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Title:
METAL COMPLEXES, METHODS, AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/109814
Kind Code:
A9
Abstract:
Disclosed herein are metal complexes that exhibit multiple radiative decay mechanisms, together with methods for the preparation and use thereof.

Inventors:
LI, Jian (134 E. Colt Road, Tempa, AZ, 85284, US)
TURNER, Eric (978 E. Monterey Street, Chandler, AZ, 85225, US)
Application Number:
US2013/066793
Publication Date:
August 14, 2014
Filing Date:
October 25, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ARIZONA BOARD OF REGENTS ACTING FOR AND ON BEHALF OF ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY (1475 North Scottsdale Road, Sky Song-Suite 200Scottsdale, AZ, 85257-3538, US)
International Classes:
C07F15/00; C07F1/00; C07F3/06; C07F13/00; C07F15/04
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HATHCOCK, Kevin, W. et al. (Ballard Spahr LLP, 999 Peachtree StreetSuite 100, Atlanta GA, 30309, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

A metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters represented by one or more

and/or w ^— - wherein A is an accepting group comprising one or more of the following stmctures, which can optionally be substituted

wherein D is a donor group comprisingof one or more of the following structures, which can optinally be substituted,

wherein C in structure (a) or (b) comprises one or more of the following sturctures, which can optionally be substituted

wherein N in structure (a) or (b) comprises one or more of the following structures, which can optionally be substituted

wherein each of a°, a1, and a2 in dependently is present or absent, and if present, comprises a direct bond and/or linking group comprising one or more of the following R R R R R R

I I I a— a a=a

.A.

, wherein b1 and b2independently is presnet or absent, and if present, comprises a linking group comprising one or more of the following whereinX is B, C, N, O, Si, P, S, Ge, As, Se, Sn, Sb, or Te, wherein Y is O, S, S=0, S02, Se, N, NR3, PR3, RP=0,CR1R2, C=0, SiR^2,

GeR^BH, P(0)H, PH, NH, CR1!!, CH2, SiH2, SiHR1 BH, or BR3, wherein each of R, R1, R2, and R3 independently is hydrogen, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, aralkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, substituted silyl, or polymerizable, or any conjugate or combination thereof, wherein n is a number that statisfies the valency of Y, wherein M is platinum (II), palladium (II), nickel (II), manganese (II), zinc (II), gold (III), silver (III), copper (III), iridium (I), rhodium (I), and/or cobalt (I)..

2. The metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters of claim 1, wherein a2 is absent in structure A.

3. The metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters of claims 1 or 2, wherein a2 and b2 are absent.

4. The metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters of any one of claims 1-3, wherein X is N.

5. The metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters of any one of claims 1-4,

wherein a2 is absent, wherein b2 are absent, wherein D is

6. The metal-assisted delay ent emitters of any one of claims 1-5,

wherein C in structure (a) or (b) is

7. The metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters of any one of claims 1-6,

wherein N in structure (a) or (b) is or R substituted

8. The metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters of any one of claims 1-7, wherein M is Palladium (II).

9. The metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters of any one of claims 1-8, wherein the emitter is represented by any one of

A metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters will have the structure

wherein M comprises Ir, Rh, Mn, Ni, Cu, or Ag; wherein each of R1 and R2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Yla and Ylb independently is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)Rz, or SiRzRJ, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y2a, Y2b, Y2c, and Y2d independently is N, NR6a, or CR* wherein each of R6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

each of Y3a, Y3b, Y3c, Y3d, Y4a, Y4b, Y4c, and Y4d independently is N, O, S, NR6a, CR* wherein each of R6a and R* independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R c)2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

1 1. The compound of claim 10, wherein Y2b is CH, wherein Y2c, Y3b and Y4b is

N,wherein M is Ir or Rh.

12. A metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters will have the structure

wherein M comprises Pt, Pd and Au; wherein each of R1 and R2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Yla and Ylb independently is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)Rz, or SiRzRJ, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each of Y2a, Y2b, Y2c, and Y2d independently is N, NR6a, or CR* wherein each of R6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

each of Y3a, Y3b, Y3c, Y3d, Y3e, Y3f, Y4a, Y4b, Y4c, and Y4d independently is N, O, S, NR6a, CR6b, wherein each of R6a and R* independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R6c)2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of m is an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

13. The compound of claims l2, wherein Y2b and Y2c is C, wherein Y3b and Y4b is N, wherein each of Yla and Ylb independently is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2,

2 2 3 2 3

P(0)Rz, or SiRzRJ, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein M is Pt or Pd.

14. The compound of any one of claims 12 or 13, wherein Y2b, Y2c and Y4b is CH, wherein Y3b is N,wherein each of Yla and Ylb independently is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;wherein M is Au. A metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter will have the structure

wherein M comprises Pt, Pd, Au, Ag; wherein each of R1 and R2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein one of Yla and Ylb is B(R2)2 and the other of Yla and Ylb is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y2a, Y2b, Y2c, and Y2d independently is N, NR6a, or CR* wherein each of R6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

each of Y3a, Y3b, Y3c, Y3d, Y4a, Y4b, Y4c, and Y4d independently is N, O, S, NR6a, CR* wherein each of R6a and R* independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R c)2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

16. A metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters having the structure:

wherein M comprises Ir, Rh, Pt, Os, Zr, Co, or Ru; wherein each of R1 and R2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Yla, Ylb, Ylc andYld independently is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein Yle is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, or nothing, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y2a, Y2b, Y2c, and Y2d independently is N, NR6a, or CR* wherein each of R6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Y3a, Y3b, Y3c, Y3d, Y3e, Y4a, Y4b, Y4c, and Y4d independently is N, O, S, NR6a, CR6b, wherein each of R6a and R6b independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R6c)2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein in each of each of Y5a, Y5b, Y5c, Y5d, Y6a, Y6b, Y6c, and Y6d independently is N, O, S, NR6a, or CR6b;

wherein each οΐ τη,η, I and p independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of ' - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

17. A metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters having the

wherein M comprises Pd, Ir, Rh, Au, Co, Mn, Ni, Ag, or Cu; wherein each of Yla and Ylb independently is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, B(R2)2,PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y2a, Y2b, Y2c, Y2d, Y2e, Y2f, Y2g, and Y2hindependently is N, NR6a, or CR6b, wherein each of R6a and R6b independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

each of Y3a, Y3b, Y3c, Y3d, Y3eY4a, Y4b, Y4c, Y4d and Y4e independently is N, O, S, NR6a, CR6b, wherein each of R6a and R* independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R6c)2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of m is the integer 1 or 2;

wherein each of n is the integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

wherein each of Fl1, Fl2, Fl3 and Fl4 independently are fluorescent emitters with tunable singlet excited state energies which are covenantly bonded to selected atoms amongY2a, Y2d , Y2e, Y2f, Y2g, Y2h, Y3c, Y3d, Y3eY4c, Y4d and Y4e.

18. A metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter, wherein the energy of the singlet excited state/states is/are from 0 to 0.2 eV higher than the energy of the lowest triplet state, and metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter emit simultaneously from the lowest triplet state and the singlet excited state/states at the room temperature or elevated temperature and the metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter can harvest both electrogenerated singlet and triplet excitons.

19. A device comprising a complex of anyone of claims 1-18.

20. The device of claims 19, wherein the compound is selected to have 100% internal quantum efficiency in the device settings.

21. The device of claims 19 or 20 wherein the device is an organic light emitting diode.

22. The device of claims 19 or 20, wherein the device is a full color display.

Description:
METAL COMPLEXES, METHODS, AND USES THEREOF

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

[0001] This invention was made with government support under grant number 0748867, awarded by the National Science Foundation. The government has certain rights in the invention.

BACKGROUND

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure relates to metal complexes or compounds having multiple radiative decay mechanisms, together with methods for the preparation and use thereof.

TECHNICAL BACKGROUND

[0003] Compounds capable of absorbing and/or emitting light can be ideally suited for use in a wide variety of optical and electro-optical devices, including, for example, photo-absorbing devices such as solar- and photo-sensitive devices, photo-emitting devices, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), or devices capable of both photo- absorption and emission. Much research has been devoted to the discovery and optimization of organic and organometallic materials for using in optical and electro- optical devices. Metal complexes can be used for many applications, including as emitters use in for OLEDs.

[0004] Despite advances in research devoted to optical and electro-optical materials, many currently available materials exhibit a number of disadvantages, including poor processing ability, inefficient mission or absorption, and less than ideal stability, among others. Thus, a need exists for new materials which exhibit improved performance in optical and electro-optical devices. This need and other needs are satisfied by the present invention. SUMMARY

[0005] The present invention relates to metal complexes having multiple radiative decay mechanisms, together with methods for the preparation and use thereof.

[0006] In one aspect, Disclosed herein is a metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter represented by one or more of the formulas

N

and/or < b) V..„. b' S wherein A is an accepting group comprising one or more of the following structures, which can optionally be substituted

wherein D is a donor group comprising of one or more of the following structures, which can optinally be substituted,

wherein C in structure (a) or (b) comprises one or more of the following sturctures, which can optionally be substituted

wherein N in structure (a) or (b) comprises one or more of the following structures, which can optionally be substituted

wherein each of a 0 , a 1 , and a 2 in dependently is present or absent, and if present, comprises a direct bond and/or linking group comprising one or more of the following

, wherein b 1 and b 2 independently is presnet or absent, and if present, comprises a linking group comprising one or more of the following whereinX is B, C, N, O, Si, P, S, Ge, As, Se, Sn, Sb, or Te, wherein Y is O, S, S=0, S0 2 , Se, N, NR 3 , PR 3 , RP=0,CR 1 R 2 , C=0, SiR^ 2 ,

GeR^BH, P(0)H, PH, NH, CR 1 !!, CH 2 , SiH 2 , SiHR 1 BH, or BR 3 , wherein each of R, R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 independently is hydrogen, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, aralkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, substituted silyl, or polymerizable, or any conjugate or combination thereof, wherein n is a number that statisfies the valency of Y, wherein M is platinum (II), palladium (II), nickel (II), manganese (II), zinc (II), gold (III), silver (III), copper (III), iridium (I), rhodium (I), or cobalt (I).

[0007] Also disclosed are devices compring one or more of the disclsoed comlexes or compounds.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0008] The accompanying figures, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate several aspects and together with the description serve to explain the principles of the invention. [0009] FIG. 1 is a drawing of a cross-section of an exemplary organic light-emitting diode (OLED).

[0010] FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of dual emission pathways in metal complexes, where the lowest triplet excited state (Ti) has a lower but similar energy level to the lowest singlet excited state (Si), in accordance with various aspects of the present disclosure.

[0011] FIG. 3 (a) illustrates an exemplary PdN3N complex, in accordance with various aspects of the present disclosure, wherein the C A N component and D A A components are illustrated by solid and dashed lines, respectively; and (b) a UV-Vis absorption spectra of the complex illustrated in the inset, together with 77K and room temperature photo luminescence spectra of compound PdN3N.

[0012] Fig. 4 illustrates emission spectra of a PdN3N complex at various

temperatures ranging from 77 K to 340 K, in accordance with various aspects of the present disclosure.

[0013] Fig. 5 illustrates emission spectra of a PdNlN complex in solution at 77 K and room temperature.

[0014] Fig. 6 illustrates emission spectra of a PdN6N complex in solution at 77 K and room temperature.

[0015] Fig. 7 illustrates emission spectra of a PdON3_l complex in solution at 77 K and room temperature.

[0016] Fig. 8 illustrates emission spectra of a PdON3_2complex in solution at 77 K and room temperature.

[0017] Fig. 9 illustrates emission spectra of a PdON3_3complex in solution at 77 K and room temperature.

[0018] Fig. 10 illustrates plots of external quantum efficiency vs. current density and the electroluminescent spectrum (inset) for the device of ITO/ HATCN (10nm)/NPD (40nm)/TAPC (10nm)/6% PdN3N:26mCPy (25nm)/DPPS (10nm)/BmPyPB

(40nm)/LiF/Al. [0019] Fig. 11 illustrates plots of external quantum efficiency vs. current density and the electroluminescent spectrum (inset) for the device of ITO/ HATCN (10nm)/NPD (40nm)/6% PdN3N:CBP (25nm)/BAlQ (I0nm)/A1Q 3 (30nm)/LiF/Al.

[0020] Fig. 12 illustrates plot of relative luminance at the constant current of 20 rriA/cm 2 vs. operational time for the device of ITO/ HATCN (10nm)/NPD (40nm)/6% PdN3N:CBP (25nm)/BAlQ (I0nm)/A1Q 3 (30nm)/LiF/Al.

[0021] Fig. 13 illustrates plots of external quantum efficiency vs. current density and the electroluminescent spectrum (inset) for the device of ITO/ HATCN (10nm)/NPD (40nm)/TAPC (10nm)/6% PdNlN:26mCPy (25nm)/DPPS (10nm)/BmPyPB

(40nm)/LiF/Al. Additional aspects of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or can be learned by practice of the invention. The advantages of the invention will be realized and attained by means of the elements and combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims. It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention, as claimed.

DESCRIPTION

[0022] The present invention can be understood more readily by reference to the following detailed description of the invention and the Examples included therein.

[0023] Before the present compounds, devices, and/or methods are disclosed and described, it is to be understood that they are not limited to specific synthetic methods unless otherwise specified, or to particular reagents unless otherwise specified, as such can, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular aspects only and is not intended to be limiting. Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, example methods and materials are now described.

[0024] As used in the specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a,""an," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a component" includes mixtures of two or more components.

[0025] Ranges can be expressed herein as from "about" one particular value, and/or to "about" another particular value. When such a range is expressed, another aspect includes from the one particular value and/or to the other particular value. Similarly, when values are expressed as approximations, by use of the antecedent "about," it will be understood that the particular value forms another aspect. It will be further understood that the endpoints of each of the ranges are significant both in relation to the other endpoint, and independently of the other endpoint. It is also understood that there are a number of values disclosed herein, and that each value is also herein disclosed as "about" that particular value in addition to the value itself. For example, if the value "10" is disclosed, then "about 10" is also disclosed. It is also understood that each unit between two particular units are also disclosed. For example, if 10 and 15 are disclosed, then 1 1, 12, 13, and 14 are also disclosed.

[0026] As used herein, the terms "optional" or "optionally" means that the subsequently described event or circumstance can or cannot occur, and that the description includes instances where said event or circumstance occurs and instances where it does not.

[0027] Disclosed are the components to be used to prepare the compositions of the invention as well as the compositions themselves to be used within the methods disclosed herein. These and other materials are disclosed herein, and it is understood that when combinations, subsets, interactions, groups, etc. of these materials are disclosed that while specific reference of each various individual and collective combinations and permutation of these compounds cannot be explicitly disclosed, each is specifically contemplated and described herein. For example, if a particular compound is disclosed and discussed and a number of modifications that can be made to a number of molecules including the compounds are discussed, specifically contemplated is each and every combination and permutation of the compound and the modifications that are possible unless specifically indicated to the contrary. Thus, if a class of molecules A, B, and C are disclosed as well as a class of molecules D, E, and F and an example of a combination molecule, A-D is disclosed, then even if each is not individually recited each is individually and collectively contemplated meaning combinations, A-E, A-F, B-D, B-E, B-F, C-D, C-E, and C-F are considered disclosed. Likewise, any subset or combination of these is also disclosed. Thus, for example, the sub-group of A-E, B-F, and C-E would be considered disclosed. This concept applies to all aspects of this application including, but not limited to, steps in methods of making and using the compositions of the invention. Thus, if there are a variety of additional steps that can be performed it is understood that each of these additional steps can be performed with any specific embodiment or combination of

embodiments of the methods of the invention.

[0028] The term "alkyl" as used herein is a branched or unbranched saturated hydrocarbon group of 1 to 24 carbon atoms, such as methyl, ethyl, w-propyl, isopropyl, w-butyl, isobutyl, s-butyl, ?-butyl, w-pentyl, isopentyl, s-pentyl, neopentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, eicosyl, tetracosyl, and the like. The alkyl group can be cyclic or acyclic. The alkyl group can be branched or unbranched. The alkyl group can also be substituted or unsubstituted. For example, the alkyl group can be substituted with one or more groups including, but not limited to, optionally substituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkoxy, amino, ether, halide, hydroxy, nitro, silyl, sulfo-oxo, or thiol, as described herein. A "lower alkyl" group is an alkyl group containing from one to six (e.g., from one to four) carbon atoms.

[0029] The terms "amine" or "amino" as used herein are represented by the formula

1 2 3 1 2 3

NA A A , where A , A and A J can be, independently, hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkynyl, aryl, or heteroaryl group as described herein.

[0030] The term "halide" as used herein refers to the halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

[0031] The term "hydroxyl" as used herein is represented by the formula— OH. [0032] The term "nitro" as used herein is represented by the formula— O 2 . [0033] The term "nitrile" as used herein is represented by the formula— CN. [0034] The term "thiol" as used herein is represented by the formula— SH. [0035] The term "heterocyclyl" or the like terms refer to cyclic structures including a heteroatom. Thus, "heterocyclyl" includes both aromatic and non-aromatic ring structures with one or more heteroatoms. Non-limiting examples of heterocyclic includes, pyridine, isoquinoline, methylpyrrole and thiophene etc. "Heteroaryl" specifically denotes an aromatic cyclic structure including a heteroatom.

[0036] A dashed line outlining ring structures as used herein refers to anoptional ring structure. The ring structure can be aromatic or non-aromatic. For example, the ring structure can comprise double bonds or can contain only single bonds within the ring

[0037] In one aspect, as used herein each of a 0 , a 1 , a 2 , b, b 1 , or b 2 can independently be replaced with anyone of a 0 , a 1 , a 2 , b, b 1 , and b 2 . For example, b 1 in one structure can be replaced with a 1 in the same structure.

[0038] In one aspect, a complex that includes more than one of the same of X, Y, a 0 ,

1 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 2

a , a , b, b , or b , then the two recited X, Y, a , a , a , b, b , or b can have different structures. For example, if a complex recites two b 1 moieties, then the structure of one of the b x 's can be different or the same of the other b 1 .

[0039] Phosphorescent metal complexes have exclusive emission from the lowest triplet state. When the energy of the singlet excited state/states of metal complexes is/are closer to the energy of the lowest triplet state, metal complexes will emit simultaneously from the lowest triplet state and the singlet excited state/states at the room temperature or elevated temperature. Such metal complexes can be defined as metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters, and such dual emission process are defined as phosphorescence and thermal activated delayed fluorescence. [0040] As briefly described above, the present invention is directed a metal complex having multiple radiative decay mechanisms. Metal complexes can be used for many applications including, for example, as emitters for OLEDs. In another aspect, the inventive complex can have a dual emission pathway. In one aspect, the dual emission characteristics of the inventive complex can be an enhancement of conventional phosphorescence typically found in organometallic emitters. In another aspect, the inventive complex can exhibit both a delayed fluorescence and a phosphorescence emission. In yet another aspect, the inventive complex can simultaneously and/or substantially simultaneously exhibit both singlet and triplet excitons. In one aspect, such an inventive complex can emit directly from a singlet excited state, so as to provide a blue-shifted emission spectrum. In another aspect, the inventive complex can be designed such that the lowest singlet excited state is thermally accessible from the lowest triplet excited state.

[0041] In one aspect, when emission from a complex is generated primarily from the fluorescent decay of thermally populated singlets, light, for example, red, blue, and/or green light, can be produced with improved efficiency and good color purity. In another aspect, when emission from a complex is generated from a combination of fluorescent emission from a higher energy singlet state and phosphorescent emission from a lower energy triplet state, the overall emission of the complex can be useful to provide white light.

[0042] In one aspect, the inventive complex exhibits a singlet excited state (SI) that is thermally accessible from the lowest triplet excited state (Tl). In another aspect, and while not wishing to be bound by theory, this can be accomplished by tailoring the chemical structure, for example, the linkages between ligands N and C ("N A C") and between ligands D and A ("D A A"), as illustrated in the formulas herein. In one aspect, C A N can illustrate an emitting component which determines the triplet emission energy of the resulting metal complex. In another aspect, D A A can illustrate a donor-acceptor group containing the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). In various aspects, the C A N ligand and D A A ligand can optionally share or not share any structural components.

[0043] With reference to the figures, FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary schematic of a dual emission pathway, wherein the lowest triplet excited state (Tl) has a lower, but similar energy level to the lowest singlet excited state (SI). Thus, the inventive complex can exhibit both a phosphorescence pathway (T 1 to SO) and a delayed fluorescence pathway (S I to SO). The two radiative decay processes illustrated in FIG. 2 can occur simultaneously, enabling the inventive complex to have dual emission pathways. In the inventive complexes described herein, the Tl state can comprise a triplet ligand-centered state (3C A N) combined with at least some charge- transfer characteristics (1D-A). Similarly, the SI state of the inventive complexes described herein can comprise singlet charge-transfer characteristics (1D-A). FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary PdN3N complex, wherein the C A N component is represented by a solid line and the D A A component is represented by a dashed line. In such an inventive complex, a portion of the ligand structure may be shared between the C A N and D A A components.

[0044] In a specific aspect, the inventive complex can comprise a palladium based complex, referenced by PdN3N, which exhibits a blue-shifted emission spectrum at room temperature as compared to the emission spectrum at 77 K, as illustrated in FIG. 3. Such an emission profile represents an emission process from an excited state with a higher energy than the T 1 state.

[0045] In one aspect, the intensity of at least a portion of the emission spectra, for example, from about 480 nm to about 500 nm, can increase as the temperature increases. In such an aspect, the temperature dependence indicates a thermally activated, E-type delayed fluorescence process.

[0046] In one aspect, the inventive complex can comprise four coordinating ligands with a metal center. In another aspect, the inventive complex can be a tetradentate complex that can provide dual emission pathways through an emitting component and a donor-acceptor component, wherein in various aspects the emitting component and the donor-acceptor component can optionally share structural components. In one aspect, a least a portion of the structural components between the emitting component and the donor-acceptor component are shared. In another aspect, there are no shared structural components between the emitting and donor-acceptor components of the complex. [0047] In another aspect, the inventive complex can be useful as, for example, a luminescent label, an emitter for an OLED, and/or in other lighting applications. In one aspect, the inventive dual emission complexes described herein can be useful as emitters in a variety of color displays and lighting applications. In one aspect, the inventive complex can provide a broad emission spectrum that can be useful, for example, in white OLEDs. In another aspect, the inventive complex can provide a deep blue emission have a narrow emission for use in, for example, a display device.

[0048] In another aspect, the emission of such inventive complexes can be tuned, for example, by modifying the structure of one or more ligands. In one aspect, the compounds of the present disclosure can be prepared so as to have a desirable emission spectrum for an intended application. In another aspect, the inventive complexes can provide a broad emission spectrum, such that the complex can be useful in generating white light having a high color rendering index (CRI).

[0049] In any of the formulas and/or chemical structures recited herein, bonds represented by an arrow indicate coordination to a metal, whereas bonds represented by dashed lines indicate intra-ligand bonds. In addition, carbon atoms in any aryl rings can optionally be substituted in any position so as to form a heterocyclic aryl ring, and can optionally have atoms, functional groups, and/or fused ring systems substituted for hydrogen at any one or more available positions on the aryl ring.

[0050] Disclosed herein is a metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter, wherein the energy of the singlet excited state/states is/are slightly higher (0.2 eV or less) than the energy of the lowest triplet state, and metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter will emit simultaneously from the lowest triplet state and the singlet excited state/states at the room temperature or elevated temperature and the metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter can harvest both electrogenerated singlet and triplet excitons.

[0051] In one aspect, the metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter has 100% internal quantum efficiency in a device setting.

[0052] Disclosed herein is a metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitter represented by one or more of the formulas

and/or f (bb)) V. b 1 wherein A is an accepting group comprising one or more of the following structures, which can optionally be substituted

wherein D is a donor group comprising of one or more of the following structures, which can optinally be substituted,

wherein C in structure (a) or (b) comprises one or more of the following sturctures, which can optionally be substituted wherein N in structure (a) or (b) comprises one or more of the following structures, which can optionally be substituted

wherein each of a°, a 1 , and a 2 in dependently is present or absent, and if present, comprises a direct bond and/or linking group comprising one or more of the following

R R R R

I I ' I R I o S a— a a=a

R R O '

, wherein b 1 and b 2 independently is presnet or absent, and if present, comprises a linking group comprising one or more of the following whereinX is B, C, N, O, Si, P, S, Ge, As, Se, Sn, Sb, or Te, wherein Y is O, S, S=0, S0 2 , Se, N, NR 3 , PR 3 , RP=0,CR 1 R 2 , C=0, SiR^ 2 , GeR^BH, P(0)H, PH, NH, C^H, CH 2 , SiH 2 , SiHR 1 BH, or BR 3 , wherein each of R, R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 independently is hydrogen, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, aralkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, substituted silyl, or polymerizable, or any conjugate or combination thereof, wherein n is a number that statisfies the valency of Y, wherein M is platinum (II), palladium (II), nickel (II), manganese (II), zinc (II), gold (III), silver (III), copper (III), iridium (I), rhodium (I), or cobalt (I).

[0053] In one aspect, in:

and/or ' — '

M comprises a metal, wherein X, if present, comprises C, N, P, and/or Si, , wherein Y, if present, comprises B, C, N, O, Si, P, S, Ge, As, Se, Sn, Sb, or Te, and wherein R, if present, can optionally represent any substituent group. Furthermore, in all aryl rings depicted, carbon may be optionally substituted in any position(s) to form a heterocyclic aryl ring, and may have atoms, functional groups, and/or fused rings systems substituted for hydrogen along the aryl ring in any available position(s).

[0054] In one aspect, the complex has the structure (a). In another aspect, the complex has the structure (b).

[0055] In one aspect, M is platinum (II), palladium (II), nickel (II), manganese (II), zinc (II), gold (III), silver (III), copper (III), iridium (I), rhodium (I), or cobalt (I). For example, M can be platinum (II). In another exmple, M can bepalladium (II). In yet another example, M can be manganese (II). In yet another example, M can be zinc (II). In yet another example, M can be gold (III). In yet another example, M can be silver (III). In yet another example, M can be copper (III). In yet another example, M can be iridium (I). In yet another example, M can be rhodium (I). In yet another example, M can becobalt (I).

[0056] In one aspect, A is an aryl. In another aspect, A is a heteroaryl.

[0057] In one aspect, a 2 is absent in structure A. In another aspect, a 2 is present in structure A. In yet another aspect, a 2 and b 2 are absent. In yet another aspect, a 2 , b 1 , and b 2 are absent. In one aspect, at least one of a 2 , b 1 , and b 2 are present.

[0058] In another aspect, Y, if present, can comprise a carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phophorous, and/or sulfur, and/or a compound comprising a carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phophorous, and/or sulfuratom. In a specific aspect, Y, if present, comprises carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phophorous, and/or sulfur. In one aspect, Y is N. In another aspect, Y is C.

[0059] In one aspect, X is B, C, N, O, Si, P, S, Ge, As, Se, Sn, Sb, or Te. For exampel, X can be B, C, or N. In another aspect, Y, if present, can comprise boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phophorous, silicon, germanium, arsenic, selenium, tin, antimony, and/or telenium, and/or a compound comprising a boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phophorous, silicon, germanium, arsenic, selenium, tin, antimony, and/or telenium. In a specific aspect, X, if present, comprises boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phophorous, silicon, germanium, arsenic, selenium, tin, antimony, and/or telenium

[0060] In yet another aspect, R, if present, can copmrise any substituent group suitable for use in the complex and intended application. In another aspect, R, if present, comprises a group that does not adversely affect the desirable emission properties of the complex.

[0061] In one aspect, A, D, C, and/or N in structures (a) or (b) can be substituted with R as described herein. For example, N in structures (a) or (b) can be substituted with R, wherein R is aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di- alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, aralkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, substituted silyl, or polymerizable, or any conjugate or combination thereof. In another example, C in structures (a) or (b) can be substituted with R, wherein R is aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, aralkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino,

alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, substituted silyl, or polymerizable, or any conjugate or combination thereof.

[0062] In one aspect, the dashed line outlining ring structures in A, D, C, and/or N in structures (a) or (b) represents present bonds which form a ring structure. In one aspect, the dashed line outlining ring structures in A, D, C, and/or N in structures (a)

or (b) are absent. For example, the dashed lines , in one aspect represents present bonds and in another aspect are absent.

[0063] In one aspect, A is wherein a 2 is absent, wherein b 2 are absent,

wherein D is

[0064] In ano ther aspect, C in structure (a) or (b) is

[0065] In another aspect, N in structure (a) or (b) is or R

substituted

[0066] In one aspect, the emitter is represented by any one of

[0067] Also disclosed herein are delayed fluorescent emitters with the structure

wherein M comprises Ir, Rh, Mn, Ni, Ag, Cu, or Ag; wherein each of R 1 and R 2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Y la and Y lb independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 ,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d independently is N, NR 6a , or CR* wherein each of R 6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR* wherein each of R 6a and R* independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c ) 2 , wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

[0068] In one aspect, each of Y la and Y lb independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 or S. For example, each of Y la and Y lb independently is O or NR 2 .

[0069] In one aspect, Y 2b is CH, wherein Y 2c , Y 3b and Y 4b is N,wherein M is Ir or Rh.

[0070] In one aspect, if m is 1, each of Y 2a and Y 2d is CH and each of Y 2b and Y 2c is N, then at least one of Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 3a , or Y 3d is not N.

[0071] In one aspect, if n is 1, each of Y 2a and Y 2d is CH and each of Y 2b and

Y 2c is N, then at least one of Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 3a , or Y 3d is not N [0072] Also disclosed herein is a metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters having the structure

wherein M comprises Pt, Pd and Au; wherein each of R 1 and R 2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Y la and Y lb independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 ,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d independently is N, NR 6a , or CR* wherein each of R 6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e , Y 3f , Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R* independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c ) 2 , wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of m is an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

[0073] In one aspect, Y 2b and Y 2c is CH, wherein Y 3b and Y 4b is N, and wherein M is Pt or Pd.

[0074] In one aspect, Y 2b and Y 2c is CH, wherein Y 3b and Y 4b is N,wherein each of Y la and Y lb independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; herein M is Pt or Pd.

[0075] In one aspect, Y 2b , Y 2c and Y 4b is CH, wherein Y 3b is N, wherein each of Y la and Y lb independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein M is Au.

[0076] In one aspect, Y 2b and Y 2c is CH, wherein Y 3b and Y 4b is N, wherein one of Y la and Y lb is B(R 2 ) 2 and the other of Y la and Y lb is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR , P(0)R , or SiR R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and

R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein M is Au.

[0077] In one aspect, m is 1, each of Y 2a and Y 2d is CH and each of Y 2b and Y 2c is N, then at least one of Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 3a , or Y 3d is not N.

[0078] Also disclosed herein is a metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters having the structure:

wherein M comprises Ir, Rh, Pt, Os, Zr, Co, or Ru; wherein each of R 1 and R 2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc andY ld independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein Y le is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, or nothing, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d independently is N, NR 6a , or CR* wherein each of R 6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e , Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c ) 2 , wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein in each of each of Y 5a , Y 5b , Y 5c , Y 5d , Y 6a , Y 6b , Y 6c , and Y 6d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , or CR 6b ;

wherein each οΐ τη,η, I and p independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters having the

structure wherein M comprises Pd, Ir, Rh, Au, Co, Mn, Ni, Ag, or Cu; wherein each of Y la and Y independently is O, NR , CR R", S, AsR , BR , B(R 2 ) 2 ,PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , Y 2d , Y 2e , Y 2f , Y 2g , and Y 2h independently is N, NR 6a , or CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e ,Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , Y 4d , and Y 4e independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R* independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c )2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of m is an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of n is an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

wherein each of Fl 1 , Fl 2 , Fl 3 and Fl 4 independently are fluorescent emitters with tunable singlet excited state energies which are covenantly bonded to selected atoms among Y 2a , Y 2d , Y 2e , Y 2f , Y 2g , Y 2h , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e , Y 4c , Y 4d , and Y 4e .

[0080] In one aspect, the inventive complex can exhibit an overall neutral charge. In another aspect, the inventive complex can exhibit a non-neutral overall charge. In other aspects, the metal center of the inventive complex can comprise a metal having a +1, a +2, and/or a +3 oxidation state.

[0081] In one aspect, the inventive complex can comprise a neutral complex having the structure

wherein the M represents a metal having a +1 oxidation state.

[0082] In another aspect, the inventive complex can comprise a neutral complex having the structure

wherein the M represents a metal having a +1 oxidation state. [0083] In one aspect, the inventive complex can comprise a neutral complex having the structure

M ' b 2

C D

wherein the M represents a metal having a +2 oxidation state.

[0084] In one aspect, the inventive complex can comprise a neutral complex having the structure

. · A

( . M„ '' b 2

\ -■· ' ' '' ' \ i

[0085] wherein the M represents a metal having a +3 oxidation state.In another aspect, the inventive complex can comprise a neutral complex having the structure

wherein the M represents a metal having a +3 oxidation state.

[0086] In various aspects, such an inventive complex can comprise any one or more of the following:

 In various aspects, such an inventive complex can comprise any one or more of the following:

In another aspect, the inventive complex can comprise a neutral complex having the structure

wherein the M represents a metal having a +2 oxidation state.

[0088] In various aspects, such an inventive complex can comprise any one or more of the following:

[0089] In various aspects, such an inventive complex can comprise any one or more of the following:

71

[0091] In one aspect, a complex disclosed herein can have the structure:

77

wherein each A independently is O, S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein each U independently is O S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein M is Pt or Pd, and

wherein each A independently is O, S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein each U independently is O S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein M is Mn or Ni, and

[0093] In one aspect, a disclosed complex can have the structure:

84

wherein each A independently is O, S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein each U independently is O S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein M is Ir, Rh, or Cu, and

[0094] In one aspect, a disclosed compound can have the structure:

88

92

wherein each A independently is O, S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein each U independently is O S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein M is Au or Ag, and

[0095] In one aspect, a disclosed complex can have the structure:

95

A = O, S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , BR, BR 2 , etc U = O, S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , BR, etc X = C, N etc M = Pd, Mn, Ni, Tr, Rh, Cu, Au, Ag

FL groups are convalently bonded to any component of metal complexes including the Ar group. wherein each A independently is O, S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , BR, or BR 2 , wherein each U independently is O S, NR, PR, AsR, CR 2 , SiR 2 , or BR, wherein X is C or N,

wherein M is Pd, Mn, Ni, Ir, Rh, Cu, Au, or Ag, wherein FL is any one of , wherein FL is covalently bonded to any component of the complex, for example, the Ar 1 group;

[0096] In one aspect, the FL group is covalently bonded to the Ar 1 group. [0097] In one aspect, any one or more of the compounds disclosed herein can be excluded from the present invention.

[0098] The inventive complexes described herein can be prepared according to methods such as those provide in the Examples or that one of skill in the art, in possession of this disclosure, could readily discern from this disclosure and from methods known in the art.

Devices

[0099] Also disclosed herein is a device comprising one or more of the disclosed complexes or compounds. As briefly described above, the present invention is directed to metal complexes. In one aspect, the compositions disclosed here can be used as host materials for OLED applications, such as full color displays.

[00100] The organic light emitting diodes with metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters can have the potential of harvesting both electrogenerated singlet and triplet excitons and achieving 100% internal quantum efficiency in the device settings. The component of delayed fluorescence process will occurred at a higher energy than that of phosphorescence process, which can provide a blue-shifted emission spectrum than those originated exclusively from the lowest triplet excited state of metal complexes. On the other hand, the existence of metal ions (especially the heavy metal ions) will facilitate the phosphorescent emission inside of the emitters, ensuring a high emission quantum efficiency.

[00101] The energy of the singlet excited states of metal-assisted delayed fluorescent emitters can be adjusted separately from the lowest triplet excited by ether modifying the energy of donor-accepter ligands or attaching fluorescent emitters which are covalently bonded to metal complexes without having effective conjugation between fluorescent emitters and metal complexes.

[00102] The inventive compositions of the present disclosure can be useful in a wide variety of applications, such as, for example, lighting devices. In a particular aspect, one or more of the complexes can be useful as host materials for an organic light emitting display device. [00103] The compounds of the invention are useful in a variety of applications.

As light emitting materials, the compounds can be useful in organic light emitting diodes (OLED)s, luminescent devices and displays, and other light emitting devices.

[00104] The energy profile of the compounds can be tuned by varying the structure of the ligand surrounding the metal center. For example, compounds having a ligand with electron withdrawing substituents will generally exhibit different properties, than compounds having a ligand with electron donating substituents. Generally, a chemical structural change affects the electronic structure of the compound, which thereby affects the electrical transport and transfer functions of the material. Thus, the compounds of the present invention can be tailored or tuned to a specific application that desires an energy or transport characteristic.

[00105] In another aspect, the inventive compositions can provide improved efficiency and/or operational lifetimes in lighting devices, such as, for example, organic light emitting devices, as compared to conventional materials.

[00106] In other various aspects, the inventive compositions can be useful as, for example, host materials for organic light emitting diodes, lighting applications, and combinations thereof.

[00107] In one aspect, the compound in the device is selected to have 100% internal quantum efficiency in the device settings.

[00108] In one aspect, the device is an organic light emitting diode. In another aspect, the device is a full color display. In yet another aspect, the device is an organic solid state lighting

[00109] In one embodiment, the compounds can be used in an OLED. FIG. l shows a cross-sectional view of an OLED 100, which includes substrate 102 with an anode 104, which is typically a transparent material, such as indium tin oxide, a layer of hole-transporting material(s) (HTL) 106, a layer of light processing material 108, such as an emissive material (EML) including an emitter and a host, a layer of electron-transporting material(s) (ETL) 110, and a metal cathode layer 112. [00110] In one aspect, a light emitting device, such as, for example, an OLED, can comprise one or more layers. In various aspects, any of the one or more layers can comprise indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), N,N'-di- 1 -naphthyl-N,N'-diphenyl- 1 , l'-biphenyl- 4,4'diamine (NPD), 1 , 1 -bis((di-4-tolylamino)phenyl) cyclohexane (TAPC), 2,6- Bis(N-carbazolyl)pyridine (mCpy), 2,8-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene (P015), LiF, Al, or a combination thereof. In another aspect, any of the one or more layers can comprise a material not specifically recited herein.

[00111] In this embodiment, the layer of light processing material 108 can comprise one or more compounds of the present invention optionally together with a host material. The host material can be any suitable host material known in the art. The emission color of an OLED is determined by the emission energy (optical energy gap) of the light processing material 108, which as discussed above can be tuned by tuning the electronic structure of the emitting compounds and/or the host material. Both the hole-transporting material in the HTL layer 106 and the electron-transporting material(s) in the ETL layer 110 can comprise any suitable hole-transporter known in the art. A selection of which is well within the purview of those skilled in the art.

[00112] It will be apparent that the compounds of the present invention can, in various aspects, exhibit phosphorescence. Phosphorescent OLEDs (i.e., OLEDs with phosphorescent emitters) typically have higher device efficiencies than other OLEDs, such as fluorescent OLEDs. Light emitting devices based on electrophosphorescent emitters are described in more detail in WO2000/070655 to Baldo et al, which is incorporated herein by this reference for its teaching of OLEDs, and in particular phosphorescent OLEDs.

[00113] The compounds of the invention can be made using a variety of methods, including, but not limited to those recited in the examples provided herein. In other aspects, one of skill in the art, in possession of this disclosure, could readily determine an appropriate method for the preparation of an iridium complex as recited herein.

Examples [00114] The following examples are put forth so as to provide those of ordinary skill in the art with a complete disclosure and description of how the compounds, compositions, articles, devices and/or methods claimed herein are made and evaluated, and are intended to be purely exemplary of the invention and are not intended to limit the scope of what the inventors regard as their invention. Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to numbers (e.g., amounts, temperature, etc.), but some errors and deviations should be accounted for. Unless indicated otherwise, parts are parts by weight, temperature is in °C or is at ambient temperature, and pressure is at or near atmospheric.

[00115] Hereinafter, the preparation method of the compounds for the displays and lighting applications will be illustrated. However, the following embodiments are only exemplary and do not limit the scope of the present invention. Temperatures, catalysts, concentrations, reactant compositions, and other process conditions can vary, and one of skill in the art, in possession of this disclosure, could readily select appropriate reactants and conditions for a desired complex.

[00116] In one aspect, a PdN3N complex can be prepared based on the following examples.

Example 1 : Synthesis of 4'-bromo-2-nitrobiphenyl

[00117] Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 20mL of water was heated to 60° C and 125 mmol of 2-nitrobyphenyl was added and stirred for 30 minutes before 6.3 mmol of iron trichloride was added and stirred for 30 minutes further. 140 mmol was added drop wise over 40 minutes and allowed to stir overnight before setting to reflux for 4 hours. After cooling, residual bromine was removed by washing with a sodium bisulfate solution. The organic residue was then washed with concentrated sodium hydroxide, and then twice with water. The organic portion was separated and dissolved in dichloromethane before being dried with magnesium sulfate. The solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, subjected to flash column chromatography of silica with dichloromethane as the eluent, and concentrated again under reduced pressure. 4'-bromo-2-nitrobiphenyl was collected by recrystallization from methanol in 50% yield.

Example 2: Synthesis of 2-bromo-9H-carbazole

[00118] Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 100 mmol of 4'-bromo-2-nitrobiphenyl was set to reflux overnight in stirring tirethylphosphite. After cooling, the triethylphosphite was distilled off and 2-bromo-9H-carbazole was isolated by recrystallization from methanol and further purified by train sublimation, resulting in a 65% yield.

Example 3 : Synthesis of 2-bromo-9-(pyridin-2-yl -9H-carbazole

[00119] Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 10 mmol of 2-bromo-9H-carbazole, 10 mmol of 2-bromopyridine, 1 mmol of copper(I)iodide, 25 mmol of potassium carbonate, and 2 mmol of L-proline were combined in stirring degassed dimethyl sulfoxide. The mixture was heated to 90° C for 3 days before being cooled and separated between dichloromethane and water. The water layer was washed twice with dichloromethane and the organics were combined and washed once with brine. The organic fraction was dried with magnesium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure and subjected to column chromatography of silica with

dichloromethane as the eluent. After concentrating under reduced pressure, 2-bromo- 9-(pyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazole was isolated in a 70% yield.

Example 4: Synthesis of 2 4-(2-nitrophenyl phenyl1pyridine

[00120] A vessel was charged with 5 mmol 4'-bromo-2-nitrobiphenyl, 12.5mmol 2-(tributylstannyl)pyridine, 0.25 mmol tetrakistriphenylphosphine palladium(O), 20 mmol potassium fluoride, and 75 mL anhydrous, degassed toluene. The vessel was set to reflux under a nitrogen atmosphere for 3 days. The resulting solution was cooled, the solids filtered off, and poured into a stirring aqueous solution of potassium fluoride. The organic phase was collected, washed once more with aqueous potassium fluoride, and dried of magnesium sulfate. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the crude product was chromatographed over silica initially with hexane followed by dichloromethane to yield a viscous, colorless oil in 60% yield. Example 5 : Synthesis of 2-(2-pyridyl - 9H-carbazole

[00121] Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 100 mmol of 2-[4-(2- nitrophenyl)phenyl]pyridine was set to reflux overnight in stirring tirethylphosphite. After cooling, the triethylphosphite was distilled off, the solids dissolved in

dichloromethane, and rinsed three times with water. The organic fraction was dried with magnesium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure and subjected to column chromatography of silica with dichloromethane as the eluent. After concentrating under reduced pressure, 2-(2-pyridyl)-9H-carbazole was isolated in a 60% yield.

Example 6: Synthesis of 2-(2-pyridviy9-r9-(2-pyridyl carbazol-2-yl " |carbazole

[00122] Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 10 mmol of 2-(2-pyridyl)-9H-carbazole, 10 mmol of 2-bromo-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazole, 1 mmol of copper(I)iodide, 25 mmol of potassium carbonate, and 2 mmol of L-proline were combined in stirring degassed dimethyl sulfoxide. The mixture was heated to 90° C for 3 days before being cooled and separated between dichloromethane and water. The water layer was washed twice with dichloromethane and the organics were combined and washed once with brine. The organic fraction was dried with magnesium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure and subjected to column chromatography of silica with dichloromethane/ethyl acetate as the eluent. After concentrating under reduced pressure, 2-(2-pyridyl)-9-[9-(2-pyridyl)carbazol-2-yl]carbazole was isolated in a 60% yield.

Example 7: Synthesis of PdN3N

[00123] Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 10 mmol of 2-(2-pyridyl)-9-[9-(2- pyridyl)carbazol-2-yl]carbazole, 9 mmol of PdC¾ , and molecular sieves were added to stirring acetic acid. The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, heated to 60° C for 3 days, then to 90° C for 3 days. The solution was cooled, and poured into lOOmL of stirring dichloromethane. The mixture was filtered, and the filtrate concentrated under reduced pressure. The solid was subjected to flash chromatography of alumina with dichloromethane as the eluent and isolate in 20% yield.

[00124] To a solution of substrate (247 mg) in HOAc (26 mL) were added

Pd(OAc)2(123 mg) and w-Bu 4 NBr (17 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 3 days. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through a pad of silica gel, and concentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave PdNIN (121 mg, yield: 40%). X H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 9.05 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 8.91 (d, J= 2.6 Hz, 1 H), 8.29-8.09 (m, 7 H), 8.09-7.98 (m, 3 H), 7.71 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.55-7.45 (m, 3 H), 7.41 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 1 H),7.30 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 1 H),6.79 (t, J= 2.5 Hz, 1 H).

Example 9, Synthesis of

PdN6N PdN N

[00125] To a solution of substrate (827 mg) in HOAc (75 mL) were added

Pd(OAc)2(354 mg) and w-Bu 4 NBr (48 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 3 days. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through a pad of silica gel, and concentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave PdN6N (463 mg, yield: 47%). X H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 9.42 (s, 1 H), 9.13 (d, J= 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.61 (s, 1 H), 8.30-8.12 (m, 6 H), 8.10-8.02 (m, 3 H), 7.89 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 2 H), 7.74 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.57-7.45 (m, 5 H), 7.42 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.36-7.28 (m, 2 H).

Example 10, Synthesis of

[00126] To a solution of substrate (243 mg) in HOAc (21 mL) were added

Pd(OAc)2(99 mg) and w-Bu 4 NBr (14 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 24 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through a pad of silica gel, and concentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave the product (216 mg, yield: 75%). ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 9.05 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.63 (d, J= 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.21-8.1 1 (m, 3 H), 8.07 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.90 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.86 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.83-7.75 (m, 3 H), 7.63 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 2 H),7.57-7.36 (m, 7 H), 7.31 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.22 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.18 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 2.68 (s, 3 H).

Example 1 1, Synthesis of

PdON3 2

[00127] To a solution of substrate (178 mg) in HOAc (15 mL) were added

Pd(OAc)2(71 mg) and w-Bu 4 NBr (10 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 24 hours. The reactionmixture was cooled to rt, filtered through a pad of silica gel, andconcentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave the product (162 mg, yield: 77%). ¾ NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 8.99 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1 H), 8.70 (d, J= 4.4 Hz, 1 H), 8.34 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1 H), 8.22-8.13 (m, 3 H), 8.12-8.04 (m, 2 H), 7.93 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (d, J= 7.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.60 (s, 1 H), 7.57 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.53-7.44 (m, 6 H), 7.43-7.35 (m, 2 H), 7.23 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 6.94 (d, J= 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 2.19 (s, 6 H).

Example 12, Synthesis of

[00128] To a solution of substrate (154 mg) in HOAc (13 mL) were added

Pd(OAc)2(61 mg) and w-Bu 4 NBr (9 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 24 hours. The reactionmixture was cooled to rt, filtered through a pad of silica gel, andconcentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave the product (153 mg, yield: 84%). ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 9.07 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.73 (d, J= 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.22-8.1 1 (m, 4 H), 8.06 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.92 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1 H),7.83 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (d, J= 7.1 Hz, 2 H), 7.55-7.36 (m, 9 H), 7.27-7.20 (m, 2 H), 7.16 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.19 (s, 6 H).