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Title:
METHOD FOR THE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OF A COMPONENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/078886
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Method for the additive manufacturing of a component (17), in which the component (17) is applied layer-by-layer from a base material which in each layer at least in regions is solidified, wherein at least one cooling medium for cooling at least the region to be solidified by way of at least one cooling medium nozzle (11) is introduced into a carrier gas flow so as to form a cooling gas flow, wherein the cooling medium is present so as to be liquid and/or gaseous, wherein the cooling gas flow is guided through a de Laval nozzle (3), wherein the cooling medium flow is introduced such that the outflow of the cooling medium flow into the carrier gas flow takes place within or downstream of the de Laval nozzle (3), and the cooling gas flow (19) is directed at least onto the region to be solidified.

Inventors:
KAYA CERKEZ (DE)
Application Number:
EP2019/077747
Publication Date:
April 23, 2020
Filing Date:
October 14, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
AIR LIQUIDE DEUTSCHLAND GMBH (DE)
AIR LIQUIDE (FR)
International Classes:
B33Y30/00; B22F3/10; B23K26/14; B23K26/144; B29C64/188; B33Y10/00
Foreign References:
EP2574408A12013-04-03
EP2705942A12014-03-12
US20150064047A12015-03-05
DE102015117238A12017-04-13
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DEBECKER, Isabelle (FR)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. Method for the additive manufacturing of a component (17), in which method the component (17) is configured layer-by-layer from a base mate- rial which is solidified at least in regions in each layer, characterized in that at least one cooling gas flow (19) for cooling at least the region to be solid- ified by way of at least one cooling medium nozzle (11) is introduced into a carrier gas flow so as to form a cooling gas flow, wherein the cooling me dium is present so as to be liquid and/or gaseous, wherein the cooling gas flow is guided through a de Laval nozzle (3), wherein the cooling medium flow is introduced such that the outflow of the cooling medium flow into the carrier gas flow takes place within or downstream of the de Laval nozzle (3), and the cooling gas flow (19) is directed onto the component (17). 2. Method according to Claim 1, wherein the de Laval nozzle (3) has a longi tudinal axis (7) and the cooling medium nozzle (11) in the direction of the longitudinal axis (7) of the de Laval nozzle (3) is displaceable relative to the de Laval nozzle (3). 3. Method according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein the cooling medium when flow ing through the cooling medium nozzle (11) is present in the liquid aggre gate state.

4. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the cooling me dium comprises at least one of the following substances:

carbon dioxide (C02);

nitrogen (N2); and

argon (Ar). Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the carrier gas comprises at least one of the following gases:

air;

argon;

nitrogen; and

carbon dioxide.

Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the carrier gas flow is guided through a porous body (15) before the cooling medium flow is added.

Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the cooling me dium nozzle (11) is configured so as to be centred relative to the de Laval nozzle (3).

Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the de Laval noz zle (3) has a longitudinal axis (7) and the cooling medium flow is introduced in the direction of the longitudinal axis (7) of the de Laval nozzle (3).

Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the component is produced by at least one of the following methods:

selective laser melting;

selective laser sintering;

binder j et printing ;

electron beam melting;

molten layering;

wire arc additive manufacturing method;

overlay welding;

contour crafting;

stereolithography; light exposure methods; and

3D screen printing.

10. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the base material by way of at least one application device (18) is at least solidified and op- tionally also applied, and the application device (18) is moved in a corre- sponding manner, wherein the at least one cooling gas flow (19) is delivered so as to lead and/or trail the application device (18). 11. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the base material by way of at least one application device (18) is at least solidified and op- tionally also applied, wherein the at least one cooling gas flow (19) is di- rected onto the component (17) in a plane other than the plane in which the application device (18) is moved.

12. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one cooling gas flow (19) is directed onto the component (17) such that a prede- finable temperature profile is achieved in the component (17). 13. Method according to Claim 12, wherein the temperature profile is chosen such that hot and cold cracks are avoided.

14. Method according to Claim 12 or 13, wherein the temperature profile is cho- sen such that material properties in the component can be set in a localized manner.

Description:
Method for the additive manufacturing of a component

The subject matter of the present invention is a method for the additive manufac- turing of a component, wherein the component is configured layer-by-layer from a base material which in each layer at least in regions is molten and subsequently set, wherein a cooling gas flow is directed at least onto the regions to be solidified.

Additive manufacturing methods, also referred to as 3D printing methods, such as in particular selective laser melting, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, and similar, are manufacturing methods and understood to be methods in which a three- dimensional component is produced from shapeless or shape-neutral materials by means of chemical and/or physical processes, wherein the construction of the com ponent usually takes place layer-by-layer. A construction material per se herein is usually rendered liquid or melted at least in regions, respectively, so as to set in order for the component to be formed, or a binder material which, for example, solidifies pulverulent material is applied. Temporal limits are created on account of the required solidification, since the previously applied material has to be solid ified prior to the next application of material. Furthermore, there are situations in which potential edges of the component are defined only to a limited degree on account of the time required for solidifying the material and the potentially still remaining viscosity of the material.

Proceeding therefrom, the present invention is based on the object of at least par tially overcoming the disadvantages known from the prior art.

Said objects are achieved by the independent claim. Dependent claims are di rected toward advantageous refinements. It is to be pointed out that the features listed individually in the dependent patent claims can be mutually combined in any technologically meaningful way and define further design embodiments of the invention. Moreover, the features stated in the patent claims are discussed and ex- plained in more detail in the description, wherein further preferred design embodi- ments of the invention will be illustrated.

The method according to the invention for the additive manufacturing of a compo- nent, in which method the component is configured, that is to say formed, layer-by- layer from a base material which in each layer at least in regions is solidified, that is to say a base material which is at least partially solidified in each layer, is distin guished in that a cooling gas flow for cooling at least the region to be solidified by way of a cooling medium nozzle is introduced into a carrier gas flow so as to form a cooling gas flow, wherein the cooling medium is present so as to be liquid and/or gaseous, wherein the cooling gas flow is guided through a de Laval nozzle, wherein the cooling medium flow is introduced such that the outflow of the cooling medium flow into the carrier gas flow takes place within or downstream of the de Laval nozzle, and the cooling gas flow is directed onto the component.

In the case of the method according to the invention it is preferable for the base material per se to be solidified, thus for the base material to be at least partially molten and then solidified, for example, or for the base material to be applied when liquid and then solidified. It is furthermore preferable for the base material to be solidified by at least one additive, for example a binding agent or an adhesive. Ad ditive manufacturing methods are in some instances also referred to as 3D printing methods.

A de Laval nozzle is understood to be a nozzle in which the cross section in the flow direction of the nozzle is first constricted and then widens again up to the gas exit. A carrier gas flow is understood to be a flow of a carrier gas. The carrier gas is present so as to be gaseous. A cooling medium flow is understood to be a flow of a cooling medium. The cooling medium herein can be present so as to be liquid, gaseous, and/or solid. Said cooling medium can change the aggregate state thereof when exiting the cooling medium nozzle such that a liquid cooling medium after exiting the cooling medium nozzle is present so as to be at least partially gaseous and/or solid. The cooling medium nozzle can in principle be any nozzle; this can in particular also be the exit of a tube.

The carrier gas flow is initially accelerated by the de Laval nozzle. Simultaneous mixing of the carrier gas flow and the cooling medium flow in the de Laval nozzle then takes places when the exiting of the cooling medium flow into the carrier gas flow takes place within the de Laval nozzle. This results in a distribution of the cooling medium in the carrier gas flow. To the extent that the cooling medium noz zle is positioned such that the exiting of the cooling medium flow takes place down stream of the de Laval nozzle, the mixing of the cooling medium and the carrier gas takes place in the carrier gas flow generated by the de Laval nozzle. A fundamen- tally turbulent or quasi-turbulent flow is generated by the acceleration imparted to the carrier gas in the de Laval nozzle, the cooling medium being introduced into said flow. Positive mixing of the cooling medium and the carrier gas thus takes place. The cooling gas flow is directed at least onto the region to be solidified. Preferable herein is tracking of the nozzle such that said nozzle is always directed onto the region to be solidified, or the cooling of entire regions or even of the entire region provided for the construction of the component. It has surprisingly been demon strated that the cooling gas flow does not have any negative effects on the additive manufacturing method, in particular that no displacement or similar of the base ma terial arises, but rather that a defined and rapid solidification of the base material takes place such that more clearly defined edges of the component and rapid cycle times are enabled. According to one advantageous design embodiment of the method, the cooling me dium nozzle in the direction of a longitudinal axis of the de Laval nozzle is dis- placeable relative to the de Laval nozzle.

Alternatively or additionally, the cooling medium nozzle is designed so as to be replaceable. On account thereof, cooling medium nozzles having dissimilar cross sections that can be passed through by a flow can be predefined so as to be replace- able for different application ranges.

On account of the choice according to the invention of the position of the cooling medium nozzle relative to the de Laval nozzle, in particular on account of the pre- ferred displaceability of the cooling medium nozzle relative to the de Laval nozzle, the composition, in particular with a view to the distribution of the aggregate states of the cooling medium, thus to which proportion of the cooling medium is present in the liquid state, which proportion is present in the solid state, and which propor tion is present as a gas, the spatial distribution of the cooling medium in the carrier gas flow, and/or the particle size, in particular the droplet or grain size, of the liquid or solid state can be predefined or set. Setting of the size distribution of the carbon dioxide snow, on the one hand, and the spatial distribution of the carbon dioxide snow particles in the carrier gas flow, can be achieved in particular when carbon dioxide is used as the cooling medium. When a primarily liquid cooling medium such as, for example, liquid nitrogen or liquid argon, is used as the cooling medium, this leads to the setting capability of the distribution of the droplet size of the nitro- gen or of the argon, respectively, in the carrier gas flow.

The setting of a distribution of the particle size and/or a spatial distribution of the cooling medium in the carrier gas flow so as to be adapted to the requirements of cooling to be met in each case, and thus to the respective additive manufacturing method used, is possible on account of the efficient atomization of the cooling me dium in the carrier gas flow by way of the choice of the position of the cooling medium nozzle relative to the de Laval nozzle, or by way of the preferable dis- placeability of the cooling medium nozzle relative to the de Laval nozzle.

According to one advantageous design embodiment of the method according to the invention, the cooling medium when flowing through the cooling medium nozzle is present in the liquid aggregate state.

In particular when the cooling medium nozzle is fed carbon dioxide in liquid form as the cooling medium, it can arise that the cooling medium upon exiting the cooling medium nozzle is at least partially formed in the solid aggregate state, for example as carbon dioxide snow, or the carbon dioxide partially evaporates. When using liquid nitrogen and/or argon, the nitrogen and/or the argon typically evapo- rate/evaporates at least in part.

The use of a fundamentally liquid cooling medium has proven advantageous since the evaporation enthalpy can thus also be utilized for cooling. The same applies to the carbon dioxide snow which is potentially formed at least in part and in the case of which the sublimation cooling energy can be used for cooling the regions to be solidified.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment of the method accord- ing to the invention, the cooling medium comprises at least one of the following substances:

carbon dioxide (C0 2 );

- nitrogen (N 2 ); and

argon (Ar).

The use of carbon dioxide as the cooling medium has proven particularly advanta geous since, on account of carbon dioxide snow being formed, a positive distribu- tion of the cooling medium on the component surface and thus effective cooling can take place and the sublimation cooling energy can be utilized for cooling the component surface. When using liquid nitrogen or argon, the evaporation enthalpy can advantageously be used for the further cooling of the component surface. Ni- trogen and argon are inert gases which can be used for suppressing reactions with the component surface in the application and solidification, and which can in par ticular be utilized for suppressing oxidation reactions.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment of the method accord- ing to the invention, the carrier gas comprises at least one of the following gases: air;

argon;

- nitrogen; and

carbon dioxide.

In order for an ideally simple method management to be enabled, it is preferable for identical gases to be used as the carrier gas and the cooling medium, wherein the gas as the cooling medium in this instance is preferably at least in part used in another aggregate state. The use of air as the carrier gas has proven particularly cost-effective.

Ice can be formed on the cooling medium nozzle in particular in the case of air being used as the carrier gas and in general when the carrier gas has a specific hu midity. This can preferably be counteracted in that the cooling medium nozzle is provided with thermal insulation, for example in that a coating from a plastics ma terial, in particular from polytetrafluoroethylene, is configured.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment of the method accord ing to the invention, the carrier gas flow is guided through a porous body before the cooling medium flow is added. The use of a sintered material such as, for example, a sintered metal or a sintered ceramic, is particularly preferable for configuring the porous body herein. Guiding the carrier gas flow through a porous body leads to a homogenization of the flow downstream of the porous body. The porous body can advantageously be simulta neously used for mechanically mounting and/or centring the cooling medium noz zle in the de Laval nozzle.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment of the method accord ing to the invention, the cooling medium nozzle is configured so as to be centred relative to the de Laval nozzle. In particular when the de Laval nozzle has an axis of symmetry in the form of the longitudinal axis, thus is configured so as to be rotationally symmetrical about the longitudinal axis, it is advantageous for the cool ing medium nozzle to be centred relative to the de Laval nozzle, thus for said cool ing medium nozzle to be configured on the longitudinal axis of the de Laval nozzle. It can be achieved on account thereof that the cooling medium flow is added in the region of the maximum flow velocity of the carrier gas flow, this leading to a par ticularly positive distribution of the cooling medium in the carrier gas.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment of the method accord ing to the invention, the cooling medium flow is introduced in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the de Laval nozzle.

It has been demonstrated that adding the cooling medium flow in the direction of the longitudinal axis leads to a particularly homogeneous distribution of the cooling medium in the carrier gas. However, in certain cases it can also be advantageous for the cooling medium flow to instead be added at an angle in relation to the lon gitudinal axis, in particular when highly asymmetrical components have to be im pinged with a cooling gas flow. This can be achieved, for example, in that the cool ing medium nozzle is indeed supplied with cooling medium through a cooling me dium infeed line that is configured in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the nozzle, but the cooling medium nozzle has an outlet opening which effects a cooling medium flow in a direction that is different from the longitudinal axis.

According to one advantageous design embodiment, the cooling medium nozzle is configured so as to be coaxial with the de Laval nozzle.

Coaxial is understood to mean that one axis of the cooling medium nozzle is iden tical to a corresponding axis of the de Laval nozzle. The cooling medium nozzle is in particular configured such that said cooling medium nozzle has an outlet opening which points in the direction of the exit side and is configured so as to be symmet rical about the longitudinal axis of the de Laval nozzle.

The displaceability in the direction of the longitudinal axis in terms of construction can be achieved in a simple manner on account of the coaxial configuration of the de Laval nozzle and the cooling medium nozzle. A substantially symmetrical spatial distribution of the cooling medium in the carrier gas flow can be achieved on ac count of an outlet opening that is symmetrical in relation to the longitudinal axis.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment, the cooling medium nozzle comprises a tube, preferably having an internal diameter of less than 1.5 mm, preferably less than 1.0 mm, particularly preferably less than 0.5 mm.

A capillary which enables the cooling medium to be infed in sufficiently small and economically sensible volumetric flows is preferably used as the cooling medium nozzle or for infeeding the cooling medium to the cooling medium nozzle. The in ternal diameter of the capillary, or of the tube, respectively, can be adapted as a function of the required cooling and the other parameters such as the prevailing cooling medium pressure, so as to achieve ideally efficient cooling. In principle, the present invention in the case of a displaceable cooling medium nozzle permits distributions of particle sizes or droplet sizes which are capable of being set, for example particle or droplet diameters of 20 to 40 pm up to 0.2 to 0.3 mm.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment of the device according to the invention, the cooling medium nozzle comprises at least one of the following nozzles:

a de Laval nozzle;

- a constricted tube; and

a tube.

A constricted tube is understood to be a tube of which the cross section capable of being passed through by a flow is reduced at least in a sub-region. In the case of a tube as the cooling medium nozzle, said tube has a substantially consistent cross section that is capable of being passed through by a flow. A tube is advantageously also understood to be a capillary having an internal diameter of 1.5 mm and less. A de Laval nozzle is preferably used when it is necessary to increase the outflow ve- locity of the cooling medium flow by virtue of the prevailing conditions. A tube, in particular a capillary, is preferably used as the nozzle when only a rather short cool- ing medium nozzle is required, thus when the cooling medium flow in the flow direction is to be introduced in the front region of the de Laval nozzle. In the case of the constricted tube, the internal diameter capable of being passed through by a flow is preferably decreased by more than 30%, for example from an internal di- ameter of approximately 0.8 mm to 0.4 mm or 0.5 mm. If the cooling medium noz zle is configured as a de Laval nozzle, the diameter capable of being passed through by a flow therein, from upstream of said de Laval nozzle to the central part of the de Laval nozzle, can be reduced by at least 50%, for example from 0.8 mm to 0.3 mm. An acceleration of the cooling medium flow by virtue of the decreased cross section capable of being passed through by a flow also takes place in the case of a constricted tube as the cooling medium nozzle.

The production of a de Laval nozzle or a constricted tube as the cooling medium nozzle preferably takes place in a manner independent of the present invention by heating and drawing a metal capillary.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment, a porous body is con figured between the carrier gas connector and the de Laval nozzle.

Said porous body in operation is passed through by a flow of the carrier gas. Said porous body is preferably a sintered body such as, in particular, a sintered metal body, or a sintered ceramics body. The carrier gas flow on account of the porous body being passed through by a flow is homogenized such that defined conditions prevail when the carrier gas flows into the de Laval nozzle, so that minor pressure variations and similar in the carrier gas supply are equalized ahead of the porous member.

According to one further advantageous design embodiment, the cooling medium nozzle is centred relative to the de Laval nozzle by a porous body.

A design embodiment in which the cooling medium nozzle is nevertheless still dis- placeable is chosen herein. The porous body can simultaneously also be utilized for homogenizing the flow of the carrier gas flow.

According to one advantageous design embodiment, the component is produced by at least one of the following methods:

selective laser melting;

selective laser sintering;

binder j et printing; electron beam melting;

molten layering;

wire arc additive manufacturing method;

overlay welding;

- contour crafting;

stereolithography; and

3D screen printing.

In the case of selective laser melting, the material to be processed in pulverulent form is applied in a thin layer to a base plate or an underlying layer and in regions is then melted by means of laser irradiation such that a firm metal layer results upon solidification. Selective laser sintering is based on a similar procedure, wherein sin tering of the powder takes place in regions herein. In binder jet printing, a pulveru- lent base material is in regions adhesively bonded by way of a binding agent. In electron beam melting, a pulverulent initial material, usually a metallic initial ma terial, is in regions melted by an electron beam and subsequently solidifies. In mol ten layering, a melt-like initial material, for example a melting-capable plastics ma terial or a metal, is melted layer-by-layer in a punctiform manner and applied to a base plate or an underlying layer. In overlay welding, in particular a wire or a pow- der, by laser welding or plasma-powder overlay welding is applied in regions to a base plate or an underlying layer. In contour crafting, a viscous material, for exam ple concrete, is applied in regions by way of a nozzle and solidifies by subsequent curing. In the context of stereolithograpy, a light-curing plastics material in thin layers is in regions cured by a laser. In 3D screen printing, a component is generated by applying a base material layer-by-layer by way of screen printing.

In wire arc additive manufacturing, a wire-shaped material is melted in drops by an arc, for example according to the TIG (tungsten inert gas), MIG (metal inert gas), or MAG (metal active gas) welding method (or other welding methods utilizing an arc) and in the sense of an additive manufacturing method is utilized for manufac- turing three-dimensional structures. Using the wire arc additive manufacturing method, the melting rate as well as the component mass generated can be signifi cantly increased in comparison with the powder/laser methods. At the same time, the thermal input into the components produced is significantly increased, this hav- ing an influence on the properties of the material or the component, respectively, and being in particular capable of having a negative influence thereon, such that cooling is required here. It is in particular known for the application of material to be interrupted in order for cooling intervals to be provided. It is here that the present invention permits continuous manufacturing without cooling intervals. The cooling according to the present invention moreover permits precise controlling of the workpiece temperature and thus also precise controlling of the material properties in the workpiece.

According to one advantageous design embodiment, the base material by way of at least one application device is at least solidified and optionally also applied, and the application device is moved in a corresponding manner, wherein the at least one cooling gas flow is delivered so as to lead and/or trail the application device.

The solidification and, depending on the method applied, also the application of the base material is carried out herein by means of the application device. The applica tion device herein is moved in the context of the method according to the invention in order to guarantee the layer-by-layer construction of the component. Leading delivery of the cooling gas flow herein means that regions are cooled before the application device carries out the solidification and optionally the application of the base material. A correspondingly trailing delivery of the cooling gas flow means that the cooling gas flow is delivered onto the component or the application location once the application device has carried out the solidification and optionally the ap plication of the base material. A leading and a trailing delivery of two cooling gas flows can preferably take place so as to impart a specific temperature profile, for example. The cooling gas flows can have dissimilar volumetric flows, temperatures, and/or pressures.

According to one advantageous design embodiment, the base material by way of at least one application device is at least solidified and optionally also applied, wherein the at least one cooling gas flow is directed onto the component in a plane other than the plane in which the application device is moved.

The layer-by-layer construction of the component means in particular that the ap- plication device is moved in planes in order for the layer-by-layer construction of the component to be guaranteed. One layer after another is configured herein. The orientation of the at least one cooling gas flow toward another plane of the compo- nent means in particular that the cooling gas flow is directed onto regions of the component that have already been configured.

According to one advantageous design embodiment, the at least one cooling gas flow is directed onto the component such that a predefinable temperature profile is achieved in the component. The temperature profile herein can be chosen such that the thermal input and output is influenced in a targeted manner such that repeating contours are created in the component, for example. Alternatively or additionally, the temperature profile can be chosen such that any excessive material stress in the construction of the compo- nent is avoided, and in particular hot and/or cold cracks are avoided. Alternatively or additionally, the temperature profile can be chosen such that material properties in the component can be set in a targeted localized manner, for example, that a specific crystalline structure of a steel is achieved, in particular that a component has locally variable hardness and/or toughness values. The invention and the associated technical field will be explained in more detail hereunder by means of the figures. It is to be pointed out that the invention is not intended to be limited by the exemplary embodiments shown. In particular, unless explicitly explained otherwise, it is also possible to extract partial aspects of the facts explained in the figures and combine them with other components and/or knowledge from other figures and/or the present description. Schematically: fig. 1 shows a first example of a device for delivering a cooling gas flow; fig. 2 shows a second example of a device for delivering a cooling gas flow; and figs. 3 to 5 show examples of additive manufacturing methods.

Fig. 1 schematically shows a first example of a device 1 for delivering a cooling gas flow. The device 1 comprises a nozzle body 2 having a de Laval nozzle 3. The de Laval nozzle 3 comprises a first region 4 in which the cross section capable of being passed through by a flow decreases, a second region 5 in which the cross section capable of being passed through by a flow is consistent, and a third region 6 in which the cross section capable of being passed through by a flow increases. The de Laval nozzle 3 is configured so as to be rotationally symmetrical in relation to a longitudinal axis 7. The de Laval nozzle 3 has an entry side 8 and an exit side 9. The de Laval nozzle 3 in operation is passed through by a flow from the entry side 8 to the exit side 9.

A carrier gas connector 10 by way of which the device 1 in operation can be sup- plied with a carrier gas is fluidically connected to the entry side 8 of the de Laval nozzle 3. The device 1 furthermore comprises a cooling medium nozzle 11 having an outlet opening 12 for introducing cooling medium into the carrier gas flow. The cooling medium nozzle 12 is connected to a cooling medium infeed line 13. The cooling medium nozzle 1 1 in operation by way of the cooling medium infeed line 13 is supplied with cooling medium which is introduced into the carrier gas flow through the outlet opening 12. The cooling medium nozzle 11 herein is disposed so as to be displaceable along the longitudinal axis 7 of the de Laval nozzle 3 such that the cooling medium flow is introduced into the carrier gas flow within the de Laval nozzle 3, or is introduced into the carrier gas flow downstream of the de Laval noz zle 3. This means that the cooling medium nozzle 11 is configured so as to be lon gitudinally displaceable such that the outlet opening 12 either is positioned within the de Laval nozzle 3 or is positioned behind the exit side 9 of the de Laval nozzle 3. The latter case means that the exit side 9 of the de Laval nozzle 3 lies between the outlet opening 12 of the cooling medium nozzle 11 and the entry side 8 of the de Laval nozzle 3. The cooling medium flow and the carrier gas flow form the cooling gas flow.

Fig. 1 shows a case in which the cooling medium nozzle 11 represents a de Laval nozzle, wherein said cooling medium nozzle lies within the de Laval nozzle 3. In operation, a carrier gas is introduced into the de Laval nozzle 3 through the carrier gas connector 10, wherein the carrier gas flow created is accelerated in the de Laval nozzle 3. The cooling medium as the cooling medium flow is then added through the cooling medium nozzle 11 to the carrier gas flow created. A distribution of the cooling medium and an atomization of the cooling medium in the carrier gas flow takes place on account of the addition to the carrier gas flow, the flow properties of the latter being changed by the de Laval nozzle 3. Depending on the position of the outlet opening 12 of the cooling medium nozzle 11 in the de Laval nozzle 3 or downstream of the de Laval nozzle 3, other distributions of particle sizes of the cooling medium in the carrier gas flow and other spatial distributions of the cooling medium in the carrier gas flow are achieved.

The displacement range in which the outlet opening 12 of the cooling medium noz zle 11 can move is identified by the reference sign 14. A design embodiment in which the range by which the cooling medium nozzle 11 can exit from the de Laval nozzle 3 in the direction of the longitudinal axis 7 is smaller than one fifth, prefer ably even less than one tenth, of the length of the displacement range 14 is prefera ble.

The first exemplary embodiment of the device 1 according to the invention further more comprises a porous body 15. Said porous body 15 is configured as a sintered metal disc and centres the cooling medium nozzle 11 , or the cooling medium infeed line 13, respectively, in the interior of the de Laval nozzle 3. The carrier gas in operation is forced through the porous body 15, this leading to a homogenization of the carrier gas flow. Pressure and velocity variations of the carrier gas can thus be attenuated prior to entering the de Laval nozzle 3 such that uniform conditions pre vail in operation at all times. Fig. 2 schematically shows a second example of a device 1 for delivering a cooling gas flow. For reasons of clarity, only the points of differentiation in relation to the first example are to be described here. Reference otherwise is made to the descrip tion pertaining to the first example. A different cooling medium nozzle 11 is con figured in the second example. The cooling medium nozzle 11 in this case is con- figured as a capillary which also represents the cooling medium infeed line 13. The cooling medium such as, for example, carbon dioxide from the cooling medium infeed line 13 exits only through the outlet opening 12 of the cooling medium noz zle 11 and is then atomized and distributed in the carrier gas flow. Fig. 3 very schematically shows a device 16 for the additive manufacturing of a component 17. Said device 16 has an application device 18 which constructs the component 17 by solidifying region-by-region a base material. The application de vice herein can be configured according to an additive manufacturing method de scribed here. The region of the component 17 that is to be solidified is particularly cooled by the device 1 for delivering a cooling gas flow 19. The device 1 for deliv- ering a cooling gas flow 19 is configured so as to be movable, as is indicated by the arrows. The movement can take place not only in the direction of the arrows but additionally in particular in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the arrows. A pivoting movement of the device 1 is also possible according to the invention. Furthermore, the movement of the device 1 for delivering a cooling gas flow 19 can be coupled to the movement of the application device 18. It is also possible for the entire face of the device 16 for the additive manufacturing of a component 17 to be impinged with the cooling gas flow 19.

Fig. 4 shows a further example in which a component 17 is configured layer-by- layer by way of an application device 18. The cooling gas flow 19 here by way of a device 1 for delivering a cooling gas flow 19 is directed onto the component 17 in a plane other than the plane in which the application device 18 is moved. In particular, the cooling gas flow 19 here is directed onto the part of the component 17 that has already been generated, thus from bottom to top below the application device 18 in the construction of a component 17. The device 1 for delivering a cooling gas flow 19 herein is capable of being inclined, preferably about two axes, as is symbolized by the inclinations 20 plotted as arrows. The device 1 for deliver ing a cooling gas flow 19 herein is movable (displaceable) in the moving direction 21.

Fig. 5 shows an example in which the application device 18 and the device 1 for delivering a cooling gas flow 19 are moved in the same plane; the cooling gas flow 19 herein can be moved so as to lead and/or trail the application device 18 in the moving direction 21. The device 1 for delivering a cooling gas flow 19 herein is capable of being inclined, as is symbolized by the inclination 20 plotted as an arrow.

On account of the movement in the same plane or different planes, of the inclina tions 20, and the movement in the moving directions 21 , the component 17 can be imparted a temperature profile which is adapted to the material and/or to the desired properties of the component 17. In particular, local hardness and/or toughness val ues in the component 17 can thus be achieved, and manufacturing without hot and/or cold cracks can be achieved.

List of reference signs

1 Device for delivering a cooling gas flow

2 Nozzle body

3 De Laval nozzle

4 First region

5 Second region

6 Third region

7 Longitudinal axis

8 Entry side

9 Exit side

10 Carrier gas connector

11 Cooling medium nozzle

12 Outlet opening

13 Cooling medium infeed line

14 Displacement range

15 Porous body

16 Device for additive manufacturing

17 Component

18 Application device

19 Cooling gas flow

20 Inclination

21 Moving direction