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Title:
METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT FOR CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY FOR A GAS TURBINE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/086540
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
It is described a method of controlling a supply of a fuel (105) to a combustor (101) of a gas turbine comprising a compressor upstream of the combustor, the method comprising: supplying the fuel (105) to the combustor (101); obtaining a property value of at least one physical property (PT8, PT7, Tinlet, THBOV) of air used for burning the fuel (105) in the combustor (101); estimating a heat input (HIengmodel) of the fuel (105) supplied to the combustor (101) based on the prop- erty value; measuring a Caloric Value (LCVmea) of the fuel (105) upstream of the combustor (101); adjusting the estimated heat input (HIengmodel) based on the measured Caloric Value (LCVmea); and controlling a fuel valve (103) regulating the supply of the fuel (105) to the combustor (101) based on the adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) and a demanded heat input (FFDEM).

Inventors:
DAVIES, Gareth Huw (12A Far Lane, Coleby, Lincoln LN5 0AH, GB)
SMITH, Michael (17 Cambrian Way, North Hykeham, Lincoln LN6 9TL, GB)
Application Number:
EP2013/073079
Publication Date:
June 12, 2014
Filing Date:
November 05, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SIEMENS AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT (Wittelsbacherplatz 2, München, 80333, DE)
International Classes:
F02C9/40
Foreign References:
EP2450551A22012-05-09
JP2004190633A2004-07-08
US20070203669A12007-08-30
EP1788309A22007-05-23
US20120079831A12012-04-05
US20090071118A12009-03-19
US20100275609A12010-11-04
US6490867B22002-12-10
US7854110B22010-12-21
US7950216B22011-05-31
US7565805B22009-07-28
EP2450551A22012-05-09
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WHITE, Kevin Andrew et al. (Siemens AG, Postfach 22 16 34, Munich, 80506, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS :

1. Method of controlling a supply of a fuel (105) to a com- bustor (101) of a gas turbine comprising a compressor up- stream of the combustor, the method comprising:

supplying the fuel (105) to the combustor (101);

obtaining a property value of at least one physical property (PT8, PT7, Tinlet, THBOV) of air used for burning the fuel (105) in the combustor (101);

estimating a heat input (HIengmodel) of the fuel (105) supplied to the combustor (101) based on the property value; measuring a Caloric Value (LCVmea) of the fuel (105) up¬ stream of the combustor (101);

adjusting the estimated heat input (HIengmodel) based on the measured Caloric Value (LCVmea) to obtain an adjusted es¬ timated heat input (HIexpected) ; and

controlling a fuel valve (103) regulating the supply of the fuel (105) to the combustor (101) based on the adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) and a demanded heat input (FFDEM) ,

wherein an update interval of estimating the heat input is shorter than an update interval of measuring the Caloric Value . 2. Method according to claim 1, further comprising:

comparing the adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) with a demanded heat input (FFDEM) to derive an error signal (121); and

controlling the fuel valve (103) regulating the supply of the fuel (105) to the combustor (101) based on the error signal (121) .

3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the adjusting the estimated heat input comprises calculation of a trimming factor (HIcaltrim) calculated from a difference of estimated Wobbe index (WIengcal) and measured Wobbe index (Wlcalorime- ter) , the estimated Wobbe index (WIengcal) being derived by integrating the error signal (121), the measured Wobbe index (WIcalorimeter) being calculated from the measured Caloric Value (LCVmea) and specific gravity (SGmea) of the fuel

(105) ,

wherein the adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) is ob¬ tained by dividing the estimated heat input by the trimming factor .

4. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the update interval of estimating the heat input is between 5 and 100 times as short as the update interval of measuring the Caloric Value.

5. Method according to the preceding claim,

wherein the adjusting the estimated heat input or Wobbe index is performed, if a following criteria is satisfied:

the estimated heat input (HIengmodel) or Wobbe index (WIengcal) is stable within +/- 5%, in particular +/- 2% within at least one update interval of measuring the caloric value and

the measured Caloric Value (LCVmea) is within a prede¬ termined limit range.

6. Method according to the preceding claim,

wherein the criteria further comprises:

the measured Caloric Value (LCVmea) is stable within +/- 5%, in particular +/- 2% compared to the measured Caloric Value of the previous update interval. 7. Method according to one of the preceding claims,

wherein the at least one physical property of air comprises: an inlet air pressure (PT7) at a compressor inlet;

an inlet air temperature (Tinlet) at the compressor inlet; and

an outlet air pressure (PT8) at a compressor outlet.

8. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein estimating the heat input comprises:

forming a pressure ratio (PRC87) between the outlet air pressure (PT8) and the inlet air pressure (PT7) and

estimating the heat input (HIengmodel) based on the pressure ratio (PRC87) .

9. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein estimating the heat input based on the pressure ratio (PRC87) com- prises using at least one curve fit (307, 309) based on plu¬ ral measurements (305, 309) performed on at least one gas turbines, the curve fit relating measured pressure ratio to measured heat input ,

wherein the curved fit is in particular described by a polynomial of second order having a positive first coeffi¬ cient and a positive second coefficient, a representation of the curve fit being in particular stored in an electronic storage . 10. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein the at least one curve fit comprises:

a first curve fit (307) obtained based on measuring data (305), where no air was bled upstream of the combustor (101), a second curve fit (309) obtained based on measuring data (311), where a portion, in particular between 5% and 20%, of air was bled upstream of the combustor (101),

wherein based on the first curve fit (307) a first heat input (HIisonobleed) is derived and

wherein based on the second curve fit (309) a second heat in- put (Hlisol0%bleed) is derived,

wherein based on the first heat input and the second heat in¬ put the estimated heat input (HIengmodel) is derived.

11. Method according to the preceding claim, further compris- ing:

deriving a corrected heat input (HIiso) using a first func¬ tion comprising the first heat input (HIisonobleed) and the second heat input (HIisolO%bleed) , if the pressure ratio (PRC87) exceeds a threshold, the threshold being in particu¬ lar between 4 and 8 ;

deriving the corrected heat input (HIiso) using a second function comprising at least the first heat input (Hlisono- bleed) , if the pressure ratio (PRC87) does not exceed the threshold;

wherein estimating the heat inputs is further based on the corrected heat input (HIiso) .

12. Method according to the preceding claim,

further comprising estimating a portion (bleed%) of air bled upstream of the combustor based on a bleed valve setting (THBOV) , in particular using a bleed valve characteristic (405),

wherein the first function comprises the estimated portion of bled air.

13. Method according to the claim 11 or 12, further compris- ing:

calculating the estimated heat input (HIengmodel) from the corrected heat input (HIiso) , the inlet air pressure (PT7) and the inlet air temperature (Tinlet) . 14. Method according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising :

setting the valve to a flow rate of the fuel such that the error signal is zero;

the method afterwards comprising:

supplying another fuel to the combustor, the other fuel being different from the fuel;

obtaining another property value of the at least one physical property of air used for burning the other fuel in the combustor;

estimating another heat input (HIengmodel) of the other fuel supplied to the combustor based on the other property value ; measuring another Caloric Value or Wobbe index of the other fuel upstream of the combustor;

adjusting the other estimated heat input based on the other measured Caloric Value or Wobbe index; and

controlling the valve regulating the supply of the other fuel to the combustor based on the other adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) and the demanded heat input (FFDEM) such that the valve is set to another flow rate of the other fuel different from the flow rate of the fuel previously ap- plied.

15. Arrangement (100) for controlling a supply of a fuel (105) to a combustor (101) of a gas turbine comprising a com¬ pressor upstream of the combustor, the arrangement compris- ing:

a fuel valve (103) adapted to supply the fuel (105) to the combustor (101);

a processor (107) adapted

to obtain a property value of at least one physical property (PT8, PT7, Tinlet, THBOV) of air used for burning the fuel (105) in the combustor (101);

to estimate a heat input (HIengmodel) of the fuel (105) supplied to the combustor (101) based on the property value; to receive a measured Caloric Value (LCVmea) of the fuel (105) upstream of the combustor;

to adjust the estimated heat input (HIengmodel) based on the measured Caloric Value or Wobbe index; and

to control the fuel valve (103) regulating the supply of the fuel (105) to the combustor (101) based on the adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) and a demanded heat input (FFDEM) ,

wherein an update interval of estimating the heat input is shorter than an update interval of measuring the Caloric Value .

Description:
DESCRIPTION

Method and arrangement for controlling fuel supply for a gas turbine

Field of invention

The present invention relates to a method and to an arrange ¬ ment for controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine, wherein in particular a change in the type or kind or composition of the fuel is taken into account, while maintaining stable operation of the gas turbine.

Art Background

US 2009/0071118 Al discloses a method and a system for modu ¬ lating the modified Wobbe index (MWI) of a fuel which is sup ¬ plied to a gas turbine, wherein a heat exchanger is used to preheat the fuel and the MWI of the incoming fuel is moni- tored, wherein the MWI considers the temperature of the fuel.

US 2010/0275609 Al discloses a hybrid Wobbe control during rapid response start-up, wherein a temperature of a fuel to be ignited within a combustor of a gas turbine is determined and an additive is introduced into the combustor of the gas turbine when the temperature of the fuel is less than the target temperature.

US 6,490,867 B2 discloses a method of operating a burner and burner configuration, wherein a calorific value of the fuel is determined and the degree of opening of a control element is calculated and directly set using the output and the calo ¬ rific value resulting in a variable output control that is operationally reliable with respect to perturbations.

Thereby, the calorific value of the fuel is determined from the mass flow and the calorific value of the water and the mass flow and the calorific value of the heating oil. US 7,854,110 B2 discloses an integrated fuel gas characteri ¬ zation system for determining the amount of energy provided by the fuel prior to combustion of the fuel in the combustion stage, wherein the integrated fuel gas characterization sys ¬ tem can include a Wobbe Meter for measuring the Wobbe index of fuel gas before the fuel gas is combusted in the gas tur ¬ bine and wherein the control system may be designed to adjust one or more operating parameters of the gas turbine engine based on the rate of change of the Wobbe index.

US 7,950,216 B2 discloses a gas turbine engine fuel control system, wherein a controller calculates a desired flow rate based at least on the combustive energy value of the fuel which has been determined by a combustive energy value evaluator, wherein the energy value evaluator determines an energy value of the fuel mixture either directly by measure ¬ ment or by reference to tables based on mixture ratios.

Thereby, the LHV of the fuel can be determined using the measured temperatures and air mass flow rates of the engine.

US 7,565,805 B2 discloses a method for operating a gas tur ¬ bine engine system, wherein a processor is programmed to re ¬ ceive a signal indicative of a heating value of the fuel and automatically controls a fuel split between the fuel injec ¬ tion points on the combustor using the determined heating value, wherein fuel nozzles are designed to operate within a limited range of pressure ratios and changes in heating value and fuel gas temperature are accommodated for by increasing or decreasing the fuel nozzle gas passage area. The modified Wobbe index (MWI) represents a measure of the energy injected into the combustor for a given upstream and downstream pressure across a given fuel nozzle gas orifice and is calculated using the fuel lower heating value, the specific gravity with respect to air and the fuel temperature. Further, automati ¬ cally modulating fuel gas splits in combustor using measured or calculated fuel gas MWI is disclosed. EP 2 450 551 A2 discloses systems and methods for compensat ¬ ing fuel composition variations in a gas turbine, the method including monitoring at least one fuel parameter associated with a turbine combustor; monitoring one or more combustion dynamics characteristics associated with the turbine combus ¬ tor; monitoring one or more performance and emissions charac ¬ teristics associated with the turbine; estimating fuel compo ¬ sition based at least in part on the at least one fuel param- eter, the one or more combustion dynamics characteristics, and the one or more performance and emissions characteris ¬ tics, and adjusting at least one fuel parameter based at least in part on the estimated fuel composition. Calorimeters may have been used for monitoring fuel proper ¬ ties where gas fuel composition varies, but the slow update rates may have made it difficult to produce effective control loops which maintain stable engine operation. Limiting the allowable rate of change of the fuel properties may help to remedy this problem but this may be often an unacceptable constraint for a particular operation condition or user application. Further, determination of the fuel property purely based on estimation using an engine model may lack accuracy. It has been observed that conventional methods for control ¬ ling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine may not in all circumstances or operating conditions address the issue for maintaining a desired operation of the gas turbine or a stable operation of the gas turbine, when the kind, type or composition of the supplied fuel changes. Further, it has been observed that calorimeter measurements of fuel proper ¬ ties may be too slow in situations of rapidly varying gas composition. Further, conventional methods for estimating of properties of the fuel from engine parameters has been ob- served to be fast but may be prone to inaccuracies and drift problems . Thus, there may be a need for a method and for an arrangement for controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine, wherein situations in which fuel changes can be han ¬ dled, in order to provide a stable operation of the gas tur- bine.

Summary of the Invention This need may be met by the subject matter according to the independent claims. Advantageous embodiments of the present invention are described by the dependent claims.

According to an embodiment of the present invention it is provided a method of controlling a supply of a fuel to a com ¬ bustor of a gas turbine comprising a compressor upstream of the combustor, the method comprising: supplying the fuel to the combustor; obtaining a property value of at least one physical property of air used for burning the fuel in the combustor; estimating a heat input (e.g. HIengmodel) of the fuel (e.g. a fluid, in particular gas and/or liquid) supplied to the combustor based on the property value; measuring a Ca ¬ loric Value of the fuel upstream of the combustor; adjusting the estimated heat input based on the measured Caloric Value to obtain an adjusted estimated heat input (HIestimated) ; and controlling a fuel valve regulating the supply of the fuel to the combustor based on the adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) and a demanded heat input (FFDEM) , wherein an update interval of estimating the heat input is shorter than an update interval of measuring the Caloric Value.

Further, the adjusted estimated heat input may be compared with a demanded heat input (as provided from a gas turbine governor) to derive an heat input error value, wherein the heat input error value may be used to estimate a Wobbe index of the fuel which is then supplied to the fuel valve which may change its fuel flow setting to change a fuel flow rate, such as mass flow rate or volume flow rate. Further, the de ¬ manded heat input may be adjusted to maintain stable opera ¬ tion of the gas turbine. In addition the method may comprise periodic measurement of the Lower Caloric Value (LCV) , specific gravity (SG) and hence Wobbe Index (WI) of the fuel upstream of the combustor; comparing the estimated Wobbe index to the measured Wobbe in ¬ dex to create another error-term; and adjusting the estimated heat input flow based on this other error-term.

Heat Input to the engine may be measured in kW and may repre ¬ sent to amount of (chemical or combustion) energy comprised in the mixture of fuel and compressed air per time unit. The heat input may e.g. be defined by the LCV multiplied with a mass flow or volume flow.

The Lower Caloric Value LCV of the fuel is a , specific' quan ¬ tity (per unit mass or unit volume of fuel) in kJ/kg or kJ/m A 3. In the context of this document and the method the LCV may be volumetric, so is expressed in units of

kJ/ (normal_m A 3) (normal m A 3 being the volume of the gas at 0 degrees Celsius at ISO pressure) , and Wobbe Index may be de ¬ fined as volumetric LCV/root ( SG) . In particular, one, two, three, five or even more property values of the respective number of physical properties of air may be obtained during the method and may be used to estimate the heat input. The property values may represent measured values or calculated or computed or derived values which may be based on other derived or measured quantities or values.

In particular, during performing the method, the kind, type or composition of the fuel may be unknown and may change in an unknown manner. Estimating the Caloric Value of the fuel may utilize an engine model, in particular comprising a thermodynamic model. The Caloric Value may in particular comprise a Lower Caloric Value. The adjusting the estimated heat input based on the measured Caloric Value may represent a calibration of the estimated heat input, in order to adjust the absolute value of the es- timated heat input.

Thereby, the use of engine characteristics to estimate the fuel heating value (or the heat input of the fuel) may be combined with a (periodic) cross reference to a measurement result of a fuel calorimeter, in order to maintain accuracy or to calibrate the estimated heat input. Thereby, the ad ¬ justed estimated heat input may to a higher accuracy corre ¬ spond to or equal the actual heat input depending on the Ca ¬ loric Value of the fuel. Thereby, this advantage may be pro- vided by the combination of the purely estimated heat input and the measured Caloric Value, wherein measurements of the Caloric Value may be performed at a much slower rate than es ¬ timating the heat input. Thereby, the control method may al ¬ low faster controlling than using exclusively a calorimeter for determining a measured Caloric Value and may at the same time be more accurate than when using exclusively an esti ¬ mated heat input.

Although the update interval of measuring the Caloric Value may be relatively long, nevertheless the adjusted estimated heat input may in an accurate manner reflect the actual Ca ¬ loric Value or actual heat input, since the estimated heat input may be calibrated from time to time, in particular dur ¬ ing stable operation, wherein neither the estimated heat in- put nor the measured Caloric Value change by more than prede ¬ termined thresholds, such as 10 of respective aver ¬ ages .

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the method further comprises comparing (e.g. comprising arithme ¬ tic/logic computing) the adjusted estimated heat input with a demanded heat input (FFDEM) to derive an error signal and controlling a fuel valve regulating the supply of the fuel to the combustor based on the error signal.

A controller may be provided which receives the error signal and which outputs a control signal aimed for reducing the er ¬ ror signal. In particular, the controller may output an estimated Wobbe index which may be supplied to the fuel valve which in turn may adjust its flow setting for changing the flow rate of the fuel, in order to reduce the error signal. Thereby, a stable operation of the gas turbine may be en ¬ sured, even if the type, the kind or the composition of the fuel changes during operation.

The controller may consist of an integrator with an appropriate gain to enable an error in heat input to be converted to an error in Wobbe Index for the purpose of adjusting the value of the estimated Wobbe Index in order to reduce the er ¬ ror signal

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the ad- justing the estimated heat input comprises calculation of a trimming factor from difference of estimated Wobbe index and measured Wobbe index, the estimated Wobbe index being derived by integrating the error signal, the measured Wobbe index be ¬ ing calculated from the measured Caloric Value (such as meas- ured by a calorimeter) and a specific gravity of the fuel, wherein the adjusted estimated heat input is obtained by di ¬ viding the estimated heat input by the trimming factor.

From the estimated heat input an estimated Wobbe index may be derived .

The trimming factor may also be considered or referred to as a calibration factor in order to calibrate the estimated heat input or Wobbe index to an actual heat input or Wobbe index. The trimming factor may be stored in an electronic storage and may only be updated when the Caloric Value or Wobbe index is measured which may be less frequent than estimating the heat input or Wobbe index. The trimming factor may be derived in such a way that by dividing the estimated heat input by the trimming factor, the adjusted estimated heat input re ¬ sults in an estimated Wobbe Index which may more closely re ¬ semble the measured Wobbe Index.

Calculation of a trimming factor and applying the trimming factor to the estimated heat input or Wobbe index may sim ¬ plify the method.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the up- date interval of estimating the heat input is between 5 and 100 times as short as the update interval of measuring the Caloric Value.

The update interval of estimating the caloric value may for example be between 5 s and 1 min. The update interval of measuring the caloric value may be between 3 min and 30 min, for example.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the ad- justing the estimated heat input is performed, if the follow ¬ ing criterion is satisfied: the estimated heat input is sta ¬ ble within +/- 5%, in particular +/- 2% within at least one update interval of measuring the Caloric Value and the meas ¬ ured Caloric Value is within a predetermined limit range.

The predetermined limit range of the measured Caloric Value may have been determined from expected compositions of the fuel or expected kinds or types of the fuel. Thereby, meas ¬ urement outliers of the Caloric Value may not disturb the control method, since in this case the calibration of the es ¬ timated heat input or the adjusting the estimated heat input may be skipped e.g. and resumed e.g. in the next update in ¬ terval . Requiring that also the estimated heat input is stable within the defined limits may also indicate that the kind, the type or the composition of the fuel has changed since the last sample taken by the calorimeter and may thus improve the ac ¬ curacy of the method by not making the adjustment during such changes . According to an embodiment of the present invention, the cri ¬ terion further comprises: the measured Caloric Value is sta ¬ ble within +/- 5%, in particular +/- 2% compared to the measured Caloric Value of the previous update interval. The update interval for measuring the Caloric Value may for example amount to about 3 min or between 2 min and 30 min. When the measured Caloric Value is not stable within for ex ¬ ample +/- 5% it may indicate that the kind, the type or the composition of the fuel changes. In this situation a calibra- tion of the estimated heat input is therefore not possible.

By avoiding this improper calibration, the control method may further be improved.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the at least one physical property of air comprises an inlet air pressure (PT7) at a compressor inlet an inlet air temperature

(Tinlet) at the compressor inlet and an outlet air pressure

(PT8) at a compressor outlet. Furthermore, the at least one physical property of air may further comprise a bleed valve setting, indicative of an amount of air not supplied to the combustor. Occurrence of bled air upstream of the combustor may also affect the esti ¬ mation of the heat input of the fuel. Thus, taking into ac- count the amount of air bled upstream of the combustor may improve the control method.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, estimat ¬ ing the heat input comprises forming a pressure ratio (PRC87) between the outlet air pressure (PT8) and the inlet air pres ¬ sure (PT7) and estimating the heat input based on the pres ¬ sure ratio. The pressure ratio may be a suitable quantity in order to es ¬ timate the heat input. Thereby, the method may be simplified. According to an embodiment of the present invention, estimat ¬ ing the heat input based on the pressure ratio comprises us ¬ ing at least one curve fit based on plural measurements per ¬ formed on at least one gas turbines, the curve fit relating measured pressure ratio to measured heat input, wherein the curved fit is in particular described by a polynomial of sec ¬ ond order having a positive first coefficient (a coefficient of the polynomial multiplied with the pressure ratio) and a positive second coefficient (a coefficient of the polynomial multiplied with the square of the pressure ratio) , a repre- sentation of the curve fit being in particular stored in an electronic storage.

In particular, plural measurement points may be obtained from measurements performed on at least one gas turbine and the measurement points may be depicted in a graph having an ab ¬ scissa denoting the pressure ratio and having an ordinate de ¬ noting the heat input or the heat input fuel flow in units Mega Watt (MW) or kilo Watt (kW) , e.g. The at least one curve fit may be obtained by a least square fit of the measurement points to a polynomial, in particular to a polynomial of sec ¬ ond order which describes the heat input fuel flow as the sum of a constant term, the first coefficient multiplied by the pressure ratio and the second coefficient multiplied with the square of the pressure ratio.

Using the experimental measurements may allow to derive a highly accurate relationship between the pressure ratio and the heat input from the fuel flow. Thereby, the method may be improved regarding accuracy of the estimated heat input.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the at least one curve fit comprises: a first curve fit obtained based on measuring data, where no air was bled upstream of the combustor, a second curve fit obtained based on measuring data, where a portion, in particular between 5% and 15%, of air was bled upstream of the combustor, wherein based on the first curve fit a first heat input is derived and wherein based on the second curve fit a second heat input is derived, wherein based on the first heat input and the second heat in ¬ put the estimated heat input is derived. Considering the two cases where no air was bled upstream of the combustor and where a portion of the air was bled up ¬ stream of the combustor may lead to an improved accuracy of estimating the heat input. In particular, the first heat input and the second heat input correspond to the condition, where no air was bled upstream of the combustor and where a portion of the air was bled upstream of the combustor, respectively.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the method further comprises: deriving a corrected heat input us ¬ ing a first function comprising the first heat input and the second heat input, if the pressure ratio exceeds a threshold, the threshold being in particular between 4 and 8, deriving the corrected heat input using a second function comprising at least the first heat input, if the pressure ratio does not exceed the threshold, wherein estimating the heat inputs is further based on the corrected heat input.

The first function may be a mathematical function for deriv- ing the corrected heat input in dependence of the first heat input and the second heat input only in this case, when the pressure ratio fulfils the criterion to exceed the threshold. Further, the corrected heat input may be derived as a second mathematical function in dependence of only or at least the first heat input, if the pressure ratio does not satisfy the criterion, thus does not exceed the threshold. Thereby, the influence of air bled off before the combustor may be taken into account more accurately. In particular, if the pressure ratio is above the threshold, an influence of bled air may be higher than if the pressure ratio does not exceed the threshold.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the method further comprises estimating a portion of air bled upstream of the combustor based on a bleed valve setting, in particular using a bleed valve characteristic, wherein the first function comprises the estimated portion of bled air.

The bleed valve may comprise one or more valves arranged at different locations upstream of the combustor, or within the compressor section of the gas turbine. The bleed valve char ¬ acteristics may be represented as a table, a graph, look-up table, or the like and may be stored in an electronic stor ¬ age. The bleed valve characteristic may indicate that the flow of air is zero in a first valve angle range and it may indicate that the percent flow of the air increases linearly in a second valve angle range being adjacent to the first valve angle range. By using the bleed valve setting, determi ¬ nation of the amount of air which is bled off upstream of the combustor may be improved regarding accuracy.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the method comprises calculating the estimated heat input from the corrected heat input, the inlet air pressure (PT7) and the inlet air temperature (Tinlet) .

The estimated heat input may be derived using a mathematical formula, wherein in particular the corrected heat input is multiplied with the inlet air pressure and multiplied with the square root of a term comprising the inlet air tempera- ture . Thereby, the estimated heat input may be calculated in an accurate way from the available input quantities. According to an embodiment of the present invention, the method further comprises setting the valve to a flow rate of the fuel such that the error signal (defined above) is zero, the method afterwards comprising: supplying another fuel to the combustor, the other fuel being different from the fuel; obtaining another property value of the at least one physical property of air used for burning the other fuel in the com ¬ bustor; estimating another heat input (HIengmodel) of the other fuel supplied to the combustor based on the other prop- erty value; measuring another Caloric Value of the other fuel upstream of the combustor; adjusting the other estimated heat input based on the other measured Caloric Value; and control ¬ ling the valve regulating the supply of the other fuel to the combustor based on the other adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) and the demanded heat input (FFDEM) such that the valve is set to another flow rate of the other fuel dif ¬ ferent from the flow rate of the fuel previously applied.

Thereby, a change of the type, the kind or the composition of the fuel can be accounted for while maintaining the stable operation of the gas turbine according to the demanded heat input, such as for example provided by a turbine governor.

It should be understood that features individually or in any combination disclosed, described or mentioned with respect to any method of controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine may also be applied individually or in any combination to an arrangement for controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine according to an embodi- ment of the present invention and vice versa.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, it is provided an arrangement for controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine comprising a compressor upstream of the combustor, the arrangement comprising: a fuel valve adapted to supply the fuel to the combustor; a processor adapted to obtain a property value of at least one physical property of air used for burning the fuel in the combustor; to estimate a heat input (HIengmodel) of the fuel supplied to the combustor based on the property value; to receive a meas ¬ ured Caloric Value or Wobbe index of the fuel upstream of the combustor; to adjust the estimated heat input based on the measured Caloric Value or Wobbe index; and to control the fuel valve regulating the supply of the fuel to the combustor based on the adjusted estimated heat input (HIexpected) and a demanded heat input (FFDEM) , wherein an update interval of estimating the heat input is shorter than an update interval of measuring the Caloric Value.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, a gas turbine is provided comprising an arrangement for con- trolling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of the gas turbine as explained or described according to an embodiment above.

The engine calorimeter calculation may only be carried out, if the following "steady state" criterion is satisfied:

Record maximum and minimum values of Temperature control pa ¬ rameter e.g.Tfire (combustor outlet temperature equivalent to inlet temperature of burnt fuel to turbine section of gas turbine) over a rolling 5 minutes prior to current time.

Steady if Tfiremax - Tfiremin < Tss

Where Tss is a parameter initially set to 20°C

The use of engine characteristics to estimate the fuel heat ¬ ing value may be combined with periodic cross reference to a fuel calorimeter in order to maintain accuracy according to an embodiment of the present invention. A trimming factor may be calculated from the difference between the engine charac ¬ teristic method and the measured heating value and this may be applied to the calculated heat input from the engine model from which the fuel heating value (or caloric value) may be estimated. This cross reference may be only carried out in periods where the estimated heating value is stable, thus en ¬ suring that the time delay of the calorimeter does not affect the results, and the trimming value may be applied over a moderate time period to ensure smooth alignment and stability of engine operation. Use of this method may maintain accuracy of the system without compromise from engine degradation.

Brief Description of the Drawings

Fig. 1 schematically illustrates an arrangement for control- ling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine ac ¬ cording to an embodiment of the present invention which is adapted to perform a method of controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 2 schematically illustrates an engine model which is used in the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 1 and which is used in a method of controlling a supply of a fuel to a com ¬ bustor according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 3 schematically illustrates a graph for defining a heat input flow value to a gas turbine engine in dependence of a pressure ratio of air which may be used in a method and/or in an arrangement for controlling a supply of a fuel to a com- bustor according to an embodiment of the present invention; Fig. 4 illustrates a graph of a bleed valve characteristics for bleeding off air upstream of a combustor which relationship is used in an arrangement and/or in a method of control ¬ ling a supply of a fuel to a combustor according to an em- bodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 5 schematically illustrates a calorimeter Wobbe index calculation scheme which may be utilized in an arrangement and/or in a method for controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine according to an embodiment of the present invention; and

Fig. 6 schematically illustrates a calorimeter trimming fac ¬ tor calculation which may be utilized in a method and/or in an arrangement for controlling a supply of a fuel to a com ¬ bustor of a gas turbine according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Detailed Description of embodiments

Fig. 1 schematically illustrates an arrangement 100 for con ¬ trolling a supply of a fuel to a combustor 101 of a gas tur ¬ bine according to an embodiment of the present invention which is adapted to perform a method of controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine according to an em ¬ bodiment of the present invention. The arrangement 100 com ¬ prises a fuel valve 103 adapted to supply a fuel 105 to a combustor 101 (of a gas turbine) , wherein the fuel 105 is supplied via a fuel pipe. Further, the arrangement 100 com ¬ prises a processor 107 which is adapted to obtain an inlet air pressure PT7 which relates to a pressure of air at a com ¬ pressor inlet, to obtain an inlet air temperature Tinlet which relates to a temperature of air at the compressor inlet, and to obtain an outlet air pressure PT8 which relates to a pressure of air at a compressor outlet. Thereby, the values of the inlet air pressure PT7, of the inlet air tern- perature Tinlet and the outlet air pressure PT8 may also be referred to as property values 109 of at least one physical property of air used for burning the fuel in the combustor. The processor 107 is further adapted to obtain an air bleed signal THBOV, in particular a bleed valve setting or in particular a bleed valve angle, which is indicative of an amount of air not supplied to the combustor 101 comprised in the gas turbine. In other embodiments no bleeds are used and all air is supplied to the combustor. The property value 109 of the at least one physical property of air used for burning the fuel in the combustor comprises the aforementioned values of physical quantities. The property values 109 are supplied to an engine model 111 which is adapted to estimate a heat input HIengmodel of the fuel 105 supplied to the combustor 101 based on the property values 109 of at least one physical property of air.

The estimated heat input HIengmodel is supplied to an arith- metic element 113 which is provided to apply a trimming fac ¬ tor HIcaltrim to the estimated heat input HIengmodel accord ¬ ing to a particular embodiment of the present invention, in which a calorimeter measurement for determining a measured Caloric Value or Wobbe Index is determined.

According to an alternative embodiment, the calorimeter meas ¬ urement is not used in which case the trimming factor HIcal ¬ trim is set to unity such that the adjusted estimated heat input HIexpected equals the estimated heat input HIengmodel according to this embodiment.

The adjusted estimated heat input HIexpected is supplied to an arithmetic addition element 115 which subtracts from the adjusted estimated heat input HIexpected a demanded heat in- put FFDEM which is demanded by an engine governor 117 which also supplies a corresponding control signal 119 to the fuel valve 103. In particular, the control signal 119 may repre- sent the demanded heat input FFDEM generated by the engine governor 117.

The addition arithmetic element 115 outputs an error signal 121 which is thereby derived from the estimated heat input HIengmodel or the adjusted estimated heat input HIexpected and the demanded heat input FFDEM. The error signal 121 is supplied to an integration element 123 which may in general be embodied as a Pi-controller . The integration element 123 integrates the error signal 121 over time and outputs a mass specific heat input (in particular Wobbe index) WIengcal rep ¬ resenting an estimated Wobbe index of the fuel, wherein the estimation uses the engine model 101 which will be described in more detail below. Via a control line 125, the derived mass specific heat input WIengcal is supplied to the fuel valve 103, based on which the fuel valve 103 adjusts the flow rate of the fuel 105 in order to minimize or eliminate the error signal 121. According to an alternative embodiment of the present inven ¬ tion, additionally to estimating the Wobbe index WIengcal us ¬ ing the engine model 101, a measured Caloric Value LCVmea is used to calculate a measured Wobbe index WIcalorimeter which is provided via a control line 127 and occasionally supplied to the fuel valve 103, in order to trim the estimated Wobbe index WIengcal. The calculation of the measured Wobbe index WIcalorimeter will be described with reference to Fig. 5 be ¬ low . Further, the measured Wobbe index WIcalorimeter is used in order to derive the trimming factor HIcaltrim which is supplied to the arithmetic element 113, in order to adjust the estimated heat input HIengmodel to derive an adjusted esti ¬ mated heat input HIexpected, as will be described below with reference to Fig. 6. Fig. 2 schematically illustrates an engine model 211 accord ¬ ing to which the engine model 111 illustrated in Fig. 1 may be implemented according to an embodiment of the present in ¬ vention .

An outlet air pressure PT8 representing a pressure of air at an outlet of the compressor is received by an arithmetic mul ¬ tiplication/division element 229. Further, the arithmetic multiplication/division element 229 receives as a divisor an inlet air pressure PT7 representing a pressure at a compres ¬ sor inlet. The multiplication/division element 229 outputs a pressure ratio PRC87 (PT8/PT7) which is supplied to a heat input calculation element 231 which may also be referred to as HI-calculation element. Within the HI-calculation element 231, a first heat input HInoBLEED is calculated and further a second heat input HI10%BLEED is calculated. Thereby, the first heat input and the second heat input are calculated ac ¬ cording to the following formulas: Heat input calculation:

Calculate ISO-corrected heat input as function of pressure ratio, PRC87, for zero and 10% bleed:

HInoBLEED = a2 * PRC87 A 2 + al*PRC87 + aO

HI 10 %BLEED = b2 * PRC87 A 2 + bl*PRC87 + bO

The equations here are specific to a particular gas turbine. Other engines may use different coefficients and or different bleed fraction which may be determined by known methods. These particular formulas have been derived based on plural measurements performed on at least one gas turbine which will be described in detail with reference to Fig. 3 below. The first heat input HInoBLEED and the second heat input

HI10%BLEED are supplied to a bleed effect calculation block 233 which also receives an air bleed signal THBOV which is indicative of an amount of air not supplied to the combustor. The air bleed may be taken from the supply to the combustor, immediately upstream of the combustor, and from the same pressure chamber from which the outlet air pressure was de ¬ rived or measured.

The bleed effect calculation block 233 takes into account if some of the compressed air is actually not supplied to the combustor. Thereby, the percentage of bleed is calculated ac ¬ cording to the following formulas:

Calculate the % bleed (of engine inlet air mass flow) , Bleed%, from THBOV, based on simplified valve characteris ¬ tics: if THBOV <= 10 Bleed%= 0

if THBOV > 10 Bleed%= (THBOV - 10) / 0.7

These equations may be specific to the gas turbine in this example. Other engines may use different coefficients or form. Furthermore, the bleed effect calculation block 233 calcu ¬ lates after estimating the percentage of bled air a corrected heat input HIiso from the first heat input and the second heat input using a first function or a second function de ¬ pending on whether the pressure ratio PRC87 is larger than a threshold or not. The threshold may be chosen depending on the application and gas turbine and may be e.g. 6. Thereby, the calculation is performed according to the following for- mulas:

Calculate ISO corrected heat input by linearly interpola tion if PRC87>6 HIiso = HIISOnoBleed + Bleed%/ 10 *

(HIISO10%bleed - HIISOnoBleed)

if PRC87<=6 HIiso = HIISOnoBleed The equations here may be specific to the gas turbine in the example. Other engines may use different equations or differ ¬ ent coefficients. The bleed effect calculation block 233 thereby outputs the corrected heat input HIiso and supplies it to an ambient cor ¬ rection element 235 which further receives the inlet air tem ¬ perature Tinlet and furthermore the inlet air pressure PT7 which has already been supplied to the arithmetic element 229. The estimated heat input HIengmodel is thereby calcu ¬ lated by the ambient correction block 235 according to the following formula:

Calculate the current heat input from the ISO-corrected heat using the engine air inlet pressure PT7 [bar] and temperature Tinlet [degree Celsius]

HIEngModel = HIISO * PT7 / 1.01325 *

sqrt ( (Tinlet+273.15) /288.15)

The estimated heat input HIengmodel derived using the engine model 201 illustrated in Fig. 2 may for example be used within the arrangement 100 as the estimated heat input HIeng ¬ model .

Fig. 3 illustrates a graph for deriving two mathematical ex ¬ pressions for calculating the first heat input and the second heat input from the pressure ratio PRC87 which may be used according to an embodiment of the present invention.

On an abscissa 301, the pressure ratio PRC87, i.e. PT8/PT7, is indicated while on an ordinate 303, the heat input fuel flow in units Mega Watt (MW) representing the heat input of the fuel is indicated. The small diamonds 305 represent meas- urement points of the pressure ratio versus the heat input fuel flow performed at gas turbines of a type which is to be controlled by the control method, wherein no air was bled up- stream of the combustor. Applying a least square fit a poly ¬ nomial of second order which is denoted by reference sign 307 was fit to the measurement data 305. The polynomial of second order in the pressure ratio PRC87 was used to calculate the first heat input in dependence of the pressure ratio PRC87.

The small squares 309 represent measurement points performed on gas turbines indicating the pressure ratio PRC87 versus the heat input fuel flow, wherein 10% of the air was bled off upstream of the combustor. A polynomial of second order 311 was fit using a least square procedure to the measurement data 309 and was used to derive the second heat input within the HI-calculation element 231 illustrated in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary graph of a bleed valve characteristics 405 specific for a particular valve which is used according to an embodiment of the present invention to esti ¬ mate the percentage of bled air upstream of the combustor. On an abscissa 401, the air valve angle is indicated, while on an ordinate 403, the percent flow is indicated. The curve 405 indicates the dependency of the percent flow from the air valve angle. As can be taken from Fig. 4, the percent flow is 0 for an air valve angle between 0 and 10 and the percent flow increases in a linear manner in a range of the air valve angle between 10 and 17 from the percent flow of 0 to 10. Thereby, using the air valve angle, the percentage of bled air can be estimated according to an embodiment of the pre ¬ sent invention, as is used in the bleed effect calculation element 233 in Fig. 2. Other valves may have a different characteristic .

Fig. 5 schematically illustrates a calorimeter Wobbe index calculation procedure 500 which may be used in order to de ¬ rive the measured Wobbe index WIcalorimeter which is used in the arrangement 100 illustrated in Fig. 1 as an input quan ¬ tity via line 127. The calorimeter Wobbe index calculation scheme 500 illustrates a calorimeter which receives a sample 501 of fuel 105 which is supplied to the gas turbine 101. The sample of the same kind of fuel which is delivered to the gas turbine 101 may be taken from a supply pipe or supply pipe system which may be several metres, such as between 1 m and 20 m, upstream of the combustor. The sample 501 of the fuel 105 is burned under controlled conditions (such as standard conditions) within the calorimeter 503 and the generated heat is measured within the calorimeter 503. Further, the calo ¬ rimeter 503 may have the capability to derive the specific gravity SG of the sample 501 of the fuel. From the generated heat due to the controlled combustion of the sample 501 of the fuel, the calorimeter 503 derives a Caloric Value, in particular the Lower Caloric Value LCV of the fuel. The thus measured Lower Caloric Value LCVmea as well as the specific gravity SGmea are supplied to a Wl-calculation element 505 which calculates from the Lower Caloric Value LCVmea and the specific gravity SGmea the measured Wobbe index WIcalorimeter according to the following formula:

LCV

Calculation: WI Calorimeter =-7=

The same information may be provided from a Gas Chromatograph located identically as for the calorimeter, but which

measures the composition of the gas sample and enables calcu ¬ lation of the LCV and SG of said sample.

The measured Wobbe index may then be supplied to the arrange ¬ ment 100 for controlling a supply of a fuel to a combustor of a gas turbine 101 according to an embodiment of the present invention .

Fig. 6 illustrates a scheme 600 for determining a trimming factor Hlcaltrim which may be used by the arrangement 100 il ¬ lustrated in Fig. 1 as an input to the arithmetic element 113, in order to calculate an adjusted estimated heat input HIexpected from the estimated heat input HIengmodel. According to the scheme 600, the measured Wobbe index (such as derived using the scheme 500 illustrated in Fig. 5) WI- calorimeter is received, following the analysis of each sample at intervals defined by the equipment in scheme 500, by an addition element 601. Further, the addition element 601 receives the estimated Wobbe index WIengcal which is for ex ¬ ample output by the integration element 123 of the arrange ¬ ment 100 illustrated in Fig. 1. The quantity Wlcaltrim is set to the difference between the latest values of WIcalorimeter and WIengcal. The addition element 601 further receives the previous value of the quantity Wlcaltrim for derivation of the new value of quantity Wlcaltrim . The quantity Wlcaltrim is supplied to a heat input trim calculation block 603 which derives the heat input trimming factor Hlcaltrim according to the following formula:

WI

HI Trim Calculation: HI CalTrim = 1 CalTnm

^^-1 Calorimeter

Embodiments of the control methods are further detailed be ¬ low :

From the engine thermodynamic characteristics, using a simple model of heat input as a function of engine pressure ratio and bleed flow, the heat input supplied by the fuel may be estimated. Comparison of this value with the current control system demand heat input may indicate a difference in the fuel composition affecting WI . The difference may then be used to estimate a new value of WI . When used in parallel with a fuel calorimeter the estimation may also be trimmed to maintain accuracy, so that the changes in WI may be identi- fied quickly but the absolute values remain based on the calorimeter .

The method may comprise the following inputs (not all need be mandatory) : • demanded fuel heat input: FFDEM which is the fuel heat input (typically in kW) demanded by the engine governor for the fuel module to supply to the engine. · Operating temperature: e.g. Tfire (turbine inlet tem ¬ perature at turbine section inlet being equivalent to combustor outlet temperature) from control system. This may be the control system temperature value equivalent to the combustor outlet temperature or the turbine inlet temperature ( Λ ΤΙΤ' or Λ ΤΕΤ' )

• Compressor operating parameters:

Inlet Pressure from control system (PT7 in bar) Outlet pressure from control system (PT8 in bar) Inlet Temperature from control system (Tinlet de ¬ gree Celsius)

Outlet Temperature from control system (TCD degree Celsius ) · Bleed valve angle (may be e.g. an average of taken from

2 valves) : From control system. Used for emissions con ¬ trol by means of extracting air before combustion to maintain combustor outlet temperature (THBOV) · LCV and SG: From Gas Chromatograph or Calorimeter - update time of several minutes

The following definitions/terminology may apply:

• WICalorimeter : The value of Wobbe Index derived from the calorimeter or gas chromatograph measurements.

• WIEngCal : The value of Wobbe Index estimated from the engine performance by the > engine calorimeter'

• HIEngModel: The expected value of fuel supplied heat in ¬ put required to run the engine at that operating condi- tion, estimated directly from the engine characteristics model , • HIExpected: The expected value of fuel supplied heat in ¬ put required to run the engine at that operating condi ¬ tion, estimated from the engine characteristics model, but adjusted for engine degradation or aligned using fuel properties measurement from calorimeter or gas chromatograph .

• HICalTrim: A trimming factor, derived from the calorimeter measurements or a degradation model, to be applied to the value of HIEngModel .

The calorimeter or gas chromatograph may output LCV and SG at each update time. These may be combined into a WI value (see Fig. 5) . Fault detection is performed in that both the output values from the calorimeter should be monitored to ensure their values are within the range of expectation based on site fuel specification.

The Engine Calorimeter Calculation may be performed as fol ¬ lows :

Before the engine is started the current value from the calo ¬ rimeter may be fed to the fuel valve module as well as being used to initialise the integrator 123 within the > engine calorimeter' . At this stage the engine model may not be used to estimate WI . On starting the engine and reaching minimum load the engine model operates, with an initial value of HI ¬ CalTrim =1, and may provide estimates of heat input. These may be compared with the governor FFDEM in order to generate an error 121 which is then integrated out by changing the estimated WI (WIEngCal) . This value may provided to the fuel module 103 instead of the direct calorimeter value, causing the FFDEM value from the governor 117 to change in order to maintain constant engine operation, thus eliminating the error term. On starting the engine, if the fuel supply has changed but the supply pipes to the engine are full of the previous com ¬ position, then part way through the start the composition may change abruptly, potentially exceeding limits and causing a start fail. This situation may be rectified automatically on restart, provided that the calorimeter has provided an up ¬ dated value. It may also be avoided by venting the supply lines before start. If the calorimeter is not available at the commencement of the start, the last value of WIEngCal may be used.

The engine calorimeter calculation may only be carried out, if the > steady state' criterion below is satisfied:

Engine steady state criterion:

Record max and min values of temperature control parameter e.g. Tfire (turbine inlet temperature) over a rolling 5 min- utes prior to current time.

Steady, if Tfiremax - Tfiremin < Tss

Where Tss is a parameter initially set to 20°C The Calorimeter Trim Calculation may be performed as follows referring to Fig. 6:

This routine may run once on receipt of an update from the calorimeter provided that:

1/ WIEngCal has been stable for at least one calorimeter update interval (+/- 2% (adjustable parameter in system) ) AND WICalorimeter = previous value +/-2%

2/ Application of the previous update has been completed. 3/ Calorimeter LCV and SG monitoring confirms that both values are within site defined limits.

80% (adjustable parameter) of the change in HICalTrim may be applied slowly, over 30 seconds (adjustable parameter) . This may result in the method never using two successive calorime- ter values unless the change is within the stability band.

The following assumptions may apply: 1/ The shape of new and clean engine characteristic is valid for all engine conditions.

2/ Engine is operating at approximately steady state (ther- mally) .

It should be noted that the term "comprising" does not ex ¬ clude other elements or steps and "a" or "an" does not ex ¬ clude a plurality. Also elements described in association with different embodiments may be combined. It should also be noted that reference signs in the claims should not be con ¬ strued as limiting the scope of the claims.