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Title:
METAL COMPOUNDS AND METHODS AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/031977
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed herein are metal compounds, compositions, and devices related thereto, such as full color displays or OLEDs. This abstract is intended as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art and is not intended to be limiting of the present invention.

Inventors:
LI, Jian (4602 East Lavender Lane, Phoenix, AZ, 85044, US)
TURNER, Eric (4117 W. North Lane, Phoenix, AZ, 85051, US)
HUANG, Liang (2343 W. Main St, Apt. 1151Mesa, AZ, 85201, US)
Application Number:
US2013/056426
Publication Date:
February 27, 2014
Filing Date:
August 23, 2013
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
ARIZONA BOARD OF REGENTS FOR AND ON BEHALF OF ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY (1475 North Scottsdale Road, Sky Song-suite 20, Scottsdale AZ, 85257-3538, US)
International Classes:
C07F15/00; C09K11/06; H01L51/50
Domestic Patent References:
WO2006067074A12006-06-29
WO2008101842A12008-08-28
WO2011064335A12011-06-03
Foreign References:
US20120199823A12012-08-09
US20110062858A12011-03-17
Other References:
HAN-YUAN GONG ET AL., TETRAHEDRON, vol. 65, 2009, pages 87 - 92
ZU-LI WANG ET AL., CHEM.COMMUN., vol. 48, 14 August 2012 (2012-08-14), pages 9418 - 9420
BO YAO ET AL., THE JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 77, 6 April 2012 (2012-04-06), pages 3336 - 3340
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HATHCOCK, Kevin, W. et al. (Ballard Spahr LLP, 999 Peachtree StreetSuite 100, Atlanta GA, 30309, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A compound having the structure:

wherein M comprises Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, or Au; wherein each of R1 and R2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Yla, Ylb, and Ylc independently is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y2a, Y2b, Y2c, and Y2d independently is N, NR6a, or CR* wherein each of R6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; each of Y3a, Y3b, Y3c, Y3d, Y3e, Y4a, Y4b, Y4c, and Y4d independently is N, O, S, NR6a, CR*, wherein each of R6a and R* independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R6c)2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

2. The compound of claim 1,

wherein m is 2,

wherein n is 2,

wherein Y2b and Y2c is CH,

wherein Y3b and Y4b is N,

wherein at least one of Ylb and Ylc is NR2, CR2R3, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and

wherein M is Pt or Pd.

3. The compound of claim 1 ,

wherein m is 2,

wherein n is 2,

wherein Y2b is CH,

wherein Y3b , Y2c and Y4b is N,

wherein Ylb is NR2, CR2R3, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein M is Ir or Rh.

4. The compound of claim 1,

wherein m is 2,

wherein n is 2,

wherein Y2b, Y2c and Y4b is CH,

wherein Y3b is N,

wherein Ylb is NR2, CR2R3, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein M is Au..

5. The compound of claim 1, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is linked to an adjacent ring structure.

6. The compound of claim 2,

wherein at least of one of Y2a, Y2d, Y3d and Y4d is C,

wherein at least one of Ylb and Ylc is NR2, CR2R3, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, wherein R2 is covalently linked to at least one of Y2a, Y2d, Y3d and Y4d, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and wherein M is Pt or Pd

7. The compound of claim 3,

wherein at least of one ofY2a and Y3d is C, wherein Ylb is NR2, CR2R3, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, wherein R2 is covalently linked to at least one of Y2a and Y3d, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and

wherein M is Ir or Rh.

8. The compound of claim 4,

wherein at least of one ofY2a and Y3d is C,

wherein Ylb is NR2, CR2R3, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, wherein R2 is covalently linked to at least one of Y2a and Y3d, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and

wherein M is Au.

9. A compound having the structure:

wherein M comprises Ir, Rh, Pt, Os, or Ru; wherein each of R1 and R2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Yla, Ylb, Ylc, Yld, and Yle independently is O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each of Y2a, Y2b, Y2c, and Y2d independently is N, NR6a, or CR* wherein each of R6a and R* independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein each of Y3a, Y3b, Y3c, Y3d, Y3e, Y4a, Y4b, Y4c, and Y4d independently is N, O, S, NR6a, CR6b, wherein each of R6a and R6b independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R6c)2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene;

wherein in each of each of Y5a, Y5b, Y5c, Y5d, Y6a, Y6b, Y6c, and Y6d independently is N, O, S, NR6a, or CR6b;

wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of * - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

10. The compound of claim 9,

wherein m is 2,

wherein Y2b and Y2c is CH,

wherein Y3b and Y4b is N,

wherein at least one of Ylb and Ylc is NR2, CR2R3, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and

wherein M is Ir or Rh.

1 1. The compound of claim 9, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is linked to an adjacent ring structure.

12. The compound of claim 10,

wherein at least of one of Y2a, Y2d, Y3d and Y4d is C,

wherein at least one of Ylb and Ylc is NR2, CR2R3, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, wherein R2 is covalently linked to at least one of Y2a, Y2d, Y3d and Y4d, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and wherein M is Ir or Rh.

13. A compound having the formula:

wherein M is a metal cation with two positive charges selected from Pt (II) or

Pd (ii);

wherein E1, E2, and E3 independently is a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each C independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and

wherein each N independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group wherein a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

14. A compound having the formula:

wherein M is a metal cation with three positive charges selected from Au (III) or Ag (III);

wherein E1, E2, and E3 independently is a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each C independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and

wherein N is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group wherein a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

15. A compound having the formula:

wherein M is a metal cation with one positive charges selected from Ir (I) or Rh (I),

wherein E1, E2, and E3 independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein C is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and

wherein each N independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group wherein a nitrogen atom is coordinated to the metal.

16. A compound having the formula:

wherein M is a metal cation with three positive charges selected from

Rh (III), Co (III), Al (III), or Ga (III), wherein E1, E2, E3, and E4 independently is a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each C independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and

wherein each N independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

17. A compound having the formula:

wherein M is a metal cation with three positive charges selected from Ir (III), Rh (III), Co (III), Al (III), or Ga (III);

wherein E1, E2, E3, E4, and E5 independently is a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each C independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and

wherein each N independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

18. A compound having the formula:

wherein M is a metal cation with four positive charges selected from Pd (IV), Pt (IV);

wherein E1, E2, E3, and E4 independently is a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each C independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and

wherein each N independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

19. A compound having the formula:

where M is a metal cation with four positive charges selected from Pd (IV), Pt(IV),

wherein E1, E2, E3, E4, and E5 independently is a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each C independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and

wherein each N independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

20. A compound having the formula:

wherein M is a metal cation with two positive charges selected from Ru (II), or Os

(Π); wherein E1, E2, E3, E4, and E5 independently is a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each C independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and

wherein each N independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

21. A compound having the formula:

wherein M is a metal cation with two positive charges selected from Ru (II), or Os (II);

wherein E1, E2, E3, and E4 independently is a linking atom comprising O, NR2, CR2R3, S, AsR2, BR2, PR2, P(0)R2, or SiR2R3, or a combination thereof, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R2 and R3 together form C=0, wherein each of R2 and R3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure;

wherein each C independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal; and wherein each N independently is selected from a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group, wherein a nitrogen atom is coordinated to the metal.

22. A device comprising one or more compounds of claims 1-21.

23. The device of claim 22, wherein the device is an organic light emitting diode.

24. The device of claim 22, wherein the device comprises a full color display.

25. The device of claim 22, wherein the one or more compounds is used as a host material.

26. The device of claim 22, wherein the device can be a lighting device.

27. A device comprising one or more compounds of claims 1-12, wherein the compound is used as a phosphorescent emitter in the device.

28. A device comprising one or more compounds of claims 1-12, wherein the compound is used as a delayed fluorescent and phosphorescent emitter in the device.

29. A composition comprising one or more compounds of claims 1-19.

Description:
METAL COMPOUNDS AND METHODS AND USES THEREOF

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

[0001] The present invention was made with financial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Career Grant No. 0748867 and from a NSF GK-12 fellowship and from Department of Energy SSL Core Technology under Grant No. DE-EE0005075. The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention.

TECHNICAL BACKGROUND

[0002] Compounds capable of hole and electron conduction and efficient energy transfer are ideally suited for use in a wide variety of applications, including optical and electro-optical devices, and photo-absorbing devices. Much research has been devoted to the discovery and optimization of organic and organometallic materials for use in such applications. Generally, research in this area aims to accomplish a number of goals, including improvements in hole and electron transport and energy level tuning, as well as improvements in processing ability, among others.

[0003] Despite significant advances in research devoted to optical and electro- optical materials, existing host materials have a number disadvantages, including poor processing ability, poor energy matching to certain emissive materials, poor charge carrier mobility, among others. Thus, a need exists for new materials which exhibit improved performance. This need and other needs are satisfied by the present invention.

[0004] Cyclometalated metal complexes can be used for many applications including host materials and emitters for OLEDs. One of most important factors dictating the quantum efficiency of emission, is proportional to the integral of wavefunction of ground state and excited state, which favors a small difference in their equilibrium geometry.

[0005] Despite significant advances in research devoted to optical, electro- optical, and marker materials, existing materials have a number disadvantages, including poor processing ability, inefficient emission or absorption, and less than ideal stability, among others. Thus, a need exists for new materials which exhibit improved performance in optical emitting and absorbing applications. This need and other needs are satisfied by the present invention.

SUMMARY

[0006] The present invention relates to, in one aspect, to metal compounds that can be useful as host materials in, for example, full color displays. The present invention also relates, in one aspect to metal compounds that can be useful as emitters for devices, such as OLEDs

[0007] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M comprises Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, or Au; wherein each of R 1 and R 2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein each of Y la , Y lb , and Y lc independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d independently is N, NR 6a , or CR* wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e , Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c )2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

[0008] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

[0009] wherein M comprises Ir, Rh, Pt, Ru, or Os; wherein each of R 1 and R 2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and Y le independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d independently is N, NR 6a , or CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e , Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR* wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c )2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein in each of each of y 5a Y 5b Y 5 Cj y 5d γ& ^b^ Y 6 Cj ^ y 6d independently ig N> Q § > & Qr CR 6b ; wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

[0010] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein the formula, M represent a metal cation with two positive charges, which include, but are not limited to Platinum(II) (Pt 2+ ), Palladium(II) (Pd 2+ ), wherein E , E , and E independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0011] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represents a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to Gold(III) (Au 3+ ), silver(III) (Ag 3+ ), wherein each E 1 , E 2 , and E independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR ,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein N represents a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0012] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with one positive charges, which include, but is not limited to, iridium (I) (Ir 1+ ), Rhodium (I) (Rh 1+ ), etc., wherein E 1 , E 2 , and E 3

2 2 3 2 2 independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR ,

2 2 3 2 3

P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein C represents a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N

independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0013] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, iridium (III) (Ir 3+ ), Rhodium(III) (Rh 3+ ), Cobalt (III) (Co 3+ ), Aluminum(III) (Al 3+ ),and Gallium(III) (Ga 3+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4

2 2 3 2 2 independently represent a linking atom,comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR , 2 2 3 2 3

P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0014] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, iridium (III) (Ir 3+ ), Rhodium(III) (Rh 3+ ), Cobalt (III) (Co 3+ ), Aluminum(III) (Al 3+ ),Gallium(III) (Ga 3+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and E 5

2 2 3 2 2 independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR ,

2 2 3 2 3

P(0)R% or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0015] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, iridium (III) (Ir 3+ ), Rhodium(III) (Rh 3+ ), Cobalt (III) (Co 3+ ), Aluminum(III) (Al 3+ ),Gallium(III) (Ga 3+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and E 5

2 2 3 2 2 independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR ,

2 2 3 2 3

P(0)R% or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0016] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with four positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, Palladium(IV) (Pd 4+ ), Platinum(IV) (Pt 4+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 , independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, BR 2 ,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0017] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with four positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, Palladium(IV) (Pd 4+ ), Platinum(IV) (Pt 4+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E , and E independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , 2 2 2 3 2 3

PR , P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0018] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, iridium (III) (Ir 3+ ), Rhodium(III) (Rh 3+ ), Cobalt (III) (Co 3+ ),

Aluminum(III) (Al 3+ ),Gallium(III) (Ga 3+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 , independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0019] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with two positive charges, which include,

2 1 2 ^ but are not limited to, Ruthenium (II) (Ru ), Osmium (II) (Os ), wherein E , E , E , E , and E independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[0020] Also disclosed herein are compositions comprising one or more of the disclosed compounds.

[0021] Also disclosed herein are devices comprising one or more of the disclosed compounds. Suitable devices include, but are not limited to, OLEDs and full color displays.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0022] The accompanying figures, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate several aspects and together with the description serve to explain the principles of the invention.

[0023] Figure 1 shows the absorption spectra of the compound Pt-OOO (inset) in dichloromethane at room temperature, and the emission spectra at 77K in 2- methy ltetrahyrdo furan .

[0024] Figure 2 shows the I-V curve of a device with PtOOO have the structure

ITO/HATCN (lOnm)/ NPD (40nm)/ TAPC (lOnm)/ 6% Pt003: Host/ DPPS

(10nm)/BmPyPB (40nm)/LiF/Al.

[0025] Figure 3 shows the EL spectrum of devices using mCPy (dashed line) and PtOOO(solid line) as host materials.

[0026] Figure 4 shows the EQE of devices using mCPy (dashed line) and PtOOO(solid line) as host materials.

[0027] Figure 5 shows the emission spectra of PfNON in dichloromethane at room temperature (solid line) and in 2-methyl THF at 77 K (dashed line).

[0028] Figures 6A-6C show plots of (6A) current density vs. voltage, (6B) external quantum efficiency vs. brightness and (6C) EL spectra for the devices of ITO/HATCN (10nm)/NPD (40nm)/TAPC (lOnm)/ x% PtNON:26mCPy

(25nm)/DPPS (10nm)/BmPyPB(40nm)/LiF/Al.

[0029] Figure 7 shows the emission spectra of PtNNN in dichloromethane at room temperature.

[0030] Figure 8 shows the emission spectra of PtNOO in dichloromethane at room temperature.

[0031] Figure 9 shows the emission spectra of PtNON-bph in dichloromethane at room temperature.

[0032] Figure 10 shows the emission spectra of PdNON-bph in dichloromethane at room temperature. [0033] Figure 1 1 shows the emission spectra of Pt ON-ph in dichloromethane at room temperature.

[0034] Figure 12 shows the emission spectra of PdNON-ph in dichloromethane at room temperature.

[0035] Figure 13 shows the emission spectra of PfNNO in dichloromethane at room temperature.

[0036] Additional aspects of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or can be learned by practice of the invention. The advantages of the invention will be realized and attained by means of the elements and combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims. It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention, as claimed.

DESCRIPTION

[0037] The present invention can be understood more readily by reference to the following detailed description of the invention and the Examples included therein.

[0038] Before the present compounds, devices, and/or methods are disclosed and described, it is to be understood that they are not limited to specific synthetic methods unless otherwise specified, or to particular reagents unless otherwise specified, as such can, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular aspects only and is not intended to be limiting. Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, example methods and materials are now described.

Definitions

[0039] As used in the specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a,""an" and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a component" includes mixtures of two or more components. [0040] Ranges can be expressed herein as from "about" one particular value, and/or to "about" another particular value. When such a range is expressed, another aspect includes from the one particular value and/or to the other particular value. Similarly, when values are expressed as approximations, by use of the antecedent "about," it will be understood that the particular value forms another aspect. It will be further understood that the endpoints of each of the ranges are significant both in relation to the other endpoint, and independently of the other endpoint. It is also understood that there are a number of values disclosed herein, and that each value is also herein disclosed as "about" that particular value in addition to the value itself. For example, if the value "10" is disclosed, then "about 10" is also disclosed. It is also understood that each unit between two particular units are also disclosed. For example, if 10 and 15 are disclosed, then 11, 12, 13, and 14 are also disclosed.

[0041] As used herein, the terms "optional" or "optionally" means that the subsequently described event or circumstance can or cannot occur, and that the description includes instances where said event or circumstance occurs and instances where it does not.

[0042] Disclosed are the components to be used to prepare the compositions of the invention as well as the compositions themselves to be used within the methods disclosed herein. These and other materials are disclosed herein, and it is understood that when combinations, subsets, interactions, groups, etc. of these materials are disclosed that while specific reference of each various individual and collective combinations and permutation of these compounds cannot be explicitly disclosed, each is specifically contemplated and described herein. For example, if a particular compound is disclosed and discussed and a number of modifications that can be made to a number of molecules including the compounds are discussed, specifically contemplated is each and every combination and permutation of the compound and the modifications that are possible unless specifically indicated to the contrary. Thus, if a class of molecules A, B, and C are disclosed as well as a class of molecules D, E, and F and an example of a combination molecule, A-D is disclosed, then even if each is not individually recited each is individually and collectively contemplated meaning combinations, A-E, A-F, B-D, B-E, B-F, C-D, C-E, and C-F are considered disclosed. Likewise, any subset or combination of these is also disclosed. Thus, for example, the sub-group of A-E, B-F, and C-E would be considered disclosed. This concept applies to all aspects of this application including, but not limited to, steps in methods of making and using the compositions of the invention. Thus, if there are a variety of additional steps that can be performed it is understood that each of these additional steps can be performed with any specific embodiment or combination of

embodiments of the methods of the invention.

[0043] As referred to herein, a linking atom connect two groups such as, for example, a and C group. The linking atom can, if valency permits, have other chemical moieties attached. For example, an oxygen would not have any other chemical groups attached as the valency is satisfied once it is bonded to the two groups (N and/or C groups). In another example, when carbon is the linking atom, two additional chemical moieties would be attached to the carbon as valency would require such. Suitable chemical moieties includes, but are not limited to, hydrogen, hydroxyl, alkyl, alkoxy, =0, halogen, nitro, amine, amide, thiol, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, and heterocyclyl.

[0044] The term "alkyl" as used herein is a branched or unbranched saturated hydrocarbon group of 1 to 24 carbon atoms, such as methyl, ethyl, w-propyl, isopropyl, w-butyl, isobutyl, s-butyl, ?-butyl, w-pentyl, isopentyl, s-pentyl, neopentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, eicosyl, tetracosyl, and the like. The alkyl group can be cyclic or acyclic. The alkyl group can be branched or unbranched. The alkyl group can also be substituted or unsubstituted. For example, the alkyl group can be substituted with one or more groups including, but not limited to, optionally substituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkoxy, amino, ether, halide, hydroxy, nitro, silyl, sulfo-oxo, or thiol, as described herein. A "lower alkyl" group is an alkyl group containing from one to six (e.g., from one to four) carbon atoms.

[0045] The terms "amine" or "amino" as used herein are represented by the

1 2 3 1 2 3

formula NA A A , where A , A , and A can be, independently, hydrogen or optionally substituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkynyl, aryl, or heteroaryl group as described herein.

[0046] The term "halide" as used herein refers to the halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. [0047] The term "hydroxyl" as used herein is represented by the formula— OH.

[0048] The term "nitro" as used herein is represented by the formula— O 2 .

[0049] The term "nitrile" as used herein is represented by the formula— CN.

[0050] The term "thiol" as used herein is represented by the formula— SH.

[0051] The term "heterocyclyl" or the like terms refer to cyclic structures including a heteroatom. Thus, "heterocyclyl" includes both aromatic and non- aromatic ring structures with one or more heteroatoms. Non-limiting examples of heterocyclic includes, pyridine, isoquinoline, methylpyrrole and thiophene etc.

"Heteroaryl" specifically denotes an aromoatic cyclic structure including a heteroatom.

[0052] As used herein the terms "compound" and "complex" are used interchangeably.

[0053] Several structures herein show a nitrogen (N) coordinated to a metal. It is understood that the although the valency is indicated to be neutral in the structure it can if appropriate, as appreciated by those skilled in the art, be a cationic species having a net positive charge due to the coordination. Thus, nitrogen can be shown in the structures to have neutral charge or a positive charge and in some cases these structures can be used interchangeably as appropriate and as recognized by one skilled in the art.

The compounds and compositions disclosed herein are described as containing a "metal" or "metals." Examples of such "metal" components include, but are not limited to Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, Au, Os, or Ru. It should be understood that references to such "metals" oin this application does NOT imply a particular valence, chemical, or physical state of those elements, or that those elements are necessarily in a zero valent state, or metallic solid physical state or alloy (although they could be in such states), but rather that the term "metal" or "metals" can also be present in a compound with other elements or groups wherein the metal can be present in any energetically feasible positive oxidation state (i.e. cationic oxidation states). For example, a reference to platinum (Pt) includes the cationic form Pt 2+ of platinum or Pt 4+ of platinum.

Compounds

[0054] As briefly described above, the present invention is directed to metal compounds or complexes, such as platinum, palladium, gold, silver, ruthenium, iridium, rhodium, aluminum, gallium, cobalt, and osmium compounds. In one aspect, the compositions disclosed here can provide emission spectra of platinum, palladium, gold, silver, ruthenium, iridium, rhodium, aluminum, gallium, cobalt, and osmium. In another aspect, the compositions disclosed herein can provide tunable emission spectra.

[0055] In one aspect, the disclosed compounds are useful as host materials in devices, such as full color displays.

[0056] In another aspect, the disclosed compounds are useful as emitters in devices, such as OLEDs.

[0057] Cyclometalated metal complexes can be used for many applications including emitters for OLEDs. One of most important factors dictating the quantum efficiency of emission, is proportional to the integral of wavefunction of ground state and excited state, which favors a small difference in their equilibrium geometry. Typically, an efficient emitter requires a rigid planar chemical structure, which has 5- membered coordination rings (Scheme 1). On the other hand, emitters containing unplanar lumophore do not have strong emission at the room temperature due to their distorted molecular geometry, which has 6-membered coordination rings (Scheme lb). This invention provides a materials design route which enables the emitters with 6-membered coordination rings to be efficient emitters and have tunable emission wavelength in the visible range. This class of emitters can be utilized as emitters for full color displays and lighting applications. To make this work, one condition needs to be satisfied: the molecular geometry needs to be very rigid. The molecular structure of four-coordinating ligands will be preferred which ensures the

electrochemical and photophysical stability of metal complexes. [0058] As illustrated in Scheme 1, PtNON is an emitter with 6-membered coordination rings, which has demonstrated an electron-to-photon conversion efficiency over 20% in the device settings

SCHEME 1

[0059] Accordingly, the invention also relates to metal compounds that can be useful as emitters in devices, such as OLEDs.

[0060] The emission (and absorption) profile of the compounds can be tuned by varying the structure of the ligand surrounding the metal center. For example, compounds having a ligand with electron withdrawing substituents will generally exhibit different optical properties, including emission and absorption, than compounds having a ligand with electron donating substituents. Generally, a chemical structural change affects the electronic structure of the compound, which thereby affects the absorption and emission of the compound. Thus, the compounds of the present invention can be tailored or tuned to a specific application that desires a particular emission or absorption characteristic.

[0061] In another aspect, the emission spectrum of any of the compositions of the present disclosure can be tuned to a desired and/or customized spectrum. In another aspect, the complexes disclosed herein can provide a narrow bandwidth, enabling their use in, for example, applications in which broad spectrum emitters are not suitable.

[0062] In one aspect, the excited state dynamics of the complex can be described by the scheme: 1 M LCT

So where 3 LC represents the energy of the ligand centered triplet state, ^LCT represents the energy of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer singlet state, Ti represents the energy of the emissive triplet state, So represents the energy of the ground state, and ΔΕ represents the difference in energy between ^LCT and 3 LC.

[0063] In still another aspect, an expansion utilizing different emitting portions and linking groups should provide narrow emitting complexes covering a wide range of the visible spectrum. The emission energy of a certain complex can be tuned by modifying the ligand centered triplet state of the emitting fragment ( 3 LC). This can be accomplished through changes in structure that modify the energy of the donating or accepting portion of the emitting fragment.

[0064] In another aspect, the nature of the ^LCT transitions can be controlled by modifying the ancillary portion of the complex (L A X), through changes in the cyclometalating portion, the linking portions, or both.

[0065] In one aspect, the inventive compositions are useful as emitters for full color display application. In such an aspect, the geometry of cyclometalating ligands can be rigid. This rigidity can allow for similar geometry between the ground and excited state, resulting in a narrow emission spectra dominated by the transition from the lowest vibrational level in the excited state to the lowest vibrational level in the ground state.

[0066] In another aspect, complexes can be designed to tune the values of the emitting fragment centered 3 LC state and the metal to ancillary ligand ^LCT states independently. Reduction in the differences in energy between these states (ΔΕ) will improve mixing between them, improve the radiative decay rate, and suppress transitions that occur from the emissive state (Ti) to excited vibrational levels in the ground state (So). As a consequence, the vibrational shoulders of the emission spectra can be reduced, resulting in a more narrow emission profile.

[0067] In a further aspect, the molecular structure having four coordinating ligands to a metal center can be preferred. In such an aspect, a four ligand coordinated structure can at least partially ensure the electrochemical and/or photophysical stability of the complex during, for example, fabrication and operation of a color display device.

[0068] In another aspect, the inventive compositions can provide improved efficiency and/or operational lifetimes in lighting devices, such as, for example, organic light emitting devices, such as OLEDs, as compared to conventional materials. Thus, also disclosed herein are devices comprising the complexes described herein. One application for phosphoresent emissive complexes, such as those described herein, is a full color display. Industry standards for such a display call for pixels adapted to emit particular colors, referred to as "saturated" colors. In particular, these standards call for saturated red, green, and blue pixels. Color may be measured using CIE coordinates, which are well known to the art.

[0069] In one aspect, for the formulas described herein, M can comprise Pt. In another aspect, M can comprise Pd. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Rh. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Ir. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Au. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Ag. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Cu. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Zr. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Hg. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Ga. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Co. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Os. In yet another aspect, M can comprise Ru.

[0070] In one aspect, for the formulas described herein, each of Y la , Y lb , and Y lc independently can be O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure.

[0071] In one aspect, for the formulas described herein, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and Y le independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure.

[0072] In one aspect, at least one of Y la , Y lb , and Y lc is NR 2 . In another aspect, at least two of Y la , Y lb , and Y lc are NR 2 . In yet another aspect, Y la , Y lb , and Y lc are NR 2 .

[0073] In one aspect, at least one of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and Y le is NR 2 . In another aspect, at least two of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and Y le are NR 2 . In yet another aspect, at least three of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and Y le are NR 2 .

[0074] In one aspect, for the formulas disclosed herein, at least one of Y la , Y lb ,

Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise O. In another aspect, at least one of yla ylb Y lc ; yld yle can independently comprise NR 2 . In yet another aspect, at least one of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise CR 2 R 3 . In yet another aspect, at least one of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise S. In yet another aspect, at least one of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise BR 2 . In yet another aspect, at least one of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise PR 2 . In yet another aspect, at least one of Y la , yib Yid j and/or Y ie can independently comprise P(0)R 2 . In yet another aspect, at least one of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise SiR 2 R 3 . In one aspect, Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can be oxygen

[0075] In one aspect, each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In another aspect, each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, or heterocyclyl, wherein each R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In yet another aspect, each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In yet another aspect, one of R 2 or R 3 is aryl, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In one aspect, each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure.

[0076] For each structure shown herein, it is appreciated that if an R 2 or R 3 group is shown to be linked to an adjacent ring structure, such as a six or five membered ring. In one aspect, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can to ring structure

. Thus, forming a cyclic

structure, for example or . In another aspect, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , to ring structure

Y ld , and/or Y le can independently compris , for

exampel, . In another aspect, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le to ring structure

can independently comprise , for example,

. In yet another aspect, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can linked to ring to ring structure independently comprise

example, In yet another aspect, each of Y la ,

ylb Y l Cj Y ld and/or Y le can independently comprise

wherein X is N, B, P, or As. In yet another aspect, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or

Y le can independently comprise Pn . In yet another aspect, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise \ . In yet another aspect, each of ϊ", ϊ", ϊ'·, Y la , and/or Υ can independently comprise Ph . In yet another aspect, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise ^S^- . in yet another aspect, each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and/or Y le can independently comprise O

P I '

Ph [0077] In one aspect, for the formulas described herein, each of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d independently is N, NR 6a , or CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene. In one aspect, at least one of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d is CR*. In another aspect, at least two of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d is CR 6b . In yet another aspect, at least three of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d is CR 6b . In yet another aspect, at least one of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d is NR 6a .

[0078] In one aspect, each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e , Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR* wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c )2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene. In another aspect, at least four of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , and Y 3d are CR 6b . In another aspect, at least three of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , and Y 3d are CR 6b . In another aspect, at least one of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , and Y 3d is N or NR 6a . In another aspect, at least four of Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d are CR 6b . In another aspect, at least three of Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d are CR 6h . In another aspect, at least one of Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d is N or NR 6a .

[0079] In one aspect, of each of Y 5a , Y 5b , Y 5c , Y 5d , Y 6a , Y 6b , Y 6c , and Y 6d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , or CR 6b . In another aspect, at least four of Y 5a , Y 5b , Y 5c , and Y 5d are CR 6b . In another aspect, at least three of Y 5a , Y 5b , Y 5c , and Y 5d are CR 6b . In another aspect, at least one of Y 5a , Y 5b , Y 5c , and Y 5d is N or NR 6a . In another aspect, at least four of Y 6a , Y 6b , Y 6c , and Y 6d are CR 6b . In another aspect, at least three of Y 6a , Y* Y 6c , and Y 6d are CR 6b . In another aspect, at least one of Y 6a , Y 6b , Y 6c , and Y 6d is or R 6a .

[0080] In one aspect, R 6b is hydrogen. In another aspect, at least one R 6b is hydrogen. In another aspect, at least one R 6b is alkyl or aryl. [0081] In one aspect, R a is hydrogen. In another aspect, at least one R a is hydrogen. In another aspect, at least one R 6a is alkyl or aryl.

[0082] In one aspect, m is 1. In another aspect, m is 2. In one aspect, at least one m is 1. In another aspect, at least one m is 2. In one aspect, n is 1. In another aspect, n is 2. In yet another aspect, at least one m is 1 and at least one m is 2. In yet another aspect, at least one m is 1 and n is 1. In yet another aspect, at least one m is 1 and n is 2. In yet another aspect, at least one m is 2 and « is 2. In yet another aspect, at least one m is 2 and n is 2.

[0083] In one aspect, is partial unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated. In another aspect, is full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated. In another aspect, at least one - - ' is full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated and at least one - - ' is partial unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

[0084] In one aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where m is 2, n is 2, Y 2b and Y 2c is CH, Y 3b and Y 4b is N, at least one of Y lb and Y lc is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and M is Pt or Pd.

[0085] In one aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where m is 2, n is 2, Y 2b is CH, Y 3b , Y 2c and Y 4b is N, Y lb is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , AsR 2 , BR 2 ,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and M is Ir or Rh. [0086] In one aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where m is 2, n is 2, Y 2b , Y 2c and Y 4b is CH, Y 3b is N, Y lb is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and M is Au.

[0087] In one aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where at least of one of Y 2a , Y 2d , Y 3d and Y 4d is C, at least one of Y lb and Y lc is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, wherein R 2 is covalently linked to at least one of Y 2a , Y 2d , Y 3d and Y 4d , thereby forming a cyclic structure, and M is Pt or Pd.

[0088] In another aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where at least of one of Y 2a and Y 3d is C, Y lb is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, wherein R 2 is covalently linked to at least one of Y 2a and Y 3d , thereby forming a cyclic structure, and M is Ir or Rh.

[0089] In another aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where at least of one of Y 2a and Y 3d is C, Y lb is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, wherein R 2 is covalently linked to at least one of Y 2a and Y 3d , thereby forming a cyclic structure, and wherein M is Au. [0090] In another aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where m is 2, Y 2b and Y 2c is CH, Y 3b and Y 4b is N, at least one of Y lb and Y lc is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure, and M is Ir or Rh.

[0091] In another aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where at least of one of Y 2a , Y 2d , Y 3d and Y 4d is C, at least one of Y lb and Y lc is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, wherein R 2 is covalently linked to at least one of Y 2a , Y 2d , Y 3d and Y 4d , thereby forming a cyclic structure, and M is Ir or Rh

[0092] In another aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where m is 2, n is 2, Y 2b and Y 2c is CH, Y 3b and Y 4b is N. In yet another aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where m is 2, n is 2, and Y 2b and Y 2c is CH. In another aspect, the compounds disclosed herein can have a structure where m is 2, n is 2, and Y 3b and Y 4b is N.

[0093] In one aspect, for the formulas described herein, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure.

[0094] In one aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise O. In another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can

independently comprise NR 2 . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise CR 2 R 3 . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise S. In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise BR 2 . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise PR 2 . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise P(0)R 2 . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can

2 3 1 2 3 4 5

independently comprise SiR R . In one aspect, E , E , E , E , and E can be oxygen.

[0095] In one aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently can be absent from a structure recited herein, whereby a bond is then directly present between any Ns and/or Cs.

[0096] In one aspect, each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C and/or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In another aspect, each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, or heterocyclyl, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C and/or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In yet another aspect, each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In yet another aspect, one of R 2 or R 3 is aryl, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In one aspect, each of R 2 and R 3 independently is linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure.

[0097] For each structure shown herein, it is appreciated that if an R 2 or R 3 group is shown to be linked to a N, then it can also be bound to C in a similar type structure. In one aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise

. Thus, forming a cyclic structure, for example It is also understood that each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently be linked

to C in a similar manner, thereby forming, for example, . In another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise

, for exampel, . In another aspect, each of E 1 ,

2, E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise , for example,

. In yet another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can inkM to C As ink to independently comprise , for example,

In yet another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise , for example, . In yet another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise

J, . in s C

, wherein X is N, B, P, or As. In yet another aspect, each of

E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise Pn . In yet another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise / \ . In yet another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise ph . In yet another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise . In yet another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently comprise p h h .. ; In yet another aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can independently

comprise

[0098] In one aspect, at least one of E , E , and E is O. In another aspect, at

1 2 3 1 2 3 2 least two of E , E , and E are O. In one aspect, at least one of E , E , and E is NR , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure. [0099] In one aspect, E , E , and E can be oxygen. In one aspect, E , E , and E can comprise O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a

combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In another aspect, E 1 and E 3 can be oxygen. In yet another aspect E 2 comprise O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 ,

2 2 3 2 3

P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure.

[00100]

[00101] In one aspect, at least one of E , E , and E is

another aspect, at least one of E , E , and E is . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 is Pn . In yet another aspect, at least one of

E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 is Ph . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 is

/ \ . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 is Pn . In yet another aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 is ^S^- . in yet another aspect, at least one of

E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 is Ph .

31 [00102] In one aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 is O. In another aspect, at least two of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 are O. In yet another aspect, at least three of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 are O. In yet another aspect, E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 can be oxygen. In yet another aspect, E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 can be oxygen. In yet another aspect, E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and E 5 can be oxygen.

[00103] In one aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 is NR 2 . In another aspect, at least two of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 are NR 2 . In yet another aspect, at least three

1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 2 of E , E , E , and E are NR . In yet another aspect, E , E , and E can be NR . In yet another aspect, E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 can be NR 2 . In yet another aspect, E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and E 5 can be NR 2 .

[00104] In one aspect, at least one of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, BR 2 ,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure. In one aspect, at least two of E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 is NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R , or SiR R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure.

[00105] In one aspect, at least one . In another aspect, at

least one N is . In yet

another aspect, at least one N is . In yet another aspect, at least one N is In yet another aspect, at least one N is . In another aspect, the

N groups can be substituted heterocyclyl. In another aspect, the N groups can be unsubstituted heterocyclyl. In another aspect, the N groups can be pyridine.

[00106] In one aspect, at least one C is . In another aspect, at

least one C is . In yet another aspect, at least one C is . In yet

another aspect, at least one C is . In yet another aspect, at least one C is . In yet another aspect, at least one C . In one aspect, C can be an unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group. In another aspect, C can be a unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group. In another aspect, C can be a substituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group. In one aspect, the C groups can be phenyl.

[00107] Some structures recited herein refer to "R" which can represent R 2 or R 3 as defined herein.

[00108] The following structures can as appropriate be a subgenus and/or individual compound of the disclosed generic structures disclosed herein. It is appreciated that some of these structures have different indicators, i.e. R 1 , A, U etc. than those in the corresponding in the generic structure. For example, it is appreciated

that X, A, and A in , would correspond to Y lb , Y la , and Y lc

respectively in . Thus, X, A, and A can have the meaning of Y lb , Y la , and Y lc as described herein.

[00109] Specific compounds include but are not limited to:

40

41

Where U, V and W could be the same or different atoms like carbon (C) nitre sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), silicon (Si), boron (B) and others.

Where U, V, W could be the same or different atoms like carbon (C), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), silicon (Si)

[00110] In one aspect, the compounds can have the structure:





[00111] In one aspect, M is Ir or Rh.

[00112] Specific compounds include but are not limited to:

53

Where U, V, W could be the same or different atoms like carbon (C), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), silicon (Si), boron (B) and other atoms.

55

[00113] In one aspect, the compounds can have the structure:





[00114] Specific compounds include, but are not limited to:

Where U, V, W could be the same or different atoms like carbon (C), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), silicon (Si), boron (B) and other atoms.

[00115] In one aspect, the compound can have the structure:

[00116] Specific compounds include, but are not limited to:



[00118] In one aspect, M can be Pt or Pd. In another aspect, each of X, A, and U independently can be O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure.

[00119] In one aspect,

[00120] In one aspect,

[00121] In one aspect,

[00122] It is appreciated that some of the generic structures disclosed herein can be a subgenus of another generic structure disclosed herein. For example, a generic structure containing C, N, E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and/or E 5 can in some cases, as appropriate and as recognized by those skilled in the art, be a subgenus of:

[00123] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M comprises Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, or Au; wherein each of R 1 and R 2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein each of Y la , Y lb , and Y lc independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each of Y 2a , Y , Υ , and Y independently is , NR , or CR , wherein each of R ba and R bb independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e , Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c )2, wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of - ' independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

[00124] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M comprises Ir, Rh, Pt, Os, or Ru, wherein each of R 1 and R 2 independently are hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, nitro hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein each of Y la , Y lb , Y lc , Y ld , and Y le independently is O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, AsR 2 , BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to an adjacent ring structure, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each of Y 2a , Y 2b , Y 2c , and Y 2d independently is N, NR 6a , or CR 6b , wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein each of Y 3a , Y 3b , Y 3c , Y 3d , Y 3e , Y 4a , Y 4b , Y 4c , and Y 4d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , CR*, wherein each of R 6a and R 6b independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; or Z(R 6c ) 2 , wherein Z is C or Si, and wherein each R 6c independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, or arylalkene; wherein in each of each of Y 5a , Y 5b , Y 5c , Y 5d , Y 6a , Y 6b , Y 6c , and Y 6d independently is N, O, S, NR 6a , or CR 6b ; wherein each of m and n independently are an integer 1 or 2; wherein each of independently is partial or full unsaturation of the ring with which it is associated.

[00125] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein the formula, M represent a metal cation with two positive charges, which include, but are not limited to Platinum(II) (Pt 2+ ), Palladium(II) (Pd 2+ ), wherein

1 2 3 2 2 3

E , E , and E independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00126] In one aspect, M can be Platinum (II). In one aspect, M can be Palladium (II).

[00127] In one aspect, the compound can be:



wherein each R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, or substituted silyl.

[00128] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represents a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to Gold(III) (Au 3+ ), silver(III) (Ag 3+ ), wherein each E 1 , E 2 ,

3 2 2 3 2 and E independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR ,

2 2 2 3 2 3

PR", P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein N represents a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00129] In one aspect, E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 can be oxygen. In one aspect, each of E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 can independently comprise O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure In another aspect, E 1 and E 3 can be oxygen. In yet another aspect, E 2 can be nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, or sulfur.

[00130] In one aspect, M can be Au (III). In one aspect, M can be Ag (III).

[00131] In one aspect, the compound can have the structure:

alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, or substituted silyl.

[00132] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with one positive charges, which include, but is not limited to, iridium (I) (Ir 1+ ), Rhodium (I) (Rh 1+ ), etc., wherein E 1 , E 2 , and E 3

2 2 3 2 2 independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR ,

2 2 3 2 3

P(0)R z , or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein C represents a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N

independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00133] In one aspect, M can be Rhodium (I). In one aspect, M can be Iridium

(I).

[00134] In one aspect, the compound can have the structure:

85

wherein each R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, or substituted silyl.

[00135] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, iridium (III) (Ir 3+ ), Rhodium(III) (Rh 3+ ), Cobalt (III) (Co 3+ ),

Aluminum(III) (Al 3+ ),and Gallium(III) (Ga 3+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4

2 2 3 2 2 independently represent a linking atom,comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR ,

2 2 3 2 3

P(0)R% or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00136] In one aspect, M can be Iridium (III). In one aspect, M can be Rhodium (III). In another aspect, M can be Cobalt (III). In another aspect, M can be

Aluminum (III). In another aspect, M can be gallium (III).

[00137] In one aspect, the compound can have the structure;



90

wherein each R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, or substituted silyl,

wherein

[00138] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, iridium (III) (Ir 3+ ), Rhodium(III) (Rh 3+ ), Cobalt (III) (Co 3+ ),

Aluminum(III) (Al 3+ ),Gallium(III) (Ga 3+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and E 5

independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR ,

P(0)R , or SiR R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00139] In one aspect, M can be Iridium (III). In one aspect, M can be Rhodium (III). In another aspect, M can be Cobalt (III). In another aspect, M can be

Aluminum (III). In another aspect, M can be gallium (III).

[00140] In one aspect, the compound has the structure:

[00141] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, iridium (III) (Ir 3+ ), Rhodium(III) (Rh 3+ ), Cobalt (III) (Co 3+ ),

Aluminum(III) (Al 3+ ),Gallium(III) (Ga 3+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and E 5

2 2 3 2 2 independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR ,

2 2 3 2 3

P(0)R% or SiR z R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00142] In one aspect, M can be Iridium (III). In one aspect, M can be Rhodium (III). In another aspect, M can be Cobalt (III). In another aspect, M can be

Aluminum (III). In another aspect, M can be gallium (III).

[00143] In one aspect, the compound has the structure:

[00144] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with four positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, Palladium(IV) (Pd 4+ ), Platinum(IV) (Pt 4+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 ,

2 2 3 2 2 independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR , P(0)R , or SiR R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00145] In one aspect, M can be Platinum (VI). In one aspect, M can be Palladium (VI).

[00146] In one aspect, the compound can have the structure:

95

96

wherein each R independently is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di-alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, or substituted silyl,

wherein

[00147] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

where M represent a metal cation with four positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, Palladium(IV) (Pd 4+ ), Platinum(IV) (Pt 4+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and

5 2 2 3 2 2

E independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR , P(0)R , or SiR R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00148] In one aspect, M can be Platinum (VI). In one aspect, M can be Palladium (VI).

[00149] In one aspect, the compound can have the structure:

[00150] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with three positive charges, which include, but are not limited to, iridium (III) (Ir 3+ ), Rhodium(III) (Rh 3+ ), Cobalt (III) (Co 3+ ),

Aluminum(III) (Al 3+ ),Gallium(III) (Ga 3+ ), wherein E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 , independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR 2 , CR 2 R 3 , S, BR 2 , PR 2 , P(0)R 2 , or SiR 2 R 3 , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00151] In one aspect, the C groups can be phenyl. In another aspect, the N groups can be pyridine.

[00152] In one aspect, E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , and E 4 can be oxygen.

[00153] In one aspect, M can be Iridium (III). In one aspect, M can be Rhodium (III). In another aspect, M can be Cobalt (III). In another aspect, M can be

Aluminum (III). In another aspect, M can be gallium (III).

[00154] In one aspect, the compound has the structure:

101

102

103

wherein R is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclyl, deuterium, halogen, hydroxyl , thiol, nitro, cyano, amino, a mono- or di- alkylamino, a mono- or diaryl amino, alkoxy, aryloxy, haloalkyl, ester, nitrile, isonitrile, alkoxycarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxycarbonylamino, aryloxycarbonylamino, sulfonylamino, sulfamoyl, carbamoyl, alkylthio, sulfinyl, ureido, phosphoramide, amercapto, sulfo, carboxyl, hydrzino, or substituted silyl,

[00155] In one aspect, disclosed herein is a compound having the structure:

wherein M represent a metal cation with two positive charges, which include, but are

2_|_ 1 2 3 4 not limited to, Ruthenium (II) (Ru ), Osmium (II) (Os ), wherein E , E , E , E , and

5 2 2 3 2 2

E independently represent a linking atom comprising O, NR , CR R , S, BR , PR , P(0)R , or SiR R J , or a combination thereof, wherein each of R and R

independently is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkane, cycloalkane, heterocyclyl, amino, hydroxyl, halogen, thio, alkoxy, haloalkyl, arylalkane, arylalkene, or R 2 and R 3 together form C=0, wherein each of R 2 and R 3 independently is optionally linked to a C or N, thereby forming a cyclic structure; wherein each C independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group, wherein a carbon atom is coordinated to the metal, wherein each N independently represent a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic ring or heterocyclic group with a nitrogen atom coordinated to the metal.

[00156] In one aspect, the C groups can be phenyl. In another aspect, the N groups can be pyridine.

[00157] In one aspect, E 1 , E 2 , E 3 , E 4 , and E 5 can be oxygen. [00158] In one aspect, M can be Iridium (III). In one aspect, M can be Rhodium (III). In another aspect, M can be Cobalt (III). In another aspect, M can be

Aluminum (III). In another aspect, M can be gallium (III).

Compositions

[00159] As briefly described above, the present invention is directed to metal compounds. Also disclosed are compositions comprising one or more of the disclosed compounds.

Devices

[00160] As briefly described above, the present invention is directed to metal compounds. In one aspect, the compounds or compositions disclosed here can be used as host materials for OLED applications, such as full color displays. In another aspect, the compounds or compositions disclosed here can be used a emitter materials for OLED applications or displays.

[00161] In one aspect, the compounds can be the host material in the device. In another aspect, device can be a lighting device.

[00162] In one aspect, wherein the compound is used as a phosphorescent emitter in the device.

[00163] In one aspect, wherein the compound is used as a delayed fluorescent and phosphorescent emitter in the device.

[00164] The disclosed compounds of the present disclosure can be useful in a wide variety of applications, such as, for example, lighting devices. In a particular aspect, one or more of the compounds can be useful as host materials for an organic light emitting display device.

[00165] The disclosed compounds are useful in a variety of applications. As light emitting materials, the compounds can be useful in organic light emitting diodes (OLED)s, luminescent devices and displays, and other light emitting devices. [00166] The energy profile of the compounds can be tuned by varying the structure of the ligand surrounding the metal center. For example, compounds having a ligand with electron withdrawing substituents will generally exhibit different properties, than compounds having a ligand with electron donating substituents. Generally, a chemical structural change affects the electronic structure of the compound, which thereby affects the electrical transport and transfer functions of the material. Thus, the compounds of the present invention can be tailored or tuned to a specific application that desires an energy or transport characteristic.

[00167] In another aspect, disclosed compound can provide improved efficiency and/or operational lifetimes in lighting devices, such as, for example, organic light emitting devices, as compared to conventional materials.

[00168] In other various aspects, the disclosed compounds can be useful as, for example, host materials for organic light emitting diodes, lighting applications, and combinations thereof.

[00169] In one aspect, the device is an electro-optical device. Electro-optical devices include, but are not limited to, photo-absorbing devices such as solar- and photo-sensitive devices, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photo-emitting devices, or devices capable of both photo-absorption and emission and as markers for bio-applications. For example, the device can be an OLED.

[00170] OLEDs make use of thin organic films that emit light when voltage is applied across the device. OLEDs are becoming an increasingly interesting technology for use in applications such as flat panel displays, illumination, and backlighting. Several OLED materials and configurations are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,844,363, 6,303,238, and 5,707,745, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[00171] Generally, an OLED comprises at least one organic layer disposed between and electrically connected to an anode and a cathode. When a current is applied, the anode injects holes and the cathode injects electrons into the organic layer(s). The injected holes and electrons each migrate toward the oppositely charged electrode. When an electron and hole localize on the same molecule, an "exciton," which is a localized electron-hole pair having an excited energy state, is formed. Light is emitted when the exciton relaxes via a photoemissive mechanism. In some cases, the exciton may be localized on an excimer or an exciplex. Non-radiative mechanisms, such as thermal relaxation, may also occur, but are generally considered undesirable.

[00172] The initial OLEDs used emissive molecules that emitted light from their singlet states ("fluorescence") as disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. No.

4,769,292, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. Fluorescent emission generally occurs in a time frame of less than 10 nanoseconds.

[00173] More recently, OLEDs having emissive materials that emit light from triplet states ("phosphorescence") have been demonstrated. Baldo et al, "Highly Efficient Phosphorescent Emission from Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Nature, vol. 395, 151-154, 1998; ("Baldo-I") and Baldo et al, "Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, No. 3, 4-6 (1999) ("Baldo-II"), which are incorporated by reference in their entireties. Phosphorescence is described in more detail in U.S. Pat. No.

7,279,704 at cols. 5-6, which are incorporated by reference.

[00174] One application for phosphorescent emissive molecules is a full color display. Industry standards for such a display call for pixels adapted to emit particular colors, referred to as "saturated" colors. In particular, these standards call for saturated red, green, and blue pixels. Color may be measured using CIE coordinates, which are well known to the art. Such devices are disclosed herein which comprise one or more of the compounds or composition disclosed herein.

[00175] The OLED can be produced by methods known to those skilled in the art. In general, the OLED is produced by successive vapor deposition of the individual layers onto a suitable substrate. Suitable substrates are, for example, glass, inorganic materials such as ITO or IZO or polymer films. For the vapor deposition, customary techniques may be used, such as thermal evaporation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and others.

[00176] In an alternative process, the organic layers may be coated from solutions or dispersions in suitable solvents, in which case coating techniques known to those skilled in the art are employed. Suitable coating techniques are, for example, spin-coating, the casting method, the Langmuir-Blodgett ("LB") method, the inkjet printing method, dip-coating, letterpress printing, screen printing, doctor blade printing, slit-coating, roller printing, reverse roller printing, offset lithography printing, flexographic printing, web printing, spray coating, coating by a brush or pad printing, and the like. Among the processes mentioned, in addition to the

aforementioned vapor deposition, preference is given to spin-coating, the inkjet printing method and the casting method since they are particularly simple and inexpensive to perform. In the case that layers of the OLED are obtained by the spin- coating method, the casting method or the inkjet printing method, the coating can be obtained using a solution prepared by dissolving the composition in a concentration of 0.0001 to 90% by weight in a suitable organic solvent such as benzene, toluene, xylene, tetrahydrofuran, methyltetrahydrofuran, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, acetone, acetonitrile, anisole, dichloromethane, dimethyl sulfoxide, water and mixtures thereof

[00177] The disclosed compounds can be made using a variety of methods, including, but not limited to those recited in the examples provided herein. In other aspects, one of skill in the art, in possession of this disclosure, could readily determine an appropriate method for the preparation of an iridium compound as recited herein.

Examples

[00178] The following examples are put forth so as to provide those of ordinary skill in the art with a complete disclosure and description of how the compounds, compositions, articles, devices and/or methods claimed herein are made and evaluated, and are intended to be purely exemplary of the invention and are not intended to limit the scope of what the inventors regard as their invention. Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to numbers (e.g., amounts, temperature, etc.), but some errors and deviations should be accounted for. Unless indicated otherwise, parts are parts by weight, temperature is in °C or is at ambient temperature, and pressure is at or near atmospheric.

Example 1 - synthesis of PtOOO

[00179] Scheme 1 shows the general scheme for the synthesis of the compounds disclosed herein. Scheme 1

[00180] The reaction details for the synthesis is as follows:

[00181] (a)Resocinol (1.5 mmol), 2-bromopyridine (1 mmol), 1 -methylimidazole (0.5mmol), copper(I) iodide (0.1 mmol), potassium carbonate (2 mmol),

dimethylformamide (15 mL). Sealed, degassed tube stirred at 130° C, 3 days. 3- (pyridin-2-yloxy)phenol produced in 40% yield.

[00182] (b)3-bromophenol (1 mmol), 2-bromopyridine (2 mmol), 1- methylimidazole (0.5mmol), copper(I) iodide (0.1 mmol), potassium carbonate (2 mmol), dimethylformamide (15 mL). Sealed, degassed tube stirred at 130° C, 3 days. 2-(3-bromophenoxy)pyridine produced in 50% yield.

[00183] (c)3-(pyridin-2-yloxy)phenol (1 mmol), 2-(3-bromophenoxy)pyridine (1 mmol), 1 -methylimidazole (0.5mmol), copper(I) iodide (0.1 mmol), potassium carbonate (2 mmol), dimethylformamide (15 mL). Sealed, degassed tube stirred at 130° C, 3 days. 2,2'-(3,3'-oxybis(3, l-phenylene)bis(oxy))dipyridine produced in 50% yield.

[00184] (d) 2,2'-(3,3'-oxybis(3, l-phenylene)bis(oxy))dipyridine (1 mmol), potassium tetrachloroplatinate (1 mmol), and nBu4NBr(0.1mmol) were charged into a 100ml three necked flask, then 60ml acetic acid was added. The mixture was degassed with Nitrogen and stirred at ambient temperature for 12 hours. The mixture was heated in an oil bath at a temperature of 110 °C for another 36 hours. 100 ml of water was added after the mixture was cooled down to room temperature. The precipitate was collected through filtration, washed with water for three times then dried in air and purified through column chromatography on silica gel using dichloromethane as eluent to obtain a crude product which was further purified by recrystallization in dichloromethane and ether at refrigerator to get the desired platinum compound PtOOO as a yellow solid in 82% yield. (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 6.82 (m, 4H), 7.02 (t, 2H), 7.24 (dd, 2H), 7.47(d, 2H), 8.12 (dd, 2H), 8.34(d, 2H)

[00185] PtOOO was tested as a host material in a device having the following structure: ITO/HATCN (10nm)/ NPD (40nm)/ TAPC (lOnm)/ 6% Pt003: Host/ DPPS (10nm)/BmPyPB (40nm)/LiF/Al. The I-V curve for this device compared to a device using mCPy as a host material is shown in figure 2. The EL spectrum this device compared to a device using mCPy as a host material is shown in figure 3. The EQE for this device compared to a device using mCPy as a host material is shown in figure 4.

Example 2 synthesis of PdOOO

[00186] 2,2'-(3,3'-oxybis(3, l-phenylene)bis(oxy))dipyridine (1 mmol),

Palladium(II) acetate (1 mmol) , and nBu4NBr(0.1mmol) were charged into a 100ml three necked flask, then 30 ml acetic acid was added. The mixture was degassed with Nitrogen and stirred at ambient temperature for 12 hours. The mixture was heated in an oil bath at a temperature of 1 10 °C for another 36 hours. 100 ml of water was added after the mixture was cooled down to room temperature. The precipitate was collected through filtration, washed with water for three times then dried in air and purified through column chromatography on silica gel using dichloromethane as eluent to obtain a crude product which was further purified by recrystallization in dichloromethane and ether at refrigerator to get the desired platinum compound PdOOO as a white solid in 80% yield. (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 6.83 (d, 2H), δ 6.88 (d, 2H), 7.07 (t, 2H), 7.31 (dd, 2H), 7.44(d, 2H), 8.08 (dd, 2H), 8.42(d, 2H).

Example 3 - Synthesis of PtNON

[00187] 9-(pyridin-2-yl)-2-(9-(pyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yloxy)-9H - carbazole(240 mg, 0.48 mmol), K 2 PtCl 4 (208mg, 0.50 mmol), and nBu4NBr(15.4mg, 0.048mmol) were charged into a 100ml three necked flask, then 30ml acetic acid was added. The mixture was degassed with Nitrogen and stirred at ambient temperature for 12 hours. The mixture was heated in an oil bath at a temperature of 1 10 °C for another 36 hours. 100 ml of water was added after the mixture was cooled down to room temperature. The precipitate was collected through filtration, washed with water for three times then dried in air and purified through column chromatography on silica gel using dichloromethane as eluent to obtain a crude product which was further purified by recrystallization in dichloromethane and ether at refrigerator to get the desired platinum compound PtNON as a bright yellow solid 280 mg in 84.8% yield. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 7.16 (d, 2H), 7.25-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.39 (t, 2H), 7.46(t, 2H), 7.89 (d, 2H), 8.05(d, 2H), 8.13-8.18(m, 6H), 9.0(d, 2H).

Example 4 - Synthesis of PtNNN

[00188] 9-(9-(9-(pyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-9 H- pyrido[2,3-b]indole (288 mg, 0.50 mmol), K 2 PtCl 4 (228 mg, 0.55 mmol), and nBu 4 NBr(16.1 mg, 0.05 mmol) were charged into a 100ml three necked flask, then 30ml acetic acid was added. The mixture was degassed with Nitrogen and stirred at ambient temperature for 12 hours. The mixture was heated in an oil bath at a temperature of 110 °C for another 36 hours. 100 ml of water was added after the mixture was cooled down to room temperature. The precipitate was collected through filtration, washed with water for three times then dried in air and purified through column chromatography on silica gel using dichloromethane as eluent to obtain a crude product which was further purified by recrystallization in dichloromethane and ether at refrigerator to get the desired platinum compound Pt N as a bright yellow solid 100 mg in 26 % yield. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): 9.17 (m, 1H), 9.04 (m, 1H), 8.78 (m, 1H), 8.43 (d, J=7.6Hz 1H), 8.25-8.30(m, 2H), 8.04-8.19(m, 6H), 7.82- 7.88 (m, 3H), 7.64(M, 1H), 7.36-7.55(m, 6H), 7.31(dd, J=9.6Hz, J=4.8Hz, 1H).

Example 5 - Synthesis of PtNOO

[00189] 9-(pyridin-2-yl)-2-(3-(pyridin-2-yloxy)phenoxy)-9H-carbazole (215 mg, 0.50 mmol), K 2 PtCl 4 (228 mg, 0.55 mmol), and nBu 4 Br (16.1 mg, 0.05 mmol) were charged into a 100ml three necked flask, then 30 ml acetic acid was added. The mixture was degassed with Nitrogen and stirred at ambient temperature for 12 hours. The mixture was heated in an oil bath at a temperature of 1 10 °C for another 36 hours. 100 ml of water was added after the mixture was cooled down to room temperature. The precipitate was collected through filtration, washed with water for three times then dried in air and purified through column chromatography on silica gel using dichloromethane as eluent to obtain a crude product which was further purified by recrystallization in dichloromethane and ether at refrigerator to get the desired platinum compound PtNOO as a bright yellow solid 72 mg in 23 % yield. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): 8.53-8.61 (m, 2H), 8.10-8.19 (m, 4H), 8.01 (d, J=8.4, 1H), 7.87 (d, , J=8.4, 1H), 7.51(d, , J=8.4, 1H), 7.44(m, 1H), 7.37 (dd, J=7.6 Hz, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (dd, , J=6.0 Hz, J=6.8 Hz 1H), 7.21 (m, 1H), 7.05-7.10(m, 2H), 6.87(dd, , J=7.2 Hz, J=7.6 Hz 2H).

Example 6 - Synthesis of PtNON-bph

[00190] To a solution of NON-bph (52 mg) in HOAc (8 mL) were added K 2 PtCl 4 (35 mg) and «-Bu 4 NBr (3 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 3 days. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through a pad of silica gel, and

concentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave PtNON-bPh (49 mg, yield: 72%). ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 9.13 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 9.07 (d, J= 6.7 Hz, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J= 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 8.26-8.17 (m, 5 H), 8.12 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1 H), 8.01 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 7.96 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.94 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.87 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 2 H), 7.79-7.73 (m, 2 H), 7.69 (dd, J= 6.3, 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.58-7.39 (m, 7 H), 7.35 (td, J= 5.9, 2.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.21 (dd, J= 8.2, 2.7 Hz, 2 H).

Example 7- Synthesis of PdNON-bph

[00191] To a solution of NON-bPh (39 mg) in HOAc (6 mL) were added Pd(OAc)2 (14 mg) and w-Bu 4 NBr (2 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 2 days. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through a pad of silica gel, and concentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave PdNON-bPh (32 mg, yield: 70%). X H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ 9.00 (d, J=

5.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.94 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.33 (d, J= 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.24-8.14 (m, 5 H),

8.10 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 8.03-7.97 (m, 4 H), 7.87 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.79-7.71 (m, 3 H), 7.57-7.36 (m, 8 H), 7.23 (dd, J= 8.2, 2.7 Hz, 2 H).

Example 8 - Synthesis of PtNON-ph

[00192] To a solution of NON-Ph (65 mg) in HOAc (5 mL) were added K 2 PtCl 4 (44 mg) and w-Bu 4 NBr (3 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 2 days. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through a pad of silica gel, and

concentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave PfNON-Ph (65 mg, yield: 84%).

Example 9 - Synthesis of PdNON-ph

[00193] To a solution of NON-Ph (58 mg) in HOAc (5 mL) were added

Pd(OAc)2 (24 mg) and «-Bu 4 NBr (3 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 2 days. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered through a pad of silica gel, and concentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1 : 1 to 1 :2) gave PdNON-Ph (50 mg, yield: 73%).

Example 10 - Synthesis of PdNNO

[00194] To a solution of NNO (75 mg) in HOAc (10 mL) were added K 2 PtCl 4 (65 mg) and «-Bu 4 NBr (5 mg). The mixture was heated to reflux for 2 days. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered through a pad of silica gel, and concentrated. Purification by column chromatography (hexanes:DCM = 1:1 to 1:2) gave PtNON-Ph (42 mg, yield: 40%).