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Title:
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A PYROLYSIS PRODUCT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/006273
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a method and apparatus for producing a pyrolysis product, in which raw material are fed to the pyrolysis reactor and gaseous pyrolysis product fractions and by-product fractions are formed from raw material by pyrolysis in a pyrolysis reactor. According to the invention the method comprising steps: combusting at least one by-product fraction from the pyrolysis reactor in at least two combustors, and recovering energy formed in the combustor.

Inventors:
LEHTO, Jani (Sippulantie 28 B4, JYVÄSKYLÄ, FI-40520, FI)
Application Number:
FI2013/050737
Publication Date:
January 09, 2014
Filing Date:
July 05, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
TEKNOLOGIAN TUTKIMUSKESKUS VTT (Vuorimiehentie 3, VTT, FI-02044, FI)
International Classes:
C10B49/00; C10B53/00; F23G5/027; F23G5/14
Domestic Patent References:
WO2006117824A12006-11-09
WO2009047392A12009-04-16
WO2011055010A12011-05-12
WO2006117824A12006-11-09
Foreign References:
US4541345A1985-09-17
US20110132737A12011-06-09
US4432290A1984-02-21
US20130068605A12013-03-21
US4541345A1985-09-17
US20110132737A12011-06-09
US4432290A1984-02-21
US20130068605A12013-03-21
Other References:
See also references of EP 2870221A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PAPULA OY (P.O. Box 981, Helsinki, FI-00101, FI)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A method for producing a pyrolysis prod¬ uct, in which raw material are fed to the pyrolysis reactor and gaseous pyrolysis product fractions and by-product fractions are formed from raw material by pyrolysis in a pyrolysis reactor, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the method comprising steps

- combusting at least one by-product fraction from the pyrolysis reactor in at least two combustors so that the by-product fraction is combusted in the first combustor and the flue gases from the first combustor is supplied to the second combus¬ tor in which the flue gases are combusted to form energy; and

- recovering energy formed in the combustor.

2. The method according to claim 1, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that temperature is adjusted in the first combustor so that the temperature is below 700 °C.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the energy recovered in the combustor is supplied to feed water and/or to a steam circuit of the boiler.

4. An apparatus for producing a pyrolysis product, the apparatus comprising

- a pyrolysis reactor (1) for forming gaseous pyroly¬ sis product fractions (3) and by-product fractions (4,14,19) from raw material (5) by pyrolysis, and - at least one equipment for feeding raw material (5) to the pyrolysis reactor (1),

c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the apparatus comprises

- at least two combustors (7,8) in which at least one by-product fraction (4,14,19) from the pyrol¬ ysis reactor (1) is combusted; and

- means (9) for recovering energy formed in the combustor (7,8).

5. The apparatus according to claim 4, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the apparatus comprises an adjusting device for adjusting temperature in the first combustor (7) so that the temperature is below 700 °C.

6. The apparatus according to claim 4 or 5, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the apparatus comprises a boiler (2) for forming energy fractions (10,11) .

7. The apparatus according to any one of claims 4 to 6, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the ap¬ paratus comprises means for supplying energy recovered in the combustor (7,8) to feed water (17).

8. The apparatus according to any one of claims 4 to 7, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the ap¬ paratus comprises means for supplying energy recovered in the combustor (7,8) to a steam circuit of the boiler (2) .

9. The apparatus according to any one of claims 4 to 8, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the ap¬ paratus comprises a heat exchanger (9) for recovering heat energy from the flue gases (12) of the by-product fraction (4,14,19) .

Description:
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A PYROLYSIS PRODUCT

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a method defined in the preamble of claim 1 and an apparatus defined in the preamble of claim 4 for producing a pyrolysis product .

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

It is known from the prior art that a pyroly ¬ sis product, i.e. pyrolysis liquid or pyrolysis gas, is produced from different kinds of biomasses or or ¬ ganic materials such as wood, bark, paper, straw, waste plastic, oil shale, lignite, peat or the like by dry distillation with the pyrolysis technique. The py ¬ rolysis is typically performed in oxygen-free condi ¬ tions at a temperature of about 300 to 800°C. When slow heating rate is applied, the pyrolysis liquid, e.g. wood tar from dry wood, can typically be recov- ered in an amount of about 20 to 30 % by weight. The amount of the pyrolysis liquids is increased when higher heating rates are applied. There are many known fast pyrolysis methods for producing pyrolysis prod ¬ ucts and chemicals.

Fast pyrolysis is typically carried out by heating the fuel to be pyrolyzed in a hot oxygen-free environment by introducing the required heat to the pyrolyzer by means of a heating gas, heat exchanger, heat transfer agent, e.g. sand or aluminum oxide based carrier, or catalyst. For example a bubbling or sand circulating fluidized-bed reactor may be used as the pyrolyzer. The produced pyrolysis vapor is typically condensed to a temperature of less than 100 °C in or ¬ der to form the pyrolysis liquid.

The fuel to be pyrolyzed, e.g. biomass, is usually conducted to a dryer before the pyrolyzer for drying in order to reduce the water content of the py ¬ rolysis liquid that is being formed. Typically drum, belt, flash or fluidized-bed dryers are used. It is also known to use a steam dryer in which the heat is introduced by means of hot sand to the dryer operating on the fluidized-bed basis and in which only water is removed. The temperature is kept at such level that organic compounds do not escape.

From WO 2009047392 is known an apparatus for producing a pyrolysis product in which a pyrolysis re ¬ actor and a boiler are integrated.

OBJECTIVE OF THE INVENTION

The objective of the invention is to disclose a new type method and apparatus for use in the produc ¬ tion of a pyrolysis product.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The method and apparatus according to the in- vention is characterized by what has been presented in the claims.

The invention is based on a method for pro ¬ ducing a pyrolysis product and for improving a pyroly ¬ sis, wherein raw material are fed to the pyrolysis re- actor and gaseous pyrolysis product fractions and by ¬ product fractions are formed from raw material by py ¬ rolysis in a pyrolysis reactor. According to the in ¬ vention, the method comprises at least steps: combust ¬ ing at least one by-product fraction from the pyroly- sis reactor in at least two combustors so that the by ¬ product fraction is combusted in the first combustor and the flue gases from the first combustor is sup ¬ plied to the second combustor in which the flue gases are combusted to form energy, and recovering energy formed in the combustor. Preferably, energy is recov ¬ ered and utilized as heat in heating steam and/or wa- ter, e.g. feed water, without the recirculating of the recovered energy directly into the pyrolysis reactor.

Further, the invention is based on an apparatus for producing a pyrolysis product, and the appa- ratus comprises a pyrolysis reactor for forming gase ¬ ous pyrolysis product fractions and by-product frac ¬ tions from raw material by pyrolysis, preferably by fast pyrolysis, and at least one equipment for feeding raw material to the pyrolysis reactor. According to the invention, the apparatus comprises at least two combustors in which at least one by-product fraction from the pyrolysis reactor is combusted; and means for recovering energy formed in the combustor.

In this context, the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions may refer to mixtures of gas, steam and/or aerosol .

In this context, the by-product fraction may include any components from the pyrolysis process, pref ¬ erably no gaseous pyrolysis product components. The by- product fraction may include solid, liquid and gaseous components, e.g. by-products from pyrolysis, pyrolysis residue components, coke, catalyst, heat transfer mate ¬ rial, bed sand or the like.

Any pyrolysis reactor known per se can be used in the pyrolysis. The pyrolysis reactor can be, for example, a fluidized-bed reactor, bubbling fluidi- zation reactor or the like. In one embodiment, pyroly ¬ sis is a catalytic pyrolysis.

In one embodiment, the by-product fraction from the pyrolysis reactor is combusted, preferably by means of air, in two combustors so that the by-product fraction is partially combusted in the first combustor and the flue gases from the first combustor is sup ¬ plied to the second combustor in which the flue gases are, preferably completely, combusted to form energy. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises two or more than two, preferably two, combustors in which the by-product fraction from the pyrolysis reactor is combusted by means of air to form flue gases. In one embodiment the by-product fraction is partially com ¬ busted to form flue gases in the first combustor and the flue gases are, preferably completely, combusted in the second combustor. Preferably, the energy, such as heat, from the flue gases is recovered. In one em- bodiment the apparatus comprises means for supplying air or oxygen to the combustor or combustors.

In one embodiment of the invention, the appa ¬ ratus comprises means for monitoring and adjusting the temperature of the combustor. Preferably, the tempera- ture is adjusted by means of the heated combustion air and/or heat exchanger.

In one embodiment, temperature is adjusted in the first combustor so that the temperature is prefera ¬ bly below 700 ° C, e.g. in connection with the catalytic pyrolysis. Preferably, the apparatus comprises an ad ¬ justing device for adjusting temperature in the first combustor so that the temperature is below 700 ° C. In the catalytic pyrolysis, the catalytic fraction may be i-s- circulated after the first combustor back to the py- rolysis and/or to the boiler, and the partially combust ¬ ed flue gases are fed to the second combustor. The flue gases are preferably completely combusted in the second combustor. The catalytic fraction can be separated from the flow by any separator known per se.

In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a boiler for forming energy fractions, such as hot water, hot steam and superheated steam. Preferably, the pyrolysis reactor is arranged in conjunction with the boiler. The apparatus comprises at least one equipment for feeding raw materials to the boiler. Any boiler known per se can be used as the boiler. The boiler can be any type of a boiler, such as bubbling or circulating fluidized bed boiler, grate or pulverized coal boiler .

In one embodiment, the energy recovered in the combustor is supplied as heat to the feed water, e.g. boiler feed water, and/or to the steam circuit of the boiler. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises means for supplying energy recovered in the combustor to the feed water. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises means for supplying energy recovered in the combustor to the steam circuit of the boiler.

In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a heat exchanger for recovering heat energy from the flue gases, for example in connection with the second combustor. In one embodiment feed water and/or steam can be heated in said heat exchanger.

Preferably, the flue gases are combusted in the second combustion so efficiently that combustible resi ¬ due gases are not substantially generated. In the second combustion water steam may be generated.

Further, the apparatus can comprise a con ¬ densing device for condensing gaseous pyrolysis prod ¬ uct fractions to mainly liquid pyrolysis product frac ¬ tions .

Further, the apparatus can comprise at least one separating device arranged substantially in con ¬ junction with the pyrolysis reactor for separating other product fractions, such as solid and/or liquid fractions, from the gaseous pyrolysis product frac- tions after the pyrolysis. In one embodiment the appa ¬ ratus comprises means for conducting at least part of the other fractions than the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions from the separator to the combustor as a by ¬ product fraction. In one embodiment the apparatus com- prises means for conducting at least part of the other fractions than the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions from the separator to the boiler. In one embodiment, the separating device is a cyclone, distiller, decanter, clearing basin, flotation device, centrifuge, other extractor or the like. In one embodiment, an integrated solution is used as the separating device, in which a combination of the conventional cyclone, impact separa ¬ tor and settling chamber is used for separating the coarse material and a full-feed cyclone, e.g. Cymic, Le- ka or the like, positioned in the inner tube of the cy- clone, is used for separating the fine matter. In one embodiment, a two-phase separating device in which the separating cyclones are arranged within each other can be used as the separating device. Any known separating device suitable for the purpose may be used as the sepa- rating device.

In one embodiment the by-product fraction is conducted from the separating device to the combustor, preferably to the first combustor.

In one embodiment the side flow containing by- product fraction is conducted from the pyrolysis reactor to the combustor, preferably to the first combustor.

The fuel to be pyrolysed and fed to the py ¬ rolysis reactor is preferably a wood-containing mate ¬ rial, biomass and/or equivalent volatile materials containing organic material, e.g. sawdust, straw or waste plastic etc., which is pyrolyzed to gaseous py ¬ rolysis product in the pyrolysis reactor.

Any solid fuel, e.g. forest chips, bark, peat or coal, or a multi-fuel mixture etc. which is burned in order to produce heat energy can be fed to the boiler which is primarily designed for producing heat energy, such as electricity and steam. In one embodi ¬ ment, the boiler is provided with heat recovery.

In one embodiment, substantially different raw materials or mixtures of raw materials are fed to the boiler and the pyrolysis reactor. In one embodi- ment, at least partly the same raw materials or mix ¬ tures of raw materials are fed to the boiler and the pyrolysis reactor. Preferably, optimum fuel mixtures are fed to the boiler and the pyrolysis reactor in or- der to improve the efficiency of the combustion and pyrolysis and the yield of the pyrolysis product.

In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a dryer in which the fuel to be pyrolyzed is dried ther ¬ mally, preferably before the pyrolysis. Preferably, the dryer is integrated with the pyrolysis reactor and/or the boiler, and some of the heat energy that has been formed in the boiler is utilized when drying the fuel to be pyrolyzed. The fuel may be dried e.g. by the hot combustion gases or the hot heat transfer material or by utilizing the heat energy of the boil ¬ er. Of course, the drying may also be performed in other manners. Any dryer known per se, e.g. a low temperature dryer, such as a storage dryer, or the like, can be used as the dryer.

In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises means for feeding air or oxygen to the boiler.

In one embodiment of the invention, the appa ¬ ratus comprises means for recovering, processing further, circulating in the apparatus and/or utilizing the fractions produced in different parts of the apparatus, such as the product, side and residual fractions and waste flow. In one embodiment, side, residual and/or waste flows are circulated to the boiler. In one embodi ¬ ment, the non-condensible gases from the condensing de- vice, other fractions than the gaseous product fractions after the pyrolysis, the combustion gas fraction, the refuse flow from the raw material feeding to the pyroly ¬ sis reactor and the solids from the condensing device can be conducted to the boiler. Preferably, heat trans- fer material if used in the process, can be circulated after the pyrolysis to the boiler and from the boiler back to the pyrolysis reactor.

The energy-containing product fractions from the boiler can be conducted to a desired part of the ap- paratus, e.g. the pyrolysis reactor, dryer, temperature raising and/or recovery. Some of the heat energy that has been recovered in the boiler can be utilized in the pyrolysis reactor e.g. by means of the heat trans ¬ fer material that is heated in the boiler. From the boiler, the heated and at the same time purified heat transfer material is transferred, e.g. preferably at a temperature of 600 to 900°C, to the pyrolysis reactor, so that part of the heat energy formed in the boiler is transferred to the pyrolysis. The heat energy that is produced in the boiler can alternatively be recov ¬ ered e.g. as steam, electricity or hot water. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises means for separat ¬ ing the heat transfer material in a separating device and conducting it to the boiler to be purified and heated.

The pyrolysis product can be produced by the apparatus according to the invention with high efficiency .

The invention provides the advantage that the fast pyrolysis and boiler integration can be improved in industrial scale. The invention improves processi- bility of the pyrolysis. Thanks to the invention py ¬ rolysis by-products can be treated and utilized as en ¬ ergy with very high efficiency. Further, the inven- tion is also suitable for catalytic pyrolysis.

The method and apparatus of the invention of ¬ fers a possibility to produce the pyrolysis products cost-effectively with very high efficiency. The pre ¬ sent inventtion provides an industrially applicable, simple and affordable way of producing pyrolysis prod ¬ ucts. The method and apparatus of the present inven- tion is easy and simple to realize as a production process .

LIST OF FIGURES

In the following section, the invention will be described with the aid of detailed exemplary embod ¬ iments, referring to the accompanying figure wherein

Fig. 1 presents one embodiment of the appa ¬ ratus according to the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Fig. 1 presents the apparatus according to the invention for producing pyrolysis products, the apparatus comprising a boiler 2, i.e. a fluidized bed boiler, for producing heat energy fractions 10 and 11, a fast pyrolysis reactor, i.e. a pyrolyzer, 1 for forming gaseous pyrolysis product 3 and by-product fractions 4 and 14, a condensing device 15 for con ¬ densing the gaseous pyrolysis product 3, and separate fuel feeding devices 5 and 6 for feeding raw material to the pyrolyzer 1 and the boiler 2. In addition, the apparatus comprises a cyclone 16 for separating the first by-product fraction 4, the second by-product fraction containing solids 14 and catalyst 13 from the gaseous pyrolysis product 3 after the pyrolyzer 1.

Most of the fuel, e.g. biomass, carbon, peat, lignite or oil shale, is fed by the feeding device 6 to the fluidized bed boiler 2. Furthermore, the feed ¬ ing device 6 is arranged so that amounts of forest chips or bark can be fed to the boiler 2 as well. Also air 22 is fed to the fluidized bed boiler 2. The feed ¬ ing device 5 is arranged to feed e.g. wood-containing material, biomass, such as peat, saw dust or straw, or organic material to the pyrolyzer 1.

In the pyrolyzer 1, gaseous pyrolysis product

3 is formed from the fuel to be pyrolyzed by fast py- rolysis at a temperature of 300 to 80 0 ° C . Further, by ¬ product fractions 4 and 14 are generated in the pyrol- ysis. In this device embodiment, the pyrolyzer 1 is a circulating mass fluidization reactor. Heat transfer material 11 , if used in the process, may be conducted from the fluidized bed boiler 2 to the pyrolyzer 1 .

The apparatus comprises a cyclone 1 6 after the pyrolyzer 1 . The first by-products 4 and pyrolysis residue/solids/carbon matter 14 , e.g. sand, coke and tar, and catalyst 13 are separated from the produced gaseous pyrolysis products 3 in the cyclone 1 6 . Sepa ¬ rated components or a part of separated components 4 , 13 and/or 14 can be circulated to a combustor 7 . Alternatively the separated solids and carbon matter 14 or a part of them can be directly conducted to the boiler 2 to be burned. Further, the heat transfer material 11 , if used in the process, may be separated in the cyclone 1 6 and conducted to the boiler 2 . Alterna ¬ tively, the heat transfer material 11 may be conducted from the cyclone 1 6 together with catalyst flow 13 to the combustor 7 and from the combustor 7 to the boiler 2 and/or pyrolyzer 1 . In the boiler 2 , the heat transfer material 11 can be regenerated and heated.

The apparatus comprises two combustors 7 , 8 in which by-product fractions 4 and 14 from the pyrol ¬ ysis reactor 1 is combusted. In the first combustor 7 the by-product fractions 4 and 14 containing also sol ¬ ids 44 and catalyst 13 are combusted partially to form flue gases 12 . The flue gases 12 from the first com- bustor 7 are supplied to the second combustor 8 . In the second combustor 8 the flue gases 12 are combusted completely to produce heat energy.

The apparatus comprises separator for sepa ¬ rating the remaining solids and catalyst 13 from the flue gases 12 in connection with the first combustor 7 . Further, the apparatus comprises means for conduct- ing the remaining solids and separated catalyst 13 back to the pyrolysis reactor 1 and/or the boiler 2. From the boiler 2 catalyst 13 can be conducted to the pyrolysis reactor 1. Further, the apparatus comprises means for feeding air 18 to the combustors 7 and 8.

The apparatus comprises an adjusting device for adjusting temperature in the first combustor 7 so that the temperature is kept below 700 ° C.

Further, the apparatus comprises a heat ex- changer 9 in connection with the second combustor 8 for recovering heat energy formed in the second combustor 8. Boiler feed water 17 or alternatively steam can be heated by means of heat energy in the heat ex ¬ changer 9.

From the cyclone 16, the gaseous pyrolysis product 3 is conducted to the condensing device 15, where the hot gaseous pyrolysis product 3 is condensed and fractionated in stages to a pyrolysis product liq ¬ uid 20. Non-condensible gases, chemical compounds and/or aqueous solution 19 thereof can be conducted to the fluidized bed boiler 2 or pyrolyzer 1 or combustor 7 and/or 8 or to any other suitable process or device, e.g. gas turbine.

In addition, the apparatus may comprise a filter for separating finer solids from the gaseous pyrolysis product 3.

The apparatus may comprise a dryer for drying the raw material to be pyrolyzed. Either the combus ¬ tion gas of the boiler or the heat transfer material conducted from the boiler may be utilized as the heat delivering agent in the dryer. Any dryer known per se, e.g. a mixing dryer, may be used as the dryer so it is not described in any more detail in this context.

The chemical compounds separated from differ- ent parts of the apparatus can be recovered for possi ¬ ble subsequent utilization. The chemical compounds are utilized by means of processes known per se which are not described in any more detail in this context.

By the apparatus according to the invention, the most valuable and suitable part of the raw materi- al can be used as the material to be pyrolyzed, and the less suitable part in terms of the pyrolysis may be fed to the boiler. The raw material may be frac ¬ tionated by processes known per se. The method and apparatus according to the in ¬ vention is suitable in different embodiments for pro ¬ ducing different kinds of pyrolysis products.

The invention is not limited merely to the examples referred to above; instead many variations are possible within the scope of the inventive idea defined by the claims.