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Title:
MATERIALS, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND CONVERSION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/152647
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method of capturing CO2 and converting the captured CO2 into useful byproducts includes providing a material including a material matrix holding an ionic liquid, exposing the material to a source of thermal energy to capture CO2 within the material, removing the material from exposure to the source of thermal energy, and washing the material with a solution to convert the captured CO2 and wash the converted, captured CO2 from the material as filtrate. Materials and systems for capturing CO2 and converting the captured CO2 into useful byproducts are also provided.

Inventors:
GHASEMI, Hadi (1950 Hughes Landing Boulevard, Unit 614The Woodlands, Texas, 77380, US)
KASHYAP, Varun (2825 Bellefontaine Street, Apt. 303AHouston, Texas, 77025, US)
LEE, T. Randall (7447 Cambridge Street #100, Houston, Texas, 77054, US)
MEDHI, Riddhiman (4045 Linkwood Drive, Apt. 409Houston, Texas, 77025, US)
Application Number:
US2019/016049
Publication Date:
August 08, 2019
Filing Date:
January 31, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON SYSTEM (4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, Texas, 77204, US)
International Classes:
C25B1/02; C25B9/08
Domestic Patent References:
WO2013132259A12013-09-12
Foreign References:
US20080087165A12008-04-17
US20140251786A12014-09-11
US20110014100A12011-01-20
Other References:
HAN ET AL.: "Carbon Dioxide Capture Using Calcium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution as the Absorbent", ENERGY & FUELS, vol. 25, no. 8, July 2011 (2011-07-01), pages 3825 - 3833, XP055587088
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LIKOUREZOS, George et al. (CARTER, DELUCA & FARRELL LLP576 Broad Hollow Roa, Melville New York, 11747, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method of capturing C02 and converting the captured C02 into useful byproducts, the method comprising:

providing a material including a material matrix holding an ionic liquid;

exposing the material to a source of thermal energy to capture C02 within the material;

removing the material from exposure to the source of thermal energy; and washing the material with a solution to convert the captured C02 and wash the converted, captured C02 from the material as filtrate.

2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising separating the filtrate into at least one useful byproduct.

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein separating the filtrate into at least one useful byproduct includes allowing the filtrate to sit for a period of time.

4. The method according to claim 2, wherein separating the filtrate into at least one useful byproduct includes treating the filtrate with additional solution.

5. The method according to claim 2, wherein the filtrate is separated into at least two useful byproducts and wherein at least one of the useful byproducts is H20.

6. The method according to claim 2, wherein one of the at least one byproducts is CaCO,.

7. The method according to claim 2, wherein the filtrate is separated into at least two useful byproducts including CaC03 and H20.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the solution is an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution.

9. The method according to claim 1, further comprising repeating, a plurality of additional times:

exposing the material to the source of thermal energy to capture C02 within the material;

removing the material from exposure to the source of thermal energy; and

washing the material with the solution to convert the captured C02 and wash the converted, captured C02 from the material as filtrate.

10. The method according to claim 1, wherein exposing the material to the source of thermal energy includes exposing the material to solar illumination.

11. A material configured to capture C02 and able to be washed of the captured C02, the material comprising:

an ionic liquid having a melting point of from 30°C to 70°C, the ionic liquid configured to capture C02 in response to exposure to a thermal energy source; and

a material matrix that is permeable, porous, hydrophobic, and oleophilic, the material matrix holding the ionic liquid therein.

12. The material according to claim 11, wherein the material matrix is an aerogel.

13. The material according to claim 11, wherein the material matrix includes a graphene aerogel.

14. The material according to claim 11, wherein the ionic liquid is a commercially-available ionic liquid or a fluorinated ionic liquid.

15. The material according to claim 11, wherein the ionic liquid is one of:

CIOMI BF4;

Cl6MI Tf2N; or

CF3(CF2)7(CH2)3MI] [(CF3-CF2S02)2N.

16. The material according to claim 11, wherein the ionic liquid is washable to wash out C02 captured therein.

17. A system configured to capture C02 and convert the captured CO2 into useful byproducts, the system comprising:

a CO2 absorber, including:

an ionic liquid having a melting point of from 30°C to 70°C, the ionic liquid configured to capture CO2 in response to exposure to a thermal energy source; and

a material matrix that is permeable, porous, hydrophobic, and oleophilic, the material matrix holding the ionic liquid therein; and

a washing solution, the washing solution configured to wash captured CO2 from the

CO2 absorber.

18. The system according to claim 17, wherein the material matrix includes a graphene aerogel.

19. The system according to claim 17, wherein the ionic liquid is fluorinated.

20. The system according to claim 17, wherein the solution is an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution.

Description:
MATERIALS, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS

FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND CONVERSION

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. Provisional Patent

Application No. 62/624,333, filed on January 31, 2018, the entire contents of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND

Technical Field

[0002] The present disclosure relates to CO2 reduction and, more specifically, to materials, systems, and methods for CO2 capture and conversion into useful byproducts. Background of Related Art

[0003] Since the industrial revolution, CO2 emissions have increased dramatically due largely to the transportation, building, and industrial sectors and the corresponding exponential increase in the usage of fossil fuels. In fact, CO2 emissions have increased at the alarming rate of approximately 40% globally over the last 10 to 15 years, and this number is expected to double by 2050.

[0004] Due to the massive increase in CO2 emissions, one of the major areas of emphasis on the global energy market is the reduction of greenhouse gases, specifically CO2. The capture of CO2 is viewed as one of the most prominent means of decarburization.

Several studies have been published that describe the importance of CO2 capture and strategies to cut emissions by half in the US. With an increasing demand for this domain of research, a variety of mechanisms are being explored for effective CO2 capture.

[0005] Currently, commercial systems and methods employed for CO2 capture include amine-based solvents, mainly monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine, and methyldienthanolamine. However, the limited capacity for the capture of CO2, toxicity of the resultant chemicals, loss of reagent due to evaporation, equipment corrosion, and large enthalpy of reaction corresponding to higher energy requirements considerably reduces the efficiency of these current systems and methods.

[0006] It would therefore be desirable to provide reusable materials, systems, and methods capable of effectively and efficiently capturing C0 2 and converting the captured C0 2 into useful byproducts in a cyclic, repeatable manner.

SUMMARY

[0007] The present disclosure provides effective and efficient materials, systems, and methods for C0 2 capture and conversion into useful byproducts. More specifically, the present disclosure provides stable, sustainable, cyclically repeatable C0 2 collection materials, systems, and methods activated by solar heat localization. These materials, systems, and methods utilize ionic liquids and a graphene aerogel, which undergoes solid-liquid phase change to efficiently capture C0 2 at a rate of 0.2 moles of C0 2 for every mole of ionic liquid and converts the absorbed C0 2 into useful byproducts, e.g., water and calcium carbonate, in each cycle. These and other aspects and features of the present disclosure are detailed below. To the extent consistent, any of the aspects and features detailed herein may be used in conjunction with any or all of the other aspects and features detailed herein.

[0008] Provided in accordance with aspects of the present disclosure is a method of capturing C0 2 and converting the captured C0 2 into useful byproducts. The method includes providing a material including a material matrix holding an ionic liquid, exposing the material to a source of thermal energy (e.g., employing solar heat localization) to capture C0 2 within the material, removing the material from exposure to the source of thermal energy, and washing the material with a solution to convert the captured C0 2 and wash the converted, captured C0 2 from the material as filtrate. [0009] In aspects of the present disclosure, the method further includes separating the filtrate into at least one useful byproduct. Separating the filtrate into at least one useful byproduct may be accomplished, in aspects, by allowing the filtrate to sit for a period of time or treating the filtrate with additional solution.

[0010] In aspects of the present disclosure, the filtrate is separated into byproducts including H 2 0 and/or CaCO,.

[0011] In aspects of the present disclosure, the solution is an aqueous Ca(OH) 2 solution.

[0012] In aspects of the present disclosure, the method further includes cyclically repeating, a plurality of additional times: exposing the material to the source of thermal energy to capture C0 2 within the material, removing the material from exposure to the source of thermal energy, and washing the material with the solution to convert the captured C0 2 and wash the converted, captured C0 2 from the material as filtrate.

[0013] In aspects of the present disclosure, exposing the material to the source of thermal energy includes exposing the material to solar illumination.

[0014] A material provided in accordance with the present disclosure and configured to capture C0 2 and able to be washed of the captured C0 2 includes an ionic liquid, e.g., a commercially-available ionic liquid or a fluorinated ionic liquid, having a melting point of from 30°C to 70°C, and a material matrix. The ionic liquid is configured to capture C0 2 in response to exposure to a thermal energy source. The material matrix is permeable and porous, hydrophobic, and oleophilic and is configured to hold the ionic liquid therein.

[0015] In aspects of the present disclosure, the material matrix is an aerogel and, more specifically, in aspects, a graphene aerogel. [0016] In aspects of the present disclosure, the ionic liquid is the commercially- available ionic liquid C10MI BF 4 or Cl6MI Tf2N, or the fluorinated ionic liquid

CF 3 (CF 2 ) 7 (CH 2 ) 3 MI][(CF 3 -CF 2 S0 2 ) 2 N.

[0017] In aspects of the present disclosure, the ionic liquid is washable to wash out

CO2 captured therein.

[0018] A system provided in accordance with the present disclosure and configured to capture CO2 and convert the captured CO2 into useful byproducts includes a CO2 absorber including an ionic liquid and a material matrix, and a washing solution. The ionic liquid has a melting point of from 30°C to 70°C and is configured to capture CO2 in response to exposure to a thermal, e.g., solar, energy source. The material matrix is permeable and porous, hydrophobic, and oleophilic, and is configured to hold the ionic liquid therein. The washing solution is configured to wash captured CO2 from the CO2 absorber and convert it into useful byproducts.

[0019] In aspects of the present disclosure, the material matrix includes a graphene aerogel.

[0020] In aspects of the present disclosure, the ionic liquid is fluorinated.

[0021] In aspects of the present disclosure, the solution is an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0022] Various aspects and features of the present disclosure are described hereinbelow with reference to the drawings wherein like numerals designate similar elements in each of the several views and:

[0023] FIG. 1 A is a schematic diagram illustrating a material provided in accordance with the present disclosure for CO2 capture and conversion; [0024] FIG. 1B is a schematic diagram illustrating the material of FIG. 1 A being exposed to solar energy and capturing C0 2 ;

[0025] FIG. 1C is a schematic diagram of the material of FIG. 1A after it has captured

C0 2 via exposure to solar energy, illustrating the material being washed to convert and remove the CO2 from the material;

[0026] FIG. 1D is a schematic diagram illustrating the byproducts of the CO2 capture and conversion illustrated in FIGS. 1 A-1C;

[0027] FIG. 2 is a flow diagram illustrating a method of CO2 capture and conversion provided in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0028] FIGS. 3 and 4 are schematic illustrations of experimental setups configured to measure the absorption of CO2 utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure;

[0029] FIG. 5A is a graph of results from an experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, with CMIOMI.BF4 as the ionic liquid, illustrating Fourier- Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra for the capture of CO2;

[0030] FIG. 5B is a graph of results from an experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, with Cl6MI.Tf2N and a fluorinated ionic liquid (FIL) as the ionic liquids, illustrating FTIR spectra for the capture of CO2;

[0031] FIG. 5C is a graph of results from a pressure drop experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, illustrating CO2 capture in terms of mole fraction;

[0032] FIG. 5D is a graph of results from a pressure drop experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, illustrating CO2 capture in terms of a change in percentage of CO2; [0033] FIG. 6A is a graph of results from an experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, illustrating FTIR spectra to verify C0 2 presence before and after washing with Ca(OH) 2 ;

[0034] FIG. 6B is a graph of results from an experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, illustrating a Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum for the Ca(OH) 2 solution used for washing and the filtrate formed after washing (verifying information of Ca(HCO,) 2 );

[0035] FIG. 6C is a graph of results from an experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, illustrating pH measurements to verify formation of Ca(HCO,) 2 in the filtrate upon washing with Ca(OH) 2 ;

[0036] FIG. 6D is a graph of results from an experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, illustrating FTIR spectra for the final precipitated CaCO, and comparison with commercially available CaCO,;

[0037] FIG. 7 is a graph of results from an experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, illustrating repeatability over a plurality of cycles; and [0038] FIG. 8A is a side view of a test tube including precipitated CaCO, and water byproducts of an experiment utilizing the materials and methods of the present disclosure, after a first cycle; and

[0039] FIG. 8B is a side view of a test tube including precipitated CaCO, and water byproducts of the experiment of FIG. 8 A, after a fifth cycle..

PET ATT, ED DESCRIPTION

[0040] Referring to FIGS. 1 A-1D and 2, provided in accordance with the present disclosure is a material, referred to herein as a Reusable Carbon Dioxide (C0 2 ) Absorber (RCA), configured to capture C0 2 and convert the captured C0 2 into useful byproducts such as, for example, precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO,) and water (H 2 0). CaC0 3 is useful for many purposes including water treatment and the manufacture of paints, plastics, papers, sealants, adhesives, inks, cement, plaster, mortars, pharmaceuticals, and nutritional supplements, to name a few. For the purposes herein, the term“useful byproduct” refers to any byproduct that is non -toxic and is itself utilized in a generally-accepted manner in the industry or field for which it pertains and/or utilized in a process (e.g., a treatment process, a manufacturing process, etc.) that is generally-accepted in the industry or field for which it pertains. Systems and methods for capturing C0 2 and converting the captured C0 2 into useful byproducts are also provided in accordance with the present disclosure.

[0041] With initial reference to FIG. 1 A and step S210 of FIG. 2, RCA 100, described in greater detailed below, includes a material matrix holding an ionic liquid. RCA 100 may be incorporated into a suitable system (not explicitly shown) to facilitate CO2 capture under solar illumination, or via another thermal energy source 110. Such a system may include, for example, a chamber retaining RCA 100 therein, a cover covering the chamber and configured for efficient transmission of solar irradiation therethrough, and an input and output defined into and out of the chamber, respectively. Any suitable system, including large-scale systems, may be utilized and are within the scope of the present disclosure.

[0042] Referring also to FIG. 1B and step S220 of FIG. 2, when RCA 100 is exposed to a thermal energy source 110 such as, for example, solar illumination, heat localization simulates a phase change of the ionic liquid of RCA 100 from the solid state to the liquid state to facilitate the capture of CO2 gas in the RCA 100 due the fact that absorption of CO2 by an ionic liquid is greater in the liquid state of the ionic liquid than in the solid state of the ionic liquid.

[0043] As indicated in step S230 of FIG. 2, after sufficient CO2 capture, RCA 100 is removed from exposure to thermal energy source 110 (FIG. 1B). Thereafter, with reference to FIG. 1C and step S240 of FIG. 2, RCA 100 is washed with a solution 120, e.g., an aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) solution, that serves to convert the captured C0 2 and remove the converted C0 2 from RCA 100 as filtrate from the wash. The filtrate includes the byproducts 130 of the C0 2 capture and washing from RCA 100, as detailed below.

[0044] More specifically, with reference to FIG. 1C and step S240 of FIG. 2, the physical and chemical reactions involved in the washing of the C0 2 captured RCA 100 with solution 120 are described and represented below in equations (1), (2), (1) + (2), and (3). As will be appreciated in view of the following, this enables the reuse of RCA 100 for multiple cycles of C0 2 capture and conversion into useful byproducts 130, e.g., CaCO, and H 2 0.

Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + C0 2 (g) CaC0 3 (s) + H 2 0 (1) (1)

CaCOs (s) + C0 2 (g) + H 2 0 (1) Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 (aq) (2)

Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + 2C0 2 (g) Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 (aq) (1) + (2)

Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 (aq) + Ca(OH) 2 (aq) 2CaC0 3 (s) + 2H 2 0 (1) (3)

[0045] Since ionic liquids strongly adsorb C0 2 , successful washing of C0 2 from the ionic liquid of RCA 100 requires a solution 120 that binds C0 2 more strongly than the ionic liquid of RCA 100. Once such solution 120 is aqueous Ca(OH) 2.

[0046] The reaction of Ca(OH) 2 with C0 2 to form calcium carbonate and calcium bicarbonate, provided in equations (1), (2), and (l)+(2) above, is well known. Ca(OH) 2 primarily produces CaC0 3 , as indicated in equation (1) above, but forms Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 in the presence of excess C0 2 , as indicated in equation (2), above.

[0047] The use of a solution 120 having a low concentration of Ca(OH) 2 in combination with an excess of C0 2 selectively forms the soluble Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 species that can be washed from RCA 100. The absorption of C0 2 into a Ca(OH) 2 solution 120 is more efficient if the concentration of Ca(OH) 2 is low. Indeed, previous studies have shown that lower concentrations of Ca(OH) 2 lead to most of the C0 2 absorbed in the solution to form a mixture of soluble ions, mainly bicarbonate. As such, a low concentration of Ca(OH) 2 in solution 120, e.g., a 0.01 M Ca(OH) 2 solution, to wash the C0 2 from RCA 100 may thus be utilized.

[0048] RCA 100, having been washed as detailed above, may then be re-used to capture additional C0 2 , convert the captured C0 2 , and wash the converted C0 2 from RCA 100 as filtrate, similarly as detailed above and illustrated in FIGS. 1A-1C and steps S210- S240 of FIG. 2.

[0049] Referring to FIG. 1D and step S250 of FIG. 2, byproducts 130 obtained from the filtrate resulting from the washing of the C0 2 -captured RCA 100 are separated.

Separation of the filtrate into CaCO, and H 2 0 byproducts 130 may be accomplished, for example, by allowing the filtrate to sit for a suitable time, e.g., 5 days, until the excess C0 2 escapes from the filtrate leaving the precipitated CaCO, and H 2 0 behind, or may be facilitated by treating the filtrate with additional aqueous Ca(OH) 2 solution to precipitate out the calcium as CaCO,, leaving CaCO, and H 2 0. Via either method, or other suitable method, the result is an output of CaCO, and H 2 0, wherein the number of moles of H 2 0 formed is equal to the number of moles of C0 2 absorbed. As noted above, CaC0 3 has many uses such as in water treatment and in the manufacture of many different products across many different industries. The usefulness and important of water needs no elaboration.

[0050] With general reference to FIGS. 1A-1D, RCA 100, as mentioned above, includes a material matrix holding an ionic liquid. Exemplary material matrices and ionic liquids forming RCA 100 are detailed below, although other suitable material matrices and ionic liquids forming RCA 100 are also contemplated and within the scope of the present disclosure. The ionic liquid for RCA 100 is selected to have a melting point range between 30°C and 70°C such that, when RCA 100 is exposed to solar thermal energy source 110, the thermal energy simulates a phase change in the ionic liquid from the solid state to the liquid state via heat localization, and such that the ionic liquid remains in the solid state in the absence of exposure to thermal energy source 110. Such a configuration is advantageous due the fact that absorption of C0 2 by an ionic liquid is greater in the liquid state of the ionic liquid than in the solid state of the ionic liquid, as noted above. Further, a melting point range between 30°C and 70°C also facilitates solar illumination at 1 sun and integration of the ionic liquid into the material matrix to form RCA 100.

[0051] With respect to exemplary ionic liquids suitable for use in forming RCA 100, it is noted that, while most C0 2 absorption studies with ionic liquids have been performed using ionic liquids with methyl imidazolium-based cations coupled with a host of other anions, it has been found that fluorinated anions are significantly better in C0 2 absorption compared to other anions, with the C0 2 absorption capability increasing with an increasing degree of fluorination. High molecular weight of the cation also increases C0 2 absorption.

In addition, to avoid loss of the ionic liquid in the washing step (see FIG. 1C and step S240 in FIG. 2) using the aqueous Ca(OH) 2 solution, the ionic liquid should be largely immiscible in water. Miscibility of an ionic liquid in water depends on the water-ion interaction strength and the size of the ions (larger ions are less miscible). The magnitude of the localized charge in the connecting atom also plays a role in miscibility. Two exemplary, commercially- available ionic liquids meeting the above-detailed criteria are C10MI BF 4 and Cl6MI Tf 2 N.

[0052] In addition to commercially available ionic liquids, fluorinated ionic liquids may also be utilized such as, for example, the fluorinated imidazolium ionic liquid

[CF 3 (CF 2 ) 7 (CH 2 ) 3 MI][(CF 3 -CF 2 S0 2 ) 2 N], abbreviated as FIL. This ionic liquid has a melting point of 56 °C and is a suitable ionic liquid for use in RCA 100 given that it will melt within the working temperatures detailed above and, being a long-chain fluorinated system, would produce good C0 2 absorption. While this fluorinated ionic liquid is one example, other long- chain fluorinated methyl-imidazolium ionic liquids may also be utilized in RCA 100.

[0053] Continuing with general reference to FIGS. 1 A-1D, the material matrix of

RCA 100 is selected to hold the ionic liquid and enable heat localization using a thermal energy source such as solar energy. More specifically, the material matrix is selected to include: (1) high absorption in the solar spectrum, (2) low thermal conductivity for localizing thermal energy, (3) high permeability and porosity to hold a large volume of the ionic liquid, (4) hydrophobicity to avoid the retention of water in the material matrix, and (5) oleophilicity to absorb and retain the ionic liquid in the material matrix. Two-dimensional graphene, for example, meets the above-noted criteria and, in particular, possesses high mechanical strength, low density, permeability and porosity, hydrophobicity and oleophilicity. Thus, graphene aerogels are suitable candidates for the material matrix of RCA 100 to hold the ionic liquid of RCA 100.

[0054] One particular graphene aerogel and method of manufacturing the same is detailed below, although other suitable graphene aerogels, other material matrices, and/or methods of manufacturing are also contemplated and within the scope of the present disclosure. First, 100 mg of L- phenylalanine is dissolved in 5 mL of distilled water. Once dissolved, 5 mL of graphene oxide is added to the solution, and the solution is poured into a 25 mL vial for soni cation for 10 minutes. After sonication, the vial is placed in a hot oil bath at 95 °C for 48 hours to afford a wet hydrogel. The hydrogel is then freeze dried for 48 hours at -65 °C to obtain the graphene aerogel.

[0055] With reference to FIG. 3, in conjunction with FIGS. 1 A-1D, an experimental system 300 for evaluating CO2 capture, e.g., the amount of CO2 absorbed in RCA 100, with solar illumination is illustrated and described below. System 300 includes a CO2 cylinder 304 containing CO2 gas; an absorption chamber 330; a sample holder 335, e.g., an acrylic sample holder, disposed within the absorption chamber 330 and including the“SAMPLE,” i.e., RCA 100; a fiber glass window 340 enabling solar illumination from solar illuminator 350 to pass therethrough into absorption chamber 330; a gas output 380; a temperature sensor 370; a pressure sensor 375, e.g., a pressure transducer; and a computer 390 for data acquisition and analysis. Absorption chamber 330 includes an input for receiving C0 2 gas C0 2 cylinder 304 and an output for outputting resultant gas to gas output 380.

[0056] In the experiments using system 300, the“SAMPLE” was positioned within sample holder 335 within absorption chamber 330 and solar illuminator 350 activated until the temperature within absorption chamber 330, measured via temperature sensor 370, e.g., a thermocouple, reached a constant value above the melting point of the ionic liquid to be tested. The pressure in absorption chamber 330 was monitored using pressure sensor 375. Outputs of temperature sensor 370 and pressure sensor 375 were connected to computer 390, and the generated data was collected by a suitable program, e.g., a Lab View® program, available from National Instruments of Austin, Texas, USA. The pressure within absorption chamber 330 was maintained between 2 bar and 6 bar and the temperature within absorption chamber 330 was maintained at 25 °C for approximately 40 minutes during each experiment. The amount of CO2 captured (in terms of mole fraction) was calculated using the observed drop in pressure using the ideal gas equation.

[0057] Turning to FIG. 4, in conjunction with FIGS. 1 A-1D, another experimental system 400 for evaluating the amount of CO2 absorbed in RCA 100 is illustrated and is described below. System 400 includes an N2 cylinder 402 containing N2 gas, a CO2 cylinder 404 containing CO2 gas, mass flow controllers 403, 405 for the N2 cylinder 402 and CO2 cylinder 404, respectively, a gas mixer 410, a temperature controller 420, an absorption chamber 430 including the“SAMPLE,” i.e., RCA 100, a fiber glass window 440 enabling solar illumination from solar illuminator 450 to pass therethrough into absorption chamber 430, a gas output 460, a temperature sensor 470, an output gas analyzer 480, and a computer 490 for data acquisition and analysis.

[0058] In the experiments, to evaluate the amount of C0 2 absorbed in RCA 100, a known mass and mixture of N 2 and C0 2 gas was prepared from N 2 cylinder 402 and C0 2 cylinder 404 utilizing mass flow controllers 403, 405, and gas mixer 410, and was passed into absorption chamber 430 (containing RCA 100) at a known pressure. The temperature of the mixture was controlled using temperature controller 420. Solar irradiation of 1 kWm 2 from solar illuminator 450 was applied to RCA 100 within absorption chamber 430, through fiber glass window 440, to simulate phase change of the ionic liquid in RCA 100. The output gas received from gas output 460 was then analyzed using gas analyzer 480 and computer 490. The temperature of the output gas was also monitored using temperature sensor 470 to evaluate phase change of the ionic liquid in RCA 100. Utilizing the above experimental system 400 and knowing the initial mass flow of the gases and the difference between the initial percentage of C0 2 and the final percentage of C0 2 after capture, the amount of C0 2 absorbed by RCA 100 was readily determined. Of course, other suitable experimental systems may also be utilized.

[0059] With reference to FIGS. 5A-5D, experimental results from different experiments of C0 2 capture in accordance with the materials and methods of the present disclosure are illustrated for various ionic liquids as the ionic liquid of RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) and two-dimensional graphene as the material matrix of RCA 100 (FIG. 1A).

[0060] FIGS. 5A and 5B, more specifically, illustrate Fourier-Transform Infrared

(FTIR) spectra for the capture of C0 2 using ClOMI.BF 4 as the ionic liquid (FIG. 5 A), Cl6MI.Tf 2 N as the ionic liquid (FIG. 5B), and a fluorinated ionic liquid (FIL) as the ionic liquid (FIG. 5B). [0061] As illustrated in FIGS. 5 A and 5B, the FTIR spectra for the above-noted ionic liquids after C0 2 absorption indicate a clear peak for C0 2 at 2400 cm 1 , in accordance with earlier reports of C0 2 FTIR measurements. To confirm that the peaks were not due to atmospheric C0 2 , IR measurements were conducted after purging the compartment with nitrogen gas to remove atmospheric C0 2. The IR spectrum of pure water was also obtained, as illustrated in FIG. 5A. Multiple trials consistently revealed a C0 2 peak for the ionic liquid samples only, verifying the capture of C0 2. No changes were observed in the base ionic liquid patterns, thereby indicating that the C0 2 was absorbed in the ionic liquids via physisorption. Experimental setups similar to the ones detailed above (see FIG. 3 and 4) were also used to quantify C0 2 capture in the RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) with the above-noted ionic liquids.

[0062] FIG. 5C illustrates the results of pressure drop experiments conducted to quantify the C0 2 capture of the above-noted ionic liquids in terms of mole fraction. FIG. 5C, more specifically, shows the mole fraction of captured C0 2 as a function of pressure. These experiments were conducted for RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) containing above-noted ionic liquids (Cl6MI.Tf 2 N, CIOMI.BF4, and FIL). Solar irradiation of one sun was incident on the sample to stimulate solid-liquid phase change. As shown, the captured C0 2 in RCA 100 (FIG. 1A) using FIL as the ionic liquid is slightly higher than that using Cl6MI.Tf 2 N as the ionic liquid, likely due to the higher degree of fluorination in FIL.

[0063] FIG. 5D shows the percentage drop of C0 2 as a function of pressure for RCA

100 (FIG. 1A) with Cl6MI.Tf 2 N as the ionic liquid, RCA 100 (FIG. 1A) with CIOMI.BF4 as the ionic liquid, and RCA 100 (FIG. 1A) with FIL as the ionic liquid. As shown in FIG. 5D, the maximum drop in percentage of C0 2 in the gas mixture is observed for the RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) with FIL as the ionic liquid. This trend is consistent with the mole fraction of captured C0 2 for these ionic liquids. Further, these results confirm the absorption selectivity for C0 2 overN 2. Therefore, the selective capture of CO2 in RCA 100 (FIG. 1A) is confirmed from these experiments.

[0064] FIG. 6 A illustrates experimental results, in the form of FTIR spectra, of the

CO2 captured ionic liquid of RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) and the ionic liquid of RCA 100 (FIG. 1A) after washing with solution 120 (aqueous 0.01M Ca(OH)2 solution; FIG. 1C) to obtain precipitated CaCO,, for each of the above-noted ionic liquids. As illustrated, the

disappearance of the CO2 peak at -2400 cm 1 after washing the ionic liquids with the

Ca(OH)2 solution confirms the effectiveness of the washing process.

[0065] The absorption of CO2 into a Ca(OH)2 solution is more efficient if the concentration of Ca(OH)2 is low. This is because lower concentrations of Ca(OH)2 lead to CO2 absorbed in the solution, forming a mixture of mainly soluble bicarbonate ions. 0.01 M Ca(OH)2 solution was used to wash the CO2 out of RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) with FIL as the ionic liquid. FIL, being mostly immiscible in water, remains unchanged, while the CO2 is converted to the soluble HCO3- species and is collected in the filtrate. Conversion of the CO2 to soluble HCO3 is confirmed by its presence in the filtrate via Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, as shown in FIG. 6B. Note that the UV-Vis spectrum was obtained soon after the RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) was washed with the Ca(OH)2 solution. From these observations, the presence of Ca(HC03)2 in the filtrate can be confirmed, implying effective washing of the RCA 100 (FIG. 1A) and conversion of the absorbed CO2.

[0066] An electronic pH meter with a measuring probe (not shown) was used to compare the pH levels between the calcium hydroxide solution before and after washing the CCL-impregnated RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A), for each of the ionic liquids noted above (CIOMI.BF4, Cl6MI.Tf2N, and FIL) for three trials to confirm the reproducibility of the results. A drop in pH was observed in the filtrate compared to the starting Ca(OH) 2 solution used for washing the ionic liquids, as shown in FIG. 6C. This experiment thus implicates the consumption of OH to form the less basic HC0 3 species in solution, responsible for the drop in pH. Soluble HCO3 is benign, but it is not the most commercially useful form of carbonate species. A conversion to a more useful product is thus desirable. Precipitated CaCCb enjoys widespread use in a variety of industries, including paints, plastics, papers, and sealants. Therefore, to precipitate CaCCb from Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 solution, the solution was left to stand. Once the excess CO2 escapes from the solution, precipitated CaC0 3 is left behind, which was verified by the FTIR spectrum shown in FIG. 6D. The spectrum shows pure CaC0 3 as compared to a reference spectrum of commercial CaC0 3.

[0067] FIG. 7 illustrates experimental results testing for repeatability over a plurality, e.g., five, cycles, wherein FIL is used as the ionic liquid of RCA 100 (FIG. 1A) and the final percentage composition of CO2 is measured after each cycle. Although FIG. 7 illustrates the results from repeated CO2 absorption and washing over multiple cycles using RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) with FIL used as the ionic liquid, similar results would apply to the other ionic liquids detailed above. In these results, a nearly constant drop in the percentage of CO2 was observed in the gas mixture over multiple trials, thereby confirming the repeatability of RCA 100 (FIG. 1A).

[0068] Continuing with reference to FIG. 7, more specifically, the gas analyzer setup and protocol detailed above was used to evaluate the reusability of RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A) to yield the plot of percentage composition of CO2 in the resulting mixture as a function of repetition (at 4 bar operating pressure). It was found that the percentage composition of the final mixture remained constant for multiple cycles, thereby demonstrating the reusability of RCA 100 (FIG. 1A). FIG. 7 also shows the conductivity of water obtained from the reaction after the precipitation of CaC0 3. Similar conductivity is observed over five cycles as seen from the graph of FIG. 7. [0069] FIGS. 8 A and 8B illustrate the byproducts 130, including precipitated CaC0 3 and water, in a test tube after the first cycle compared to after the fifth cycle, thus prviding visual confirmation of the reusability of RCA 100 (FIG. 1 A).

[0070] Materials, systems, and methods for capturing C0 2 and converting the captured C0 2 into useful byproducts in accordance with the present disclosure are detailed above, as is the verification of these materials and methods through experimentation. Persons skilled in the art will understand that the features specifically described hereinabove and shown in the accompanying figures are non-limiting exemplary embodiments, and that the description, disclosure, and figures should be construed merely as exemplary of particular embodiments. It is to be understood, therefore, that the present disclosure is not limited to the precise embodiments described, and that various other changes and modifications may be effected by one skilled in the art without departing from the scope or spirit of the disclosure.