(5-chloro-1 H-pyrrolor2,3-blPyridin-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O- acetyl-g-D-mannopyranoside (41 a)

To a resealable Schlenk tube compound 19 (88 mg, 0.15 mmol), Cul (2.3 mg, 0.012 mmol), 5-chloro-1 H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (27 mg, 0.18 mmol), K3PO 4 (133 mg, 0.6 mmol), irans-1 ,2-cyclohexanediamine (7.0 mg, 0.06 mmol), and a stir bar are added, and the reaction vessel is fitted with a rubber septum. The vessel is twice evacuated and flashed with argon. Then 1 ,4-dioxane (1.5 mL) is added under a stream of argon. The reaction tube is quickly sealed and the contents are stirred at 105°C overnight. The reaction mixture is cooled to r.t., diluted with ethyl acetate, filtered through a plug of celite, eluting with additional ethyl acetate. The filtrate is concentrated and the resulting crude mixture is acetylated with Ac 2 0/pyridine (DMAP). The reaction is quenched by addition of methanol, concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc 4:1 to 1 :1 ) to provide 41 a (74.5 mg, 82%) as white solid.

1H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 8.28 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.93 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.81 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.60 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.47 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.31 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.59 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.63 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.59 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.56 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.41 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.31 (dd, J = 12.5, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.21 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.1 1 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H- 6b), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.08 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCIs): δ 170.49, 169.94, 169.77, 169.73 (4 CO), 149.75, 145.60, 142.32, 133.84, 128.98, 128.37, 125.49, 125.02, 124.88, 123.09, 122.20, 1 17.46, 101 .63, 96.88 (C-1 ),

69.85 (C-5), 69.29 (C-2), 68.73 (C-3), 65.77 (C-4), 62.06 (C-6), 20.85, 20.69, 20.68, 20.66 (COCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 7H 26 CI 2 N 2 Oio [M+Na] + : 631 .09, found 631 .32.

Example 60: 1 -[4-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-3-chlorop henyll-1 H- pyrrolor2,3-blpyridine-5-carbonitrile (41 b)

To a resealable Schlenk tube 19 (146.2 mg, 0.25 mmol), Cul (3.81 mg, 0.02 mmol), 1 H- pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile (39 mg, 0.0.275 mmol), K 3 PO4 (221 mg, 1 .0 mmol), frans-1 ,2-cyclohexanediamine (8.6 mg, 0.075 mmol), and a stir bar are added, and the reaction vessel is fitted with a rubber septum. The vessel is twice evacuated and flashed with argon. Then 1 ,4-dioxane (2.0 mL) is added under a stream of argon. The reaction tube is quickly sealed and the contents are stirred at 105°C overnight. The reaction mixture is cooled to r.t., diluted with ethyl acetate and filtered through a plug of celite. The filtrate is concentrated and the resulting crude mixture is acetylated with Ac 2 0/pyridine (DMAP). The reaction is quenched by addition of methanol, the mixture is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc 2:1 to 3:2) to provide 41 b (120 mg, 80%) as white solid.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 8.57 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.25 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.78 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.58 (m, 2H), 7.33 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.73 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.62 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.60 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.54 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.41 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.29 (dd, J = 12.0, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.18 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.10 (m, 1 H, H-6b), 2.21 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 170.39, 169.88, 169.72, 169.64 (4 CO), 150.26, 147.74, 146.25, 133.19, 132.92, 130.19, 126.36, 125.06, 123.46, 120.64, 1 18.26, 1 17.32, 102.77, 102.28, 96.76 (C-1 ), 69.86 (C-5), 69.18 (C-2), 68.63 (C-3), 65.66 (C-4), 61.98 (C-6), 20.79, 20.63, 20.61 , 20.60 (COCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 28 H 26 CIN 3 Oio [M+Na] + : 622.12, found 622.10. Example 61 : 2-Chloro-4-(5-chloro-1 /-/-pyrrolor2,3-blpyridin-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-manno- pyranoside (42a)

To a solution of 41 a (74.5 mg, 0.122 mmol) in dry methanol (2 mL) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH (24 μί) is added at r.t. and then stirred for 2 h. The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford 42a (34 mg, 63%) as white solid. 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 8.23 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.06 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.90 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.73 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.63 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.52 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.66 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.60 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.14 (dd, J = 3.0, 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.82-3.72 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b), 3.68 ( m, 1 H, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 151 .88, 146.85, 142.64, 134.37, 131 .20, 129.67, 126.78, 125.81 , 125.22, 124.44, 124.08, 1 18.82, 102.61 , 101.02 (C-1 ), 76.06 (C-5), 72.40 (C-3), 71 .84 (C- 2), 68.22 (C-4), 62.67 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for Ci 9 H 18 CI 2 N 2 0 6 [M+Na] + : 463.04, found 463.02.

Example 62: 1 -[3-Chloro-4-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-1 /-/-pyrrolor2,3-blpyridine-5- carbonitrile (42b)

To a solution of 41 b (1 12 mg, 0.187 mmol) in dry methanol (4 mL) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH (40 μί) is added at r.t. and then stirred for 2 h. The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford 42b (73 mg, 91 %) as white solid. 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 8.58 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.45 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.91 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.86 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.65 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.54 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.82 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.62 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.14 (dd, J =3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J =9.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.82-3.72 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b), 3.66 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 152.28, 149.09, 147.03, 134.69, 133.72, 132.29, 127.15, 125.23, 124.83, 122.49, 1 19.27, 1 18.72, 103.79, 103.20, 100.97 (C-1 ), 76.10 (C- 5), 72.40 (C-3), 71 .81 (C-2), 68.21 (C-4), 62.67 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for C 20 H 18 CIN 3 O6 [M+Na] + : 454.08, found 454.07.

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(7-aza-5-indol-5-yl)

(Examples 63-64) the following procedure is used:

Scheme 12. (i) K 3 P0 4 , dioxane, 5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1 H- pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine, Pd(Ph 3 P) 4 ,100°C, overnight; (ii) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH, r.t. Example 63: 2-Chloro-4-(1 H-pyrrolor2,3-blPyridin-5-yl)phenyl 2,3,4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-g-D- mannopyranoside (43)

To a resealable Schlenk tube compound 19 (88 mg, 0.15 mmol), Pd(Ph 3 P) (5.2 mg, 0.0045 mmol), 5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1 H-pyrolo-[2,3-b]pyridine (40.3 mg, 0.165 mmol), K 3 P0 4 (49.8 mg, 0.225 mmol), and a stir bar are added, and the reaction vessel is fitted with a rubber septum. The vessel is twice evacuated and flashed with argon. Then dioxane (1 .5 mL) is added under a stream of argon. The reaction tube is quickly sealed and the contents are stirred at 100°C overnight. The reaction mixture is cooled to r.t., diluted with ethyl acetate, and filtered through a plug of celite. The filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by chromatography on silica gel (petrol ether/ EtOAc 3:1 to 1 :1 ) to afford 43 (48 mg, 56%) as yellow solid.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 9.74 (s, 1 H, NH), 8.49 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.07 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.46 (m, 2H), 7.39 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.27 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.64 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.56 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.66 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.61 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.57 (dd, J = 3.5, 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.41 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.31 (dd, J = 12.0, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.24 (ddd, J = 12.0, 5.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.13 (m, 1 H, H-6b), 3.08 (s, 3H, NHAc), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.08 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 170.49, 169.97, 169.78 (4 CO), 150.37, 148.15, 141.99, 128.54, 128.44, 127.85, 127.10, 126.51 , 125.91 , 124.86, 120.19, 1 17.51 , 101 .32, 96.77 (C-1 ), 69.77 (C-5), 69.36 (C-2), 68.79 (C-3), 65.86 (C-4), 62.13 (C-6), 21.03, 20.86, 20.70,

Example 64: 2-Chloro-4-(1 /-/-pyrrolor2,3-blpyridin-5-yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (44) To a solution of 43 (50 mg, 0.087 mmol) in dry methanol (2 mL 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH (0.18 mL) is added at r.t. and then stirred for another 2.5 h. The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica-gel column chromatography (CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH 10:1 to 7:1 ) to afford 44

(14.8 mg, 42%) as a white solid.

1H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 8.39 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H), 8.17 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.69 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.55 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.46 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.43 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.55 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.59 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.13 (m, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H- 3), 3.82-3.72 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b), 3.69 ( m, 1 H, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 152.52, 148.84, 142.00, 136.19, 129.73, 129.09, 128.33, 127.94, 127.76, 125.39, 122.32, 1 18.93, 101 .79, 100.89 (C-1 ), 75.97 (C-5), 72.42 (C-3), 71.90 (C-2), 68.25 (C-4), 62.68 (C-6); ESI- MS calcd. for Ci 9 H 19 CIN 2 0 6 [M+Na] + : 429.08, found 429.04, calcd. for [M+H] + 407.10, found 407.01 .

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(3/-/-imidazor4,5-blpyridin- 6-yl) (Examples 65-66) the following procedure is used:

Scheme 13. (i) K 3 PO4, DMF, 3-methyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-3H- imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, PdCI 2 (dppf), 100°C, overnight; (ii) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH, r.t.

Example 65: 2-Chloro-4-(3-methyl-3H-imidazor4,5-blPyridin-6-yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O- acetyl-g-D-mannopyranoside 45

To a resealable Schlenk tube compound 19 (88 mg, 0.15 mmol), PdCI 2 (dppf) (3.67 mg, 0.0045 mmol), 3-methyl-8-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1 ,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-3H-imidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (42.8 mg, 0.165 mmol), K 3 PO4 (49.8 mg, 0.225 mmol), and a stir bar are added, and the reaction vessel is fitted with a rubber septum. The vessel is twice evacuated and flashed with argon. Then DMF (0.9 mL) is added under a stream of argon. The reaction tube is quickly sealed and the content stirred at 100°C overnight. The reaction mixture is cooled to r.t., diluted with ethyl acetate, and filtered through a plug of celite, eluting with additional ethyl acetate. The filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified with chromatography on silica gel with CH 2 CI 2 /MeOI-l 20:1 to 15:1 to afford 45 (85 mg, 96%) as a brown solid.

1 H NMR (CDCIs): δ 8.57 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.16 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.08 (s, 1 H), 8.01 (s, 1 H), 7.65 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.44 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.28 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.64 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.61 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.56 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.40 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.29 (dd, J = 12.0, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.21 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.1 1 (m, 1 H, H-6b), 3.95 (s, 3H, NCH 3 ), 2.21 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.03 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 170.45, 169.94, 169.76, 169.75 (4 CO), 150.70, 147.1 1 , 145.53, 143.32, 135.41 , 135.03, 130.37, 129.47, 126.74, 126.01 , 124.96, 1 17.51 , 96.68 (C-1 ), 69.78 (C-5), 69.30 (C-2), 68.75 (C- 3), 65.81 (C-4), 62.09 (C-6), 29.87 (NCH 3 ), 20.84, 20.68, 20.65, 20.64 (COCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for C 27 H 28 CIN 3 Oio [M+Na] + : 612.14, found 612.20, calcd. for [M+H] + 590.15, found 590.15. Example 66: 2-Chloro-4-(3-methyl-3/-/-imidazor4,5-blpyridin-6-yl)phenyl g-D-manno- pyranoside (46)

To a solution of 45 (105 mg, 0.178 mmol) in dry methanol (2 mL) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH (35 μΙ_) is added at r.t. and then stirred for another 2 h. The reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate is concentrated and the residue is purified by silica- gel column chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 10:1 to 6:1 ) to afford 46 (28 mg, 37%) as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 8.63 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.39 (s, 1 H), 8.22 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.74 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.50 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.61 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.13 (dd, J = 3.5, 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.96 (s, 3H, NCH 3 ), 3.82-3.72 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b), 3.67 ( m, 1 H, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 152.96, 147.98, 144.37, 136.09, 134.95, 130.02, 128.14, 126.37, 125.43, 1 18.96, 100.83 (C-1 ), 76.12 (C-5), 72.39 (C-3), 71 .81 (C-2), 68.20 (C-4), 62.64 (C-6), 30.29 (NCH 3 ); ESI-MS calcd. for Ci 9 H 2 oCIN 3 0 6 [M+Na] + : 444.09, found 444.04, calcd. for [M+H] + 422.1 1 , found 422.08.

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(1 -indolyl) (Examples 67 to 71 ) the following procedure is used:

48a, 4-chlorobenzoyl 49a, 4-chlorobenzoyl 48b, S0 2 CH 3 49b, S0 2 CH 3

Scheme 14. (i) Pt0 2 /morpholine (catalytic), MeOH/EtOAc, H 2 , 1 atm, quantitative;

(ii) 4-chlorobenzoyl chloride or methanesulfonyl chloride, Et 3 N, CH 2 CI 2 , r.t., 1 h;

(iii) CH 3 ONa/lvleOH, r.t., 2 h.

Example 67: 4-(5-Aminoindol-1 -yl)-2-chlorophenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D- mannopyranoside (47)

To a solution of 28b (166 mg, 0.268 mmol) in methanol/ethyl acetate (1 :1 , 4 mL) Pt0 2 (16 mg) and morpholine (12 μΙ_, 0.136 mmol) are added. The reaction mixture is stirred at r.t. under 1 atm hydrogen for 1 h, then filtrated through a pad of celite and washed thoroughly with ethyl acetate. The filtrate is concentrated under vacuum to give compound 47 (158 mg, quant.) as off-white foam. It is used for next step without further purification.

1H NMR (CDCIs): δ 7.54 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.33-7.26 (m, 3H), 7.17 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.96 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.69 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.49 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.63 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.58 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.56 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H- 2), 5.41 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J =12.0, 5.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.23 (ddd, J =10.0, 5.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.13 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.08 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 6H, OAc); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 8H 29 CIN 2 Oi 0 [M+H] + : 589.16, found 589.15, calcd. for [M+Na] + : 61 1.14, found 61 1.23. Example 68: 2-Chloro-4-[5-(4-chlorobenzamido)indol-1 -yllphenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a- D-mannopyranoside (48a)

To a solution of 47 (71 mg, 0.12 mmol) in dry CH 2 CI 2 (1 .5 mL) triethylamine (33 μΙ_, 0.24 mmol) and 4-chlorobenzoylchloride (17 μΙ_, 0.13 mmol) are added at r.t. The reaction mixture is stirred at r.t. for 1 h. After quenching with methanol (100 μΙ_) the solvent is removed under vacuum and the residue purified by chromatography (petrol ether/EtOAc 3:1 to 2:1 ) to afford compound 48a (82 mg, 94%) as a white foam.

[a] D 20 +52.91 (c = 0.565, CHCI 3 ). 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 8.03 (s, 1 H), 7.92 (s, 1 H), 7.84 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.55 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.44 (m, 3H), 7.36-7.30 (m 2H), 7.27 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.66 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.64 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.60 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.57 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.42 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.31 (dd, J =12.0, 5.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.23 (ddd, J =10.0, 5.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.14 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 3.70 (brs, 1 H, NHCO), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.08 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCI 3 ): δ 170.44, 169.96, 169.79, 169.72, 164.69 (5 CO), 149.82, 137.85, 135.47, 133.58, 133.40, 131 .01 , 129.52, 128.95, 128.85, 128.66, 128.63, 128.48, 126.35, 125.36, 123.42, 1 17.84, 1 16.99, 1 13.44, 1 10.43, 104.30, 96.99 (C-1 ), 69.89 (C-5), 69.29 (C-2), 68.70 (C-3), 65.78 (C-4), 62.1 1 (C-6), 20.85, 20.68, 20.66 (4C, CH 3 CO); ESI-MS calcd. for C 35 H 3 2CI 2 N 2 Oii [M+H] + : 727.15, found 727.19. Example 69: 2-Chloro-4-[5-(4-chlorobenzamido)indol-1 -vHphenyl a-D-mannopyranoside (49a)

To a solution of 48a (80 mg, 0.1 1 mmol) in dry methanol (2 mL) 0.5 M CH 3 ONa/MeOH (22 μΙ_) is added at r.t. After stirring for 2 h, the reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15, filtered, the filtrate concentrated and the residue purified by silica-gel column chromatography (CH 2 CI 2 /MeOH 10:1 ) to afford 49a (52 mg, 85%) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD+CDCI 3 ): δ 7.96 (s, 1 H), 7.92 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.54 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.50-7.38 (m, 6H), 7.35 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.63 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.60 (s, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.16 (dd, J = 2.5, 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 4.02 (dd, J = 9.5, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.83-3.76 (m, 3H, H-6a, H-4, H-6b), 3.70 (ddd, J = 9.5, 5.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD+CDCI 3 ): δ 167.40 (CO), 151 .53, 138.55, 135.69, 134.65, 134.56, 132.20, 130.45, 129.96, 129.61 , 129.48, 126.75, 125.43, 1 18.81 , 1 18.57, 1 15.09, 1 10.99, 104.70, 100.62 (C-1 ), 75.45 (C- 5), 72.07 (C-3), 71 .45 (C-2), 67.85 (C-4), 62.33 (C-6); ESI-MS calcd. for C 27 H 24 CI 2 N 2 0 7 [M+H] + : 559.10, found. 559.12. Example 70: 2-Chloro-4-(5-methylsulfonamidoindol-1 -yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-a-D- mannopyranoside (48b)

Compound 48b is prepared in a similar procedure as compound 48a, Example 69.

Starting from 47 (59 mg, 0.1 mmol), 48b (55 mg, 82%) is obtained as a white solid.

1H NMR (CDCIs): δ 7.60 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.54 (s, 1 H), 7.43 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.32 (m, 2H, NHS0 2 Me, ArH), 7.29 (d, J = 3.5 Hz, 1 H),7.13 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.66 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.50 (s, 1 H), 5.64 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.61 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H- 1 ), 5.56 (dd, J = 3.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.43 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.31 (dd, J =12.0, 5.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 4.23 (ddd, J =10.0, 5.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 4.14 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H- 6b), 2.98 (s, 3H, CH 3 S0 2 NH), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.09 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc); 13 C NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 170.45, 170.00, 169.83, 169.73 (4 CO), 150.09, 135.16, 134.39, 129.77, 129.44, 129.19, 126.54, 125.42, 123.59, 1 19.04, 1 17.81 , 1 15.92, 1 1 1 .08, 104.1 1 , 96.98 (C-1 ), 69.91 (C-5), 69.28 (C-2), 68.67 (C-3), 65.76 (C-4), 62.10 (C- 6), 38.82 (CH 3 SO2NH), 20.85, 20.69, 20.67 (4C, CH 3 CO); ESI-MS calcd. for

C2 9 H 3 iCIN 2 0i 2 S [M+Na] + : 689.12, found 689.18.

Example 71 : 2-Chloro-4-(5-methylsulfonamidoindol-1 -yl)phenyl g-D-mannopyranoside (49b)

Compound 49b is prepared in a similar procedure as compound 49a (Example 69).

Starting from 48b (55 mg, 0.082 mmol) 49b (34 mg, 82%) is obtained as a white foam. 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.57-7.54 (m, 3H), 7.44-7.41 (m, 3H), 7.13 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.63 (dd, J = 3.0, 0.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.62 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.14 (dd, J = 3.5, 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 4.01 (dd, J = 9.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.82 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6a), 3.78 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 3.74 (dd, J = 12.0, 5.5 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 3.68 (ddd, J = 10.0, 5.5, 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 2.90 (s, 3H, CH 3 S0 2 NH); 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 151 .97, 135.90, 135.43, 132.01 , 121 .23, 130.36, 127.03, 125.67, 124.95, 1 19.76, 1 19.26, 1 16.29, 1 1 1 .75, 104.73, 101.02 (C-1 ), 76.10 (C-5), 72.39 (C-3), 71 .82 (C-2), 68.24 (C-4), 62.70 (C-6), 38.55 (CH 3 S0 2 NH); ESI-MS calcd. for C 2 iH 23 CIN 2 0 8 S [M+Na] + : 521 .08, found 521 .12. For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(pyridyl-2-carboxylate) or

4-(1 H-1 ,2,3-triazolyl-4-carboxylate) (Examples 72-78) the following procedure is used:

Scheme 15. (i) HF-pyridine, CH 2 CI 2 , 40°C, overnight, 87%; (ii) methyl 5-(4-hydroxy- phenyl)-pyridine-2-carboxylate or ethyl 1 -(4-hydroxylphenyl)-1 /-/-1 ,2,3-triazole-4- carboxylate, BF 3 -Et 2 0, CH 2 CI 2 , 0°C, 3 h, 40% for 51 , 79% for 52; (iii) MeONa, MeOH, r.t, 4 h, 36% for 53, 74% for 54; (iv) 0.2 N aq. NaOH, MeOH, r.t., overnight, amberlyst-15 (H + ), pH 3-4, 31 % for 55, 29% for 56.

Example 72: 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyl fluoride (50)

Compound 50 is prepared according to the literature [Carbohydr. Res. 1999, 317, 210- 216].

Example 73: Methyl 5-r4-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenvH- picolinate (51 )

To an ice-cold solution of methyl 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridine-2-carboxylate (100 mg, 0.44 mmol) and 50 (304 mg, 0.87 mmol) in dry DCM (5 mL) is added BF 3 -Et 2 0 (0.33 mL, 2.62 mmol), and the mixture is stirred at 0°C for 3h. Then the reaction is quenched with satd. aq. Na 2 C0 3 (50 mL), extracted with methylene chloride (50 mL), and the organic layer is washed with 0.5 N aq. NaOH (50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The organic layer is collected and dried over Na 2 S0 4 , concentrated and purified by chromatography (petrol ether/EtOAc 4:1 to 1 :1 ) to afford 51 (0.10 g, 40%) as a colorless oil.

1H NMR (CDCIs): δ 8.93 (dd, J = 0.5, 2.2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 8.20 (dd, J = 0.6, 8.2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.99 (dd, J = 2.4, 8.2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.61 -7.58 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.25-7.23 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.60 (d, J = 1 .8 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.59 (dd, J = 3.6, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.48 (dd, J = 1.9, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.41 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J = 5.0, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.1 1 -4.08 (m, 2H, H- 5, H-6a), 4.04 (s, 3H, COOCH 3 ), 2.23 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc). Example 74: Methyl 1 -r4-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-1 /-/- 1 ,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate (52)

Compound 52 is synthesized in a similar procedure as 51 , Example 73. Starting from 55 (400 mg, 1 .14 mmol), ethyl 1 -(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1 H-1 ,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate (178 mg, 0.76 mmol), BF 3 -Et 2 0 (0.44 mL, 3.60 mmol) in dry methylene chloride (8 mL), compound 52 (341 mg, 79%) is obtained as colorless oil.

1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI 3 ): δ 8.47 (s, 1 H, triazole), 7.72-7.70 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.29-7.27 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.60 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.56 (dd, J = 3.0, 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.48 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.0 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.40 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.47 (dd, J = 7.2, 14.2 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 4.29 (dd, J = 5.4, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.1 1 -4.07 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 1 .44 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH 3 ).

Example 75: Methyl 5-r4-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-picolinate (53)

To a solution of 51 (60 mg, 0.1 mmol) in dry MeOH (5 mL), 0.5 M MeONa/MeOH (50 μΐ) is added at r.t. After stirring for 3 h, the reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15 to pH 6-7, filtered and concentrated. The residue is purified by crystallization from MeOH to afford 53 (15 mg, 36%).

1 H NMR (DMSO-de): δ 9.03 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 8.25 (dd, J = 2.3, 8.3 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 8.1 1 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.80-7.78 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.26-7.24 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.47 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.09 (m, 1 H, OH-2), 4.88 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 1 H, OH-4), 4.82 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 1 H, OH- 3), 4.49 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H, OH-6), 3.91 (s, 3H, COOCH 3 ), 3.86 (bs, 1 H, H-2), 3.73-3.69 (m, 1 H, H-3), 3.61 (dd, J = 6.1 , 10.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 3.53-3.45 (m, 2H, H-4, H-6a), 3.40 (m, 1 H, H-5). Example 76: Methyl 1 -r4-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-1 /-/-1 ,2,3-triazole-4- carboxylate (54)

Compound 54 is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 75. Starting from 52 (55 mg, 0.09 mmol) compound 54 (28 mg, 74%) is obtained as a white solid. 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 8.94 (s, 1 H, Ar), 7.72-7.69 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.25-7.23 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.48 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 3.94(dd, J = 1.9, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.85 (s, 3H, COOCH 3 ), 3.81 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.70-3.60 (m, 3H, H-4, H-6b, H-6a), 3.48 (ddd, J = 2.4, 5.5, 9.7 Hz, 1 H, H-5). Example 77: 5-r4-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-picolinic acid (55)

To a solution of 53 (10 mg, 0.026 mmol) in MeOH (2.5 mL) is added 0.2 N aq. NaOH (0.25 mL) at r.t. The reaction mixture is stirred for 24 h, then neutralized with amberlyst-15 to pH 3-4, filtered, and concentrated. The residue is purified by reversed-phase

chromatography (RP-18, H 2 0/MeOH 3:1 ) to yield 55 (3 mg, 31 %) as a white solid.

1H NMR (D 2 0): δ 8.63 (s, 1 H, Ar), 7.96-7.95 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.82 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.56-7.54 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.13-7.1 1 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.54 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.07 (s, 1 H, H-2), 3.96 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.2 Hz, H-3), 3.70-3.58 (m, 4H, H-4, H-5, H-6a, H-6b).

Example 78: 1 -r4-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-1 /-/-1 ,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid (56)

Compound 56 is synthesized in a similar procedure as compound 55, Example 77.

Starting from compound 54 (18 mg, 0.05 mmol) compound 56 (5 mg, 29%) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (D 2 0): δ 8.40 (s, 1 H, Ar), 7.58-7.56 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.18-7.16 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.55 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.08 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.95 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.73-3.57 (m, 4H, H-4, H-5, H-6b, H-6a).

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(pyrimidyl-2-carboxylate),

4-(pyridyl-3-carboxylate) and 4-(pyrazinyl-2-carboxylate) (Examples 79-88) the following procedure is used: COOMe

60: X=N, Y=C, Z=N

Scheme 16. (i) Bis(pinacolato)diboron, Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 , KOAc, DMF, 120°C μ\Λ/, 2 h, 50%; (ii) for 58: methyl-5-bromo-2-pyrimidinecarboxylate, Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 , K 3 P0 4 , DMF, 80°C, 8 h, 78%; for 59: methyl-6-chloro-3-pyridinecarboxylate, Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 , K 3 P0 4 , DMF, 85°C, 6 h, 80%; for 60: methyl-5-chloro-2-pyrazinecarboxylate, Pd(CI 2 )dppf- CH 2 CI 2 , K 3 P0 4 , DMF, 80°C, 12 h, 68%; (iii) MeONa, MeOH, r.t, 4 h, 86% for 61 , 24% for 62, 36% for 63; (iv) 0.2 N aq. NaOH, MeOH, r.t., overnight, amberlyst-15, pH 3-4, quant. Example 79: 4-(4,4,5,5-Tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl- g-D-mannopyranoside (57)

A microwave tube is charged with compound 18 (240 mg, 0.55 mmol), KOAc (161 mg, 1 .65 mmol), bis(pinacolato)diborone (152 mg, 0.60 mmol) and Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 (13 mg, 0.017 mmol). Then the tube is sealed, evacuated, and flushed with argon. After addition of DMF (1 ml_), the solution is degassed and flushed with argon for 5 min. The tube is heated by microwave irradiation to 120°C for 2 h. The reaction mixture is extracted with CH 2 CI 2 /H 2 0 (50 mL/50 ml_). The organic layer is washed with H 2 0 (50 mL) and brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , concentrated and purified by chromatography (toluene/EtOAc 4:1 ) to afford compound 57 (0.12 g, 50%) as colorless oil.

1H NMR (CDCIs): δ 7.76 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, Ar), 7.08 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H, Ar), 5.58-5.55 (m, 2H), 5.45 (dd, J = 1.9, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.37 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.28 (dd, J = 5.0, 12.0 Hz, 1 H. H-6b), 4.05-4.02 (m, 2H, H-6a, H-5), 2.20 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.03 (s, 6H, OAc), 1 .33 (s, 12H, 4CH 3 ). Example 80: Methyl 5-r4-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll- pyrimidine-2-carboxylate (58)

A two-necked flask is charged with compound 57 (55 mg, 0.1 mmol), methyl 5-bromo- pyrimidine-2-carboxylate (20 mg, 0.09 mmol), Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 (2 mg, 0.0027 mmol), and K 3 P0 4 (29 mg, 0.135 mmol), evacuated and flushed with argon, then DMF (1 mL) is added. The reaction mixture is heated to 80°C until methyl 5-bromopyrimidine-2- carboxylate is almost consumed (monitored by TLC). The reaction mixture is diluted with EtOAc (50 mL), and washed with H 2 0 (50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The organic layer is dried over Na 2 S0 4 , concentrated and the residue purified by chromatography (petrol ether/EtOAc 2:1 to 1 :2) to afford compound 58 (40 mg, 78%) as yellow oil.

1 H NMR (CDCIs): δ 9.10 (s, 2H, Ar), 7.64-7.61 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.30-7.28 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.62 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.58 (dd, J = 3.5, 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.49 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H- 2), 5.42 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J = 5.6, 12.9 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.13-4.07 (m, 5H, H-5, H-6a, COOCH 3 ), 2.23 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc).

Example 81 : Methyl 6-r4-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll- nicotinate (59)

Compound 59 is synthesized according to the procedure described for compound 58, Example 80. Starting from compound 57 (50 mg, 0.09 mmol) and methyl 6-chloropyridine-

3-carboxylate (14 mg, 0.08 mmol) compound 59 (40 mg, 80%) is obtained as yellow oil.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 9.25 (dd, J = 0.7, 2.2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 8.33 (dd, J = 2.2, 8.3 Hz, 1 H, Ar),

8.06-8.03 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.77 (dd, J = 0.6, 8.4 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.23-7.20 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.62 (d, J =

1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.59 (dd, J = 3.6, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.48 (dd, J = 1.8, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.40 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.31 (dd, J = 4.8, 12.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.12-4.06 (m, 2H, H-

5, H-6a), 3.97 (s, 3H, COOCH 3 ), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc),

2.04 (s, 3H, OAc).

Example 82: Methyl 5-r4-(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll- pyrazine-2-carboxylate (60)

Compound 60 is synthesized according to the procedure described for compound 58, Example 80. Starting from compound 57 (70 mg, 0.13 mmol) and methyl 5-chloro- pyrazine-3-carboxylate (28 mg, 0.12 mmol) compound 60 (48 mg, 68%) is obtained as a white solid.

1H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 9.30 (d, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 9.09 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 8.1 1 -8.09 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.27-7.25 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.64 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.60 (dd, J = 3.6, 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.49 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.40 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J = 5.2, 12.4 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.13-4.07 (m, 5H, H-5, H-6a, COOCH 3 ), 2.23 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc). Example 83: Methyl 5-r4-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-pyrimidine-2-carboxylate (61 ) Compound 61 is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 75. Starting from compound 58 (30 mg, 0.05 mmol) compound 61 (18 mg, 86%) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 9.10 (s, 2H, Ar), 7.69-7.68 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.24-7.22 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.49 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.52 (s, 1 H, H-2), 3.94 (s, 3H, COOCH 3 ), 3.82 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.67-3.62 (m, 3H, H-4, H-6b, H-6a), 3.48 (ddd, J = 2.5, 5.2, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5).

Example 84: Methyl 6-r4-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-nicotinate (62)

Compound 62 is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 75. Starting from compound 59 (36 mg, 0.06 mmol) compound 62 (6 mg, 24%) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 9.04 (dd, J = 0.7, 2.2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 8.28 (dd, J = 2.2, 8.4 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.96-7.93 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.85 (dd, J = 0.7, 8.4 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.18-7.16 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.49 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 3.93 (dd, J = 1.9, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.86 (s, 3H, COOCH 3 ), 3.82 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.67-3.60 (m, 3H, H-4, H-6a, H-6b), 3.49 (ddd, J = 2.7, 5.5, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5).

Example 85: Methyl 5-r4-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-pyrazine-2-carboxylate (63) Compound 63 is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 75. Starting from compound 60 (20 mg, 0.03 mmol) compound 63 (5 mg, 36%) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 9.14 (t, J = 1.2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 9.09 (t, J = 1 .2 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 8.10-8.08 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.21 -7.20 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.51 (d, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 3.94 (dd, J = 1.9, 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.92 (s, 3H, COOCH 3 ), 3.81 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.66-3.60 (m, 3H, H-4, H- 6b, H-6a), 3.47 (ddd, J = 2.5, 5.2, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5).

Example 86: 5-r4-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-pyrimidine-2-carboxylic acid (64)

Compound 64 is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 77. Starting from compound 61 (6 mg, 0.015 mmol) compound 64 (6 mg, quant.) is obtained as a white solid. 1 H NMR (D 2 0): δ 8.91 (bs, 2H, Ar), 7.60-7.58 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.17-7.16 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.55 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.05 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.93 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.1 Hz, H-3), 3.66-3.55 (m, 4H, H-4, H-5, H-6a, H-6b). Example 87: 5-r4-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)phenyll-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (65)

Compound 65 is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 77. Starting from compound 63 (6 mg, 0.015 mmol) compound 65 (6 mg, quant.) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (D 2 0): δ 8.94 (s, 1 H, Ar), 8.89 (s, 1 H, Ar), 7.85-7.83 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.19-7.17 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.64 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.17 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 4.05 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.4 Hz, H-3), 3.78-3.67 (m, 4H, H-4, H-5, H-6a, H-6b).

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(morpholine-4-carbonyl)- phenyl, 3,5-difluoro-4-hvdroxyphenyl, 4-(/V-methylsulfamoyl)phenyl, 4-(methylsulfonyl)- phenyl or 4-cyanophenyl (Examples 88-96) the following procedure is used:

Scheme 17. (i) Boronic acid or boronic ester, Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 , K 3 P0 4 , DMF, 80°C, 4 h, 52-99%; (ii) MeONa, MeOH, r.t, 4 h, 75% for 67a, 78% for 67b, 76% for 67c, 86% for 67d.

Example 88: [4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl- 4-yll- (morpholino)methanone (66a)

A two-neck flask is charged with compound 18 (1 10 mg, 0.2 mmol), pinacol 4- (morpholine-4-carbonyl)phenylboronate (70 mg, 0.22 mmol), Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 (5 mg, 0.006 mmol) and K 3 P0 4 (64 mg, 0.30 mmol). The vessel is evacuated and flushed with argon, then DMF (6 mL) is added. The reaction mixture is heated to 80°C until compound 18 is almost consumed (monitored by TLC). The reaction mixture is diluted with EtOAc (50 mL) and washed with H 2 0 (50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The organic layer is dried over Na 2 S0 4 , concentrated, and the residue purified by chromatography (petrol ether/EtOAc 2:3 to 1 :4) to afford compound 66a (139 mg, quant.) as yellow oil.

1 H NMR (CDCIs): δ 7.60-7.47 (m, 6H, Ar), 7.19-7.17 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.60-5.58 (m, 2H, H-1 , H- 3), 5.47 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.4 Hz, H-2), 5.40 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J = 5.1 , 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.14-4.08 (m, 2H, H-6a, H-5), 3.78-3.45 (m, 8H, 4 CH 2 ), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.09 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc).

Example 89: 4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-3,5-difluo ro-biphenyl-4- ol (66b)

Compound 66b is synthesized according to the procedure decribed for compound 66a, Example 88. Starting from compound 18 (100 mg, 0.18 mmol), pinacol (3,5-difluoro-4- hydroxyphenyl)boronate (51 mg, 0.20 mmol), Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 (5 mg, 0.006 mmol), and

K 3 P0 4 (57 mg, 0.30 mmol), compound 66b (57 mg, 52%) is obtained as colorless oil.

1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 7.42-7.40 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.14-7.12 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.07-7.05 (m, 2H, Ar),

5.90 (bs, 1 H, -OH), 5.59 (dd, J = 3.6, 10.05 Hz, H-3), 5.56 (d, J = 1 .8, Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.47 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.40 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J = 4.8, 12.0 Hz, 1 H, H-

6b), 4.14-4.08 (m, 2H, H-6a, H-5), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc),

2.05 (s, 3H, OAc).

Example 90: 4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-/V-methyl- biphenyl-4- sulfonamide (66c)

Compound 66c is synthesized according to the procedure decribed for compound 66a, Example 88. Starting from compound 18 (1 16 mg, 0.21 mmol), 4-(/V-methylsulfamoyl)- phenylboronic acid (50 mg, 0.23 mmol), Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 (5 mg, 0.006 mmol), and K 3 P0 4 (67 mg, 0.32 mmol), compound 66c (105 mg, 84%) is obtained as a white solid. 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 7.92-7.90 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.70-7.68 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.57-7.55 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.21 -7.19 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.60-5.57 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 5.48 (dd, J = 1.8, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.40 (t, J =10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.38 (dd, J = 5.4, 10.8 Hz, 1 H, -NH), 4.30 (dd, J = 4.9, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.13-4.08 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 2.72 (d, 3H, J = 5.4 Hz, NCH 3 ), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc). Example 91 : 4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-4-(methyls ulfonyl)- biphenyl (66d)

Compound 66d is synthesized according to the procedure decribed for compound 66a, Example 88. Starting from compound 18 (50 mg, 0.09 mmol), 4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl- boronic acid (20 mg, 0.10 mmol), Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 (3 mg, 0.003 mmol), and K 3 P0 4 (29 mg, 0.14 mmol), compound 66d (23 mg, 44%) is obtained as a yellow solid.

1H NMR (CDCIs): δ 8.00-7.99 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.74-7.72 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.59-7.56 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.23-7.18 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.60-5.56 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 5.47 (dd, J = 1.8, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.40 (t, J =10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J = 4.9, 12.0 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.13-4.08 (m, 2H, H-5, H-6a), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc).

Example 92: 4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4 -carbonitrile (66e)

Compound 66e is synthesized according to the procedure decribed for compound 66a, Example 88. Starting from compound 18 (330 mg, 0.60 mmol), 4-cyanophenylboronic acid

(96 mg, 0.66 mmol), Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 (15 mg, 0.004 mmol), and K 3 P0 4 (192 mg, 0.90 mmol), compound 66e (187 mg, 59%) is obtained as colorless oil.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.73-7.71 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.65-7.64 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.57-7.53 (m, 2H, Ar),

7.21 -7.19 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.60-5.57 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 5.47 (dd, J = 1.9, 3.4 Hz, H-2), 5.40 (t, J = 10.1 Hz, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J = 5.1 , 12.2 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.14-4.08 (m, 2H, H-6a, H-5),

2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.07 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc).

Example 93: [4'-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-yll(morpholino)methan one (67a) To a solution of 66a (50 mg, 0.08 mmol) in dry MeOH (5 ml_), 0.5 M MeONa/MeOH (50 μΙ_) is added at r.t. After stirring for 3 h, the reaction mixture is neutralized with amberlyst-15 to pH 6-7, filtered and concentrated. The residue is purified by crystallization from MeOH to afford 67a (27 mg, 75%) as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.71 -7.70 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.63-7.63 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.52-7.50 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.25-7.23 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.56 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.05 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.95 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.78-3.54 (m, 12H, H-4, H-5, H-6b, H-6a, 4CH 2 ).

Example 94: 3,5-Difluoro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-ol (67b)

Compound 67b is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 93. Starting from compound 66b (40 mg, 0.07 mmol) compound 67b (21 mg, 78%) is obtained as a white solid. 1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.52-7.49 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.19-7.14 (m, 4H, Ar), 5.54 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.04 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.94 (dd, J = 3.5, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.78-3.73 (m, 3H, H-4, H-6b, H-6a), 3.63 (ddd, J = 2.5, 5.1 , 9.8 Hz, 1 H, H-5). Example 95: 4'-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)-/V-methyl-biphenyl-4-sulfonamide (67c)

Compound 67c is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 93. Starting from compound 66c (40 mg, 0.07 mmol) compound 67c (22 mg, 76%) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.90-7.88 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.80-7.79 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.66-7.64 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.26-7.25 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.58 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.06 (dd, J = 1 .8, 3.3 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.96 (dd, J = 3.4, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.79-3.74 (m, 3H, H-4, H-6b, H-6a), 3.63 (ddd, J = 2.5, 5.2, 9.7 Hz, H-5), 2.57 (s, 3H, NCH 3 ).

Example 96: 4'-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)-4-(methylsulfonyl)-biphenyl (67d)

Compound 67d is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 93. Starting from compound 66d (20 mg, 0.03 mmol) compound 67d (12 mg, 86%) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.90-7.88 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.76-7.74 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.58-7.56 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.17-7.15 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.46 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 3.93 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.81 (dd, J = 3.4, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.69-3.61 (m, 3H, H-4, H-6a, H-6b), 3.50 (ddd, J = 2.5, 5.4, 9.7 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 3.05 (s, 3H, CH 3 ).

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(1 /-/-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl (Examples 97-98) the following procedure is used:

Scheme 18. (i) TMSN 3 , Bu 2 Sn(0), DME, 150°C μ\Λ/, 10 min, 81 %; (ii) MeONa, MeOH, r.t, 4 h, 80%. Example 97: 5-[4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)biphenyl -4-yll-1 H- tetrazole (68)

A microwave tube is charged with compound 66e (30 mg, 0.06 mmol), trimethylsilyl azide (16 μΙ_, 0.12 mmol), dibutyltin oxide (2 mg, 0.006 mmol), and DME (1 ml_). The reaction mixture is heated to 150°C for 10 min by microwave irradiation, concentrated and the residue purified by chromatography (CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH 9:1 to 8:1 ) to afford compound 68 (26 mg, 81 %) as a colorless oil.

1 H NMR (CDCIs): δ 8.18-8.17 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.69-7.67 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.58-7.56 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.18-7.17 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.60-5.57 (m, 2H, H-1 , H-3), 5.48 (s, 1 H, H-2), 5.39 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, H-4), 4.29 (dd, J = 5.4, 12.5 Hz, H-6b), 4.10-4.08 (m, 2H, H-6a, H-5), 2.21 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.06 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc).

Example 98: 5-[4'-(a-D-Mannopyranosyloxy)biphenyl-4-vH-1 /-/-tetrazole (69)

Compound 69 is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 93. Starting from compound 68 (26 mg, 0.03 mmol) compound 69 (18 mg, quant.) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.98-7.96 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.72-7.71 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.58-7.54 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.16-7.13 (m, 2H, Ar), 5.46 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 3.94 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.5 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.83 (dd, J = 3.4, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.68-3.61 (m, 3H, H-4, H-6a, H-6b), 3.52 (ddd, J = 2.5, 5.4, 9.7 Hz, 1 H, H-5).

For the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R 1 is 4-(morpholino-4-carbonyl)- phenyl (Examples 99-100) the following procedure is used:

Scheme 19. (i) 4-(Morpholino-4-carbonyl)phenylboronic acid, Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 , K 3 PO 4 , DMF, 80°C, 4 h, 95%; (ii) MeONa, MeOH, r.t, 4 h, 80%. Example 99: [4'-(2,3,4,6-Tetra-0-acetyl-a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-3'-chloro biphenyl-4- yll(morpholino)methanone (70)

Compound 70 is synthesized according to the procedure decribed for compound 65,

Example 88. Starting from compound 5a (100 mg, 0.1 mmol), pinacol 4-(morpholino- carbonyl)phenylboronate (60 mg, 0.19 mmol), Pd(CI 2 )dppf-CH 2 CI 2 (4 mg, 0.005 mmol), and K 3 PO4 (54 mg, 0.26 mmol), compound 70 (105mg, 95%) is obtained as yellow oil. 1 H NMR (CDCI 3 ): δ 7.64 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.58-7.56 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.50-7.48 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.43 (dd, J = 2.3, 8.6 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 7.25 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H, Ar), 5.64 (dd, J = 3.5, 10.0Hz, 1 H, H-3), 5.60 (d, J = 1 .7 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 5.56 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 5.41 (t, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 4.30 (dd, J = 5.2, 12.3 Hz, 1 H, H-6b), 4.20 (m, H-5), 4.1 1 (m, 2H, H-6a, morpholine), 3.79-3.51 (m, 7H, morpholine), 2.22 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.08 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.05 (s, 3H, OAc), 2.04 (s, 3H, OAc).

Example 100: [3'-Chloro-4'-(a-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-biphenyl-4-yll(morphol ino)- methanone (71 )

Compound 71 is synthesized in a similar procedure as described in Example 93. Starting from compound 70 (100 mg, 0.15 mmol) compound 71 (59 mg, 80%) is obtained as a white solid.

1 H NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 7.58-7.55 (m, 3H, Ar), 7.45-7.33 (m, 4H, Ar), 5.49 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1 H, H-1 ), 4.01 (dd, J = 1 .9, 3.4 Hz, 1 H, H-2), 3.90 (dd, J = 3.4, 9.5 Hz, 1 H, H-3), 3.66-3.48 (m, 10H, H-4, H-6a, H-6b, H-5, morpholine), 3.39 (bs, 2H, morpholine).

Example 101 : Preliminary clotting assay

Overnight cultures of C. albicans (strain ATCC 60193) and £ coli (strain RS 218) are prepared by suspending colony material from agar plates in 10 ml trypticase soy broth (TSB) each and incubated for 16-18 h at 37°C, the culture of £ coli without shaking, but the culture of C. albicans with agitation on a horizontal shaker at 200 rpm. The cells of 2 ml of each culture are washed twice with 1 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by centrifugation (10 min at 2500 x g), discarding the supernatant and re-suspension of the cell pellet in fresh PBS. After the last washing step, the optical density at 600 nm is measured and adjusted to 5.0 for C. albicans (corresponding to approx. 5 x 10 7 viable cells/ml) and to 3.0 for £. coli (corresponding to approx. 5 x 10 9 viable cells/ml). Defined solutions of test inhibitor substances and a-D-mannoside are prepared in PBS or, where necessary for reasons of solubility, in PBS containing 5% DMSO. Each test well is supplied with 33 μΙ PBS or the test solution of the desired concentration, and 33 μΙ of £ coli suspension is added and mixed by slightly tapping the plate. After 5 min 33 μΙ of C. albicans suspension is added to give a total volume of 100 μΙ per well. As a negative clumping control, one well is left without addition of E. coli. The plate is incubated for 20 min at 37°C on a horizontal shaker at 150 rpm and the cells are allowed to settle for 10 min at r.t. before the wells are inspected with the help of a magnifier for visual clumps. For each substance the minimal concentration that prevents clotting of C. albicans cells is noted. Each experiment is performed in triplicate. The following results were obtained:

Table 1 : Activity of FimH antagonists in the clotting assay

Example 102: Aggregometer assay

In analogy to N. Firon, I. Ofek, N. Sharon, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 1982, 105, 1426-1432, the following assay is conducted: E.coli strain UTI89 is statically incubated in Luria-Bertani broth for 24 h, washed twice and adjusted to an optical density at 600 nm (OD 6 oo) of 4.0. The percentage of aggregation of UTI89 to guinea pig erythrocytes (GPE) is quantitatively measured using an APACT 4004 aggregometer (Endotell AG, Allschwil, Switzerland) at 740 nm, 37°C under stirring at 1000 rpm. For calibration, first the protein poor plasma (PPP) is measured using PBS 1 % and set as 100% aggregation, followed by the protein rich plasma (PRP) using GPE at an OD 6 oo of 4.0, set as 0% aggregation. After calibration, the measurement is initiated using 250 μΙ_ GPE and 50 μΙ_ bacterial suspension. Following the aggregation phase of 600 s, 25 μΙ_ of the antagonists at different concentrations are added and disaggregation is monitored over 1400 s. The FimH-deleted mutant of E.coli UTI89 is used to proof FimH-specific GPE agglutination. For evaluation, the area under the disaggregation curve (AUC) is calculated and compared to the reference, heptyl α-D-mannopyranoside (see Table 2). The activities are reported as rel. IC 5 o (rlC 5 o) with heptyl α-D-mannopyranoside as reference compound (rlC 50 = 1 ). The FimH-deleted mutant shows no agglutination of GPE. Example 103: Competitive binding assay

As described by D. Stokmaier, B. Ernst et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2009, 77, 7254-7264, the following competitive binding assay is performed: Flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates are coated with 100 μΙ_ΛνβΙΙ of a 10 μg/mL solution of FimH-CRD in 20 mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCI and 1 mM CaCI 2 , pH 7.4 (HBS-buffer) overnight at 4 °C. The coating solution is discarded and the wells are blocked with 150 μΙ_Λ βΙΙ of 3% BSA in HBS-buffer for 2 h at 4°C. After three washing steps with 150 μΙ/weW of HBS-buffer, 50 μυννβΙΙ of the test compound solution (0.2 nM to 250 μΜ in HBS-Buffer containing 5% DMSO) and 50 μΙ_ of a 0.5 μg mL of streptavidin-peroxidase coupled trimannoside-PAA polymer are added. The plates are incubated for 3 h at rt and 350 rpm. The plates are then carefully washed four times with 150 μυννβΙΙ HBS-buffer. After the addition of 100 μΙ/weW of ABTS- substrate, the colorimetric reaction is allowed to develop for 4 min. The reaction is stopped by the addition of 2% aqueous oxalic acid and the optical density (OD) is measured at 415 nm on a microplate-reader. The IC 50 values of the compounds tested in duplicates are calculated with prism software (GraphPad Software, Inc, La Jolla, USA). The IC 50 defines the molar concentration of the test compound that reduces the maximal specific binding of trimannoside-PAA polymer to FimH-CRD by 50%. For heptyl a-D- mannopyranoside it is 73.05 ± 7.9 nM (average of five measurements). The relative IC 50 (rlC 5 o) is the ratio of the IC 5 o of the test compound to the IC 5 o of heptyl a-D-manno- pyranoside.

Table 2: rlC 50 for FimH antagonists in the aggregometer assay (Example 102) and the competitive binding assay (Example 103)

' Reference compound p-nitrophenyl a-D-mannopyranoside see WO 2005/089733 (Berglund et al.). Example 104: Flow cytometry inhibition assay

The GFP tagged E.coli strain UTI89 is statically incubated in Luria-Bertani broth for 24 h, washed twice and adjusted to an optical density at 600 nm (OD 6 oo) between 2.0 and 3.0. The human epithelial bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 was grown in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg ml streptomycin at 37 °C, 5% C0 2 in 24-well plates. Cells were infected with 200 μΙ bacterial suspension (multiplicity of infection of 1 :50 (celkbacteria)), premixed with 25 μΙ of antagonists at different concentrations. To homogenize the infection, plates were centrifuged at room temperature for 3 min at 600 g. After an incubation of 1 .5 h at 37 °C, infected cells were washed four times with RPMI 1640 medium and suspended in ice-cold PBS for 5-20 min. Samples were measured with a CyAn ADP flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA) and analyzed by gating on the eukaryotic cells based on forward (FSC) and side scatter (SSC). A total of 10 4 cells were measured per sample. Data were acquired in a linear mode for the SSC and logarithmic mode for FSC and the green fluorescent channel FL1 -H (e.g. GFP). The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of FL1 -H was counted as a surrogate marker for the adherence of bacteria. Quantification of adhesion was evaluated with the FlowJo software 9.0.1 (Tree Star, Inc., Ashland, OR, USA). IC 50 values were determined by plotting the concentration of the antagonist in a logarithmic mode versus the MFI and by fitting the curve with the prism software

(GraphPad, inhibition curve, variable slope). The relative IC 5 o (rlC 5 o) is the ratio of the IC 5 o of the test compound to the IC 50 of the reference compound HM (n-heptyl a-D- mannopyranoside.

Table 3: IC 50 and rlC 50 for FimH antagonists in the flow cytometry inhibition assay

Example 105: Adherence test to urothelial cells

Human bladder uroethelia from surgical specimens are cultured for 6 passages and expanded in vitro. Uropathogenic E. coli strain HC14366 is used in an adherence test that corresponds essentially to the test published in K. Gupta, M.Y. Chou, A. Howell, C.

Wobbe, R. Grady, A.E. Stapleton, J. Urol. 2007, 177, 2357-2360.

Example 106: In vivo pharmacokinetic and disease model

The aim is the identification of FimH antagonists suitable for intravenous (i.v.) or preferably peroral (p.o.) applications. Before infection studies in a mouse disease model could be performed, the in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters (C max , AUC) had to be determined, to ensure the antagonists availability in the target organ (bladder).

Single-dose pharmacokinetic studies were performed by i.v. and p.o. application of the FimH antagonists at a concentration of 50 mg/kg followed by urine and plasma sampling. For i.v. application, the antagonists (HM, 8f, 8a) were diluted in 100 μΙ_ PBS and injected into the tail vein. For p.o. application, antagonist HM was diluted in 200 μΙ_ PBS and antagonists 8a and 7a were first dissolved in DMSO (20 x) and then slowly diluted to the final concentration (1 x) in 1 % Tween-80/PBS to obtain a suspension. Antagonists were applied i.v. by injection into the tail vein and p.o. using a gavage followed by blood and urine sampling (10 μΙ_) after 6 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h and 24 h. Before analysis, proteins in blood and urine samples were precipitated using methanol and centrifuged for 1 1 min at 13Ό00 rpm. The supernatant was transferred into a 96-well plate and analyzed by LC-MS.

Table 4. Determination of antagonist concentration in urine and plasma after a single i.v. and p.o. application of 50 mg/kg of antagonists 7a, 8a, 8f and HM.

The plasma concentration of orally applied 8a was below the detection level and only a small portion was present in the urine. However, after the p.o. application of the prodrug 7a, metabolite 8a was predominantly detected due to fast metabolic hydrolysis of 7a. However, minor amounts of 7a are still traceable in plasma as well as urine; n.d. not detectable; (-) not tested.

Example 107: Mouse model of urinary tract infection

Mice were infected as previously described (J.R. Johnson et al., Infect. Immun. 2005, 73, 965-971 ; W.J. Hopkins et al., Infec. Dis. 2003, 187, 418-23 and C.K. Garofalo et al., Infect. Immun. 2007, 75, 52-60). Female C3H/HeN mice, aged between 9 and 10 weeks were anesthetized with 1 .1 vol% isoflurane/oxygen mixture and placed on their back.

Anesthetized mice were inoculated transureth rally with the UPEC strain UTI89 by use of a 2 cm polyethylene catheter, which was placed on a syringe (Hamilton Gastight Syringe 50 μΙ_). The catheter was gently inserted through the urethra until it reached the top of the bladder, followed by slow injection of 50 μΙ_ bacterial suspension at a concentration of approximately 10 9 to 10 10 CFU/mL.

For treatment studies, FimH antagonists were applied i.v. in 100 μΙ_ PBS into the tail vein or p.o. as a suspension by the help of a gavage, 10 minutes (7a, 8a, 8f) or 1 h before infection (HM). 3 h after the onset of infection, urine was collected by gentle pressure on the abdomen and then the mice were sacrificed with C0 2 . Organs were removed aseptically and homogenized in 1 mL PBS. Serial dilutions of urine, bladder and kidneys were plated on Levine Eosin Methylene Blue Agar plates. CFU counts were determined after over night incubation at 37 °C and expressed as CFU/mL for the urine and as CFU/bladder and CFU/2 kidneys for the organs (Figure).